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Sample records for total deviation td

  1. Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.

  2. The Total Deviation Index estimated by Tolerance Intervals to evaluate the concordance of measurement devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascaso Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study a technical simplification for inference about the total deviation index (TDI estimate to assess agreement between two devices of normally-distributed measurements and describe its utility to evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement if more than one reading per subject is available for each device. Methods We propose to estimate the TDI by constructing a probability interval of the difference in paired measurements between devices, and thereafter, we derive a tolerance interval (TI procedure as a natural way to make inferences about probability limit estimates. We also describe how the proposed method can be used to compute bounds of the coverage probability. Results The approach is illustrated in a real case example where the agreement between two instruments, a handle mercury sphygmomanometer device and an OMRON 711 automatic device, is assessed in a sample of 384 subjects where measures of systolic blood pressure were taken twice by each device. A simulation study procedure is implemented to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the approach to two already established methods, showing that the TI approximation produces accurate empirical confidence levels which are reasonably close to the nominal confidence level. Conclusions The method proposed is straightforward since the TDI estimate is derived directly from a probability interval of a normally-distributed variable in its original scale, without further transformations. Thereafter, a natural way of making inferences about this estimate is to derive the appropriate TI. Constructions of TI based on normal populations are implemented in most standard statistical packages, thus making it simpler for any practitioner to implement our proposal to assess agreement.

  3. Analysis of contact pressure between the parts of total hip joint endoprosthesis with shape deviations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš; Hlavoň, Pavel; Koukal, M.; Houfek, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2007), S558-S558 ISSN 0021-9290. [ISB 2007. Taipei, 01.07.2007-05.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape deviation * hip joint endoprosthesis * contact areas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2007

  4. CT Assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, E.; Molinari, M.; Moio, A.; Busacca, M.; Trentani, F.; Trentani, P.; Tigani, D.; Nigrosoli, M.

    2000-01-01

    CT assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty. From January to July 1999, 17 patients, 10 males and 7 females, mean age 66 years (standard deviation plus or minus 4) were examined after total knee arthroplasty. Exclusion criteriawere prosthesis loosening and severe (equal or superior to 7'' varus o valgus deviation. All patients were examined with knee radiography in the standing position completed by axial projection of patella and by CT scanning. It was used a modification of Berger technique and carried out comparative CT scans extended lower limbs and acquisitions perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the knee, from the femoral supracondylar region down to the plane crossing the distal end of the tibial prosthetic component. Reference lines were then drawn electronically on given scanning planes to reckon the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components. Six patients, one female and 5 males with normal rotational values of femoral and tibial prosthetic components presented no clinical symptoms. Eight patients, 4 females and 4 males, with abnormal values presented the following clinical symptoms: medial impingement, (incomplete) dislocation patella, and lateral instability. One female patient with a normal rotational value of femoral prosthetic component and an altered value of tibial prosthetic component presented medial impingement. Finally two patients, one female and one male, were absolutely asymptomatic although the rotational values of the two prosthetic components were beyond the normal range. Total knee arthroplasty is presently a standard treatment for many conditions involving this joint. There are several possible postoperative complications, namely fractures, dislocations (a)septic losening and femoropatellar instability. The latter condition is the most frequent complication among implant failures and is caused by bad orientation of the femoral and tibial

  5. Total Peroxy Nitrates (ΣPNs in the atmosphere: the Thermal Dissociation-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF technique and comparisons to speciated PAN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LaFranchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and its chemical analogues are increasingly being quantified in the ambient atmosphere by thermal dissociation (TD followed by detection of either the peroxyacyl radical or the NO2 product. Here we present details of the technique developed at University of California, Berkeley which detects the sum of all peroxynitrates (ΣPNs via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF of the NO2 product. We review the various deployments and compare the Berkeley ΣPNs measurements with the sums of PAN and its homologue species detected individually by other instruments. The observed TD-LIF ΣPNs usually agree to within 10% with the summed individual species, thus arguing against the presence of significant concentrations of unmeasured PAN-type compounds in the atmosphere, as suggested by some photochemical mechanisms. Examples of poorer agreement are attributed to a sampling inlet design that is shown to be inappropriate for high NOx conditions. Interferences to the TD-LIF measurements are described along with strategies to minimize their effects.

  6. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  7. Can Gait Deviation Index be used effectively for the evaluation of gait pathology in total hip arthroplasty An explorative randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    2014-01-01

    and standard deviation (mean ¼ 94.7; SD ¼ 8.4) from our age-matched controls (n ¼ 20) were used as reference. A fixedeffects multilevel regression model was employed to evaluate the treatment effects. Results: No interaction was observed between treatment and time (p ¼ 0.33) or limb and time (p ¼ 0...... Deviation Index (GDI), used to evaluate treatment in children with cerebral palsy, has been proposed as such a measure. The experience with GDI in osteoarthritis (OA) patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is unknown. The aim of our study was to use the GDI to evaluate post-operative gait quality.......53). The pre-operative GDI mean value was 83.4 10.9, showing patients had a moderate deviation from normative gait before surgical treatment. After surgical treatment, the GDI score improved significantly by 4.9 [:95CI: 2.1 to 7.9] equal to a 0.8 average increase in GDI per month of follow-up. Therewas...

  8. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  9. CT Assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty; Valutazione con Tomografia Computerizzata della rotazione delle componenti femorale e tibiale nell'artroprotesi totale del ginocchio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimondi, E.; Molinari, M.; Moio, A.; Busacca, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini; Trentani, F.; Trentani, P.; Tigani, D. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). VII Div.; Nigrosoli, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). IV Div.

    2000-06-01

    CT assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty. From January to July 1999, 17 patients, 10 males and 7 females, mean age 66 years (standard deviation plus or minus 4) were examined after total knee arthroplasty. Exclusion criteria were prosthesis loosening and severe (equal or superior to 7 degrees) varus o valgus deviation. All patients were examined with knee radiography in the standing position completed by axial projection of patella and by CT scanning. It was used a modification of Berger technique and carried out comparative CT scans extended lower limbs and acquisitions perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the knee, from the femoral supracondylar region down to the plane crossing the distal end of the tibial prosthetic component. Reference lines were then drawn electronically on given scanning planes to reckon the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components. Six patients, one female and 5 males with normal rotational values of femoral and tibial prosthetic components presented no clinical symptoms. Eight patients, 4 females and 4 males, with abnormal values presented the following clinical symptoms: medial impingement, (incomplete) dislocation patella, and lateral instability. One female patient with a normal rotational value of femoral prosthetic component and an altered value of tibial prosthetic component presented medial impingement. Finally two patients, one female and one male, were absolutely asymptomatic although the rotational values of the two prosthetic components were beyond the normal range. Total knee arthroplasty is presently a standard treatment for many conditions involving this joint. There are several possible postoperative complications, namely fractures, dislocations (a)septic losening and femoropatellar instability. The latter condition is the most frequent complication among implant failures and is caused by bad orientation of the femoral and tibial

  10. TD Waterhouse discount brokerage: a competitive strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a strategic analysis of TD Waterhouse (TDW), the discount brokerage provider within TD Bank Financial Group (TDBFG). Discount brokerage in Canada is an increasingly lucrative industry and contributes significantly to the bottom lines of every major financial institution in the country. It is also a rapidly changing and intensely price-competitive industry in which an explicit, educated business strategy is of the utmost importance. TDW currently employs a somewhat ambiguou...

  11. Characterization of Thermophilic Halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Santiwatanakul

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0–40 mm in length and about 0.4 mm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55–60 °C and at pH 7–8. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C16:0, which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Aeribacillus pallidus DSM 3670T. Bayesian tree analysis strongly supported the idea that strain TD1 is affiliated with genus Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus strain TD1. Although the 16S rDNA of A. pallidus strain TD1 is similar to that of A. pallidus DSM 3670T, some physiological properties and the cellular fatty acid profiles differ significantly. A. pallidus strain TD1 can produce extracellular pectate lyase, which has not been reported elsewhere for other bacterial strains in the genus Aeribacillus. A. pallidus strain TD1 may be a good candidate as a pectate lyase producer, which may have useful industrial applications.

  12. Characterization of thermophilic halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasawong, Montri; Areekit, Supatra; Pakpitchareon, Arda; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Chansiri, Kosum

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0-40 μm in length and about 0.4 μm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55-60 °C and at pH 7-8. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C(16:0), which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Aeribacillus pallidus DSM 3670(T). Bayesian tree analysis strongly supported the idea that strain TD1 is affiliated with genus Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus strain TD1. Although the 16S rDNA of A. pallidus strain TD1 is similar to that of A. pallidus DSM 3670(T), some physiological properties and the cellular fatty acid profiles differ significantly. A. pallidus strain TD1 can produce extracellular pectate lyase, which has not been reported elsewhere for other bacterial strains in the genus Aeribacillus. A. pallidus strain TD1 may be a good candidate as a pectate lyase producer, which may have useful industrial applications.

  13. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  14. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  15. TD-LTE产业发展策略之我见%Analysis of TD-LTE Industry Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骅; 吴慧敏

    2013-01-01

    In view of the TD-LTE industry development status, the leading role of market demand for TD-LTE industry is analyzed. Based on the development experiences of mobile communication industry over the world, the development strategy of TD-LTE single market in the early stage is expounded, in the meantime, the TD-LTE spectrum planning is analyzed.%  结合TD-LTE产业发展现状,分析了市场需求对TD-LTE产业规模发展的拉动作用,基于国际国内移动通信产业的发展经验,阐述了产业发展初期采用单一TD-LTE市场模式的发展策略,并对TD-LTE频段规划使用进行分析。

  16. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...

  17. Detecting deviating behaviors without models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level

  18. Characterization of Thermophilic Halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yasawong, Montri; Areekit, Supatra; Pakpitchareon, Arda; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Chansiri, Kosum

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0–40 mm in length and about 0.4 mm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55–60 °C and at pH 7–8. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C16:0, which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S r...

  19. Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur

    2017-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…

  20. Large deviations and idempotent probability

    CERN Document Server

    Puhalskii, Anatolii

    2001-01-01

    In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...

  1. Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ vis Hojas de ...

  2. The ultraviolet galactic background from TD-1 satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.H.; Nandy, K.; Thompson, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    The background data from the S2/68 ultraviolet telescope on the TD-I satellite have been analysed. Using statistical tests those data contaminated by noise due to charged particles in the atmosphere have been discarded, and the remainder have been arranged to form ultraviolet profiles of the Galaxy. These profiles have been constructed at 2740 and 2350 A. The zodiacal light components of the total radiation field have been separated from the galactic components to give the intensity of the zodiacal light at elongation 90 0 as function of ecliptic latitude. The spectrum of the zodiacal light in the near ultraviolet is found to be redder than that of the Sun. The intensity of the diffuse galactic light as a function of galactic latitude has been obtained by subtraction of the zodiacal light and contributions due to faint stars calculated using an axi-symmetric model of the Galaxy. On comparison with predictions of the diffuse galactic light from a radiative transfer model it is found that the ratio of the albedos at 2350 and 2740 A is relatively insensitive to the model used, and is 0.73 +- 0.1. The albedo at 2740 A is found to be 0.65 +- 0.1 when g is assumed to be 0.75. (author)

  3. T.D Lee and Lisa Randall visit ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    Professor Tsung-Dao Lee, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1957 for postulating that parity is not conserved in weak interactions, visited the ATLAS detector this month. He is seen here in the company of Peter Jenni, spokesperson for ATLAS. T.D. Lee is still very active at over 80, pursuing his theory work to this day. Professor Lisa Randall from Harvard University, the well-known theorist behind the Randall-Sundrum theory for extra dimensions, was also part of the group visiting the ATLAS detector. She is seen here with Fabiola Gianotti, deputy spokesperson for ATLAS. Lisa Randall's two initial papers have been quoted both more than 2500 times, making her the most cited theoretical physicist in the world in the last five years as of last autumn - a total of about 10,000 citations! One wonders here if Peter is pointing to a CP-violating graviton spotted in the ATLAS cavern... From left to right: Fabiola Gianotti, Gustaaf Brooijmans, convener of the ATLAS Exotics physics gro...

  4. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...

  5. Introduction to the TD2005 build project network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Fucai

    1997-01-01

    TD2005 build project network includes three layers. the first layer is backbone network. The second layer has m level and each level has horizontal subnetwork composed of n cluster bin ND2002-n. The third layer is equipment. When the second layer has only 1 level, the number of the equipment entered is 28 x n (n =3D 1,2,3,......63), which are allowed linking to horizontal subnetwork of TD2005 network. The number of the equipment of per cluster bin ND2002-n is 28. TD2005 network is used for P300 project. It has highest running reliability and long-term stability as well as powerful suitability and flexibility. It has many tie points, strong real-time ability and excellent interference suppression. Through testing, all kinds of characteristics are satisfactory. It is an ideal selection for industrial use

  6. Computer generation of random deviates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, John

    1991-01-01

    The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. The coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Laurien, E.; Bader, J.; EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the time-dependent 3-D discrete-ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D and its application to HTGR of pebble bed type. TORT-TD/ATTICA3D is represented by a single executable and adapts the so-called internal coupling approach. Three-dimensional distributions of temperatures from ATTICA3D and power density from TORT-TD are efficiently exchanged by direct memory access of array elements via interface routines. Applications of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D to three transients based on the PBMR-400 benchmark (total and partial control rod withdrawal and cold helium ingress) and the full power steady state of the HTR-10 are presented. For the partial control rod withdrawal, 3-D effects of local neutron flux redistributions are clearly identified. The results are very promising and demonstrate that the coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D may represent a key component in a future comprehensive 3-D code system for HTGR of pebble bed type. (orig.)

  8. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  9. Coupling constants (Tdn) and (Td*n) for local potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Irgaziev, B.F.; Orlov, Yu.V.

    1976-01-01

    The coupling constants (Tdn) and (Td*n) are found solving the Faddeev equations with local potentials. It is shown that the polinomial extrapolation of the wave function to the nonphysical region of the variable Q 2 turns not to be sure for determination of the coupling constants

  10. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.

  11. Users' manual for fault tree analysis code: CUT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Kiyota, Mikio.

    1992-06-01

    The CUT-TD code has been developed to find minimal cut sets for a given fault tree and to calculate the occurrence probability of its top event. This code uses an improved top-down algorithm which can enhance the efficiency in deriving minimal cut sets. The features in processing techniques incorporated into CUT-TD are as follows: (1) Consecutive OR gates or consecutive AND gates can be coalesced into a single gate. As a result, this processing directly produces cut sets for the redefined single gate with each gate not being developed. (2) The independent subtrees are automatically identified and their respective cut sets are separately found to enhance the efficiency in processing. (3) The minimal cut sets can be obtained for the top event of a fault tree by combining their respective minimal cut sets for several gates of the fault tree. (4) The user can reduce the computing time for finding minimal cut sets and control the size and significance of cut sets by inputting a minimum probability cut off and/or a maximum order cut off. (5) The user can select events that need not to be further developed in the process of obtaining minimal cut sets. This option can reduce the number of minimal cut sets, save the computing time and assists the user in reviewing the result. (6) Computing time is monitored by the CUT-TD code so that it can prevent the running job from abnormally ending due to excessive CPU time and produce an intermediate result. The CUT-TD code has the ability to restart the calculation with use of the intermediate result. This report provides a users' manual for the CUT-TD code. (author)

  12. Toward the Standardization of Biochar Analysis: The COST Action TD1107 Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Bucheli, Thomas D; Dieguez-Alonso, Alba; Fabbri, Daniele; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Ulbricht, Axel; Becker, Roland; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Buerge, Diane; Cross, Andrew; Dickinson, Dane; Enders, Akio; Esteves, Valdemar I; Evangelou, Michael W H; Fellet, Guido; Friedrich, Kevin; Gasco Guerrero, Gabriel; Glaser, Bruno; Hanke, Ulrich M; Hanley, Kelly; Hilber, Isabel; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Leifeld, Jens; Masek, Ondrej; Mumme, Jan; Carmona, Marina Paneque; Calvelo Pereira, Roberto; Rees, Frederic; Rombolà, Alessandro G; de la Rosa, José Maria; Sakrabani, Ruben; Sohi, Saran; Soja, Gerhard; Valagussa, Massimo; Verheijen, Frank; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-01-20

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of organic residues is increasingly used for soil amendment and many other applications. However, analytical methods for its physical and chemical characterization are yet far from being specifically adapted, optimized, and standardized. Therefore, COST Action TD1107 conducted an interlaboratory comparison in which 22 laboratories from 12 countries analyzed three different types of biochar for 38 physical-chemical parameters (macro- and microelements, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pH, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area) with their preferential methods. The data were evaluated in detail using professional interlaboratory testing software. Whereas intralaboratory repeatability was generally good or at least acceptable, interlaboratory reproducibility was mostly not (20% < mean reproducibility standard deviation < 460%). This paper contributes to better comparability of biochar data published already and provides recommendations to improve and harmonize specific methods for biochar analysis in the future.

  13. Extensive TD-DFT Benchmark: Singlet-Excited States of Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Wathelet, Valérie; Perpète, Eric A; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-09-08

    Extensive Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations have been carried out in order to obtain a statistically meaningful analysis of the merits of a large number of functionals. To reach this goal, a very extended set of molecules (∼500 compounds, >700 excited states) covering a broad range of (bio)organic molecules and dyes have been investigated. Likewise, 29 functionals including LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, global hybrids, and long-range-corrected hybrids have been considered. Comparisons with both theoretical references and experimental measurements have been carried out. On average, the functionals providing the best match with reference data are, one the one hand, global hybrids containing between 22% and 25% of exact exchange (X3LYP, B98, PBE0, and mPW1PW91) and, on the other hand, a long-range-corrected hybrid with a less-rapidly increasing HF ratio, namely LC-ωPBE(20). Pure functionals tend to be less consistent, whereas functionals incorporating a larger fraction of exact exchange tend to underestimate significantly the transition energies. For most treated cases, the M05 and CAM-B3LYP schemes deliver fairly small deviations but do not outperform standard hybrids such as X3LYP or PBE0, at least within the vertical approximation. With the optimal functionals, one obtains mean absolute deviations smaller than 0.25 eV, though the errors significantly depend on the subset of molecules or states considered. As an illustration, PBE0 and LC-ωPBE(20) provide a mean absolute error of only 0.14 eV for the 228 states related to neutral organic dyes but are completely off target for cyanine-like derivatives. On the basis of comparisons with theoretical estimates, it also turned out that CC2 and TD-DFT errors are of the same order of magnitude, once the above-mentioned hybrids are selected.

  14. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  15. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...

  16. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...

  17. Critical Assessment of TD-DFT for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: I. Doublet-Doublet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-12

    A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.

  18. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...

  19. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  20. Quantum Thetas on Noncommutative T^d with General Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we construct quantum theta functions over noncommutative T^d with general embeddings. Manin has constructed quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space x finite group. We extend Manin's construction of quantum thetas to the case of general embedding of vector space x lattice x torus. It turns out that only for the vector space part of the embedding there exists the holomorphic theta vector, while for the lattice part there does not. Furthermore, the so-c...

  1. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...

  2. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...

  3. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...

  4. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...

  5. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...

  6. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...

  7. 48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...

  8. 48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...

  9. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han-Shi; Van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO 2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be the inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO 2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes' shift

  10. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  11. Bone marrow cellularity in normal and polycythemic mice estimated by DNA incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, L.H.; Ledney, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    Nucleated bone marrow cell numbers in normal and polycythemic mice were determined using /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR). The cellularities were estimated by extrapolating the exponential disappearance of labeled cells after a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR to the time of injection. Dermestid beetles (Anthrenus piceus) were used to prepare tissue-free skeletons labeled with /sup 3/H-TdR. The correlation between tritium activity in bone marrow DNA and tritium derived from the combusted skeleton was determined. The total skeletal cellularity determined by isotope dilution analysis in both normal and polycythemic mice was 2.6 x 10(8) cells/mouse or 17.6 x 10(9) cells/kg body weight. Although the red cell component of the marrow was reduced in the polycythemic mouse, the total numbers of nucleated cells in both types of animals were similar. The differential distribution of cells in the polycythemic animal showed a twofold increase in granulocytic cells, which may explain the identical nucleated cell count in normal and in polycythemic mice.

  12. The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...

  13. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  15. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...

  16. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...

  17. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  18. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...

  19. 48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...

  20. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...

  1. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  2. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Comparison of TiC coating and TD coating in actual application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Yoo, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large blocks of SKD-11 were treated by CVD-TiC coating process, TD coating process, TD coating process after vacuum heat treating, and vacuum heat treating. Amount of deformation was measured and compared to find the process which gives the least deformation. Wear tests were carried out for specimens treated by each process. Application of CVD-TiC and TD coating to the automotive press mold was studied

  4. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  5. Correlations between TD annihilation and oxygen precipitation in Czochralski-grown silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of two-stage annealing experiments are presented including preannealing at T o C (TD formation) and a second annealing step at T=550 to 850 o C in order to study the annihilation of TD's and their influence on the oxygen precipitation. The investigations show that (1) TD's cannot act as nuclei for oxide precipitates and that (2) their annihilation, connected with the increased formation of Si I induced defects (RLD's), proves TD's to consist also of self-interstitials. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  6. TdT activity in acute myeloid leukemias defined by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, J F; González, M; Cañizo, M C; Anta, J P; Portero, J A; López-Borrasca, A

    1986-09-01

    Blast cells from eight out of 71 patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by morphological, cytochemical, and immunological criteria showed TdT activity. Their distribution according to the FAB classification was one M1, one M2, one M4, two M5a, one M5b, one M6, and one undifferentiated case. The TdT+ AML cases did not show major clinical and hematological differences when compared with the classical TdT- AML patients. Other phenotypical aberrations in the expression of membrane antigens, apart from the presence of nuclear TdT, were not observed in these TdT+ cases after study with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies. A higher incidence of TdT+ cases was found among the monocytic variants of AML (M4 and M5)--four cases--than in the granulocytic variants (M1, M2, and M3)--2 cases. These TdT+ cases should be distinguished from mixed leukemias by double labeling techniques, assessing in the TdT+ AML the coexpression of TdT and myeloid markers in individual cells as shown in four of our cases.

  7. Rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takaiko; Fukuchi, Takeo; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Seki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Ueda, Jun

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with high myopia (HM). Seventy eyes of 70 POAG patients with HM [≤-8 diopters (D)] were examined. The mean deviation (MD) slope and the upper and lower total deviation (upper TD, lower TD) slopes of the Humphrey Field Analyzer were calculated in patients with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) (>21 mmHg) versus normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) (≤21 mmHg). The mean age of all the patients (29 eyes with HTG and 41 eyes with NTG) was 48.5 ± 9.6 years. The MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes of the HM group were compared to those of the non-HM group (NHM) (>-8 D) selected from 544 eyes in 325 age-matched POAG patients. In all, 70 eyes with HM and NHM were examined. The mean MD slope was -0.33 ± 0.33 dB/year in the HM, and -0.38 ± 0.49 dB/year in the NHM. There were no statistical differences between the HM and NHM (p = 0.9565). In the comparison of HTG versus NTG patients in both groups, the MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes were similar. The rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects was similar among patients with HM and NHM. Although HM is a risk factor for the onset of glaucoma, HM may not be a risk factor for progression of visual field defects as assessed by the progression rate under treatment.

