Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ascaso Carlos
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study a technical simplification for inference about the total deviation index (TDI estimate to assess agreement between two devices of normally-distributed measurements and describe its utility to evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement if more than one reading per subject is available for each device. Methods We propose to estimate the TDI by constructing a probability interval of the difference in paired measurements between devices, and thereafter, we derive a tolerance interval (TI procedure as a natural way to make inferences about probability limit estimates. We also describe how the proposed method can be used to compute bounds of the coverage probability. Results The approach is illustrated in a real case example where the agreement between two instruments, a handle mercury sphygmomanometer device and an OMRON 711 automatic device, is assessed in a sample of 384 subjects where measures of systolic blood pressure were taken twice by each device. A simulation study procedure is implemented to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the approach to two already established methods, showing that the TI approximation produces accurate empirical confidence levels which are reasonably close to the nominal confidence level. Conclusions The method proposed is straightforward since the TDI estimate is derived directly from a probability interval of a normally-distributed variable in its original scale, without further transformations. Thereafter, a natural way of making inferences about this estimate is to derive the appropriate TI. Constructions of TI based on normal populations are implemented in most standard statistical packages, thus making it simpler for any practitioner to implement our proposal to assess agreement.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg
2014-01-01
and standard deviation (mean ¼ 94.7; SD ¼ 8.4) from our age-matched controls (n ¼ 20) were used as reference. A fixedeffects multilevel regression model was employed to evaluate the treatment effects. Results: No interaction was observed between treatment and time (p ¼ 0.33) or limb and time (p ¼ 0...... Deviation Index (GDI), used to evaluate treatment in children with cerebral palsy, has been proposed as such a measure. The experience with GDI in osteoarthritis (OA) patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is unknown. The aim of our study was to use the GDI to evaluate post-operative gait quality.......53). The pre-operative GDI mean value was 83.4 10.9, showing patients had a moderate deviation from normative gait before surgical treatment. After surgical treatment, the GDI score improved significantly by 4.9 [:95CI: 2.1 to 7.9] equal to a 0.8 average increase in GDI per month of follow-up. Therewas...
Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations
Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit
2018-04-01
The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, Mervyn D.; Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly; Apgar, Bruce K.
2011-01-01
Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)
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Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)
2011-05-15
Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)
Ran, Yang; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2016-05-10
We present a new quantitative index of standard deviation to measure the homogeneity of spectral lines in a fiber amplifier system so as to find the relation between the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and the homogeneity of the corresponding spectral lines. A theoretical model is built and a simulation framework has been established to estimate the SBS threshold when input spectra with different homogeneities are set. In our experiment, by setting the phase modulation voltage to a constant value and the modulation frequency to different values, spectral lines with different homogeneities can be obtained. The experimental results show that the SBS threshold increases negatively with the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum, which is in good agreement with the theoretical results. When the phase modulation voltage is confined to 10 V and the modulation frequency is set to 80 MHz, the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum equals 0.0051, which is the lowest value in our experiment. Thus, at this time, the highest SBS threshold has been achieved. This standard deviation can be a good quantitative index in evaluating the power scaling potential in a fiber amplifier system, which is also a design guideline in suppressing the SBS to a better degree.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech
2015-01-01
Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...
The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.
Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz
2016-09-01
When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy J. Fullman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.
Evaluation of Navigation System Accuracy Indexes for Deviation Reading from Average Range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey Boykov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The method for estimating the mean of square error, kurtosis and error correlation coefficient for deviations from the average range of three navigation parameter indications from the outputs of three information sensors is substantiated and developed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš; Hlavoň, Pavel; Koukal, M.; Houfek, Martin
2007-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2007), S558-S558 ISSN 0021-9290. [ISB 2007. Taipei, 01.07.2007-05.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape deviation * hip joint endoprosthesis * contact areas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rimondi, E.; Molinari, M.; Moio, A.; Busacca, M.; Trentani, F.; Trentani, P.; Tigani, D.; Nigrosoli, M.