  8. Developments in theranostic agents - some highlights of COST TD1004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczak, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The COST Action TD1004 Theragnostics Imaging and Therapy: an Action to Develop Novel Nano-sized Systems for Imaging-Guided Drug Delivery started in October 2011 within the Chemistry and Molecular Sciences and Technologies domain committee. The main objective of the Action is to increase the knowledge of imaging-guided drug delivery procedures and to apply this knowledge to the development of theranostic agents through an interdisciplinary approach that involves chemists, biologists, imaging and pharmaceutical technologists. This Action consists of five complementary Working Groups: (WG1) Imaging reporters for theranostic agents, (WG2) Nano-carriers for theranostic agents, (WG3) Preparation and selection of targeting vectors, (WG4) Theranostic agents responsive to endogenous and external stimuli, (WG5) Set-up of preclinical theranostic protocols. Investigations devoted to the design, synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and testing of imaging reporters tailored for theranostic applications are carried out. Interesting results have been obtained for the different imaging modalities addressing sensitivity (MRI), efficient tracers' labelling (PET, SPECT, radiotherapy), multiplex detection (Optical Imaging). Some results appear particularly worth to be noted: novel chelator system for Sc radionuclides and for MRI, macrocyclic ligands containing bis(phosphonate) side arm(s) yielding excellent systems for the coordination of Ga-68, applications of this and other PET isotopes (e.g. 64 Cu, 95 Nb) for 'theranostic' applications (with 90 Y, 177 Lu or 223,225 Ra, 225 Ac, 212 Pb, 213 Bi) using peptides, affibodies, antibodies as well as various nano-carriers. In the MRI field, where the sensitivity is the key-issue, it has been shown that innovative systems, based on Gd, may allow the in vivo visualization of cellular targeting and may serve as multimodal probes. The results from the research activities carried out in the

  9. INDICATIVE MODEL OF DEVIATIONS IN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of constructing the project deviations indicator model. It based on a conceptual model of project deviations integrated management (PDIM. During the project different causes (such as risks, changes, problems, crises, conflicts, stress lead to deviations of integrated project indicators - time, cost, quality, and content. For a more detailed definition of where in the project deviations occur and how they are dangerous for the whole project, it needs to develop an indicative model of project deviations. It allows identifying the most dangerous deviations that require PDIM. As a basis for evaluation of project's success has been taken famous model IPMA Delta. During the evaluation, IPMA Delta estimated project management competence of organization in three modules: I-Module ("Individuals" - a self-assessment personnel, P-module ("Projects" - self-assessment of projects and/or programs, and O-module ("Organization" - used to conduct interviews with selected people during auditing company. In the process of building an indicative model of deviations in the project, the first step is the assessment of project management in the organization by IPMA Delta. In the future, built cognitive map and matrix of system interconnections of the project, which conducted simulations and built a scale of deviations for the selected project. They determined a size and place of deviations. To identify the detailed causes of deviations in the project management has been proposed to use the extended system of indicators, which is based on indicators of project management model Project Excellence. The proposed indicative model of deviations in projects allows to estimate the size of variation and more accurately identify the place of negative deviations in the project and provides the project manager information for operational decision making for the management of deviations in the implementation of the project

  10. Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, K.T.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously

  11. Time-dependent anisotropic distributed source capability in transient 3-d transport code tort-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The transient 3-D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD has been extended to account for time-dependent anisotropic distributed external sources. The extension aims at the simulation of the pulsed neutron source in the YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly. Since feedback effects are not relevant in this zero-power configuration, this offers a unique opportunity to validate the time-dependent neutron kinetics of TORT-TD with experimental data. The extensions made in TORT-TD to incorporate a time-dependent anisotropic external source are described. The steady state of the YALINA-Thermal assembly and its response to an artificial square-wave source pulse sequence have been analysed with TORT-TD using pin-wise homogenised cross sections in 18 prompt energy groups with P 1 scattering order and 8 delayed neutron groups. The results demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD to subcritical problems with a time-dependent external source. (authors)

  12. Determination of carcinogenic threshold limit values using the tumorigenic dose rate 50% (TD50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvalot, Y.; Oudiz, A.; Hubert, P.; Abenhaim, L.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for the determination of Occupational Limit Values (OLVs) based on the TD 50 concept (Tumorigenic Dose Rate 50%). The TD 50 concept was introduced by Peto R. and al. to help classify chemical substances according to their carcinogenic potency. The TD 50 is that dose rate (in mg/KXg body weight/day) which, if administered chronically for the standard lifespan of the species will halve the probability of remaining tumorless throughout that period. Using TD 50 values available for 776 substances, the procedure presented here allows one to determine OLVs corresponding to a fixed excess risk. It is based on a mathematical high-to-low doses extrapolation of the TD 50 . OLVs obtained with this procedure are compared with currently available TLVs and other occupational guidelines. (author)

  13. Comparing Standard Deviation Effects across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Ben; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests scores as the dependent variable often report point estimates in student standard deviation units. We note that a standard deviation is not a standard unit of measurement since the distribution of test scores can vary across contexts. As such, researchers should be cautious when interpreting differences in the numerical size of…

  14. FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya

    2017-01-01

    Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.

  15. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  16. 48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...

  17. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...

  18. 41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110 Deviations...

  19. 41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation. (a...

  20. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...

  1. Exact PsTd invariant and PsTd symmetric breaking solutions, symmetry reductions and Bäcklund transformations for an AB-KdV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Man; Lou, Sen Yue

    2018-05-01

    In natural and social science, many events happened at different space-times may be closely correlated. Two events, A (Alice) and B (Bob) are defined as correlated if one event is determined by another, say, B = f ˆ A for suitable f ˆ operators. A nonlocal AB-KdV system with shifted-parity (Ps, parity with a shift), delayed time reversal (Td, time reversal with a delay) symmetry where B =Ps ˆ Td ˆ A is constructed directly from the normal KdV equation to describe two-area physical event. The exact solutions of the AB-KdV system, including PsTd invariant and PsTd symmetric breaking solutions are shown by different methods. The PsTd invariant solution show that the event happened at A will happen also at B. These solutions, such as single soliton solutions, infinitely many singular soliton solutions, soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions, and symmetry reduction solutions etc., show the AB-KdV system possesses rich structures. Also, a special Bäcklund transformation related to residual symmetry is presented via the localization of the residual symmetry to find interaction solutions between the solitons and other types of the AB-KdV system.

  2. Effect of density deviations of concrete on its attenuation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymendera, L.; Wincel, K.; Blociszewski, S.; Kordyasz, D.; Sobolewska, I.

    In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections--without additional shielding calculation--to the design thickness of the shield. It has been also found that in common cases of shield design, where any necessity of minimizing the shield thickness does not exist, the tendency to minimize the value of this deviation is hardly substantiable

  3. Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Udaysinh T.

    2017-12-01

    The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.

  4. Coupled Tort-TD/CTF Capability for high-fidelity LWR core calculations - 321

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christienne, M.; Avramova, M.; Perin, Y.; Seubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the developed coupling scheme between TORT-TD and CTF. TORT-TD is a time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates neutron transport code. TORT-TD is utilized for high-fidelity reactor core neutronics calculations while CTF is providing the thermal-hydraulics feedback information. CTF is an improved version of the advanced thermal-hydraulic sub-channel code COBRA-TF, which is widely used for best-estimate evaluations of LWR safety margins. CTF is a transient code based on a separated flow representation of the two-phase flow. The coupled code TORT-TD/CTF allows 3D pin-by-pin analyses of transients in few energy groups and anisotropic scattering by solving the time-dependent transport equation using the unconditionally stable implicit method. Steady-state and transient test cases, based on the OECD/NRC PWR MOX/UO 2 Core Transient Benchmark, have been calculated. The steady state cases are based on a quarter core model while the transient test case models a control rod ejection transient in a small PWR mini-core fuel assembly arrangement. The obtained results with TORT-TD/CTF are verified by a code-to-code comparison with the previously developed NEM/CTF and TORT-TD/ATHLET coupled code systems. The performed comparative analysis indicates the applicability and high-fidelity potential of the TORT-TD/CTF coupling. (authors)

  5. TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.

  6. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  7. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  8. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...

  9. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  10. The large deviations theorem and ergodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions

  11. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  12. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  13. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  14. A Novel Reporter Rat Strain That Conditionally Expresses the Bright Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Igarashi

    Full Text Available Despite the strength of the Cre/loxP recombination system in animal models, its application in rats trails that in mice because of the lack of relevant reporter strains. Here, we generated a floxed STOP tdTomato rat that conditionally expresses a red fluorescent protein variant (tdTomato in the presence of exogenous Cre recombinase. The tdTomato signal vividly visualizes neurons including their projection fibers and spines without any histological enhancement. In addition, a transgenic rat line (FLAME that ubiquitously expresses tdTomato was successfully established by injecting intracytoplasmic Cre mRNA into fertilized ova. Our rat reporter system will facilitate connectome studies as well as the visualization of the fine structures of genetically identified cells for long periods both in vivo and ex vivo. Furthermore, FLAME is an ideal model for organ transplantation research owing to improved traceability of cells/tissues.

  15. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  16. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  17. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  18. PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Bakshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.

  19. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  20. SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION(s) CHART UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF MODERATENESS AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpesh S. Tailor

    2017-01-01

    Moderate distribution proposed by Naik V.D and Desai J.M., is a sound alternative of normal distribution, which has mean and mean deviation as pivotal parameters and which has properties similar to normal distribution. Mean deviation (δ) is a very good alternative of standard deviation (σ) as mean deviation is considered to be the most intuitively and rationally defined measure of dispersion. This fact can be very useful in the field of quality control to construct the control limits of the c...

  1. A robust standard deviation control chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse

  2. Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1986-07-01

    By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)

  3. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...

  4. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  5. Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2013-12-01

    Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.

  6. Inertial Navigation System for India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD HEX) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P.; Navas, A.; Karuturi, Kesavabrahmaji; Shukkoor, A. Abdul; Kumar, J. Krishna; Sreekumar, Sreejith; Basim, A. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the configuration of Inertial Navigation System (INS) used in India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) Program. In view of the specific features and requirements of the RLV-TD, specific improvements and modifications were required in the INS. A new system was designed, realised and qualified meeting the mission requirements of RLV-TD, at the same time taking advantage of the flight heritage attained in INS through various Launch vehicle Missions of the country. The new system has additional redundancy in acceleration channel, in-built inclinometer based bias update scheme for acceleration channels and sign conventions as employed in an aircraft. Data acquisition in micro cycle periodicity (10 ms) was incorporated which was required to provide rate and attitude information at higher sampling rate for ascent phase control. Provision was incorporated for acquisition of rate and acceleration data with high resolution for aerodynamic characterisation and parameter estimation. GPS aided navigation scheme was incorporated to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of the mission. Navigation system configuration for RLV-TD, specific features incorporated to meet the mission requirements, various tests carried out and performance during RLV-TD flight are highlighted.

  7. Shedding light on the Early Pleistocene of TD6 (Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain): The technological sequence and occupational inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Marina; Ollé, Andreu; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xose Pedro; Carbonell, Eudald

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to update the information available on the lithic assemblage from the entire sequence of TD6 now that the most recent excavations have been completed, and to explore possible changes in both occupational patterns and technological strategies evidenced in the unit. This is the first study to analyse the entire TD6 sequence, including subunits TD6.3 and TD6.1, which have never been studied, along with the better-known TD6.2 Homo antecessor-bearing subunit. We also present an analysis of several lithic refits found in TD6, as well as certain technical features that may help characterise the hominin occupations. The archaeo-palaeontological record from TD6 consists of 9,452 faunal remains, 443 coprolites, 1,046 lithic pieces, 170 hominin remains and 91 Celtis seeds. The characteristics of this record seem to indicate two main stages of occupation. In the oldest subunit, TD6.3, the lithic assemblage points to the light and limited hominin occupation of the cave, which does, however, grow over the course of the level. In contrast, the lithic assemblages from TD6.2 and TD6.1 are rich and varied, which may reflect Gran Dolina cave's establishment as a landmark in the region. Despite the occupational differences between the lowermost subunit and the rest of the deposit, technologically the TD6 lithic assemblage is extremely homogeneous throughout. In addition, the composition and spatial distribution of the 12 groups of lithic refits found in unit TD6, as well as the in situ nature of the assemblage demonstrate the high degree of preservation at the site. This may help clarify the nature of the Early Pleistocene hominin occupations of TD6, and raise reasonable doubt about the latest interpretations that support the ex situ character of the assemblage as a whole.

  8. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  9. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  10. Multifunctional organic nitrates: A decade of TD-LIF Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    With our first observations of total RONO2 in 1999 a relatively routine and quantitative basis for assessing the prominent role RONO2s chemistry plays in our atmosphere emerged. In the decade since our ambient measurements have inspired us to think carefully about how RONO2 chemistry suppresses ozone formation in urban atmospheres (and more recently in regions dominated by oil and gas drilling), how RONO2 formation ss the dominant sink of NOx in rural continental locations affects the NOx lifetime, how RONO2 fits into our models of the NOy budget and the extent to which RONO2 aerosol are important. In this talk I will review the development of these ideas.

  11. Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on TD-ERCS System and Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the security problem of transmission image across public networks, a new image encryption algorithm based on TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network is proposed in this paper. According to the permutation process and the binary XOR operation from the chaotic series by producing TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network, it can achieve image encryption. This encryption algorithm is a reversible algorithm, and it can achieve original image in the rule inverse process of encryption algorithm. Finally, through computer simulation, the experiment results show that the new chaotic encryption algorithm based on TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network is valid and has higher security.

  12. Time-dependent anisotropic external sources in transient 3-D transport code TORT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a time-dependent distributed external source in TORT-TD by explicitly considering the external source in the ''fixed-source'' term of the implicitly time-discretised 3-D discrete ordinates transport equation. Anisotropy of the external source is represented by a spherical harmonics series expansion similar to the angular fluxes. The YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly serves as a test case. The configuration with 280 fuel rods has been analysed with TORT-TD using cross sections in 18 energy groups and P1 scattering order generated by the KAPROS code system. Good agreement is achieved concerning the multiplication factor. The response of the system to an artificial time-dependent source consisting of two square-wave pulses demonstrates the time-dependent external source capability of TORT-TD. The result is physically plausible as judged from validation calculations. (orig.)

  13. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  14. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  15. Hearing protector performance and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W; Dillon, H

    2005-01-01

    The attenuation performance of a hearing protector is used to estimate the protected exposure level of the user. The aim is to reduce the exposed level to an acceptable value. Users should expect the attenuation to fall within a reasonable range of values around a norm. However, an analysis of extensive test data indicates that there is a negative relationship between attenuation performance and the standard deviation. This result is deduced using a variation in the method of calculating a single number rating of attenuation that is more amenable to drawing statistical inferences. As performance is typically specified as a function of the mean attenuation minus one or two standard deviations from the mean to ensure that greater than 50% of the wearer population are well protected, the implication of increasing standard deviation with decreasing attenuation found in this study means that a significant number of users are, in fact, experiencing over-protection. These users may be disinclined to use their hearing protectors because of an increased feeling of acoustic isolation. This problem is exacerbated in areas with lower noise levels.

  16. Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S 1 /Z 2 , in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.

  17. Recent and future situation of Japan’s T&D system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichi Uehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Japan suffered from the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the nuclear disaster. As a result, we experienced rolling outages for a few months in the Tokyo and Tohoku area. Japan’s power transmission system consists of 50 Hz AC and 60 Hz AC in eastern and western Japan respectively. When the nuclear disaster occurred in Fukushima, enough electricity hasn’t been supplied in eastern area. Power interchange capacity between east and west was small because of small redundant T&D system design. Based on this rolling outage and some present electricity supplying issues in Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has set the electricity system reform committee to improve this situation and make a good T&D system for the future. This committee reported the discussed issue to the Japanese METI and METI proposed policy on Electricity System Reform to the Japanese Cabinet. As a result, the Japanese Electricity System Reform policy was adopted. This future T&D system deals with redundant T&D systems between east and west, how to handle large amounts of renewable electrical energy, and how to fully de-regulate the distribution market. HVDC (VSC system will be introduced between Hokkaido and Honshu as a subsea cable transmission system and HVDC transmission system between eastern area and western area. This paper describes recent and future Japan’s T&D systems. This will be helpful to understand how to solve the issues of Japan’s T&D system.

  18. 全混合日粮饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响%Deviation of Nutrient Intake of Lactating Cow Herds Fed Total Mixed Ration:Reason Analysis and Effects on Production Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继伟; 林雪彦; 王云; 胡志勇; 刘桂梅; 吴志强; 王中华

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究全混合日粮( TMR)饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响。选取30个高产牛群,每个牛群采样5 d。采取牛群TMR及剩料样品,进行养分分析和颗粒分级评定,计算各指标的变异系数。记录产奶量,取奶样测乳成分。多元线性回归分析养分、颗粒的变异系数与牛群生产性能的关系。结果表明:30个牛群饲喂的TMR产奶净能(NEL)和粗蛋白质(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、微生物蛋白质(MCP)、瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)、瘤胃能氮平衡( RENB)、小肠可消化粗蛋白质( DCPSI)、钙( Ca)含量分别为6.56 MJ/kg 和16.22%、35.71%、21.38%、77.84 g/kg、92.15 g/kg、14.77 g/kg、104.04 g/kg、1.43%,其中高于配方目标的指标有NDF(1.94%)、Ca(0.57%)、RUP(5.03 g/kg)、RENB (6.95 g/kg ),低于配方目标的指标有 CP (-0.36%)、ADF (-1.54%)、NEL (-0.12 MJ/kg)、MCP(-7.71 g/kg)、DCPSI(-2.12 g/kg)(正值表示提高,负值表示降低)。观测期内,RUP[(16.26±7.10)%]、MCP[(22.78±13.38)%]、RENB[(64.29±34.29)%]3种养分的变异系数大于10%,其他养分的变异系数均小于10%。长、中、短、细4类颗粒含量的变异系数分别为(15.78±9.25)%、(9.12±7.86)%、(6.00±4.00)%、(11.15±9.62)%。回归分析表明, TMR养分和颗粒度变异影响产奶量和乳成分,NEL 变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降3.662 kg/d;长颗粒变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降0.124 kg/d,乳脂率升高0.012%。结果提示,TMR饲喂泌乳奶牛摄入养分因投料不准确、加工质量不稳定、搅拌不均匀、挑食等与配方养分产生差异。 TMR加工质量稳定性影响到产奶量和乳成分,其中NEL、DCPSI、RENB的变异影响产奶量,长颗粒变异影响产奶量和乳脂率。%This experiment analyzed the reason for deviation of nutrient intake of lactating cow herds fed total mixed ration ( TMR) and the effects on

  19. Review of $V_{cb}$ and $V_{td}/V_{ts}$

    OpenAIRE

    Forty, Roger W

    1997-01-01

    The current experimental status of the CKM matrix element V_cb and the ratio V_td/V_ts is reviewed. Knowledge of these elements has a strong impact on the unitarity triangle, of interest for studies of CP violation in the B system. The measurements of V_cb from both inclusive semileptonic b decays and the exclusive channel B -> D* l nu are reaching high precision. For V_td/V_ts the strongest upper limit is derived from studies of B-Bbar mixing.

  20. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  1. TID and I-TD controller design for magnetic levitation system using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdoot Sain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the design of controllers for magnetic levitation (Maglev system in both simulation and real time. Local linearization around the equilibrium point has been done for the nonlinear Maglev system to obtain a linearized model transfer function. In this study, the design of integral-tilted-derivative (I-TD controller has been proposed for the Maglev system and its performance is compared with conventional tilted-integral-derivative (TID controller. In this study, TID controller parameters have been optimized through genetic algorithm (GA and those set of values have been employed for the design of I-TD controller. A performance comparison between TID and I-TD controller is then investigated. The analysis shows the superiority of I-TD controller over TID controller in terms of maximum overshoot, gain margin and phase margin. The settling time remains almost same in both the cases. In future, a detailed study of robustness in presence of model uncertainties will be incorporated as a scope of further research.

  2. TdPIR minisatellite fingerprinting as a useful new tool for Torulaspora delbrueckii molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2015-05-04

    Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains are being increasingly applied at the industrial level, such as in the winemaking process, and so their identification and characterisation require effective, fast, accurate, reproducible and reliable approaches. Therefore, the development of typing techniques that allow discrimination at the strain level will provide an essential tool for those working with T. delbrueckii strains. Here, 28 T. delbrueckii strains from various substrates were characterised using different PCR-fingerprinting molecular methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA with polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), minisatellites SED1, AGA1, DAN4 and the newly designed T. delbrueckii (Td)PIR, and microsatellites (GAC)5 and (GTG)5. The aim was to determine and compare the efficacies, reproducibilities and discriminating powers of these molecular methods. RAPD-PCR using the M13 primers and the newly designed TdPIR3 minisatellite primer pair provided discrimination of the greatest number of T. delbrueckii strains. TdPIR3 clustered the 28 strains into 16 different groups with an efficiency of 100%, while M13 clustered the strains into 17 different groups, although with a lower efficiency of 89%. Moreover, the TdPIR3 primers showed reproducible profiles when the stringency of the PCR protocol was varied, which highlighted the great robustness of this technique. In contrast, variation of the stringency of the M13 PCR protocol resulted in modification of the amplified profiles, which suggested low reproducibility of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  4. Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.

    1990-01-01

    In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)

  5. Optical properties of alkali halide crystals from all-electron hybrid TD-DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, R., E-mail: ross.webster07@imperial.ac.uk; Harrison, N. M. [Thomas Young Centre, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bernasconi, L. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    We present a study of the electronic and optical properties of a series of alkali halide crystals AX, with A = Li, Na, K, Rb and X = F, Cl, Br based on a recent implementation of hybrid-exchange time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) (TD-B3LYP) in the all-electron Gaussian basis set code CRYSTAL. We examine, in particular, the impact of basis set size and quality on the prediction of the optical gap and exciton binding energy. The formation of bound excitons by photoexcitation is observed in all the studied systems and this is shown to be correlated to specific features of the Hartree-Fock exchange component of the TD-DFT response kernel. All computed optical gaps and exciton binding energies are however markedly below estimated experimental and, where available, 2-particle Green’s function (GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation, GW-BSE) values. We attribute this reduced exciton binding to the incorrect asymptotics of the B3LYP exchange correlation ground state functional and of the TD-B3LYP response kernel, which lead to a large underestimation of the Coulomb interaction between the excited electron and hole wavefunctions. Considering LiF as an example, we correlate the asymptotic behaviour of the TD-B3LYP kernel to the fraction of Fock exchange admixed in the ground state functional c{sub HF} and show that there exists one value of c{sub HF} (∼0.32) that reproduces at least semi-quantitatively the optical gap of this material.

  6. Surgical Success Rates for Horizontal Concomitant Deviations According to the Type and Degree of Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çaça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.

  7. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  8. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  9. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  10. Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...

  11. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21...

  12. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  13. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  14. The L1TD1 Protein Interactome Reveals the Importance of Post-transcriptional Regulation in Human Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Reddy Emani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein L1TD1 is one of the most specific and abundant proteins in pluripotent stem cells and is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency in human cells. Here, we identify the protein interaction network of L1TD1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and provide insights into the interactome network constructed in human pluripotent cells. Our data reveal that L1TD1 has an important role in RNA splicing, translation, protein traffic, and degradation. L1TD1 interacts with multiple stem-cell-specific proteins, many of which are still uncharacterized in the context of development. Further, we show that L1TD1 is a part of the pluripotency interactome network of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, bridging nuclear and cytoplasmic regulation and highlighting the importance of RNA biology in pluripotency.

  15. The pharmacology of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist with gastrointestinal prokinetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Beattie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. TD-8954 had high affinity (pKi = 9.4 for human recombinant 5-HT4(c (h5-HT4(c receptors, and selectivity (> 2,000-fold over all other 5-HT receptors and non-5-HT receptors, ion channels, enzymes and transporters tested (n = 78. TD-8954 produced an elevation of cAMP in HEK-293 cells expressing the h5-HT4(c receptor (pEC50 = 9.3, and contracted the guinea pig colonic longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LMMP preparation (pEC50 = 8.6. TD-8954 had moderate intrinsic activity (IA in the in vitro assays. In conscious guinea pigs, subcutaneous (s.c. administration of TD 8954 (0.03 - 3 mg/kg increased the colonic transit of carmine red dye, reducing the time taken for its excretion. Following intraduodenal (i.d. dosing to anesthetized rats, TD 8954 (0.03 - 10 mg/kg evoked a dose-dependent relaxation of the esophagus. Following oral administration to conscious dogs, TD 8954 (10 and 30 µg/kg produced an increase in contractility of the antrum, duodenum and jejunum. In a single ascending oral dose study in healthy human subjects, TD-8954 (0.1 - 20 mg increased bowel movement frequency and reduced the time to first stool. It is concluded that TD-8954 is a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in vitro, with robust in vivo stimulatory activity in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of guinea pigs, rats, dogs and humans. TD-8954 may have clinical utility in patients with disorders of reduced GI motility.

  16. An explicit MOT scheme for solving the TD-EFVIE on nonlinear and dispersive scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, H. Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) on nonlinear and dispersive scatterers is described. The unknown electric field intensity, electric flux density, and polarization densities representing Kerr nonlinearity along with Lorentz dispersion relation, all of which are induced inside the scatterer upon excitation, are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space. The TD-EFVIE and the constitutive relations between polarization, field, and flux terms are cast in the form of a first-order ordinary differential equation. The resulting matrix system is integrated in time using a predictor-corrector scheme to obtain the time dependent unknown expansion coefficients. The resulting MOT scheme is explicit and accounts for nonlinearity by simple function evaluations.

  17. Nonadiabatic calculations for tdμ relevant for muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.; Jeziorski, B.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the mass effect, muonic molecular ions are about 200 times smaller than their electronic counterparts. The proximity of the nuclei in the tdμ ion results in fusion taking place within a picosecond. The properties of this ion are central to understanding the phenomenon of muon catalysis. The authors developed a computational method of solving the nonadiabatic Schroedinger equation for the bound and resonance states of tdμ and its isotopic analogues. The method takes into account both the Coulomb interactions and the strong nuclear forces responsible for the fusion reaction. The wave functions obtained from this method were used to predict very accurately branching ratios and transition rates relevant for various stages of the muon catalytic cycle. Knowledge of these quantities will guide the experiments and help to answer the question of feasibility of net energy production via muon catalysis

  18. Pin cell discontinuity factors in the transient 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD - 237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of generalized equivalence theory to the time-dependent 3-D discrete ordinates neutron transport code TORT-TD. The introduction of pin cell discontinuity factors into the discrete ordinates transport equation is described by assuming a linear dependence of the homogenized neutron angular flux within a pin cell which may be discontinuous at the interfaces to adjacent cells. The homogenized flux discontinuity at cell interfaces is expressed by pin cell discontinuity factors which in turn are determined from fuel assembly lattice calculations using HELIOS. Application of TORT-TD to the all rods in state of the PWR MOX/UO 2 Core Transient Benchmark with pin cell homogenized nuclear cross sections demonstrate the potential of pin cell discontinuity factors to reduce pin cell homogenization errors. (authors)

  19. Oxidation behavior of TD-NiCr in a dynamic high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, D. R.; Young, C. T.; Herring, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of TD-NiCr has been studied in static and high-speed flowing air environments at 1100 and 1200 C. It has been found that the stable oxide morphologies formed on the specimens exposed to the static and dynamic environments were markedly different. The faceted crystal morphology characteristic of static oxidation was found to be unstable under high-temperature, high-speed flow conditions and was quickly replaced by a porous NiO 'mushroom' type structure. Also, it was found that the rate of formation of CrO3 from Cr2O3 was greatly enhanced by high gas velocity conditions. The stability of Cr2-O3 was found to be greatly improved by the presence of an outer NiO layer, even though the NiO layer was very porous. An oxidation model is proposed to explain the observed microstructures and overall oxidation behavior of TD-NiCr alloys.

  20. An explicit MOT scheme for solving the TD-EFVIE on nonlinear and dispersive scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2017-10-25

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) on nonlinear and dispersive scatterers is described. The unknown electric field intensity, electric flux density, and polarization densities representing Kerr nonlinearity along with Lorentz dispersion relation, all of which are induced inside the scatterer upon excitation, are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space. The TD-EFVIE and the constitutive relations between polarization, field, and flux terms are cast in the form of a first-order ordinary differential equation. The resulting matrix system is integrated in time using a predictor-corrector scheme to obtain the time dependent unknown expansion coefficients. The resulting MOT scheme is explicit and accounts for nonlinearity by simple function evaluations.

  1. TD-LTE Wireless Private Network QoS Transmission Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Cheng, Chao; Wu, Zanhong

    With the commencement of construction of the smart grid, the demand power business for reliability and security continues to improve, the reliability transmission of power TD-LTE Wireless Private Network are more and more attention. For TD-LTE power private network, it can provide different QoS services according to the user's business type, to protect the reliable transmission of business. This article describes in detail the AF module of PCC in the EPC network, specifically introduces set up AF module station and QoS mechanisms in the EPS load, fully considers the business characteristics of the special power network, establishing a suitable architecture for mapping QoS parameters, ensuring the implementation of each QoS business. Through using radio bearer management, we can achieve the reliable transmission of each business on physical channel.

  2. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering MATH {cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), MATH {cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  3. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PLANE IL-76TD-90VD LANDING IN ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information from the Internet the authors decided to reproduce the possible conditions of landing the plane IL-76TD-90VD in Antarctica in their computer experiment using the mathematical modeling system of aircraft flight dynamics (MMS AFD, which is developed and continuously improved in MSTUCA. MMS AFD has already shown its ability to complete such tasks for different aircraft types in various conditions, including IL-76TD, IL-96-300, IL-96T and also slippery runways.For the computational experiments the information from the web sources was used. The authors did not aim to pro- duce a final numerical results, which describe the possible operating conditions. It was expected only to get accurate qualita- tive results, which can adequately describe the behavior of the airplane IL-76TD-90VD when landing on the slippery runway.So, the authors were able to obtain a typical turn of plane at the end of run and show that the pilot style in these conditions has little effect on the qualitative behavior of the aircraft. The most important factor leading to such maneuvers, lies in the special connection of longitudinal and lateral friction of gear wheels with runway.The authors managed to identify the minimum allowed value of standard friction coefficient of the runway (0,42 which allows a safe landing under crosswind 15 m/s.The results that agree qualitatively with the known situations indicate the possibility for MMS AFD to properly reproduce various cases of aircraft IL-76TD-90VD landing to Antarctica ice airfield and identify any inaccurately knownparameters.

  5. A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in red: live cell imaging of the kappa opioid receptor-tdTomato fusion protein (KOPR-tdT) in neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chongguang; Wang, Yujun; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to green fluorescent protein and variants (GFPs), red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) have rarely been employed for generation of GPCR fusion proteins, likely because of formation of aggregates and cell toxicity of some RFPs. Among all the RFPs available, tdTomato (tdT), one of the non-aggregating RFP, has the highest brightness score (about 3 times that of eGFP) and unsurpassed photostability. Methods We fused tdT to the KOPR C-terminus. The KOPR-tdT cDNA construct was transfected into Neuro2A mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells) and rat cortical primary neurons for characterization of pharmacological properties and imaging studies on KOPR trafficking. Results KOPR-tdT retained KOPR properties (cell surface expression, ligand binding, agonist-induced signaling and internalization) when expressed in Neuro2A cells and rat primary cortical neurons. Live cell imaging of KOPR-tdT enables visualization of time course of agonist-induced internalization of KOPR in real time for 60 min, without photobleaching and apparent cell toxicity. U50,488H-induced KOPR internalization occurred as early as 4 min and plateaued at about 30 min. A unique pattern of internalized KOPR in processes of primary neurons was induced by U50,488H. Discussion tdT is an alternative to, or even a better tool than, GFPs for fusing to GPCR for trafficking studies, because tdT has higher brightness and thus better resolution and less photobleaching problems due to reduced laser power used. It also has advantages associated with its longer-wavelength emission including spectral separation from autofluorescence and GFPs, reduced cell toxicity the laser may impose, and greater tissue penetration. These advantages of tdT over GPFs may be critical for live cell imaging studies of GPCRs in vitro and for studying GPCRs in vivo because of their low abundance. PMID:23856011

  6. Mission Management Computer and Sequencing Hardware for RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukrat; Raj, Remya; Mathew, Asha Mary; Koshy, Anna Priya; Paramasivam, R.; Mookiah, T.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator Hypersonic Experiment (RLV-TD HEX-01) mission posed some unique challenges in the design and development of avionics hardware. This work presents the details of mission critical avionics hardware mainly Mission Management Computer (MMC) and sequencing hardware. The Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC) chain for RLV-TD is dual redundant with cross-strapped Remote Terminals (RTs) interfaced through MIL-STD-1553B bus. MMC is Bus Controller on the 1553 bus, which does the function of GPS aided navigation, guidance, digital autopilot and sequencing for the RLV-TD launch vehicle in different periodicities (10, 20, 500 ms). Digital autopilot execution in MMC with a periodicity of 10 ms (in ascent phase) is introduced for the first time and successfully demonstrated in the flight. MMC is built around Intel i960 processor and has inbuilt fault tolerance features like ECC for memories. Fault Detection and Isolation schemes are implemented to isolate the failed MMC. The sequencing hardware comprises Stage Processing System (SPS) and Command Execution Module (CEM). SPS is `RT' on the 1553 bus which receives the sequencing and control related commands from MMCs and posts to downstream modules after proper error handling for final execution. SPS is designed as a high reliability system by incorporating various fault tolerance and fault detection features. CEM is a relay based module for sequence command execution.

  7. BK/TD models for analyzing in vitro impedance data on cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S; Barcellini-Couget, S; Beaudouin, R; Brochot, C; Desousa, G; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2015-06-01

    The ban of animal testing has enhanced the development of new in vitro technologies for cosmetics safety assessment. Impedance metrics is one such technology which enables monitoring of cell viability in real time. However, analyzing real time data requires moving from static to dynamic toxicity assessment. In the present study, we built mechanistic biokinetic/toxicodynamic (BK/TD) models to analyze the time course of cell viability in cytotoxicity assay using impedance. These models account for the fate of the tested compounds during the assay. BK/TD models were applied to analyze HepaRG cell viability, after single (48 h) and repeated (4 weeks) exposures to three hepatotoxic compounds (coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2). The BK/TD models properly fit the data used for their calibration that was obtained for single or repeated exposure. Only for one out of the three compounds, the models calibrated with a single exposure were able to predict repeated exposure data. We therefore recommend the use of long-term exposure in vitro data in order to adequately account for chronic hepatotoxic effects. The models we propose here are capable of being coupled with human biokinetic models in order to relate dose exposure and human hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Deviation in “Vis and Rāmin” by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Forouzandeh

    2016-09-01

     Finally, from among all the norm deviations proposed by Leech, temporal, style, written, lexical and, particularly, semantic norm deviations are the ones that can be considered norm deviations to compose poems. It should be said that there were no evidence to indicate the existence of written and style norm deviations in Vis and Ramin. Totally, by analyzing the verses order of occurrence of norm deviations in Vis and Ramin is as follow: syntactic, phonetic, semantic, lexical, temporal and dialectic norm deviations. It is worth mentioning that the poet has observed the elements of conductivity and aesthetic in applying norm deviations.

  9. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD ({approx} +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT ({approx} -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  10. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD (∼ +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT (∼ -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  11. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  12. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...

  13. A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

  14. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...

  15. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best interest of the Government; (3) If applicable, the name of the contractor and identification of... background information which will contribute to a full understanding of the desired deviation. (b)(1... authorized to grant deviations to the DOE-PMR. (d) Requests for deviations from the FPMR will be coordinated...

  16. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqiang; He, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuehui; Duan, Tao; Wang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hong; He, Yusheng

    2010-02-01

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  17. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xueqiang; He Xiaofeng; Wang Yuehui; Li Chunguang; Zhang Qiang; Li Hong; He Yusheng [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan Tao; Wang Guizhen; Zhang Yan [Datang Mobile Communications Equipment Co., Ltd, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  18. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueqiang; He Xiaofeng; Wang Yuehui; Li Chunguang; Zhang Qiang; Li Hong; He Yusheng; Duan Tao; Wang Guizhen; Zhang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  19. Impedance spectroscopy of tripolar concentric ring electrodes with Ten20 and TD246 pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Herrera, Daniel Salazar; Besio, Walter G

    2017-07-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper, we measured the impedance on both tripolar concentric ring electrodes and standard cup electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using both Ten20 and TD246 electrode paste. Furthermore, we applied the model to prove that the model can predict the performance of the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  20. Analysis on Calibration and Uncertainty for TD-LTE Radio Test System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weipeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available TD-LTE base station radio test system measures radio signal with a required accuracy, so calibration need to be done for transmission path between base station and measurement instruments before test. Considering Transmitter OFF Power measurement within OFF period, modulated signal generator and spectrum analyzer inside test system is used for calibration, to get accurate transmission parameters of the paths, and to reduce test cost without more instruments. The paper describes the uncertainty of test system, analyzes uncertainty contribution of interface mismatch, calculates uncertainty for Transmitter OFF Power measurement, uncertainty is 1.193 dB, within the requirement of 3GPP specification.

  1. Precision analysis for standard deviation measurements of immobile single fluorescent molecule images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Michael C; DeCenzo, Shawn H; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M

    2010-03-29

    Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera.We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image which is a function of the total number of detected photons, the background photon noise, and the camera pixel size. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental, simulation, and numerical integration results. Using this expression, we show that single-molecule standard deviation measurements offer nanometer precision for a large range of experimental parameters.

  2. The use of the Gait Deviation Index for the evaluation of participants following total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis B

    2015-01-01

    -operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: -2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8-7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p

  3. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  6. Macrophage content of murine tumors: Associations with TD50 and tumor radiocurability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, J.; Hunter, N.; Volpe, J.; Milas, L.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments were designed to investigate whether the tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) content of murine solid tumors correlates with tumor response to ionizing radiation and with the clonogenic ability of tumor cells to establish s.c. tumors. Of 13 tumors studied, 6 were sarcomas and 7 were carcinomas; all tumors were of spontaneous origin in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice, with the exception of one sarcoma that was induced by 3-methylcholanthrene. Tumors were growing in the hind thighs of syngeneic mice, and their TAM content was determined when they were 8 mm in diameter. Their macrophage content varied greatly, ranging from 9 to 83%. Radiocurability of 8 mm tumors, determined by TCD50, ranged from 42 Gy (fibrosarcoma FSA) to > 80 Gy (hepatocarcinoma HCA-I). There was an obvious trend toward positive correlation (r = 0.43) between TAM content and reduced local tumor radiocurability. However, there was a significant negative correlation between TAM content and TD50 values, implying that cells from tumors with higher macrophage content were more clonogenic. TAM from the NFSA sarcoma, a tumor with a low TD50 value and poorly responsive to radiation, stimulated the in vitro growth of NFSA tumor cells. These observations suggest that high TAM content could be conducive to tumor cell proliferation and could be a factor in poor tumor radioresponse

  7. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  8. Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...

  9. Large deviations for noninteracting infinite-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donsker, M.D.; Varadhan, S.R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A large deviation property is established for noninteracting infinite particle systems. Previous large deviation results obtained by the authors involved a single I-function because the cases treated always involved a unique invariant measure for the process. In the context of this paper there is an infinite family of invariant measures and a corresponding infinite family of I-functions governing the large deviations

  10. Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...

  11. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  12. RILEM technical committee 195-DTD recommendation for test methods for AD and TD of early age concrete Round Robin documentation report : program, test results and statistical evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjøntegaard, Øyvind; Krauss, Matias; Budelmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the Round-Robin (RR) program and test results including a statistical evaluation of the RILEM TC195-DTD committee named “Recommendation for test methods for autogenous deformation (AD) and thermal dilation (TD) of early age concrete”. The task of the committee was to investigate the linear test set-up for AD and TD measurements (Dilation Rigs) in the period from setting to the end of the hardening phase some weeks after. These are the stress-inducing deformations in a hardening concrete structure subjected to restraint conditions. The main task was to carry out an RR program on testing of AD of one concrete at 20 °C isothermal conditions in Dilation Rigs. The concrete part materials were distributed to 10 laboratories (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and USA), and in total 30 tests on AD were carried out. Some supporting tests were also performed, as well as a smaller RR on cement paste. The committee has worked out a test procedure recommenda...

  13. The time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD with thermal-hydraulic feedback by ATHLET models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Velkov, K.; Langenbuch, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD. Thermal-hydraulic feedback is considered by coupling TORT-TD with the thermal-hydraulics system code ATHLET. The coupled code TORT-TD/ATHLET allows 3D pin-by-pin analyses of transients in few energy groups and anisotropic scattering by solving the time-dependent transport equation using the unconditionally stable implicit method. The nuclear cross sections are interpolated between pre-calculated table values of fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration. For verification of the implementation, selected test cases have been calculated by TORT-TD/ATHLET. They include a control rod ejection transient in a small PWR fuel assembly arrangement and a local boron concentration change in a single PWR fuel assembly. In the latter, special attention has been paid to study the influence of the thermal-hydraulic feedback modelling in ATHLET. The results obtained for a control rod ejection accident in a PWR quarter core demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD/ATHLET. (authors)

  14. Identification of rat Rosa26 locus enables generation of knock-in rat lines ubiquitously expressing tdTomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-01

    Recent discovery of a method for derivation and culture of germline-competent rat pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) enables generation of transgenic rats or knock-out rats via genetic modification of such PSCs. This opens the way to use rats, as is routine in mice, for analyses of gene functions or physiological features. In mouse or human, one widely used technique to express a gene of interest stably and ubiquitously is to insert that gene into the Rosa26 locus via gene targeting of PSCs. Rosa26 knock-in mice conditionally expressing a reporter or a toxin gene have contributed to tracing or ablation of specific cell lineages. We successfully identified a rat orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus. Insertion of tdTomato, a variant of red fluorescent protein, into the Rosa26 locus of PSCs of various rat strains allows ubiquitous expression of tdTomato. Through germline transmission of one Rosa26-tdTomato knock-in embryonic stem cell line, we also obtained tdTomato knock-in rats. These expressed tdTomato ubiquitously throughout their bodies, which indicates that the rat Rosa26 locus conserves functions of its orthologues in mouse and human. The new tools described here (targeting vectors, knock-in PSCs, and rats) should be useful for a variety of research using rats.

  15. Large Deviations for the Annealed Ising Model on Inhomogeneous Random Graphs: Spins and Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Hofstad, Remco van der

    2018-04-01

    We prove a large deviations principle for the total spin and the number of edges under the annealed Ising measure on generalized random graphs. We also give detailed results on how the annealing over the Ising model changes the degrees of the vertices in the graph and show how it gives rise to interesting correlated random graphs.

  16. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  17. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.

  18. Statistics as Unbiased Estimators: Exploring the Teaching of Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Casey, Stephanie; Champion, Joe; Huey, Maryann

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents findings from a study about the knowledge for and planned teaching of standard deviation. We investigate how understanding variance as an unbiased (inferential) estimator--not just a descriptive statistic for the variation (spread) in data--is related to teachers' instruction regarding standard deviation, particularly…

  19. Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...

  20. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate the...

  2. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, P.; van Doorn, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  3. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.

    2002-01-01

    he deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Deviation Source for Fast Assembly Precision Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly precision optimization of complex product has a huge benefit in improving the quality of our products. Due to the impact of a variety of deviation source coupling phenomena, the goal of assembly precision optimization is difficult to be confirmed accurately. In order to achieve optimization of assembly precision accurately and rapidly, sensitivity analysis of deviation source is proposed. First, deviation source sensitivity is defined as the ratio of assembly dimension variation and deviation source dimension variation. Second, according to assembly constraint relations, assembly sequences and locating, deviation transmission paths are established by locating the joints between the adjacent parts, and establishing each part’s datum reference frame. Third, assembly multidimensional vector loops are created using deviation transmission paths, and the corresponding scalar equations of each dimension are established. Then, assembly deviation source sensitivity is calculated by using a first-order Taylor expansion and matrix transformation method. Finally, taking assembly precision optimization of wing flap rocker as an example, the effectiveness and efficiency of the deviation source sensitivity analysis method are verified.

  5. Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tsallis, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e −Nr , r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e q −Nr q (∝1/N 1/(q−1) , q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  6. Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation

  7. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  8. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  9. MCD spectroscopy and TD-DFT calculations of low symmetry subnaphthalocyanine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, John; Otaki, Tatsuya; Durfee, William S; Kobayashi, Nagao; Stillman, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are used to analyze the electronic structure and optical properties of low-symmetry subnaphthalocyanine analogs with AAB and ABB structures formed during mixed condensations of tetrafluorophthalonitrile and 2,3-naphthalenedicarbonitrile. The results demonstrate that trends observed in the properties of phthalocyanine analogs can be used to fine tune the optical properties so that the Q(0,0) bands lie in the red region, in a manner that does not significantly destabilize the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy relative to that of the parent subphthalocyanine ligand. Attempts to study the spectroscopy of anion radical species proved unsuccessful, since they proved to be unstable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Materials Innovation for Next-Generation T&D Grid Components. Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kramer, Caroline [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Marchionini, Brian [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Cheung, Kerry [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE); Lee, Dominic F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Innovations for Next-Generation T&D Grid Components Workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and held on August 26 27, 2015, at the ORNL campus in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The workshop was planned and executed under the direction of workshop co-chair Dr. Kerry Cheung (DOE) and co-chair Dr. Dominic Lee (ORNL). The information contained herein is based on the results of the workshop, which was attended by nearly 50 experts from government, industry, and academia. The research needs and pathways described in this report reflect the expert opinions of workshop participants, but they are not intended to represent the views of the entire electric power community.

  11. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  12. Research on an estimation method of DOA for wireless location based on TD-SCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Yuan; Cheng, Shi-xin

    2004-03-01

    To meet the urgent need of personal communication and hign-speed data services,the standardization and products development for International Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) have become a hot point in wordwide. The wireless location for mobile terminals has been an important research project. Unlike GPS which is located by 24 artificial satellities, it is based on the base-station of wireless cell network, and the research and development of it are correlative with IMT-2000. While the standard for the third generation mobile telecommunication (3G)-TD-SCDMA, which is proposed by China and the intellective property right of which is possessed by Chinese, is adopted by ITU-T at the first time, the research for wireless location based on TD-SCDMA has theoretic meaning, applied value and marketable foreground. First,the basic principle and method for wireless location, i.e. Direction of Angle(DOA), Time of Arrival(TOA) or Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA), hybridized location(TOA/DOA,TDOA/DOA,TDOA/DOA),etc. is introduced in the paper. So the research of DOA is very important in wireless location. Next, Main estimation methods of DOA for wireless location, i.e. ESPRIT, MUSIC, WSF, Min-norm, etc. are researched in the paper. In the end, the performances of DOA estimation for wireless location based on mobile telecommunication network are analyzed by the research of theory and simulation experiment and the contrast algorithms between and Cramer-Rao Bound. Its research results aren't only propitious to the choice of algorithms for wireless location, but also to the realization of new service of wireless location .

  13. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Michal Kozlowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM. Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl. Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT states.

  14. Dynamical spin susceptibility in the TD-LDA and QSGW approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilfgaarde, Mark Van [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); Kotani, Takao [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Abstract. This project was aimed at building the transverse dynamical spin susceptibility with the TD-LDA and the recently-developed Quasparticle Self-Consisent Approximations, which determines an optimum quasiparticle picture in a self-consistent manner within the GW approximation. Our main results were published into two papers, (J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 20, 95214 (2008), and Phys. Rev. B83, 060404(R) (2011). In the first paper we present spin wave dispersions for MnO, NiO, and -MnAs based on quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation (QSGW). For MnO and NiO, QSGW results are in rather good agreement with experiments, in contrast to the LDA and LDA+U descriptions. For -MnAs, we find a collinear ferromagnetic ground state in QSGW, while this phase is unstable in the LDA. In the second, we apply TD-LDA to the CaFeAs2 the first attempt the first ab initio calculation of dynamical susceptibililty in a system with complex electronic structure Magnetic excitations in the striped phase of CaFe2As2 are studied as a function of local moment amplitude. We find a new kind of excitation: sharp resonances of Stoner-like (itinerant) excitations at energies comparable to the ´eel temperature, originating largely from a narrow band of Fe d states near the Fermi level, and coexisting with more conventional (localized) spin waves. Both kinds of excitations can show multiple branches, highlighting the inadequacy of a description based on a localized spin model.

  15. Outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery for horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Blanco Domínguez, I; Gómez de Liaño, P

    2016-02-01

    To study the outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) for treating horizontal deviation Case Series of the first 26 consecutive patients operated on using the MISS technique in our hospital from February 2010 to March 2014. A total of 40 eyes were included: 26 patients (mean age: 7.7 years old ± 4.9); 34.61%: male. A total of 43 muscles were operated on: 20 medial, and 23 lateral recti; 28 recessions (range: 3-7.5mm), 6 resections (6-7 mm), and 9 plications (6.5-7.5 mm) were performed. No significant difference was found (P>0.05) for visual acuity at postoperative day 1, and 6 months after surgery. A mild hyperaemia was observed in 29.27%, moderate in 48.78%, and severe in 21.95% at postoperative day 1 and in 63.41%, 31.70% and 4.87%, respectively, at 4 days after surgery. The complications observed were 4 intraoperative conjunctival haemorrhages, 1 scleral perforation, and 2 Tenon's prolapses. A conversion from MISS to a fornix approach was necessary in 1 patient because of bad visualization. The operating time range decreased from 30 to 15 minutes. The MISS technique has obtained good results in horizontal strabismus surgery. The conjunctival inflammation was mild in most of the cases at postoperative day 4. The visual acuity was stable during follow-up, and operating time decreased after a 4-year learning curve. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  17. Electronic spectroscopy of HRe(CO) 5: a CASSCF/CASPT2 and TD-DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J.; Ben Amor, N.; Strich, A.; Daniel, C.

    2001-07-01

    The low-lying excited states of HRe(CO) 5 have been calculated at the CASSCF/CASPT2 and TD-DFT level of theory using relativistic effective core potentials (ECP) or ab initio model potentials (AIMP). The theoretical absorption spectrum is compared to the experimental one. Despite the similarity between the experimental absorption spectra of HMn(CO) 5 and HRe(CO) 5 in the UV/visible energy domain it is shown that the assignment differs significantly between the two molecules. The low-lying excited states of HRe(CO) 5 correspond to 5d→π *CO excitations whereas the spectrum of HMn(CO) 5 consists mainly of 3d→3d and 3d→ σ*Mn-H excitations. If the CASPT2 and TD-DFT results are quite comparable for the lowest excited states, the upper part assignment is more problematic with the TD-DFT method.

  18. Final Phase Flight Performance and Touchdown Time Assessment of TDV in RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Jayakumar, M.; Nizin, Aziya; Kesavabrahmaji, K.; Shyam Mohan, N.

    2017-12-01

    RLV-TD HEX-01 mission was configured as a precursor flight to actual two stages to orbit vehicle. In this mission RLV-TD was designed as a two stage vehicle for demonstrating the hypersonic flight of a winged body vehicle at Mach No. 5. One of the main objectives of this mission was to generate data for better understanding of new technologies required to design the future vehicle. In this mission, the RLV-TD vehicle was heavily instrumented to get data related to performance of different subsystems. As per the mission design, RLV-TD will land in sea after flight duration of 700 s and travelling a distance of nearly 500 km in Bay of Bengal from the launch site for a nominal trajectory. The visibility studies for telemetry data of vehicle for the nominal and off nominal trajectories were carried out. Based on that, three ground stations were proposed for the telemetry data reception (including one in sea). Even with this scheme it was seen that during the final phase of the flight there will not be any ground station visible to the flight due to low elevation. To have the mission critical data during final phase of the flight, telemetry through INSAT scheme was introduced. During the end of the mission RLV-TD will be landing in the sea on a hypothetical runway. To know the exact time of touchdown for the flight in sea, there was no direct measurement available. Simultaneously there were all chances of losing ground station visibility just before touchdown, making it difficult to assess flight performance during that phase. In this work, telemetry and instrumentation scheme of RLV-TD HEX-01 mission is discussed with an objective to determine the flight performance during the final phase. Further, using various flight sensor data the touchdown time of TDV is assessed for this mission.

  19. Large deviations in the presence of cooperativity and slow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We study simple models of intermittency, involving switching between two states, within the dynamical large-deviation formalism. Singularities appear in the formalism when switching is cooperative or when its basic time scale diverges. In the first case the unbiased trajectory distribution undergoes a symmetry breaking, leading to a change in shape of the large-deviation rate function for a particular dynamical observable. In the second case the symmetry of the unbiased trajectory distribution remains unbroken. Comparison of these models suggests that singularities of the dynamical large-deviation formalism can signal the dynamical equivalent of an equilibrium phase transition but do not necessarily do so.

  20. Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Izewska, J.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  1. An investigation of the magnetic field of Transient Disturbances (TD) at the Earth's orbit, and a determination of solar sources of TD from their characteristics at R = 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainshtein, V. .G.; Kaigorodov, A. P.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated and intercompared the typical features of the magnetic field of two types of solar wind transient disturbances with shock waves: the shock wave is accompanied by a magnetic cloud (MC), and the shock wave is followed by a region with bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux (BEHF), with no MC present. In this case, a separate study was made of the field features in two typical TD structures: in the region of impact-compressed solar wind between the shock wave and MC or BEHF, as well as in MC and BEHF. The study has provided new results on the influence of the ambient SW upon the TD magnetic field and the relationship between fields in various TD structures. A new test for the existence of interplanetary magnetic field draping around MC and BEHF is proposed and verified. It is concluded that the magnetic field configuration around MC is more adequately consistent with the concept of magnetic line draping than is the case around BEHF Two methods are proposed to infer the location of solar sources of TD from their characteristics at R = 1 AU.

  2. Vertical force and wrist deviation angle when using a walker to stand up and sit down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan

    2011-08-01

    Research investigating walkers suggests that safety and assistance for the elderly with weak lower limbs were important. However, the relationship between the use of a walker and the upper limbs has received little investigation. Standing up and sitting down are important daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance to stand up and sit down. In total, 64 elderly volunteers (M age = 80.22, SD = 9.36) were enrolled. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer. Wrist deviation and vertical force were examined when participants used a walker with horizontal handles to assist in standing up and sitting down. Significant wrist angle deviation occurred with the use of a walker, with dorsiflexion of the right hand greater than that of the left. Males exerted significantly greater vertical force. In the sitting position, greater ulnar deviation was seen among experienced walker users, whereas during standing, experienced users exhibited greater dorsiflexion. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers may cause user wrist deviations, suggesting researchers should pursue improvements in walker design.

  3. Management of Contract Waivers and Deviations for Defense Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This report is the fourth and final in a series of reports resulting from our audit of management of contract waivers and deviations for Defense systems and summarizes our overall evaluation. Report...

  4. New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).

  5. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  6. An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, O.

    2005-01-01

    By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.

  7. Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  8. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  9. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  10. The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichi Hisa

    2008-01-01

    Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...

  11. Pin cell discontinuity factors in the transient 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even with the rapid increase of computing power, whole core transient and accident analyses based on the direct solution of the 3-D neutron transport equation with a large number of energy groups and a detailed heterogeneous description of the core still remain computationally challenging. Current industrial methods for reactor core calculations therefore involve a two step approach in which lattice (assembly) depletion transport methods are used to prepare energy collapsed and fuel assembly or pin cell homogenized cross sections for subsequent whole core transport calculations. Spatial homogenization, in principal, requires the knowledge of both the actual boundary condition (local core environment) of the fuel assembly and the exact heterogeneous flux distribution (reference solution) of the whole core problem within that fuel assembly. Since, in particular, the latter is not known a priori, an infinite medium (zero net current) condition is used in the lattice calculations. It is well known that this approximation may lead to undesirable errors in cores in which large flux gradients are present across the fuel assemblies. This is the case in cores that have high heterogeneity and/or strong local absorbers, e.g. PWRs with partial MOX loading and inserted control rod clusters. There are two major approaches to mitigate spatial homogenization errors, superhomogenization (SPH) factors, and discontinuity factors within the scope of equivalence theory (ET) and generalized equivalence theory (GET). Although discontinuity factors are usually applied at the level of fuel assembly node size (assembly discontinuity factors, ADF), the methodology can be extended to pin cell homogenized whole core calculations involving pin cell discontinuity factors (PDF). There are also further developments for both the diffusion and the simplified transport (SP3) equation. In this paper, PDFs are introduced into the time-dependent 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD in order to reduce the

  12. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. LUCKY-TD code for solving the time-dependent transport equation with the use of parallel computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moryakov, A. V., E-mail: sailor@orc.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    An algorithm for solving the time-dependent transport equation in the P{sub m}S{sub n} group approximation with the use of parallel computations is presented. The algorithm is implemented in the LUCKY-TD code for supercomputers employing the MPI standard for the data exchange between parallel processes.

  14. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  15. Interaction of biodegradative threonine dehydratase (TD) of Escherichia coli with 8-azido-AMP, a photoaffinity analog of AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.V.; Datta, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stimulation of TD activity by AMP (Ka = 40 μM) is known to accompany the conversion of monomeric form of the enzyme to its tetramer and a decrease in the Km for threonine. In comparison, 8-azido-AMP (N 3 AMP) simulated TD activity only partially, lowered the Km for threonine and stabilized a dimeric form of the protein. Competition experiments revealed that N 3 AMP exerted an apparent dominant effect in counteracting the AMP-mediated enzyme activation, indicating complex mutual interactions between these ligands. UV irradiation of TD with increasing concentrations of 3 H-N 3 AMP (up to 150 μM) resulted in gradual loss of enzyme activity and concomitant incorporation of N 3 AMP into protein; upon complete inactivation, 0.75 mol of N 3 AMP was bound per mol tetramer. The presence of AMP during photolysis reduced the extent of enzyme inactivation as well as the incorporation of N 3 AMP into protein. Photolabeling of TD with 20 μM 3 H-N 3 AMP revealed one labeled tryptic peptide; at higher N 3 AMP concentrations (>300 μM), two labeled peptides were found, one of which was identical to that found with low N 3 AMP concentration. The cumulative results suggest that N 3 AMP can act as an allosteric modifier and that the peptide labeled at low N 3 AMP may represent the AMP binding site on the protein molecule

  16. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  17. Analysis of PBMR transients using a coupled neutron transport/thermal-hydraulics code DORT-TD/thermix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, B.; Ivanov, K.; Pautz, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the advent of increased demand for safety and economics of nuclear power plants, nuclear engineers and designers are called upon to develop advanced computation tools. In these developments, space-time effects in the dynamics of nuclear reactors must be considered within the framework of a full 3-dimensional treatment of both neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics. In a recent effort at the Pennsylvania State University, a time-dependent version of the discrete ordinates transport code DORT, DORT-TD was coupled to a 2-dimensional core thermal hydraulics code THERMIX-DIREKT. In the coupling process, a feedback model was developed to account for the feedback effects and was implemented into DORT-TD. During the calculation process for each spatial node of the DORT-TD core model, feedback parameters representative of this node are passed to the feedback module. Using these values, cross section tables are then interpolated for the appropriate macroscopic cross section values. The updated macroscopic cross sections are passed back to DORT-TD to perform transport core calculations, and the power distribution is transferred to THERMIX-DIREKT to obtain the relevant thermal-hydraulics data in turn, and this calculation loop continues. In this paper, DORT-TD/THERMIX is used to simulate transients of interest in the PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) safety using established benchmark problems: load change from 100% to 40% power and fast control rod ejection (PBMR-268 benchmark problem). The results obtained are compared with those obtained using the diffusion-based module of the code. The results are only preliminary and so far show that diffusion theory is not such a bad approximation for PBMR for the prediction of integral parameters

  18. Identification, Calculation Of The Three Dimensional Orbit, And Flux Of Asteroid 2007 TD14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vincent; Martin, E.; Millan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rate of discovery of asteroids has improved dramatically and has far outstripped efforts to physically characterize them. In this work, we took part in the International Astronomical Search Campaign and confirmed the discovery of asteroid 2007 TD14. We then calculated the two and three dimensional orbit of the asteroid around the sun, given its six elements of orbit. Once the heliocentric and geocentric distances are known, and the visual magnitude of the asteroid obtained through photometry, its diameter can be calculated assuming a suitable value for the albedo. The diameter was 0.718 km and the albedo was 0.039. Using the Standard Thermal Model we calculated the temperature distribution on the surface of the asteroid and the flux of the asteroid in the thermal infrared (1.095 mJy at 22 microns on March 19, 2010). To the best of our knowledge there have been no previous reports of the diameter and flux of the asteroid. Our ultimate goal is to compare our flux values with newly released data from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission and thus obtain better estimates of the asteroid diameter and albedo.

  19. RLV-TD Flight Measured Aeroacoustic Levels and its Comparison with Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, K.; Prasath, M.; Venkata Subrahmanyam, B.; Ganesan, V. R.; Ravindran, Archana; Babu, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is a wing body configuration successfully flight tested. One of the important flight measurements is the acoustic levels. There were five external microphones, mounted on the fuselage-forebody, wing, vertical tail, inter-stage (ITS) and core base shroud to measure the acoustic levels from lift-off to splash down. In the ascent phase, core base shroud recorded the overall maximum at both lift-off and transonic conditions. In-flight noise levels measured on the wing is second highest, followed by fuselage and vertical tail. Predictions for flight trajectory compare well at all locations except for vertical tail (4.5 dB). In the descent phase, maximum measured OASPL occurs at transonic condition for the wing, followed by vertical tail and fuselage. Predictions for flight trajectory compare well at all locations except for wing (- 6.0 dB). Spectrum comparison is good in the ascent phase compared to descent phase. Roll Reaction control system (RCS) thruster firing signature is seen in the acoustic measurements on the wing and vertical tail during lift-off.

  20. TD-NMR studies on CuSO{sub 4} salt hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Nikolaus; Magin, Peter; Wengeler, Robert [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kleinschmidt, Sebastian [Universitaet Magdeburg, FB Chemie (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Despite the high concentration of paramagnetic copper ions, solid CuSO{sub 4} hydrates exhibit surprizingly narrow NMR signals. This is known since the late 1940s. Using TD-NMR methods established for polymer studies, the relaxation behaviour of CuSO{sub 4} preparations with different water content was studied at room temperature. For the water content of the pentahydrate and below, the NMR signal exhibits a pure solid-state-type magnetization decay behaviour. For slightly overstoichiometric moisture contents, a liquid-like signal is observed in addition to the solid signal. However, the relative amplitudes of the solid and the liquid signal do not mirror the stoichiometric composition of the pentahydrate and the excess water. Instead, the solid signal amplitude only accounts for four hydrate water molecules while the fifth water exhibits rapid exchange with the liquid phase and thus contributes to the liquid-type signal. This finding is in good agreement to results from investigations into the crystal structure of solid CuSO4 pentahydrate.

  1. Combined spectroscopic, DFT, TD-DFT and MD study of newly synthesized thiourea derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vidya V.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Shyma Mary, Y.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Bielenica, Anna; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, Christian

    2018-03-01

    A novel thiourea derivative, 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiourea (ANF-22) is synthesized and characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and NMR spectroscopy experimentally and theoretically. A detailed conformational analysis of the title molecule has been conducted in order to locate the lowest energy geometry, which was further subjected to the detailed investigation of spectroscopic, reactive, degradation and docking studies by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have been used also in order to simulate UV spectra and investigate charge transfer within molecule. Natural bond orbital analysis has been performed analyzing the charge delocalization and using HOMO and LUMO energies the electronic properties are analyzed. Molecular electrostatic potential map is used for the quantitative measurement of active sites in the molecule. In order to determine the locations possibly prone to electrophilic attacks we have calculated average local ionization energies and mapped them to the electron density surface. Further insight into the local reactivity properties have been obtained by calculation of Fukui functions, also mapped to the electron density surface. Possible degradation properties by the autoxidation mechanism have been assessed by calculations of bond dissociation energies for hydrogen abstraction. Atoms of title molecule with significant interactions with water molecules have been determined by calculations of radial distribution functions. The title compound can be a lead compound for developing new analgesic drug.

  2. Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-07-01

    Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  3. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case

  4. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.

  6. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  7. Physeal growth retardation leads to correction of intracarpal angular deviations as well as physeal valgus deformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, T.S.; Booth, T.S.; Riedesel, E.

    1999-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the radiographs of horses with carpal valgus, presented to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1987-1996, were used to compare 2 methods of geometric analysis for finding the total angle of deviation. The pivot point angle method and the individual joint angle method were found to be comparable for determining the total angle of deviation. The individual joint angle method was used to analyse individual carpal joint angles and physis angle in joints with carpal valgus, as well as the changes that occurred in response to surgical correction. Multiple joint involvement was common with carpal valgus; and surgical manipulation caused a change in angle at all joints. Use of the individual joint angle method for evaluating carpal valgus may aid the surgeon in making a more accurate prognosis

  8. FT-IR spectroscopic study on the hofmann-Td type complex: M(4-Phenylpyridine)2M'(CN)4 (M=Ni; M'=Cd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlak, C.

    2005-01-01

    New Hofmann-Td type complex in the form of M(4-Phenylpyridine) 2 M'(CN) 4 (M = Ni, M' = Cd) was prepared in powder form and its infrared spectra is reported in the region of 4000-200 cm-1. From the spectral findings, this compound is similar in structure to the Hofmann-Td type complexes

  9. Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Valaitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.

  11. A framework for the direct evaluation of large deviations in non-Markovian processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, Massimo; Harris, Rosemary J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general framework to simulate stochastic trajectories with arbitrarily long memory dependence and efficiently evaluate large deviation functions associated to time-extensive observables. This extends the ‘cloning’ procedure of Giardiná et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 120603) to non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate the validity of this method by testing non-Markovian variants of an ion-channel model and the totally asymmetric exclusion process, recovering results obtainable by other means. (letter)

  12. Deviation from Covered Interest Rate Parity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Lee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the factors which cause deviation from covered interest rate parity (CIRP in Korea, using regression and VAR models. The empirical evidence indicates that the difference between the swap rate and interest rate differential exists and is greatly affected by variables which represent the currency liquidity situation of foreign exchange banks. In other words, the deviation from CIRP can easily occur due to the lack of foreign exchange liquidity of banks in a thin market, despite few capital constraints, small transaction costs, and trivial default risk in Korea.

  13. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S; Tebby, C; Barcellini-Couget, S; De Sousa, G; Brochot, C; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro - in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, S.; Tebby, C.; Barcellini-Couget, S.; De Sousa, G.; Brochot, C.; Rahmani, R.; Pery, A.R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro – in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. - Highlights: • We could predict cell response over repeated exposure to mixtures of cosmetics. • Compounds acted independently on the cells. • Metabolic interactions impacted exposure concentrations to the compounds.

  15. A novel downlink scheduling strategy for traffic communication system based on TD-LTE technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhao, Xiangmo; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Licheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many existing classical scheduling algorithms which can obtain better system throughput and user equality, however, they are not designed for traffic transportation environment, which cannot consider whether the transmission performance of various information flows could meet comprehensive requirements of traffic safety and delay tolerance. This paper proposes a novel downlink scheduling strategy for traffic communication system based on TD-LTE technology, which can perform two classification mappings for various information flows in the eNodeB: firstly, associate every information flow packet with traffic safety importance weight according to its relevance to the traffic safety; secondly, associate every traffic information flow with service type importance weight according to its quality of service (QoS) requirements. Once the connection is established, at every scheduling moment, scheduler would decide the scheduling order of all buffers' head of line packets periodically according to the instant value of scheduling importance weight function, which calculated by the proposed algorithm. From different scenario simulations, it can be verified that the proposed algorithm can provide superior differentiated transmission service and reliable QoS guarantee to information flows with different traffic safety levels and service types, which is more suitable for traffic transportation environment compared with the existing popularity PF algorithm. With the limited wireless resource, information flow closed related to traffic safety will always obtain priority scheduling right timely, which can help the passengers' journey more safe. Moreover, the proposed algorithm cannot only obtain good flow throughput and user fairness which are almost equal to those of the PF algorithm without significant differences, but also provide better realtime transmission guarantee to realtime information flow.

  16. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, S.; Tebby, C. [Models for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Unit, INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Barcellini-Couget, S. [ODESIA Neosciences, Sophia Antipolis, 400 route des chappes, 06903 Sophia Antipolis (France); De Sousa, G. [INRA, ToxAlim, 400 route des Chappes, BP, 167 06903 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex (France); Brochot, C. [Models for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Unit, INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Rahmani, R. [INRA, ToxAlim, 400 route des Chappes, BP, 167 06903 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex (France); Pery, A.R.R., E-mail: alexandre.pery@agroparistech.fr [AgroParisTech, UMR 1402 INRA-AgroParisTech Ecosys, 78850 Thiverval Grignon (France); INRA, UMR 1402 INRA-AgroParisTech Ecosys, 78850 Thiverval Grignon (France)

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro – in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. - Highlights: • We could predict cell response over repeated exposure to mixtures of cosmetics. • Compounds acted independently on the cells. • Metabolic interactions impacted exposure concentrations to the compounds.

  17. Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Raghavan, U

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333

  18. 48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...

  19. A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Dessen

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.

  20. Oscillations in deviating difference equations using an iterative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Chatzarakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper deals with the oscillation of the first-order linear difference equation with deviating argument and nonnegative coefficients. New sufficient oscillation conditions, involving limsup, are given, which essentially improve all known results, based on an iterative technique. We illustrate the results and the improvement over other known oscillation criteria by examples, numerically solved in Matlab.

  1. Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatalov, V R

    2003-01-01

    Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields

  2. Patterns of deviation in Niyi Osundare's poetry | Dick | Mgbakoigba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A critical stylistic study of the poetry of Niyi Osundare from Nigeria reveals that he has made an exemplary ... deviate from norms and conventions of language thereby creating aesthetics ...

  3. International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of

  4. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  5. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  6. Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  7. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  8. Sample-path large deviations in credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekker, V.J.G.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Spreij, P.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a

  9. Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2018-02-01

    Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.

  10. Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...

  11. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  12. On asymptotically efficient simulation of large deviation probabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, A.B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often impractical, particularly if the

  13. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  14. The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...

  15. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2018-03-01

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  16. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T

    2018-03-28

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  17. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  18. Particle identification using digital pulse shape discrimination in a nTD silicon detector with a 1 GHz sampling digitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Gore, J. A.; Pandit, S. K.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, S.; Patale, P.

    2018-06-01

    In beam test experiments have been carried out for particle identification using digital pulse shape analysis in a 500 μm thick Neutron Transmutation Doped (nTD) silicon detector with an indigenously developed FPGA based 12 bit resolution, 1 GHz sampling digitizer. The nTD Si detector was used in a low-field injection setup to detect light heavy-ions produced in reactions of ∼ 5 MeV/A 7Li and 12C beams on different targets. Pulse height, rise time and current maximum have been obtained from the digitized charge output of a high bandwidth charge and current sensitive pre-amplifier. Good isotopic separation have been achieved using only the digitized charge output in case of light heavy-ions. The setup can be used for charged particle spectroscopy in nuclear reactions involving light heavy-ions around the Coulomb barrier energies.

  19. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. 3H-TdR autoradiography in vitro incubation for the evaluation of the therapeutic effect in chronic atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jie

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed with the feasibility of using 3 H-TdR autoraoiography in vitro incubation to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis. The results showed that gastric mucosa labelling indices measured by autoradiography can reflect the property, severity and clincal conditions of chronic gastritis quantitatively. The methodology is raliable and reproducible. It was suggested that labelling indices may serve as a cytokinetic parameter to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis

  1. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between anisotropic magnetoresistance and topology of Fermi surface in Td-MoTe2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Xiao; Pang, Bin; Cao, Lin; Lin, Dajun; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Song-Tao; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides have been recently attracted a lot of attention because of their unique physical properties, such as extremely large and anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) in WTe2. In this work, we observed the abnormally anisotropic MR on Td-MoTe2 crystal that is strongly dependent on the temperature, as well as the orientations of both magnetic field B and electric field E with respect to crystallographic axes of Td-MoTe2. When E//a-axis and B//c-axis, MR is parabolically dependent on B and is as high as 520% under 9 T and 2 K conditions; the MR is quasi-linearly dependent on B when E//a-axis and B//b-axis (E//b-axis and B//c-axis), and the corresponding MR is only 130% (220%); MR is initially parabolically dependent on B, then linearly on B, and finally shows a saturate trend under E//B//a-axis (or E//B//b-axis) conditions, and the MR is about 16% (30%). These anisotropic MR behaviors can be qualitatively explained by the features of the Fermi surface of Td-MoTe2. This work may demonstrate the rich anisotropic physical behavior in layered transition-metal dichalcognides.

  3. Design of Servo Scheme and Drive Electronics for the Integrated Electrohydraulic Actuation System of RLV-TD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Priya C.; Gopinath, Anish; Shinoy, K. S.; Santhi, P.; Sundaramoorthy, K.; Sebastian, Baby; Jaya, B.; Namboodiripad, M. N.; Mookiah, T.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is a system which has the ability to carry a payload from the earth's surface to the outer space more than once. The control actuation forms the major component of the control system and it actuates the control surfaces of the RLV-TD based on the control commands. Eight electro hydraulic actuators were used in RLV-TD for vectoring the control surfaces about their axes. A centralised Hydraulic Power Generating Unit (HPU) was used for powering the eight actuators located in two stages. The actuation system had to work for the longest ever duration of about 850 s for an Indian launch vehicle. High bandwidth requirement from autopilot was met by the servo design using the nonlinear mathematical model. Single Control Electronics which drive four electrohydraulic actuators was developed for each stage. High power electronics with soft start scheme was realized for driving the BLDC motor which is the prime mover for hydraulic pump. Many challenges arose due to single HPU for two stages, uncertainty of aero load, higher bandwidth requirements etc. and provisions were incorporated in the design to successfully overcome them. This paper describes the servo design and control electronics architecture of control actuation system.

  4. Voice symptoms and vocal deviation self-assessment in different types of dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship among the type of dysphonia, vocal deviation self-assessed and the presence of voice symptoms in adults. One hundred sixty-four subjects of both genders (58 males and 106 females, mean age 42.89 years) diagnosis of dysphonia, divided into three groups according to the type of dysphonia: 87 individuals with functional dysphonia, 35 individuals with organofunctional dysphonia and 42 individuals with organic dysphonia, answered the Brazilian validated version of Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) (Escala de Sintomas Vocais - ESV), that consists of 30 questions with four scores: Impairment, Emotional, Physical and Total, and self-assessed their voices as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. According to the dysphonia type, there were differences in ESV Impairment, Emotional and Total mean scores, which was not found in the Physical score. The Impairment, Emotional and Total mean scores were higher in organic dysphonia, followed by organofunctional dysphonia and finally functional dysphonia. When the vocal self-assessment is poor, the higher are the deviations in the Impairment, Emotional and Total ESV scores. Individuals with organic dysphonia reported higher perception of voice symptoms, followed by subjects with organofunctional dysphonia and finally individuals with functional dysphonia. In general, individuals with dysphonia presented physical voice symptoms, regardless of the type of the dysphonia. Finally, there are direct correlations between Impairment, Emotional and Total ESV scores and the vocal self-assessment.

  5. The Effect of Septoplasty on Voice Performance in Patients With Severe and Mild Nasal Septal Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Doğan; Özcan, Kürşat Murat; Gürbüz, Ayşe Betül Topak; Dere, Hüseyin

    2016-07-01

    The authors aimed to analyze the effect of septoplasty, performed in 2 groups with different grades of nasal septal deviation (NSD), on voice performance. A total of 43 patients who had septoplasty due to NSD and were included in the study. The study groups were divided into 2 groups as groups A and B. The patients in group A had severe NSD, and 1 of the nasal cavity was obstructed totally or near totally. In group B, the NSD narrowed the nasal passage, and the deviation was not severe. The voice performance was analyzed preoperatively, and 1 month after surgery with both objective and subjective methods. Objective analysis included acoustic voice analysis, and measurement of F0, jitter %, shimmer %. Preoperative and postoperative F0, jitter %, shimmer %, and Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30) were compared in groups A and B. F0 showed a statistically significant improvement after surgery in group A (P performed for severe NSD obstructing nasal lumen totally or near totally results in significant improvements in the voice performance.

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Rania; Khoudi, Habib

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) proteins have become the subject of intensive research activity due to their involvement in a variety of biological processes. This research led to the identification of AP2/ERF genes in many species; however, little is known about these genes in durum wheat, one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In this study, a new member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, designated TdSHN1, was isolated from durum wheat using thermal asymetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method. Protein sequence analysis showed that TdSHN1 contained an AP2/ERF domain of 63 amino acids and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TdSHN1 belongs to a group Va protein in the ERF subfamily which contains the Arabidopsis ERF proteins (SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3). Expression of TdSHN1 was strongly induced by salt, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. In planta, TdSHN1 protein was able to activate the transcription of GUS reporter gene driven by the GCC box and DRE element sequences. In addition, TdSHN1 was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of TdSHN1 increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Taken together, the results showed that TdSHN1 encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. TdSHN1 is therefore a promising candidate for improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in wheat as well as other crops.

  7. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  8. Comparison of the deviation distribution in the doses administrated with and without mask in radiotherapeutic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, S. dos; Ghilardi N, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to guarantee that the error limit in the dose administration is inside of the recommended limit by the ICRU (the ICRU recommends that the doses administrated in radiotherapy must be inside of a total deviation ± 5 %), the radiotherapy services are maintaining quality control programs and dosimetry which guarantee that the equipment yield or source should be known with precision. The Quality Control Programs foresee moreover the radiation beam calibration dosimetry, the In vivo dosimetry for obtaining a greater control of the administered doses. At present it counts on greater devices for maintaining the deviations inside this margin, and one of them is the u se of masks. The present work was carried out on a Siemens equipment model Gammatron S-80 (Co-60) in the Radiotherapy Service of the Sao Paulo University Hospital where teletherapy procedures are realized. (Author)

  9. Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)], E-mail: jporitz@gmail.com

    2009-05-04

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  10. Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical Communication over Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Tan, Vincent Y. F.; Tomamichel, Marco

    2017-11-01

    We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altŭg and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdú. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.

  11. Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....

  12. Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric

    CERN Document Server

    Colistete, R J; Kerner, R

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).

  13. Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malaescu, I

    2000-01-01

    Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.

  14. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  15. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  16. Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Bo; Tronvoll, Bård; Höykinpuro, Ritva

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This article seeks to develop a new framework to outline factors that influence the resolution of unfavourable service experiences as a result of double deviation. The focus is on understanding and managing complex service recovery processes. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive, explorative and narrative approach was selected. Data were collected in the form of narratives from the field through interviews with actors at various levels in organisations as well as with custo...

  17. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  18. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  19. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, de, R.; Zanten, van, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...

  20. Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution

  1. [Deviation in psychosexual development in the pre-puberty children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liavshina, G Kh

    2002-01-01

    Psychosexual health of 308 children, aged 2-11 years, as well as that of their families, was studied. Deviations in psychosexual development were found in 34.6% of the children examined. The following types were detected: difficulties in formation of gender-determined behavior features--64.4%, precocious psychosexual development--13.7%, delayed psychosexual development--12.3%, obsessive masturbation--9.6%. Risk factors for deviant psychosexual development were found.

  2. Direct training of robots using a positional deviation sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, Fredrik

    1988-01-01

    A device and system for physically guiding a manipulator through its task is described. The device consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors, enabling the rcbot to track a motion marker. Factors limiting the tracking performance are the kinematics of the sensor device and the bartdwidth of the servo system. Means for improving it includes the use of optimal motion coordination and force and velocity feedback. This enables real-time manual training o...

  3. Assessment of 3H-TdR incorporation for the viability of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells after freezing and thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongquan; Shen Baijun; Fu Zengju

    1993-01-01

    The authors have studied 3 H-TdR incorporation rates of bone marrow MNC at different concentrations and incubation periods. The rates are compared with the viability of MNC preserved at different range of time and temperatures by means of 3 H-TdR incorporation combined with Trypan Blue and CFU-GM culture methods. The result suggested that 3 H-TdR incorporation was a sensitive and reliable assess to evaluate the viability of bone marrow MNC after cryopreservation and thawing

  4. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  5. Fluocinolone acetonide ophthalmic--Bausch & Lomb: fluocinolone acetonide Envision TD implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Bausch & Lomb and Control Delivery Systems have developed an intravitreal implant that can deliver the corticosteroid fluocinolone acetonide [fluocinolone acetonide implant, Retisert] to posterior eye tissue for up to 3 years. The implant uses Bausch & Lomb's Envision TD technology. This fluocinolone acetonide implant has been designed for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye and other eye disorders, which benefit from local anti-inflammatory therapy. In July 2003, Bausch & Lomb assumed all responsibility for day-to-day clinical development and regulatory activities relating to fluocinolone acetonide implant development from Control Delivery Systems. In May 2002, Control Delivery systems and Bausch & Lomb formally amended their budget for their license and development agreement. Bausch & Lomb will increase its funding to support the development of agents for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema, posterior uveitis and wet age-related macular degeneration to USD $206 million through to 2008. In January 2004, Bausch & Lomb decided to focus development of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in only one indication, non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It had been in development for other indications, including macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration. However, these will be targeted with later-generation implant technologies, different drugs, or combinations of both. The implant delivering fluocinolone acetonide 0.59 mg or 2.1mg has completed enrollment in two pivotal 3-year phase IIb/III trials in the US, Canada, Australia and Asia for the treatment of posterior uveitis. Enrollment in these multicenter randomised, double-masked studies was closed in May 2003. Bausch & Lomb was expected to file an NDA with the US FDA for the use of the agent in the treatment of uveitis in mid-2003. However, in February 2003, the company reported that, after a review of various filing strategies

  6. Review of Fusion Systems and Contributing Technologies for SIHS-TD (Examen des Systemes de Fusion et des Technologies d'Appui pour la DT SIHS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angel, Harry H; Ste-Croix, Chris; Kittel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The major objectives of the report were to identify and review the field of image fusion and contributing technologies and to recommend systems, algorithms and metrics for the proposed SIHS TD Vision SST fusion test bed...

  7. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  8. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  9. Use of TD ABC method for cost management in an accredited laboratory for physical and chemical testiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Gabaldo Aleksandra N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation of a laboratory is verification of the competence of a laboratory regarding methods and procedures applied, personnel, the equipment used and working conditions. The main goal is establishment of customer trust in accuracy and precision of laboratory test results. Accredited laboratory has more specific costs than laboratory which is not accredited. To survive on the market, regardless the laboratory is independent or it is a part of a bigger system, the laboratory needs to establish resource management, especially effective cost management. Cost management describes approaches and short-term and long-term management activities, which make value for the customer, according to his known, reported or obligatory requirements and needs. In modern approach, there are different methods for cost calculation. One of them is ABC (Activity-Based Costing method which adds activity costs to products and services trough activities needed for their finalization. In this paper, there is presented improved ABC method for obračun costs, affirmed as activity based cost calculation based on time - TD ABC (Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing. The method uses time as a primary base for costs allocation on products, porudžbine, customers. This is the way for simpler and less expansive getting of information's about costs. This paper describes TD ABC method implemented in accredited Laboratory for physical and chemical testing, which is a part of company Galenika Fitofarmacija a.d. The scope of testing in this laboratory are pesticide materials, meaning technical substances and finished products, within quality control for different internal customers. By using TD ABC method it is possible to define real costs, generated during the laboratory testing, and also effectiveness of specific activities in this process.

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    N ŕ’"(dt; dy) and the controls ’" : X [0; T ] ! [0;1) are predictable processes satisfying LT (’") Ma2 (") for some constantM . Here LT denotes...space. Although in the moderate deviations problem one has the stronger bound LT (’") Ma2 (") on the cost of controls, the mere tightness of ’" does not...suitable quadratic form. For " > 0 and M ə, consider the spaces SM+;" : = f’ : X [0; T ]! R+j LT (’) Ma2 (")g (2.5) SM" : = f : X [0; T ]! Rj

  12. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Santos, A Costa; E Sousa, J Alves; Forbes, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment

  13. Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.

    2018-05-01

    We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.

  14. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  15. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  16. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  17. Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series

  18. DFT and TD-DFT computation of charge transfer complex between o-phenylenediamine and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, Ziya; Zulkarnain,; Ahmad, Afaq; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Faizan, Mohd; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2016-01-01

    DFT and TD-DFT studies of o-phenylenediamine (PDA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) and their charge transfer complex have been carried out at B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular geometry and various other molecular properties like natural atomic charges, ionization potential, electron affinity, band gap, natural bond orbital (NBO) and frontier molecular analysis have been presented at same level of theory. Frontier molecular orbital and natural bond orbital analysis show the charge delocalization from PDA to DNSA.

  19. Observations of interstellar ultraviolet extinction from the S2/68 experiment in the TD-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, K.; Thompson, G.I.; Carnochan, D.J.; Wilson, R.

    1978-01-01

    The galactic distribution of the agents which cause the extinction bump near 2200 A and the ultraviolet colour excess E(1550-2740) within 2 kpc of the Sun in the galactic plane have been studied from the observations obtained with the S2/68 experiment in the TD-1 satellite. The mean reddening-distance relation in the galactic plane has been obtained for different longitudes. The study of the extinction parameter with galactic latitude shows a strong concentration of the dust towards the galactic plane with a scale height of 110 pc. (author)

  20. Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of the new tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccines (GC1107) in healthy Korean adolescents: a phase II, double-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin-Han

    2013-04-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial.

  1. Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-03-01

    In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.

  2. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Mateials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  3. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  4. Modeling of solvent extraction equilibrium of Cu(II from sulphuric Acid solution with MOC-55TD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II from acidic sulphate aqueous solutions using the commercial MOC-55TD extractant is studied. A predictive model, which consists in a set of non-linear mass action and mass balance equations is proposed. The model was solved using a tailor-made equation-solving program. The extraction of copper can be described by the formation of CuR2 species (log Kext= 0.717 ± 0.03 in the organic phase. The copper equilibrium isotherm was also obtained at 20°C.

    Se estudia la extracción de Cu(II de disoluciones acuosas acidas, en medio sulfato, mediante la oxima comercial MOC-55TD. Se propone un modelo para predecir la extracción del metal; este modelo consiste en una serie de ecuaciones no lineales de acción de masas y balance de masas. El modelo se resolvió empleando un programa de ordenador específicamente definido para este tipo de equilibrios. La extracción de cobre se describe por la formación de la especie CuR2 (log Kext= 0,717 ± 0,03 en la fase orgánica. Se ha obtenido la isoterma de extracción de cobre a 20 °C.

  5. DORT-TD/THERMIX solutions for the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR400 MW coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics transient benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, Bismark; Pautz, Andreas; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2008-01-01

    In new reactor designs that are still under review such as the PBMR, not much experimental data exists to benchmark newly developed computer codes against. Such a situation requires that nuclear engineers and designers of this novel reactor design must resort to the validation of a newly developed code through a code-to-code benchmarking exercise because there are validated codes that are currently in use to analyze this reactor design, albeit very few of them. There are numerous HTR core physics benchmarks that are currently being pursued by different organizations, for different purposes. One such benchmark exercise is the PBMR-400 MW OECD/NEA/NSC coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics transient benchmark. In this paper, a newly developed coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics code system, DORT-TD/THERMIX with both transport and diffusion theory options, is used to simulate the transient scenarios in the above-mentioned benchmark problem. Steady-state calculations results are compared with selected participants' results as well as transient models in which the diffusion and transport theory solutions of the same code system are directly compared. Several sensitivity studies are also shown in order to determine how much the change in certain parameters influences the overall behaviour of a given transient. It is shown in this paper that DORT-TD/THERMIX is a versatile tool which can be deployed for design and safety analyses of high temperature reactors of pebble-bed type. (authors)

  6. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-01-01

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

  7. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  8. Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.

    1994-01-01

    Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of β-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The β-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of couplings of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. (orig.)

  9. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  10. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  11. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

  12. Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .

  13. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  14. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.

  16. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  17. Evaluating deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Cravo; Peres, Ana; Pereira, Mónica; Coelho, Carina Marques; Monsanto, Fátima; Macedo, Ana; Lamas, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT in order to calculate appropriate margins to create the PTV. Defining inappropriate margins can lead to underdosing in target volumes and also overdosing in healthy tissues, increasing morbidity. 223 CBCT images used for alignment with the CT planning scan based on bony anatomy were analyzed in 12 patients treated with IMRT following prostatectomy. Shifts of CBCT images were recorded in three directions to calculate the required margin to create PTV. The mean and standard deviation (SD) values in millimetres were -0.05 ± 1.35 in the LR direction, -0.03 ± 0.65 in the SI direction and -0.02 ± 2.05 the AP direction. The systematic error measured in the LR, SI and AP direction were 1.35 mm, 0.65 mm, and 2.05 mm with a random error of 2.07 mm; 1.45 mm and 3.16 mm, resulting in a PTV margin of 4.82 mm; 2.64 mm, and 7.33 mm, respectively. With IGRT we suggest a margin of 5 mm, 3 mm and 8 mm in the LR, SI and AP direction, respectively, to PTV1 and PTV2. Therefore, this study supports an anisotropic margin expansion to the PTV being the largest expansion in the AP direction and lower in SI.

  18. Genome wide identification of wheat and Brachypodium type one protein phosphatases and functional characterization of durum wheat TdPP1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Bradai

    Full Text Available Reversible phosphorylation is an essential mechanism regulating signal transduction during development and environmental stress responses. An important number of dephosphorylation events in the cell are catalyzed by type one protein phosphatases (PP1, which catalytic activity is driven by the binding of regulatory proteins that control their substrate specificity or subcellular localization. Plants harbor several PP1 isoforms accounting for large functional redundancies. While animal PP1s were reported to play relevant roles in controlling multiple cellular processes, plant orthologs remain poorly studied. To decipher the role of plant PP1s, we compared PP1 genes from three monocot species, Brachypodium, common wheat and rice at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. To gain more insight into the wheat PP1 proteins, we identified and characterized TdPP1a, the first wheat type one protein phosphatase from a Tunisian durum wheat variety Oum Rabiaa3. TdPP1a is highly conserved in sequence and structure when compared to mammalian, yeast and other plant PP1s. We demonstrate that TdPP1a is an active, metallo-dependent phosphatase in vitro and is able to interact with AtI2, a typical regulator of PP1 functions. Also, TdPP1a is capable to complement the heat stress sensitivity of the yeast mutant indicating that TdPP1a is functional also in vivo. Moreover, transient expression of TdPP1a::GFP in tobacco leaves revealed that it is ubiquitously distributed within the cell, with a strong accumulation in the nucleus. Finally, transcriptional analyses showed similar expression levels in roots and leaves of durum wheat seedlings. Interestingly, the expression in leaves is significantly induced following salinity stress, suggesting a potential role of TdPP1a in wheat salt stress response.

  19. Application of thermal-dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF to measurement of HNO3, Σalkyl nitrates, Σperoxy nitrates, and NO2 fluxes using eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Farmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere directly influences atmospheric composition. While much is known about mechanisms of NO and N2O emissions, instrumentation for the study of mechanisms contributing to exchange of other major nitrogen species is quite limited. Here we describe the application of a new technique, thermal dissociation-laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF, to eddy covariance measurements of the fluxes of NO2, total peroxy acyl and peroxy nitrates, total alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates, and nitric acid. The technique offers the potential for investigating mechanisms of exchange of these species at the canopy scale over timescales from days to years. Examples of flux measurements at a ponderosa pine plantation in the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada Mountains in California are reported and used to evaluate instrument performance.

  20. Reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Izewska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  1. Dynamical description of the fission process using the TD-BCS theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamps, Guillaume, E-mail: scamps@nucl.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Simenel, Cédric [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601 (Australia); Lacroix, Denis [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    The description of fission remains a challenge for nuclear microscopic theories. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with BCS pairing is applied to study the last stage of the fission process. A good agreement is found for the one-body observables: the total kinetic energy and the average mass asymmetry. The non-physical dependence of two-body observables with the initial shape is discussed.

  2. Can Gait Deviation Index be used effectively for the evaluation of gait pathology in total hip arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    -operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: 2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8–7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p

  3. TORT-TD/ATTICA3D: a coupled neutron transport and thermal hydraulics code system for 3-D transient analysis of gas cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapins, J.; Seubert, A.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive safety studies of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTR) require full three dimensional coupled treatments of both neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulics. In a common effort, GRS and IKE developed the coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for pebble bed type HTR that connects the 3-D transient discrete-ordinates transport code TORT-TD with the 3-D porous medium thermal-hydraulics code ATTICA3D. In this paper, the physical models and calculation capabilities of TORT-TD and ATTICA3D are presented, focusing on model improvements in ATTICA3D and extensions made in TORT-TD related to HTR application. For first applications, the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark has been chosen. Results obtained with TORT-TD/ATTICA3D will be shown for transient exercises, e.g. control rod withdrawal and a control rod ejection. Results are compared to other benchmark participants' solutions with special focus on fuel temperature modelling features of ATTICA3D. The provided “grey-curtain” nuclear cross section libraries have been used. First results on 3-D effects during a control rod withdrawal transient will be presented. (author)

  4. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  5. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  6. Non-invasive analysis of swelling in polymer dispersions by means of time-domain(TD)-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Nikolaus, E-mail: nikolaus.nestle@basf.com [BASF SE, GKP/R - G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Haeberle, Karl [BASF SE, GKP/R - G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-03

    In this contribution, we discuss the potential of low-field time-domain(TD)-NMR to study the swelling of (aqueous) polymer dispersions by a volatile solvent. Due to the sensitivity of transverse relaxation times (T{sub 2}) to swelling-induced changes in the molecular dynamics of the polymer component, the effects of swelling can be measured without spectral resolution. The measurement is performed on polymer dispersions in native state with solids contents around 50% in a non-invasive way without separating the polymeric phase and the water phase from each other. Using acetone in two polyurethane (PU) dispersions with different hard phase contents, we explore the sensitivity of the method and present a data evaluation strategy based on multicomponent fitting and proton balancing. Furthermore, we report exchange continualization as a further effect that needs to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the data.

  7. Non-invasive analysis of swelling in polymer dispersions by means of time-domain(TD)-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Nikolaus; Häberle, Karl

    2009-11-03

    In this contribution, we discuss the potential of low-field time-domain(TD)-NMR to study the swelling of (aqueous) polymer dispersions by a volatile solvent. Due to the sensitivity of transverse relaxation times (T2) to swelling-induced changes in the molecular dynamics of the polymer component, the effects of swelling can be measured without spectral resolution. The measurement is performed on polymer dispersions in native state with solids contents around 50% in a non-invasive way without separating the polymeric phase and the water phase from each other. Using acetone in two polyurethane (PU) dispersions with different hard phase contents, we explore the sensitivity of the method and present a data evaluation strategy based on multicomponent fitting and proton balancing. Furthermore, we report exchange continualization as a further effect that needs to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the data.

  8. Post-Mortem Analysis after High-Power Operation of the TD24_R05 Tested in Xbox_1

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Mouriz Irazabal, Nerea; Aicheler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The CLIC prototype structure TD24_R05 has been high power tested in Xbox_1 in 2013. This report summarizes all examinations conducted after the high power test including bead-pull measurements, structure cutting, metrology and SEM observations. A synthesis of the various results is then made. The structure developed a hot cell progressively during operation and detuning was observed after the test was complete. The post mortem examination clearly showed a developed standing wave pattern which was explained by the physical deformation of one of the coupler iris. An elevated breakdown count through SEM imaging in the suspected hot cell however could not be confirmed. Neither any particular feature offering an explanation for the observed longitudinal breakdown distribution could be detected.

  9. Incident-angle dependency found in track formation sensitivity of a plastic nuclear track detector (TD-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The present study was done since data are hardly available on the incident-angle dependency of track formation sensitivity (S) of the plastic nuclear track detector. Chips of a TD-1 plate, an antioxidant-doped CR-39 (diethyleglycol-bis-allylcarbonate, HARZLAS, Fukuvi Chem. Ind.), were used as a high-LET radiation detector and were exposed to heavy ion beams of C, Ne, and Si under different incident angles in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba of National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After exposed and etched, the chips were observed with an optical microscope and a program for image analysis to calculate S. The S values calculated were found smaller for the beams having lower incident angles. Thus the estimated LET values from the S-LET relationship for vertical incident beams showed large reduction for low-angle particles. Those potential errors should be quantified and corrected in determination of LET spectra in space. (K.H.)

  10. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.

  11. Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.

    1986-02-01

    Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)

  12. Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)

  13. Phage display peptide libraries: deviations from randomness and correctives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Arie; Ashkenazy, Haim; Weiss-Ottolenghi, Yael; Piller, Chen; Pupko, Tal; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Peptide-expressing phage display libraries are widely used for the interrogation of antibodies. Affinity selected peptides are then analyzed to discover epitope mimetics, or are subjected to computational algorithms for epitope prediction. A critical assumption for these applications is the random representation of amino acids in the initial naïve peptide library. In a previous study, we implemented next generation sequencing to evaluate a naïve library and discovered severe deviations from randomness in UAG codon over-representation as well as in high G phosphoramidite abundance causing amino acid distribution biases. In this study, we demonstrate that the UAG over-representation can be attributed to the burden imposed on the phage upon the assembly of the recombinant Protein 8 subunits. This was corrected by constructing the libraries using supE44-containing bacteria which suppress the UAG driven abortive termination. We also demonstrate that the overabundance of G stems from variant synthesis-efficiency and can be corrected using compensating oligonucleotide-mixtures calibrated by mass spectroscopy. Construction of libraries implementing these correctives results in markedly improved libraries that display random distribution of amino acids, thus ensuring that enriched peptides obtained in biopanning represent a genuine selection event, a fundamental assumption for phage display applications. PMID:29420788

  14. Standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; In, Junyong; Lee, Sangseok

    2015-06-01

    In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results.

  15. Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion. Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions. Monoclonality is a major characteristic of most tumors, whereas normal tissue and reactive hyperplasia are polyclonal. Methods The clinicopathological features and clonality of MDA were investigated using laser microdissection and a clonality assay based on the polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR and X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues. Results The results demonstrated that the glands were positive for CEA, Ki-67, and p53 and negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV DNA. The index of proliferation for Ki-67 was more than 50%. However, the stromal cells were positive for ER, PR, vimentin, and SM-actin. The clonal assay showed that MDA was monoclonal. Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV. Conclusions Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.

  16. Channel Deviation-Based Power Control in Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Son Dinh; Cotton, Simon L; Smith, David B

    2018-05-01

    Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and ambient assisted living technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability. The proposed schemes are both flexible and relatively simple to implement on hardware platforms with constrained resources making them inherently suitable for BAN applications. We present the key algorithm parameters used to dynamically respond to the channel variation. This allows the algorithms to achieve a better energy efficiency and signal reliability in everyday usage scenarios such as those in which a person undertakes many different activities (e.g., sitting, walking, standing, etc.). We also profile their performance against traditional, optimal, and other existing schemes for which it is demonstrated that not only does the outage probability reduce significantly, but the proposed algorithms also save up to average transmit power compared to the competing schemes.

  17. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-01-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)

  18. Obtaining TEM images with a uniform deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, Alwyn

    2006-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopes made during the last quarter of a century, it has been impossible to take images in which the diffraction contrast conditions are uniform across the field of view. This is inconvenient when, for example, imaging dislocations at a relatively low magnification. The problem arises because modern microscopes use immersion lenses in which the sample sits in a high magnetic field. The resulting helical trajectories of the electrons at the sample plane mean that it is not possible to make a beam that is parallel at the sample. Results of a method to overcome this problem are presented. It is shown that a simple modification to the microscope (which, on a computer-controlled microscope, could be implemented in software) can be used to produce images in which the deviation parameter is essentially constant across many microns of image. By a happy accident, this method can be used, not only to correct for the helicity imparted by immersion lenses, but also to correct for buckling of the sample (up to a point)

  19. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions

  20. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-04-20

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

  1. Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.

    2018-03-01

    Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.

  2. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  3. Wind power limit calculation basedon frequency deviation using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Salgado Duarte, Yorlandis; MejutoFarray, Davis

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of the wind energy for the production of electricity it’s a technology that has promoted itself in the last years, like an alternative before the environmental deterioration and the scarcity of the fossil fuels. When the power generation of wind energy is integrated into the electrical power systems, maybe take place problems in the frequency stability due to, mainly, the stochastic characteristic of the wind and the impossibility of the wind power control on behalf of the dispatchers. In this work, is make an analysis of frequency deviation when the wind power generation rise in an isolated electrical power system. This analysis develops in a computerized frame with the construction of an algorithm using Matlab, which allowed to make several simulations in order to obtain the frequency behavior for different loads and wind power conditions. Besides, it was determined the wind power limit for minimum, medium and maximum load. The results show that the greatest values on wind power are obtained in maximum load condition. However, the minimum load condition limit the introduction of wind power into the system. (author)

  4. Deviations from excitation equilibrium in optically thick mercury arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Up to date mercury arcs at pressure greater than 1 atm have been investigated as plasma systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state. These studies have been motivated by the applications of mercury arcs, e.g., in the lighting industry. The LTE-assumption simplifies the use of spectroscopic diagnostics and the performance of species-concentration calculations. A high pressure mercury arc of about 1 atm had been considered in two possibilities: excitation and gas temperatures are the same, the electron temperature is higher and excitation and electron temperatures are the same, the gas temperature is lower. Recent measurements in mercury arcs reveal the existence of severe departures from thermal equilibrium and suggest the absence of excitation equilibrium in the axis and in the periphery in such an arc. The deviation from equilibrium leads to complicated distributions, such that the system cannot be described correctly by any single temperature. This becomes quite complicated when plasma inhomogeneity and strong reabsorption of the radiation are present

  5. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also

  6. Charge transfer complex between 2,3-diaminopyridine with chloranilic acid. Synthesis, characterization and DFT, TD-DFT computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.; Al-Obidan, Areej H.

    2018-05-01

    New charge transfer complex (CTC) between the electron donor 2,3-diaminopyridine (DAP) with the electron acceptor chloranilic (CLA) acid has been synthesized and characterized experimentally and theoretically using a variety of physicochemical techniques. The experimental work included the use of elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR studies to characterize the complex. Electronic spectra have been carried out in different hydrogen bonded solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and 1:1 mixture from AN-MeOH. The molecular composition of the complex was identified to be 1:1 from Jobs and molar ratio methods. The stability constant was determined using minimum-maximum absorbances method where it recorded high values confirming the high stability of the formed complex. The solid complex was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis that confirmed its formation in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. Both IR and NMR studies asserted the existence of proton and charge transfers in the formed complex. For supporting the experimental results, DFT computations were carried out using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method to compute the optimized structures of the reactants and complex, their geometrical parameters, reactivity parameters, molecular electrostatic potential map and frontier molecular orbitals. The analysis of DFT results strongly confirmed the high stability of the formed complex based on existing charge transfer beside proton transfer hydrogen bonding concordant with experimental results. The origin of electronic spectra was analyzed using TD-DFT method where the observed λmax are strongly consisted with the computed ones. TD-DFT showed the contributed states for various electronic transitions.

  7. TD-S-HF single determinantal reaction theory and the description of many-body processes, including fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.; Kan, K.K.

    1979-01-01

    The restrictions implied for the time dependent many-body reaction theory by the (TDHF) single determinantal assumption are explored by constructive analysis. A restructured TD-S-HF reaction theory is modelled, not after the initial-value form of the Schroedinger reaction theory, but after the (fully equivalent) S-matrix form, under the conditions that only self-consistent TDHF solutions occur in the theory, every wave function obeys the fundamental statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the theory reduces to the exact Schroedinger theory for exact solutions which are single determinantal. All of these conditions can be accomodated provided that the theory is interpreted on a time-averaged basis, i.e., physical constants of the Schroedinger theory which are time-dependent in the TDHF theory, are interpreted in TD-S-HF in terms of their time averaged values. The resulting reaction theory, although formulated heuristically, prescribes a well defined and unambiguous calculational program which, although somewhat more demanding technically than the conventional initial-value TDHF method, is nevertheless more consonant with first principles, structurally and mechanistically. For its physical predictions do not depend upon the precise location of the distant measuring apparatus, and are in no way influenced by the spurious cross channel correlations which arise whenever the description of many reaction channels is imposed upon one single-determinantal solution. For nuclear structure physics, the TDHF-eigenfunctions provide the first plausible description of exact eigenstates in the time-dependent framework; moreover, they are unencumbered by any restriction to small amplitudes. 14 references

  8. Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is  = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.

  9. Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L.F. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.

  10. Role of mother’s perceptions on their child development on early detection of developmental deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Andayani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.

  11. AV-block and conduction slowing prevail over TdP arrhythmias in the methoxamine-sensitized pro-arrhythmic rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkevisser, Rosanne; Vos, Marc A; Beekman, Jet D; Tieland, Ralph G; Van Der Heyden, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    The methoxamine-sensitized rabbit model is widely used to screen drugs for proarrhythmic properties, especially repolarization-dependent TdP arrhythmias. With the change of anesthesia and/or sensitizing agent, conduction disturbances have been reported as well. Therefore, we compared currently available in-house anesthetics in order to preserve arrhythmia sensitivity and preclude conduction disturbances. Rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) 35 mg/kg ketamine + 5 mg/kg xylazine; (2) 0.5 mL/kg hypnorm + 3 mg/kg midazolam; (3) 35 mg/kg ketamine + 20 mg/kg propofol. Anesthesia was maintained by 1.5% isoflurane. Concomitant infusion of methoxamine (17 μg/kg/min for 40 minutes) and dofetilide (10 μg/kg/min for 30 minutes) was used to induce arrhythmias. Sole methoxamine infusion exclusively decreased HR in groups 1 and 3. Dofetilide lengthened repolarization, followed in time by PQ/QRS prolongation, second-degree AV block, and subsequently TdP arrhythmias. TdP was seen in 80%, 0%, and 33% of the rabbits in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Decreasing the dose of dofetilide to 5 μg/kg/min in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rabbits resulted in a drop in TdP incidence (25%) while conduction disturbances persisted. Flunarizine (n = 6) suppressed all TdP arrhythmias while conduction disturbances remained present. TdP incidence in the methoxamine-sensitized rabbit could be dramatically influenced by anesthesia, drug dose, and flunarizine, while conduction slowing remained present. Thus, conduction slowing seems to be the integral outcome in this model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic and TD-DFT quantum mechanical study of azo-azomethine dyes. A laser induced trans-cis-trans photoisomerization cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Anton; Kostadinov, Anton; Ivanov, Deyan; Dimov, Deyan; Stoyanov, Simeon; Nedelchev, Lian; Nazarova, Dimana; Yancheva, Denitsa

    2018-03-05

    This paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and quantum mechanical calculations of three azo-azomethine dyes. The dyes were synthesized via condensation reaction between 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and three different 4-aminobenzene azo dyes. Quantum chemical calculations on the optimized molecular geometry and electron densities of the trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers and their vibrational frequencies have been computed by using DFT/B3LYP density-functional theory with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in vacuo. The thermodynamic parameters such as total electronic energy E (RB3LYP), enthalpy H 298 (sum of electronic and thermal enthalpies), free Gibbs energy G 298 (sum of electronic and thermal free Gibbs energies) and dipole moment μ were computed for trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in order to estimate the ΔE trans→cis , Δμ trans→cis, ΔH trans→cis , ΔG trans→cis and ΔS trans→cis values. After molecular geometry optimization the electronic spectra have been obtained by TD-DFT calculations at same basis set and correlated with the spectra of vapour deposited nanosized films of the dyes. The NBO analysis was performed in order to understand the intramolecular charge transfer and energy of resonance stabilization. Solvatochromism was investigated by UV-VIS spectroscopy in five different organic solvents with increasing polarity. The dynamic photoisomerization experiments have been performed in DMF by pump lasers λ=355nm (mostly E→Z) and λ=491nm (mostly Z→E) in spectral region 300nm - 800nm at equal concentrations and times of illumination in order to investigate the photodynamical trans-cis-trans properties of the CHN and NN chromophore groups of the dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual reconstruction of the Early Pleistocene mandible ATD6-96 from Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra De Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martín-Francés, Laura; Modesto-Mata, Mario; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martinón-Torres, María; García-Campos, Cecilia; Carretero, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    In this report, we present a further study of the late Early Pleistocene ATD6-96 human mandible, recovered from the TD6-2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) and attributed to Homo antecessor. ATD6-96 consists of a left half of a gracile mandible of an adult individual with the premolars and molars in place that is broken at the level of the lateral incisor-canine septum. The present analysis is based on a virtual reconstruction of the whole mandible by means of computed tomography (CT). We have reconstructed the symphysis using information from a modern human sample, as well as from a wide sample composed of several Homo specimens. This research has allowed us to record new variables with taxonomic and phylogenetic interest. We have estimated the length/width index of the alveolar arcade, as well as the percentage of the arcade length with regard to the total length. The latter confirms that ATD6-96 shares with all African and Asian Homo species a primitive structural pattern, as it was established in previous studies. In constrast, the length/width index of the alveolar arcade in the H. antecessor specimen is close to the mean values of Neandertals and the Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos hominins. H. antecessor is derived regarding the shape of the mandibular alveolar arcade within the genus Homo and points to an early divergence from contemporaneous African populations. Our results also ratify the affinities of H. antecessor with Neanderthals, although the precise relationship with this lineage needs further research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.

  16. Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, A A; Mogul' skii, A A [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-10-31

    The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N{>=}0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x{sub 2}, y{sub 2}, and x{sub 1}-y{sub 1} in the domain x{sub 1}>N, y{sub 1}>N, and only on x{sub 1}, y{sub 1}, and x{sub 2}-y{sub 2} in the domain x{sub 2}>N, y{sub 2}>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s{yields}{infinity}, |x|{yields}{infinity}, and n{yields}{infinity}. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|{yields}{infinity}, |y|{yields}{infinity}. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general

  17. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  18. Impact of biomass burning emission on total peroxy nitrates: fire plume identification during the BORTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aruffo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxy nitrate ( ∑ PN concentrations have been measured using a thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence (TD-LIF instrument during the BORTAS campaign, which focused on the impact of boreal biomass burning (BB emissions on air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong correlation observed between the  ∑ PN concentrations and those of carbon monoxide (CO, a well-known pyrogenic tracer, suggests the possible use of the  ∑ PN concentrations as marker of the BB plumes. Two methods for the identification of BB plumes have been applied: (1  ∑ PN concentrations higher than 6 times the standard deviation above the background and (2  ∑ PN concentrations higher than the 99th percentile of the  ∑ PNs measured during a background flight (B625; then we compared the percentage of BB plume selected using these methods with the percentage evaluated, applying the approaches usually used in literature. Moreover, adding the pressure threshold ( ∼  750 hPa as ancillary parameter to  ∑ PNs, hydrogen cyanide (HCN and CO, the BB plume identification is improved. A recurrent artificial neural network (ANN model was adapted to simulate the concentrations of  ∑ PNs and HCN, including nitrogen oxide (NO, acetonitrile (CH3CN, CO, ozone (O3 and atmospheric pressure as input parameters, to verify the specific role of these input data to better identify BB plumes.

  19. Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, B.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example

  20. Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, M.; van Eijsden, P.; Ferrier, C. H.; Kho, K. H.; van Rijen, P. C.; Leijten, F. S. S.

    Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporoparietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during

  1. 7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates from...

  2. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...

  3. 48 CFR 1352.219-71 - Notification to delay performance (Deviation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance (Deviation). 1352.219-71 Section 1352.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....219-71 Notification to delay performance (Deviation). As prescribed in 48 CFR 1319.811-3(b), insert the following clause: Notification To Delay Performance (Deviation) (APR 2010) The contractor shall...

  4. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  5. Thermal desorption (TD) study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions--4. Nonuniformity of Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, V V [Inst. Chem. Phys. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R.; Sklyarov, A V; Gland, J

    1979-10-01

    Programed TD of n-heptane adsorbed on 0.6-3% by wt Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ laboratory catalysts with different dispersities of the metallic phase showed the formation of toluene at 160/sup 0/-260/sup 0/C with spectral maxima at about 200/sup 0/ and 230/sup 0/C and a benzene desorption maxima at 300/sup 0/C. The desorption of both benzene and the high-temperature form of toluene decreased with decreased dispersity of the catalyst and was not observed with the catalyst characterized by an average Pt particle size of 1000 A. Toluene adsorbed on the same catalysts showed a TD peak of benzene at 300/sup 0/C. With commercial Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reforming catalysts, up to five toluene desorption peaks were observed at 200/sup 0/-360/sup 0/C, suggesting the presence of active sites with different activities and concentrations on the catalyst surface. Experiments on TD of deuterated n-heptane suggested different reaction mechanisms associated with different types of active sites and the formation of low- and high-temperature forms of toluene. Only the latter had a maximum coinciding with a TD peak of D/sub 2/ (240/sup 0/C), probably formed by dehydrogenation of adsorbed diene or olefin intermediates.

  6. AV-block and conduction slowing prevail over TdP arrhythmias in the methoxamine-sensitized pro-arrhythmic rabbit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varkevisser, Rosanne; Vos, Marc A; Beekman, Jet; Tieland, Ralph G; Van Der Heyden, Marcel A

    INTRODUCTION: The methoxamine-sensitized rabbit model is widely used to screen drugs for proarrhythmic properties, especially repolarization-dependent TdP arrhythmias. With the change of anesthesia and/or sensitizing agent, conduction disturbances have been reported as well. Therefore, we compared

  7. The Hilbert-Schmidt method in the three-particle problem and determination of the vertex parts tdn and td*n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshnikov, A.G.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Narodetsky, I.M.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex constants for virtual decays t → dn and t → d*n are calculated using the resonance expansion technique for the three-particle amplitude suggested recently. In the model with a spin-dependent separable NN-potential values Gsub(tdn)sup(2) = 1.92 fm, Gsub(td*n)sup(2) = -0.38 fm are obtained

  8. First unitarity-independent determination of the CKM matrix elements $V_{td}$, $V_{ts}$, and ${V_{tb}$ and the implications for unitarity

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, John; Taylor, Lucas

    1997-01-01

    The magnitudes of the CKM matrix elements $V_{td}$, $V_{ts}$, and $V_{tb}$ are determined for the first time without any assumptions of unitarity. The implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix as a whole are discussed.

  9. Durum wheat diversity for heat stress tolerance during inflorescence emergence is correlated to TdHSP101C expression in early developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bento

    Full Text Available The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions. In this work we used CMS assay and explored TdHSP101C genes as an additional tool for durum wheat screening. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of TdHSP101C genes were performed in varieties with contrasting CMS results and further correlated with heat stress tolerance during fertilization and seed development. Although the durum wheat varieties studied presented a very high homology on TdHSP101C genes (>99% the transcriptomic assessment allowed the discrimination between varieties with good CMS results and its correlation with differential impacts of heat treatment during inflorescence emergence and seed development on grain yield. The evidences here reported indicate that TdHSP101C transcription levels induced by heat stress in fully expanded leaves may be a promising complementary screening tool to discriminate between durum wheat varieties identified as thermotolerant through CMS.

  10. Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of neutron emission spectroscopy in JET discharges with fast tritons from (T)D ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Kaellne, J.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Johnson, T.; Lamalle, P. U.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fast ion populations is one of the diagnostic capabilities provided by neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). NES measurements were carried out during JET trace tritium campaign with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer. A favorable plasma scenario is (T)D where the resulting 14 MeV neutron yield is dominated by suprathermal emission from energetic tritons accelerated by radio frequency at their fundamental cyclotron frequency. Information on the triton distribution function has been derived from NES data with a simple model based on two components referred to as bulk (B) and high energy (HE). The HE component is based on strongly anisotropic tritium distribution that can be used for routine best-fit analysis to provide tail temperature values (T HE ). This article addresses to what extent the T HE values are model dependent by comparing the model above with a two-temperature (bi-) Maxwellian model featuring parallel and perpendicular temperatures. The bi-Maxwellian model is strongly anisotropic and frequently used for radio frequency theory

  12. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  13. DFT and TD-DFT calculations of metallotetraphenylporphyrin and metallotetraphenylporphyrin fullerene complexes as potential dye sensitizers for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahdy, A. M.; Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Taha, H. O.

    2018-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations have been employed to model metallotetraphenylporphyrin dyes and metallotetraphenylporphyrin -fullerene complexes in order to investigate the geometries, electronic structures, the density of states, non-linear optical properties (NLO), IR-vis spectra, molecular electrostatic potential contours, and electrophilicity. To calculate the excited states of the tetraphenyl porphyrin analogs, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) are used. Their UV-vis spectra were also obtained and a comparison with available experimental and theoretical results is included. The results reveal that the metal and the tertiary butyl groups of the dyes are electron donors, and the tetraphenylporphyrin rings are electron acceptors. The HOMOs of the dyes fall within the (TiO2)60 and Ti38O76 band gaps and support the issue of typical interfacial electron transfer reaction. The resulting potential drop of Mn-TPP-C60 increased by ca. 3.50% under the effect of the tertiary butyl groups. The increase in the potential drop indicates that the tertiary butyl complexes could be a better choice for the strong operation of the molecular rectifiers. The introduction of metal atom and tertiary butyl groups to the tetraphenyl porphyrin moiety leads to a stronger response to the external electric field and induces higher photo-to-current conversion efficiency. This also shifts the absorption in the dyes and makes them potential candidates for harvesting light in the entire visible and near IR region for photovoltaic applications.

  14. Application of MCD spectroscopy and TD-DFT to endohedral metallofullerenes for characterization of their electronic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Michio; Slanina, Zdenek; Mizorogi, Naomi; Muranaka, Atsuya; Maeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2013-03-14

    We describe, for the first time, the application of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations using B3LYP and M06-2X functionals to characterize the electronic transitions of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs). Results revealed that the electronic transitions of La@C(2v)-C(82), La(2)@I(h)-C(80), and Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80) can be assigned using these techniques. Particularly, a difference in the electronic transitions between La(2)@I(h)-C(80) and Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80), which is invisible in absorption spectra, was observed clearly in MCD spectra. The observed MCD bands agree well with the oscillator strengths calculated using the B3LYP functional. In addition, the MCD bands of La(2)@I(h)-C(80) were altered upon [5,6]-addition, demonstrating that the MCD spectroscopy is sensitive to chemical functionalization of EMFs, and that it is therefore powerful to distinguish [5,6]-adducts from pristine La(2)@I(h)-C(80), although no marked difference exists in their absorption spectra.

  15. Development of brown coal liquefaction. Design, construction and operation of a 50 t/d pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    As for the development of 50t/d pilot plant for the development of liquefaction plant of Victorian brown coal in Australia, outline of the results of the researches in 1984 is reported from the following 4 viewpoints; 1: design of process apparatuses, 2: manufacture of apparatuses, 3: field work of the construction, 4: preparation for operation of the plant. On the first item, the outline of ordering designed equipment from Japanese and Australian companies is described. On the second item the acceptance of purchasing goods from Japan and Australia and promotion of the inspection and quality assurance system. On the third item, contents of the continuous construction of the first stage are described. On the fourth item, the establishment and review of rules and regulations, training and education for operators, enviromental assessment, contents of safety and maintenance work and commissioning work by the promoting department for preparation of operation are described. Moreover support works of wide range for the promotion and adoption by necessary personnel, labour unions, the state of labour and activities for local discricts are described.

  16. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They ... United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  17. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  18. An Audit of Protocol Deviations Submitted to an Institutional Ethics Committee of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila V Jalgaonkar

    Full Text Available Protocol deviations (PDs may jeopardize safety, rights, and welfare of subjects and data integrity. There is scarce literature and no guidelines for Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs to process PD reports. The PD reports submitted to IECs from Jan 2011 to August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Types of studies reporting PDs, category and type of PDs, PD rate per participant, time of reporting PD since its occurrence and corrective actions stated by principal investigator (PI for major deviations were noted. Out of 447 PDs from 73/1387 total studies received during study period, 402 were from 126 pharma studies. Investigator initiated studies and dissertations reported negligible PDs. Median number of PDs was 4 per protocol. Out of 447 PDs, 304 were related to study procedure, 87, 47 and 9 were from safety, informed consent document (ICD and eligibility category respectively. The most common reason for PDs was incomplete ICD (22/47. Maximum study procedure related PDs were due to patient visiting outside window period (126/304. Thirty five of 87 PDs were due to missed safety assessment. The overall PD reporting rate per participant was 0.08. In 90% of reports, date of occurrence of PD was not specified. The median delay for reporting PDs after occurrence was 94 days. PDs classified as Major were 73% (323/447. The most common corrective actions stated by PI were participant counseling (85/323 and caution in future (70/323. The study findings emphasize the need for GCP training at regular interval of study team members. IEC have to be vigilant and visit sites frequently, take initiative and formulate guidelines regarding PD reporting.

  19. Constraining |V(td)|/|V(ts)| Using Radiative Penguin B -> V(K*/rho/omega)gamma Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Exclusive radiative penguin B decays, B → (K* 0 /K* + )γ and B → (ρ/ω)γ, are flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) processes. Studies of these decays are of special interest in testing Standard Model (SM) predictions and searching for other beyond-the-SM FCNC interactions. Using 89 x 10 6 B(bar B) pairs from BABAR, we measure the branching fraction (Β), CP-asymmetry (Α), and isospin asymmetry (Δ 0- ) of B → (K* 0 /K* + )γ as follows: Β(B 0 → K* 0 γ) = 3.92 ± 0.20(stat.) ± 0.24(syst.); Β(B + → K* + γ) = 3.87 ± 0.28(stat.) ± 0.26(syst.); Α(B → K*γ) = 0.013 ± 0.36(stat.) ± 0.10(syst.); Δ 0- (B → K*γ) = 0.050 ± 0.045(stat.) ± 0.028(syst.) ± 0.024(R +/0 ). The 90% confidence intervals for the CP-asymmetry and the isospin-asymmetry in the B → K*γ decay are given as: -0.074 0- (B → K*γ) 6 B(bar B) pairs from BABAR. No evidence for these decays is found. We set the upper limits at 90% confidence level for these decays: Β(B 0 → ρ 0 γ) -6 , Β(B + → ρ + γ) -6 , Β(B 0 → ωγ) -6 , (bar Β)(B → (ρ/ω)γ) -6 . These results are in good agreement with the SM predictions. The branching fractions of these decays are then used to constrain the ratio |V td |/|V ts |

  20. FD-TD modeling of 2-D dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose; Goorjian, Peter; Taflove, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Experimentalists have produced all-optical switches capable of 100-fs responses. To adequately model such switches, nonlinear effects in optical materials (both instantaneous and dispersive) must be included. In principle, the behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dielectrics can be determined by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the assumption that the electric polarization has a nonlinear relation to the electric field. However, until our previous work, the resulting nonlinear Maxwell's equations have not been solved directly. Rather, approximations have been made that result in a class of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations (GNLSE) that solve only for the envelope of the optical pulses. In this paper, we present first-time calculations from the vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional systems of dielectric waveguides exhibiting the Kerr and Raman quantum effects. We use the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method in an extension of our 1-D work. There, in a fundamental innovation, we treated the linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization as new dependent variables. By differentiating these convolutions in the time domain, we derived an equivalent system of coupled, nonlinear second-order ODE's. These equations together with Maxwell's equations form the system that is solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous nonlinear dispersive media. Backstorage in time is limited to only that needed by the time-integration algorithm for the ODE's, rather than that needed to store the time-history of the kernel functions of the convolutions (1000-10,000 time steps). Thus, a 2-D nonlinear optics model from Maxwell's equations is now feasible.

  1. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  2. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...

  3. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs.

  4. Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.

  5. FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.

  6. An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪

    2013-01-01

    Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.

  7. Measurement of the capability of DNA synthesis of human fetal liver cells by the assay of 3H-TdR incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Ma Xiangrui; Wang Hongyun; Cao Xia

    1987-01-01

    The fetal liver is one of the major sites of hematopoiesis during gestation. Under erythropoietin (EPO) stimulation, in erythroid precusor cells of fetal liver, proliferation and differentiation occurred and function of metabolism was enhanced. The technique of 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to measure the function of fetal liver cellular DNA synthesis. As EPO concentration at the range of approximately 20 ∼ 100 mU/ml, the counts of 3 H-TdR incorporation into fetal liver cells increased. As the concentration of EPO increased, however, its incorporation counts are lower than that in bone marrow of either the fetal or the adult. It suggested that precusors of erythrocyte of fetal liver has differentiated to later phases with the progressive accumulation of mature cells, therefore, both proliferation and function of metabolism are more or less decreased respectively. Under EPO stimulation, however, precusor of erythroid of fetal liver can greatly increase potential effects on DNA synthesis

  8. Influence of Exchange-Correlation Functional in the Calculations of Vertical Excitation Energies of Halogenated Copper Phthalocyanines using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Uck

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of vertical excitation energies is very important for the development of new materials in the dye and pigment industry. A time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach coupled with 22 different exchange-correlation functionals was used for the prediction of vertical excitation energies in the halogenated copper phthalocyanine molecules in order to find the most appropriate functional and to determine the accuracy of the prediction of the absorption wavelength and observed spectral shifts. Among the tested functional, B3LYP functional provides much more accurate vertical excitation energies and UV-vis spectra. Our results clearly provide a benchmark calibration of the TD-DFT method for phthalocyanine based dyes and pigments used in industry

  9. Ultraviolet observations of. beta. Persei,. mu. /sup 1/ Scorpii and. gamma. /sub 2/ Velorum with the TD-1A satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahade, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina); van der Hucht, K A [Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht (Netherlands). Space Research Lab.

    1980-05-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study of S59 ultraviolet spectral scans of the spectroscopic binaries ..beta.. Persei, ..mu../sup 1/ Scorpii and ..gamma../sub 2/ Velorum. In the case of ..mu../sup 1/ Sco it was found that the Mg II doublet at 2800 Angstroem undergoes intensity variations that may be indicative of variable emission in the photographic spectrum. The continuum in the 2490-2590 Angstroem range deviates from the continuum of the 'comparison stars'. In ..gamma../sub 2/ Vel, flux variations in the 2770-2870 A region have been detected.

  10. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) for studying the effect of therapy on prostatic adenocarcinoma in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Kleinert, E.L.; Schma, B.; Herr, H.W.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in tumor growth, such as those which occur during therapeutic manipulation, may be followed by measuring variations in radiolabeled TdR uptake. In order to study such parameters in vivo using external imaging techniques, the authors have synthesized TdR labeled with cyclotron produced carbon-11, a short-lived (T1/2=20.4 min) positron-emitting radionuclide. The Copenhagen rat bearing the transplantable Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma can be used as a model for poorly differentiated carcinoma of the prostate in humans. The tissue distribution of C-14 TdR was studied in untreated tumor rats and in tumor rats receiving a combination of difluoromethyl ornithine and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone, effective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. The tissue distribution at 45 min post-injection (5 rats/group) was determined by calculating the relative concentration (RC) of radioactivity in blood and tissue samples (RC=dpm found per gm tissue/dpm injected per gm animal mass). The mean RC in untreated tumor was 2.55 +- 0.46, compared to 0.85 +- 0.12 in treated tumor. Tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/prostate ratios were 3.07, 7.08, and 6.89 in untreated tumor, and 1.23, 3.04, and 2,93 in treated tumor. The differences in RC for the untreated and treated tumors suggest that external imaging with C-11 TdR may be useful for monitoring the effects of therapy on tumors in vivo

  11. On the use of an appropriate TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay to identify apoptotic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebon, C.; Rodriguez, G.V.; Zaoui, I.E.; Jaadane, I.; Behar-Cohen, F.; Torriglia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an essential cellular mechanism involved in many processes such as embryogenesis, metamorphosis, and tissue homeostasis. DNA fragmentation is one of the key markers of this form of cell death. DNA fragmentation is executed by endogenous endonucleases such as caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in caspase-dependent apoptosis. The TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) technique is the most widely used method to identify apoptotic cells in a tissue or culture and to assess dr...

  12. Transgenic mouse model expressing tdTomato under involucrin promoter as a tool for analysis of epidermal differentiation and wound healing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárek, Petr; Křenek, Pavel; Buryová, Halka; Suchanová, Šárka; Beck, Inken; Sedláček, Radislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2012), s. 683-689 ISSN 0962-8819 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC301/08/J053; GA ČR(CZ) GP301/09/P662 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : epidermis * involucrin * tdTomato * wound healing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2012

  13. A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuncheng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

  14. Synthesis of novel styryl derivatives from 4-chloro-2-(morpholin-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde, study of their photophysical properties and TD-DFT computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Nagaiyan; Umape, Prashant G.; Padalkar, Vikas S.; Tayade, Rajratna P.; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2014-01-01

    Novel fluorescent styryl push–pull compounds having electron donating thiazole unit were synthesized by condensing 4-chloro-2-(morpholin-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde with active methylene compounds via classical Knoevenagel condensation. The synthesized styryl molecules were characterized by spectral analysis. Photophysical properties of these styryl derivatives were analyzed and the effect of change in solvent polarity and viscosity on their absorptive and emissive properties has been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical parameters of push–pull dyes. Bakhshiev and Kawski–Chamma–Viallet correlations were used to calculate the ratio of ground to excited state dipole moment of the synthesized novel styryl compounds. -- Highlights: •Novel styryl derivatives are synthesized from thiazole aldehyde. •Photophysical properties of styryl derivatives were evaluated and supported by TD-DFT computations. •Experimental photophysical results are in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained by TD-DFT computations. •Compounds show fluorescence in solid state as well as in solvents of different polarities

  15. Deviation Management: Key Management Subsystem Driver of Knowledge-Based Continuous Improvement in the Henry Ford Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Copeland, Jacqueline R; Varney, Ruan C

    2017-10-01

    To develop a business subsystem fulfilling International Organization for Standardization 15189 nonconformance management regulatory standard, facilitating employee engagement in problem identification and resolution to effect quality improvement and risk mitigation. From 2012 to 2016, the integrated laboratories of the Henry Ford Health System used a quality technical team to develop and improve a management subsystem designed to identify, track, trend, and summarize nonconformances based on frequency, risk, and root cause for elimination at the level of the work. Programmatic improvements and training resulted in markedly increased documentation culminating in 71,641 deviations in 2016 classified by a taxonomy of 281 defect types into preanalytic (74.8%), analytic (23.6%), and postanalytic (1.6%) testing phases. The top 10 deviations accounted for 55,843 (78%) of the total. Deviation management is a key subsystem of managers' standard work whereby knowledge of nonconformities assists in directing corrective actions and continuous improvements that promote consistent execution and higher levels of performance. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Constraining |V(td)|/|V(ts)| Using Radiative Penguin B -> V(K*/rho/omega)gamma Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Ping; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-08

    Exclusive radiative penguin B decays, B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}) and B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}, are flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) processes. Studies of these decays are of special interest in testing Standard Model (SM) predictions and searching for other beyond-the-SM FCNC interactions. Using 89 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR, we measure the branching fraction ({Beta}), CP-asymmetry ({Alpha}), and isospin asymmetry ({Delta}{sub 0-}) of B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}){gamma} as follows: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}{gamma}) = 3.92 {+-} 0.20(stat.) {+-} 0.24(syst.); {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup +}{gamma}) = 3.87 {+-} 0.28(stat.) {+-} 0.26(syst.); {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = -0.013 {+-} 0.36(stat.) {+-} 0.10(syst.); {Delta}{sub 0-}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = 0.050 {+-} 0.045(stat.) {+-} 0.028(syst.) {+-} 0.024(R{sup +/0}). The 90% confidence intervals for the CP-asymmetry and the isospin-asymmetry in the B {yields} K*{gamma} decay are given as: -0.074 < {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.049, -0.046 < {Delta}{sub 0-} (B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.146. We also search for B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma} decays using 211 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR. No evidence for these decays is found. We set the upper limits at 90% confidence level for these decays: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) < 0.4 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup +}{yields} {rho}{sup =}{gamma}) < 1.8 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) < 1.0 x 10{sup -6}; {bar {Beta}}(B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}) < 1.2 x 10{sup -6}. These results are in good agreement with the SM predictions. The branching fractions of these decays are then used to constrain the ratio |V{sub td}|/|V{sub ts}|.

  17. 14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. 99.17 Section 99.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. (a) No pilot may...

  18. Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the

  19. [Roaming through methodology. XXXVIII. Common misconceptions involving standard deviation and standard error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, H.G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Standard deviation and standard error have a clear mutual relationship, but at the same time they differ strongly in the type of information they supply. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings. Standard deviation describes the variability in a sample of measures of a variable, for instance

  20. 40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2220 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report required under...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter that...

  2. 75 FR 35799 - Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9166-1] Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes... provides notice of availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and... of performance and potential partial or complete cooperative agreement termination, associated with...

  3. Advantages of heavy metal collars in directional drilling and deviation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.B.; Murphey, C.E.; McLamore, R.T.; Dickson, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heavy, stiff-bottom drill collar can substantially improve deviation performance, theoretically increasing penetration rates by 50 to 100 percent in deviation-prone areas. This paper presents the underlying theory, practical charts on performance characteristics, and Shell Development Co.'s experience in fabricating and field testing two depleted-uranium alloy, heavy metal collars

  4. 40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance... Model Rule-Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.3053 What must I include in the deviation report? In each...

  5. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2958 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...

  7. 78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health... and quality data that is timely. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Intended Recipient of the Award...

  8. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market Testing... test products designated as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to...

  9. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  10. The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-02-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  11. Large deviation function for a driven underdamped particle in a periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lukas P.; Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo

    2018-02-01

    Employing large deviation theory, we explore current fluctuations of underdamped Brownian motion for the paradigmatic example of a single particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Two different approaches to the large deviation function of the particle current are presented. First, we derive an explicit expression for the large deviation functional of the empirical phase space density, which replaces the level 2.5 functional used for overdamped dynamics. Using this approach, we obtain several bounds on the large deviation function of the particle current. We compare these to bounds for overdamped dynamics that have recently been derived, motivated by the thermodynamic uncertainty relation. Second, we provide a method to calculate the large deviation function via the cumulant generating function. We use this method to assess the tightness of the bounds in a numerical case study for a cosine potential.

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Add-on Ginko TD (Ginkgo Biloba Treatment for PTSD: Results of a 12-Week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Koohi Habibi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Exposure to traumatic stressors lead to activation of arousal responses mediated by serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and it may cause a change in numerous neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine systems. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence to suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is neuroprotective and has antioxidant properties and can restore stress-induced elevation in brain levels of catecholamines, 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to normal level. "nMethod: In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of adding-on a fixed-dose (200mg of Ginkgo TD to the previous treatment regime of adults with PTSD were examined. Subjects were forty male and female outpatients from a public-owned psychiatric clinic who met criteria for PTSD seven month after a 6.3 Richter earthquake in Bam city on December 26, 2003. The changes in five symptom domains including posttraumatic stress, anxiety and affective symptoms, general health and subjective stress after trauma were ssessed at weeks 0, 12 and 16 to examine effectiveness of the added-on Ginkgo TD and stability of its effects. "nResults: Ginkgo TD was associated with a significantly greater improvement than placebo in PTSD patients as measured by five symptom domain scales including: GHQ-28; Watson PTSD Scale; HAM-D; HAM-A and IES (p= 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02 respectively Four weeks after the discontinuation of intervention, no significant difference was determined between the two groups in the five outcome measures (p= 0.005, 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, 0.01 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of side effects. "nConclusions: We found Ginkgo TD to be superior to placebo as an adding-on in the treatment of PTSD. Although we did not examine the comparative efficacy of Ginkgo TD on the three main elements of PTSD, beneficial effects both on specific PTSD symptomatology and general conditions including

  13. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  14. Deviated Septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... achieved. View Video Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  15. DFT/TD-DFT characterization of conjugational electronic structures and spectral properties of materials based on thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene for organic photovoltaic and solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bourass

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a theoretical study on five organic π-conjugated molecules based on thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene using together quantum methods, density functional theory (DFT and its derivative time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT is reported. Different electron side groups were introduced as a bridge to investigate their effects on the electronic structure; The HOMO, LUMO, chemical hardness (η, chemical potential (μ, electronegativity (χ, electrophilicity power (ω, reorganization energy totaltotal, open circuit voltage (Voc, the gap energy and NBO analysis of these compounds have been reported and discussed in this paper. Thus, our aim is to explore their electronic and spectroscopic properties on the basis of the DFT quantum chemical calculations, and at the same time, we are interested to make an idea on the parameters influencing the photovoltaic efficiency toward a better understanding of the structure–property relationships. The calculated results of these compounds reveal that C4, C5, with thiophene and thienopyrazine as a bridge group respectively, can be used as a potential donor of electron in organic Bulk Heterojunction solar cells (BHJ, due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. The study of electronic, optical and structural properties of these compounds could help to design more efficient functional photovoltaic organic materials.

  16. Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  18. Incorporating assumption deviation risk in quantitative risk assessments: A semi-quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.

  19. Analysis of some fuel characteristics deviations and their influence over WWER-440 fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of some deviations in WWER-440 fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics upon fuel core design. A large number of different fresh fuel assemblies with enrichment of 3.5 t % are examined related to the enrichment, mass of initial metal Uranium and assembly shroud thickness. Infinite multiplication factor (Kinf) in fuel assembly has been calculated by HELIOS spectral code for basic assembly and for different FA with deviation of a single parameter. The effects from single parameter deviation (enrichment) and from two parameter deviations (enrichment and wall thickness) on the neutron-physics characteristics of the core are estimated for different fuel assemblies. Relatively week burnup dependence on Kinf is observed as result of deviation in the enrichment of the fuel and in the wall thickness of the assembly. An assessment of a FA single and two parameter deviations effects on design fuel cycle duration and relative power peaking factor is also considers in the paper. As a final conclusion can be settled that the maximum relative shortness of fuel cycle can be observed in the case of two FA parameters deviations

  20. Measurement and analysis of the thoracic patient setup deviations in routine radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Mingxuan; Zou Huawei; Wu Rong; Sun Jian; Dong Xiaoqi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the magnitude of the setup deviations of the thoracic patients in routine radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 408 films for 21 thoracic patients were recorded using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and comparison with reference CT simulator digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR) for anterior-posterior fields was performed. The deviation of setup for 21 patients in the left-right (RL), superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotation about the anterior-posterior (AP) axis were measured and analyzed. Results: Without immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.7±3.1) mm and (1.5±4.1) mm in the RL and SI directions, respectively, and (0.3±2.4) degree about AP axis. With immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.5±2.4) mm and (0.8±2.7) mm in the RL and SI directions respectively, and (0.2±1.6) degree about AP axis. Conclusion: The setup deviations in thoracic patients irradiation may be reduced with the use of the immobilization device. The setup deviation in the SI direction is greater than that in the RL direction. The setup deviations are mainly random errors

  1. Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai

    2013-01-01

    A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.

  2. Improvement of least-squares collocation error estimates using local GOCE Tzz signal standard deviations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2015-01-01

    outside the data area. On the other hand, a comparison of predicted quantities with observed values show that the error also varies depending on the local data standard deviation. This quantity may be (and has been) estimated using the GOCE second order vertical derivative, Tzz, in the area covered...... by the satellite. The ratio between the nearly constant standard deviations of a predicted quantity (e.g. in a 25° × 25° area) and the standard deviations of Tzz in smaller cells (e.g., 1° × 1°) have been used as a scale factor in order to obtain more realistic error estimates. This procedure has been applied...

  3. The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs

  4. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  5. Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.

  6. Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.

  7. Axial power deviation control strategy and computer simulation for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yehong; Zhou Xiaoling, Xiao Min

    2004-01-01

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has very tight operation diagram especially at its right side. Therefore the successful control of axial power deviation for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various core characters' effect on axial power distribution, several axial power deviation control strategies has been proposed to comply with different power varying operation scenario. Application and computer simulation of the strategies has shown that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution are comparable to the measurement values, and that our control strategies are effective. Engineering experience shows that the application of our methodology can predict accurately the transient of axial power deviation, and therefore has become a useful tool for reactor operation and safety control. This paper presents the axial power control characteristics, reactor operation strategy research, computer simulation, and comparison to measurement results in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  8. Ensemble standar deviation of wind speed and direction of the FDDA input to WRF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NetCDF file of the SREF standard deviation of wind speed and direction that was used to inject variability in the FDDA input. variable U_NDG_OLD contains standard...

  9. Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Hirukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.

  10. Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jianliang; Zhang, Tusheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.

  11. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Peder, E-mail: Peder.Kock@med.lu.s [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Finck, Robert R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.

  12. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R.; Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded 137 Cs and 241 Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.

  13. Two-dimensional magnetic sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations for SSC quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.; Waynert, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic multipole sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations is analyzed in the two-dimensional cross-section of SSC quadrupole magnets. Deviations in the 2D cross-section caused by variations in the superconducting cable locations due to changes in the thickness of the pole sheet, mid plane insulation, inter-layer spacer, backing sheet, and copper wedges have direct impact on the magnetic field gradient and multipoles in the straight section of the magnets. Asymmetric deviations due to different coil sizes in a cross-section are also analyzed. The analyses are performed mainly with the software package AHARM. SSCMAG and finite element software PE2D were also used to obtain baselines and to verify the results. The results provide information essential to an understanding of the deviations of the multipoles resulting from manufacturing processes, and suggest possibilities for tuning the multipoles to meet the magnetic requirements

  14. CALCULATION ALGORITHM FOR STUDYING EFFORTS IN THE 4R SPHERICAL QUADRILATERAL MECHANISMS BECAUSE OF TECHNICAL DEVIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BULAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to technical deviations, in the elements of the 4R spatial spherical mechanism appear efforts thatadditionally loads the mechanism, efforts that can be determined with the calculation algorithm that will bepresented in this paper

  15. A course on large deviations with an introduction to Gibbs measures

    CERN Document Server

    Rassoul-Agha, Firas

    2015-01-01

    This is an introductory course on the methods of computing asymptotics of probabilities of rare events: the theory of large deviations. The book combines large deviation theory with basic statistical mechanics, namely Gibbs measures with their variational characterization and the phase transition of the Ising model, in a text intended for a one semester or quarter course. The book begins with a straightforward approach to the key ideas and results of large deviation theory in the context of independent identically distributed random variables. This includes Cramér's theorem, relative entropy, Sanov's theorem, process level large deviations, convex duality, and change of measure arguments. Dependence is introduced through the interactions potentials of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The phase transition of the Ising model is proved in two different ways: first in the classical way with the Peierls argument, Dobrushin's uniqueness condition, and correlation inequalities and then a second time through the ...

  16. Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: zhaijl@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: Tusheng.Zhang@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.

  17. General Large Deviations and Functional Iterated Logarithm Law for Multivalued Stochastic Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jiagang; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell's type for the multivalued stochastic differential equations. As an application, we derive a functional iterated logarithm law for the solutions of multivalued stochastic differential equations.

  18. Evaluation of Navigation System Accuracy Indexes for Deviation Reading from Average Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Boykov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The method for estimating the mean of square error, kurtosis and error correlation coefficient for deviations from the average range of three navigation parameter indications from the outputs of three information sensors is substantiated and developed.

  19. Hemingway’s Internal Deviation from His Primary Norm in The Old Man and the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisnowati Tanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ernest Hemingway is well known for the use of short and simple sentences when writing his novels since he aims at ‘[getting] the most out of the least’. This sentence-simplicity style is Hemingway’s primary norm. The Old Man and the Sea is the perfect example of this. However, in this novel, he sometimes uses long, complex sentences to describe certain points, and this sentence-complexity style can be said to be Hemingway’s secondary norm. In this case, there is a deviation within Hemingway’s own style of writing – an internal deviation. The deviation is obviously done on purpose as a kind of distraction so as to make the readers aware of the special and important ‘message’ that Hemingway wants to convey. In this novel, the deviation is used to build the elements of suspense and foreshadowing in much detail.

  20. Relationship and significance of gait deviations associated with limb length discrepancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of variationfor horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the variation of horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening, and to explore the effect of the inferior oblique muscle recession on horizontal deviations in primary position.METHODS:, In the study, 30 cases in the Department of ophthalmology of our hospital from January 2014 to September 2014 underwent the inferior oblique muscle recession as the sole without horizontal muscles surgery, who were superior obliquer paralysis and V pattern strabismus with small angle of horizontal strabismus, were analyzed. Of the 30 patients, 25 had unilateral inferior oblique muscle surgery, and then 5 had bilateral surgeries.Followed up for three to six mo, all patients were received full ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, including measurement of the deviation in the diagnostic positions of gaze at near 33cm and at distance 6m by prism and alternate cover test, synoptophore, Titmus stereo graph examination, Worth four lighting inspection, eye movement examination, and fundus photography preoperatively and postoperatively. The changes of horizontal deviations in the primary position after procedures were investigated. RESULT:(1The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre- and post-operation in the exotropia group(P=0.00. It was postoperative respectively to reduce the original in external oblique average 3.35±2.87△ and 4.37±2.65△.(2The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre-and post-operation in the esotropia group(P=0.02, and it decreased postoperatively in average 2.43±1.99△. There was no significant difference for horizontal deviation position between pre- and post-operation(P=0.089. CONCLUSION:The horizontal deviation in primary position, either exotropia or esotropia, will decrease after the Inferior oblique muscle recession. This change can be compensated by the gradually improving and establishing the fusion function.

  2. Deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere. Metodology. The line source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukina, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere is presented. The difficulties of solution and methods of realization are systematized. The processes of line formation are considered which take into account velocity fields, structural inhomogeneity, radiation non-coherence etc. as applied to a quiet solar atmosphere. The conclusion is made on the regularity of deviation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in upper layers of the solar atmosphere

  3. Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Shahriar, M. Selim

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10 -4 . The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

  4. A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R; Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded (137)Cs and (241)Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPG...

  5. Think different? An investigation of network antecedents and performance consequences of creativity as deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Soda, Giuseppe; Bizzi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how network relations affect project performance through creativity. We challenge previous conceptualizations of creativity by proposing the idea that creative outcomes in project industries can be conceptualized as deviation from past projects and deviation from partners’ projects. While previous research has mostly assumed that network relations are beneficial to performance because they increase innovation and creativity, our conceptualization of creativity al...

  6. Imaging performance of annular apertures. VI - Limitations by optical surface deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschunko, Hubert F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of optical systems is limited by imperfect optical surfaces that degrade the images below the level set by wave theoretical limits. The central irradiance functions are derived for slit and circular apertures with five distributions of wavefront errors and for a range of maximal wavefront deviations. For practical frequency of occurrence distributions of wavefront deviations, the point spread and the image energy integral functions are determined. Practical performances of optical systems are derived and performance limits discussed.

  7. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...

  8. Regional Mc parity: do common pricing points reduce deviations from the law of one price?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathä, Thomas Y.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyses price differences of McDonald?s products in four different countries. I show that pricing at pricing points in different currencies may contribute to explaining deviations from the law of one price. Observing strictly equal prices is more probable if prices are set at psychological and fractional pricing points in a common currency. The latter is also found to reduce the size of price deviations. Additionally, price differences increase as transaction c...

  9. Deviation of longitudinal and shear waves in austenitic stainless steel weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    One of the difficulties associated with the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel weld metal is the deviation of the ultrasonic beams. This can lead to errors in determining both the location and size of reflectors. The present paper compares experimental and theoretical data related to beam steering for longitudinal and shear waves in a sample of 308 SS weld metal. Agreement between predicted and measured beam deviations is generally good. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed

  10. Large Deviation Bounds for a Polling System with Two Queues and Multiple Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Fen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present large deviation bounds for a discrete-time polling system consisting of two-par-allel queues and m servers. The arrival process in each queue is an arbitrary, and possibly correlated, stochastic process. Each server (serves) independently serves the two queues according to a Bernoulli service schedule. Using large deviation techniques, we analyze the tail behavior of the stationary distribution of the queue length processes, and derive upper and lower bounds of the b...

  11. Graded versus ungraded inferior oblique anterior transposition in patients with asymmetric dissociated vertical deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Naderi, Ali; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    To report the surgical outcomes of graded versus ungraded inferior oblique anterior transposition (IOAT) in treatment of patients with asymmetric dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and bilateral inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). A total of 74 eyes of 37 patients with asymmetric DVD (interocular difference of ≥5 Δ ) and bilateral IOOA of > +1 were included in this randomized clinical trial. In the ungraded group (n = 18), both inferior oblique muscles were sutured at the inferior rectus level; in the graded group (n = 19), the inferior oblique muscles of eyes with more DVD were sutured at the level of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles of eyes with less DVD were sutured 2 mm posterior to the level of the inferior rectus muscle. DVD was significantly reduced in each group (P < 0.001 for both). Although the postoperative mean difference of asymmetry of DVD was less in the ungraded group compared to the graded group (1.2 ± 1.9 vs 3.2 ± 1.2 [P = 0.001]), the absolute amounts of reduction of DVD asymmetry were similar (4.3 ± 2.3 vs 4.4 ± 3.1 [P = 0.78]). IOOA and V patterns were also reduced postoperatively. Each method of IOAT was effective in reducing DVD, asymmetry, IOOA, and V patterns. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moving standard deviation and moving sum of outliers as quality tools for monitoring analytical precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping

    2018-02-01

    An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J; Lopes, Coeli M; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L; Locati, Emanuela H; Ackerman, Michael J; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Platonov, Pyotr G; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Michael Vincent, G; Wilde, Arthur A M; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-05-01

    Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital LQTS who carry the same mutation provides incremental prognostic information on the patient-specific QTc. The study population comprised 1206 patients with LQTS with 95 different mutations and ≥ 5 individuals who carry the same mutation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the effect of mutation-specific standard deviation of QTc (QTcSD) on the risk of cardiac events (comprising syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death) from birth through age 40 years in the total population and by genotype. Assessment of mutation-specific QTcSD showed large differences among carriers of the same mutations (median QTcSD 45 ms). Multivariate analysis showed that each 20 ms increment in QTcSD was associated with a significant 33% (P = .002) increase in the risk of cardiac events after adjustment for the patient-specific QTc duration and the family effect on QTc. The risk associated with QTcSD was pronounced among patients with long QT syndrome type 1 (hazard ratio 1.55 per 20 ms increment; P<.001), whereas among patients with long QT syndrome type 2, the risk associated with QTcSD was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.99; P = .95; P value for QTcSD-by-genotype interaction = .002). Our findings suggest that mutations with a wider variation in QTc duration are associated with increased risk of cardiac events. These findings appear to be genotype-specific, with a pronounced effect among patients with the long QT syndrome type 1 genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  15. Clustering Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Tracks by the Standard Deviational Ellipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahinoor Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard deviational ellipse is useful to analyze the shape and the length of a tropical cyclone (TC track. Cyclone intensity at each six-hour position is used as the weight at that location. Only named cyclones in the Indian Ocean since 1981 are considered for this study. The K-means clustering algorithm is used to cluster Indian Ocean cyclones based on the five parameters: x-y coordinates of the mean center, variances along zonal and meridional directions, and covariance between zonal and meridional locations of the cyclone track. Four clusters are identified across the Indian Ocean; among them, only one cluster is in the North Indian Ocean (NIO and the rest of them are in the South Indian Ocean (SIO. Other characteristics associated with each cluster, such as wind speed, lifespan, track length, track orientation, seasonality, landfall, category during landfall, total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE, and cyclone trend, are analyzed and discussed. Cyclone frequency and energy of Cluster 4 (in the NIO have been following a linear increasing trend. Cluster 4 also has a higher number of landfall cyclones compared to other clusters. Cluster 2, located in the middle of the SIO, is characterized by the long track, high intensity, long lifespan, and high accumulated energy. Sea surface temperature (SST and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR associated with genesis of TCs are also examined in each cluster. Cyclone genesis is co-located with the negative OLR anomaly and the positive SST anomaly. Localized SST anomalies are associated with clusters in the SIO; however, TC geneses of Cluster 4 are associated with SSTA all over the Indian Ocean (IO.

  16. The phonatory deviation diagram: a novel objective measurement of vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madazio, Glaucya; Leão, Sylvia; Behlau, Mara

    2011-01-01

    To identify the discriminative characteristics of the phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in rough, breathy and tense voices. One hundred and ninety-six samples of normal and dysphonic voices from adults were submitted to perceptual auditory evaluation, focusing on the predominant vocal quality and the degree of deviation. Acoustic analysis was performed with the VoxMetria (CTS Informatica). Significant differences were observed between the dysphonic and normal groups (p < 0.001), and also between the breathy and rough samples (p = 0.044) and the breathy and tense samples (p < 0.001). All normal voices were positioned in the inferior left quadrant, 45% of the rough voices in the inferior right quadrant, 52.6% of the breathy voices in the superior right quadrant and 54.3% of the tense voices in the inferior left quadrant of the PDD. In the inferior left quadrant, 93.8% of voices with no deviation were located and 72.7% of voices with mild deviation; voices with moderate deviation were distributed in the inferior and superior right quadrants, the latter ones containing the most deviant voices and 80% of voices with severe deviation. The PDD was able to discriminate normal from dysphonic voices, and the distribution was related to the type and degree of voice alteration. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Variation in the standard deviation of the lure rating distribution: Implications for estimates of recollection probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin

    2017-10-01

    In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.

  18. Analyzing Menton Deviation in Posteroanterior Cephalogram in Early Detection of Temporomandibular Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelia Boel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Some clinicians believed that mandibular deviation leads to facial asymmetry and it also had a correlation with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. Posteroanterior (PA cephalogram was widely reported as a regular record in treating facial asymmetry and craniofacial anomalies. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs symptoms. Materials and Methods. TMJ function was initially screened based on TMD-DI questionnaire. PA cephalogram of volunteer subjects with TMDs (n=37 and without TMDs (n=33 with mean age of 21.61±2.08 years was taken. The menton deviation was measured by the distance (mm from menton point to midsagittal reference (MSR horizontally, using software digitized measurement, and categorized as asymmetric if the value is greater than 3 mm. The prevalence and difference of menton deviation in both groups were evaluated by unpaired t-test. Result. The prevalence of symmetry group showed that 65.9% had no TMDs with mean of 1,815 ± 0,71 mm; in contrast, the prevalence of asymmetry group showed that 95.5% reported TMDs with mean of 3,159 ± 1,053 mm. There was a significant difference of menton deviation to TMDs (p=0.000 in subjects with and without TMDs. Conclusion. There was a significant relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with TMDs based on TMD-DI index.

  19. Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2015-06-01

    Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A multi-mode multi-band RF receiver front-end for a TD-SCDMA/LTE/LTE-advanced in 0.18-μm CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Zhang Haiying

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated multi-mode multi-band directed-conversion radio frequency (RF) receiver front-end for a TD-SCDMA/LTE/LTE-advanced is presented. The front-end employs direct-conversion design, and consists of two differential tunable low noise amplifiers (LNA), a quadrature mixer, and two intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The two independent tunable LNAs are used to cover all the four frequency bands, achieving sufficient low noise and high gain performance with low power consumption. Switched capacitor arrays perform a resonant frequency point calibration for the LNAs. The two LNAs are combined at the driver stage of the mixer, which employs a folded double balanced Gilbert structure, and utilizes PMOS transistors as local oscillator (LO) switches to reduce flicker noise. The front-end has three gain modes to obtain a higher dynamic range. Frequency band selection and mode of configuration is realized by an on-chip serial peripheral interface (SPI) module. The front-end is fabricated in a TSMC 0.18-μm RF CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.3 mm 2 . The measured double-sideband (DSB) noise figure is below 3.5 dB and the conversion gain is over 43 dB at all of the frequency bands. The total current consumption is 31 mA from a 1.8-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-01-01

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  5. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  6. FTIR spectroscopic study on the Hofmann -Td- type clathrates: Ni(benzoic acid)2M(CN)4.aniline (M=Zn, Cd, Hg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesan, G.; Kartal, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Hofmann-Td-type clathrates formulated as Ni(L) 2 M(CN) 4 .nG where L is a bidentate or a pair of unidentate ligand molecule, M is Zn, Cd or Hg, G is a guest molecule and n is the number of guest molecule. The host lattice of the Hofmann-Td-type clathrates is formed from endless chains of -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- and M(CN) 4 ions arranged between the consecutive crossing -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- chains with the O-ends bound to the Ni metal atoms. These polymeric layers are held in parallel by Van der Walls interaction between ligand molecules. This structure provides α-type cavity. In this study, Ni(Benzoic Acid ) 2M(CN) 4 .Aniline (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) is obtained for the first time by means of chemical methods in powder form and their infrared spectra are reported in range of (4000-400) cm - 1. The spectral data suggest that the new clathrates are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type clathrates.

  7. An in vitro drug sensitivity test using a higher 3H-TdR incorporation and a modified human tumor stem cell assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enzhong

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro drug sensitivity test was developed to evaluate the lethal effects of drugs on human pulmonary carcinoma cells (HPCC). This method was a variant and combination of Human Tumor Stem (HTSCA) and a short-term test using 3 H-TdR incorporation. It consisted of a cell containing liquid top layer and a soft agar bottom layer in 24-well microplates. The medium was RPMI 1640 supplemented with 20% malignant pleural effusion, which could enhance 3 H-TdR incorporation into malignant cells. When 50%, 40%, 30% and 30% of cell survival rate defined as sensitivity-threshold for VCR, MMC, DDP and ADM respectively, in the vitro effectiveness were close to those of clinical single-drug treatment in HPCC by Wright et al. This method was also compared with HTSCA in ten human lung cancer cell lines and four pulmonary carcinoma tissues. The agreement rates were 83% and 100% respectively. Thus we presume this system is more useful for oncological clinics than the others

  8. Performance Evaluation of Nose Cap to Silica Tile Joint of RLV-TD under the Simulated Flight Environment using Plasma Wind Tunnel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Aravindakshan; Krishnaraj, K.; Sreenivas, N.; Nair, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation, India has successfully flight tested the reusable launch vehicle through launching of a demonstration flight known as RLV-TD HEX mission. This mission has given a platform for exposing the thermal protection system to the real hypersonic flight thermal conditions and thereby validated the design. In this vehicle, the nose cap region is thermally protected by carbon-carbon followed by silica tiles with a gap in between them for thermal expansion. The gap is filled with silica fibre. Base material on which the C-C is placed is made of molybdenum. Silica tile with strain isolation pad is bonded to aluminium structure. These interfaces with a variety of materials are characterised with different coefficients of thermal expansion joined together. In order to evaluate and qualify this joint, model tests were carried out in Plasma Wind Tunnel facility under the simultaneous simulation of heat flux and shear levels as expected in flight. The thermal and flow parameters around the model are determined and made available for the thermal analysis using in-house CFD code. Two tests were carried out. The measured temperatures at different locations were benign in both these tests and the SiC coating on C-C and the interface were also intact. These tests essentially qualified the joint interface between C-C and molybdenum bracket and C-C to silica tile interface of RLV-TD.

  9. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  10. Grammatical Deviations in the Spoken and Written Language of Hebrew-Speaking Children With Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther

    2001-04-01

    The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.

  11. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.

  12. There Is No Structural Relationship between Nasal Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Paranasal Sinus Fungus Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Lung Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson’s chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P=0.292 and P=0.593, resp.. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis.

  13. Why do total-body decay curves of iodine-labeled proteins begin with a delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regoeczi, E.

    1987-01-01

    The initial delay that occurs in total-body radiation curves reaching their single-exponential slopes was analyzed from 106 experiments involving several mammalian species (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat) and plasma proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, antithrombin III, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and transferrin) in 14 different combinations. The time interval (Td) between injection and the intercept of the slope with the full-dose value was adopted as a measure of curve nonideality. The overall mean Td was 6.6 h, but individual values showed a significant correlation to protein half-lives, whereby proteins of unequal metabolic properties exhibited different mean Td values. Targeting protein to the liver abolished delay. Choice of the isotope ( 125 I or 131 I) and size of the labeled protein had no influence on the magnitude of delay. Whole-body radiation curves of animals that received [ 125 I]iodotyrosines, Na 131 I, or 131 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibited no initial delays. These results do not support the earlier notion that delay is caused by a redistribution of the labeled protein in the body to radiometrically more favorable sites. However, they are compatible with the assumption that delayed passage of a protein dose through the extracellular matrix and/or retarded transfer of proteolytic products from extravascular catabolic sites to plasma may be responsible for the phenomenon

  14. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  15. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.

    2010-08-03

    Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.

  16. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  17. [Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.

  18. Test of the nonexponential deviations from decay curve of 52V using continuous kinetic function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Vo Tuong Hanh; Do Nguyet Minh; Nguyen Ngoc Son

    1995-01-01

    Present work is aimed at a formulation of an experimental approach to search the proposed nonexponential deviations from decay curve and at description of an attempt to test them in case of 52 V. Some theoretical description of decay processes are formulated in clarified forms. A continuous kinetic function (CKF) method is described for analysis of experimental data and CKF for purely exponential case is considered as a standard for comparison between theoretical and experimental data. The degree of agreement is defined by the factor of goodness. Typical deviations of oscillation behaviour of 52 V decay were observed in a wide range of time. The proposed deviation related to interaction between decay products and environment is researched. A complex type of decay is discussed. (authors). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Lazerson, Samuel A.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-05-01

    The presence of error fields has been shown to degrade plasma confinement and drive instabilities. Error fields can arise from many sources, but are predominantly attributed to deviations in the coil geometry. In this paper, we introduce a Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations. A primary cost function used for designing stellarator coils, the surface integral of normalized normal field errors, was adopted to evaluate the deviation of the generated magnetic field from the desired magnetic field. The FOCUS code (Zhu et al 2018 Nucl. Fusion 58 016008) is utilized to provide fast and accurate calculations of the Hessian. The sensitivities of error fields to coil displacements are then determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. A proof-of-principle example is given on a CNT-like configuration. We anticipate that this new method could provide information to avoid dominant coil misalignments and simplify coil designs for stellarators.

  20. On the Horizontal Deviation of a Spinning Projectile Penetrating into Granular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ghazi Alshanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a general theory that describes the dynamical behavior of the particulate materials makes the numerical simulations the most current powerful tool that can grasp many mechanical problems relevant to the granular materials. In this paper, based on a two-dimensional soft particle discrete element method (DEM, a numerical approach is developed to investigate the consequence of the orthogonal impact into various granular beds of projectile rotating in both clockwise (CW and counterclockwise (CCW directions. Our results reveal that, depending on the rotation direction, there is a significant deviation of the x-coordinate of the final stopping point of a spinning projectile from that of its original impact point. For CW rotations, a deviation to the right occurs while a left deviation has been recorded for CCW rotation case.

  1. Large deviations for solutions to stochastic recurrence equations under Kesten's condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraczewski, Dariusz; Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove large deviations results for partial sums constructed from the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation. We assume Kesten’s condition [17] under which the solution of the stochastic recurrence equation has a marginal distribution with power law tails, while the noise...... sequence of the equations can have light tails. The results of the paper are analogs of those obtained by A.V. and S.V. Nagaev [21, 22] in the case of partial sums of iid random variables. In the latter case, the large deviation probabilities of the partial sums are essentially determined by the largest...... step size of the partial sum. For the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation, the magnitude of the large deviation probabilities is again given by the tail of the maximum summand, but the exact asymptotic tail behavior is also influenced by clusters of extreme values, due to dependencies...

  2. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.

  4. Prevalence of postural deviations and associated factors in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira Batistão

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Postural deviations are frequent in childhood and may cause pain and functional impairment. Previously, only a few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in school children, and to determine, using multiple logistic regression analysis, whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, handedness and physical activity might explain these deviations. Methods: The posture of 288 students was assessed by observation. Subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, 59.4% (n = 171 of which were female. The mean age was 10.6 (± 2.4 years. Mean body weight was 38.6 (± 12.7 kg and mean height was 1.5 (± 0.1 m. A digital scale, a tapeline, a plumb line and standardized forms were used to collect data. The data were analyzed descriptively using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis (significance level of 5%. Results: We found the following deviations to be prevalent among schoolchildren: forward head posture, 53.5%, shoulder elevation, 74.3%, asymmetry of the iliac crests, 51.7%, valgus knees, 43.1%, thoracic hyperkyphosis, 30.2%, lumbar hyperlordosis, 37.2% and winged shoulder blades, 66.3%. The associated factors were age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of postural deviations and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors partially explain the postural deviations. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of how and why these deviations develop, and to the implementation of preventive and rehabilitation programs, given that some of the associated factors are modifiable.

  5. Significant calendar period deviations in testicular germ cell tumors indicate that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaks, Crystal; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    The current working model of type II testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) pathogenesis states that carcinoma in situ arises during embryogenesis, is a necessary precursor, and always progresses to cancer. An implicit condition of this model is that only in utero exposures affect the development of TGCT in later life. In an age-period-cohort analysis, this working model contends an absence of calendar period deviations. We tested this contention using data from the SEER registries of the United States. We assessed age-period-cohort models of TGCTs, seminomas, and nonseminomas for the period 1973-2008. Analyses were restricted to whites diagnosed at ages 15-74 years. We tested whether calendar period deviations were significant in TGCT incidence trends adjusted for age deviations and cohort effects. This analysis included 32,250 TGCTs (18,475 seminomas and 13,775 nonseminomas). Seminoma incidence trends have increased with an average annual percentage change in log-linear rates (net drift) of 1.25 %, relative to just 0.14 % for nonseminoma. In more recent time periods, TGCT incidence trends have plateaued and then undergone a slight decrease. Calendar period deviations were highly statistically significant in models of TGCT (p = 1.24(-9)) and seminoma (p = 3.99(-14)), after adjustment for age deviations and cohort effects; results for nonseminoma (p = 0.02) indicated that the effects of calendar period were much more muted. Calendar period deviations play a significant role in incidence trends of TGCT, which indicates that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

  6. Improved iterative oscillation tests for first-order deviating differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Chatzarakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, improved oscillation conditions are established for the oscillation of all solutions of differential equations with non-monotone deviating arguments and nonnegative coefficients. They lead to a procedure that checks for oscillations by iteratively computing \\(\\lim \\sup\\ and \\(\\lim \\inf\\ on terms recursively defined on the equation's coefficients and deviating argument. This procedure significantly improves all known oscillation criteria. The results and the improvement achieved over the other known conditions are illustrated by two examples, numerically solved in MATLAB.

  7. Quasi-potential and Two-Scale Large Deviation Theory for Gillespie Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-07

    The construction of energy landscape for bio-dynamics is attracting more and more attention recent years. In this talk, I will introduce the strategy to construct the landscape from the connection to rare events, which relies on the large deviation theory for Gillespie-type jump dynamics. In the application to a typical genetic switching model, the two-scale large deviation theory is developed to take into account the fast switching of DNA states. The comparison with other proposals are also discussed. We demonstrate different diffusive limits arise when considering different regimes for genetic translation and switching processes.

  8. Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.

  9. Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2012-08-01

    Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of standard deviations of group velocity dispersion in optical fibre using parametric amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....

  11. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  12. Maxillary palatal ramp prosthesis: A prosthodontic solution to manage mandibular deviation following surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampa Ray (Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  13. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  14. Beam deviation method as a diagnostic tool for the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Rueckle, B.

    1978-01-01

    The application of an optical method for density measurements in cylindrical plasmas is described. The angular deviation of a probing light beam sent through the plasma is proportional to the maximum of the density in the plasma column. The deviation does not depend on the plasma dimensions, however, it is influenced to a certain degree by the density profile. The method is successfully applied to the investigation of a dense plasma focus with a time resolution of 2 ns and a spatial resolution (in axial direction) of 2 mm. (orig.) [de

  15. Optimal Orientation Planning and Control Deviation Estimation on FAST Cable-Driven Parallel Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted theoretically to the optimal orientation planning and control deviation estimation of FAST cable-driven parallel robot. Regarding the robot characteristics, the solutions are obtained from two constrained optimizations, both of which are based on the equilibrium of the cabin and the attention on force allocation among 6 cable tensions. A kind of control algorithm is proposed based on the position and force feedbacks. The analysis proves that the orientation control depends on force feedback and the optimal tension solution corresponding to the planned orientation. Finally, the estimation of orientation deviation is given under the limit range of tension errors.

  16. The relationship between better-eye and integrated visual field mean deviation and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Karun S; Boland, Michael V; Friedman, David S; Jefferys, Joan L; West, Sheila K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-12-01

    To determine the extent of difference between better-eye visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and integrated VF (IVF) MD among Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) subjects and a larger group of glaucoma clinic subjects and to assess how those measures relate to objective and subjective measures of ability/performance in SEE subjects. Retrospective analysis of population- and clinic-based samples of adults. A total of 490 SEE and 7053 glaucoma clinic subjects with VF loss (MD ≤-3 decibels [dB] in at least 1 eye). Visual field testing was performed in each eye, and IVF MD was calculated. Differences between better-eye and IVF MD were calculated for SEE and clinic-based subjects. In SEE subjects with VF loss, models were constructed to compare the relative impact of better-eye and IVF MD on driving habits, mobility, self-reported vision-related function, and reading speed. Difference between better-eye and IVF MD and relationship of better-eye and IVF MD with performance measures. The median difference between better-eye and IVF MD was 0.41 dB (interquartile range [IQR], -0.21 to 1.04 dB) and 0.72 dB (IQR, 0.04-1.45 dB) for SEE subjects and clinic-based patients with glaucoma, respectively, with differences of ≥ 2 dB between the 2 MDs observed in 9% and 18% of the groups, respectively. Among SEE subjects with VF loss, both MDs demonstrated similar associations with multiple ability and performance metrics as judged by the presence/absence of a statistically significant association between the MD and the metric, the magnitude of observed associations (odds ratios, rate ratios, or regression coefficients associated with 5-dB decrements in MD), and the extent of variability in the metric explained by the model (R(2)). Similar associations of similar magnitude also were noted for the subgroup of subjects with glaucoma and subjects in whom better-eye and IVF MD differed by ≥ 2 dB. The IVF MD rarely differs from better-eye MD, and similar associations between VF loss and

  17. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Fernandez, Helen T

    2004-06-01

    Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca(2+) to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium difficile (n = 14), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium ramosum (n = 16), 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium innocuum (n = 15), 4 and 16 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium clostridioforme (n = 15), 8 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Eubacterium group (n = 33), 0.25 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Lactobacillus spp. (n = 26), 0.5 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Propionibacterium spp. (n = 34), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Linezolid showed decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against C. ramosum, two strains of C. difficile, and 15 strains of Lactobacillus spp. Imipenem and piperacillin

  18. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  19. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  20. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in