2000-01-01
CT assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty. From January to July 1999, 17 patients, 10 males and 7 females, mean age 66 years (standard deviation plus or minus 4) were examined after total knee arthroplasty. Exclusion criteriawere prosthesis loosening and severe (equal or superior to 7'' varus o valgus deviation. All patients were examined with knee radiography in the standing position completed by axial projection of patella and by CT scanning. It was used a modification of Berger technique and carried out comparative CT scans extended lower limbs and acquisitions perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the knee, from the femoral supracondylar region down to the plane crossing the distal end of the tibial prosthetic component. Reference lines were then drawn electronically on given scanning planes to reckon the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components. Six patients, one female and 5 males with normal rotational values of femoral and tibial prosthetic components presented no clinical symptoms. Eight patients, 4 females and 4 males, with abnormal values presented the following clinical symptoms: medial impingement, (incomplete) dislocation patella, and lateral instability. One female patient with a normal rotational value of femoral prosthetic component and an altered value of tibial prosthetic component presented medial impingement. Finally two patients, one female and one male, were absolutely asymptomatic although the rotational values of the two prosthetic components were beyond the normal range. Total knee arthroplasty is presently a standard treatment for many conditions involving this joint. There are several possible postoperative complications, namely fractures, dislocations (a)septic losening and femoropatellar instability. The latter condition is the most frequent complication among implant failures and is caused by bad orientation of the femoral and tibial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis B
2015-01-01
-operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: -2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8-7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren
2016-01-01
) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the 'Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability...... was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait 'quality' and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. METHOD: Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2...... and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-Physical Function) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales for pain (HOOS-Pain) and quality-of-life (HOOS-QOL). RESULTS: Mean Gait Deviation Index was positively associated with hip abduction strength (pstrength (p = 0...
Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Benestad, Beate; Lekhal, Samira; Danielsen, Yngvild; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran; Hertel, Jens K
2018-02-01
We analysed the distribution of the body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) in children and adolescents seeking treatment for severe obesity, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and the national Norwegian Bergen Growth Study (BGS) BMI reference charts and the percentage above the International Obesity Task Force 25 cut-off (IOTF-25). This was a cross-sectional study of 396 children aged four to 17 years, who attended a tertiary care obesity centre in Norway from 2009 to 2015. Their BMI was converted to SDS using the three growth references and expressed as the percentage above IOTF-25. The percentage of body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Regardless of which BMI reference chart was used, the BMI-SDS was significantly different between the age groups, with a wider range of higher values up to 10 years of age and a more narrow range of lower values thereafter. The distributions of the percentage above IOTF-25 and percentage of body fat were more consistent across age groups. Our findings suggest that it may be more appropriate to use the percentage above a particular BMI cut-off, such as the percentage above IOTF-25, than the IOTF, WHO and BGS BMI-SDS in paediatric patients with severe obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Jones, A; Shepard, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dave, J [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, R [The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hulme, K [The Cleveland Clinic, Beachwood, OH (United States); Rill, L [University Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States); Zamora, D [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Woodward, A [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Brady, S [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); MacDougall, R [Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Goldman, L [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT (United States); Lang, S; Peck, D [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Apgar, B [AGFA HealthCare, Greenville, SC (United States); Uzenoff, R [FUJIFILM Medical Systems U.S.A., Inc., Weston, CT (United States); Willis, C [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bellaire, TX (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To characterize the distribution of the deviation index (DI) in digital radiography practices across the United States. Methods: DI data was obtained from 10 collaborating institutions in the United States between 2012 and 2015. Each institution complied with the requirements of the Institutional Review Board at their site. DI data from radiographs of the body parts chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremity were analyzed for anteroposterior, posteroanterior, lateral, and decubitus views. The DI data was analyzed both in aggregate and stratified by exposure control method, image receptor technology, patient age, and participating site for each body part and view. The number of exposures with DI falling within previously published control limits for DI and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: DI data from 505,930 radiographic exposures was analyzed. The number of exposures with DI falling within published control limits for DI varied from 10 to 20% for adult patients and 10 to 23% for pediatric patients for different body parts and views. Mean DI values averaged over other parameters for radiographs of the abdomen, chest, pelvis, and extremities ranged from 0.3 to 1.0, −0.6 to 0.5, 0.8, and −0.9 to 0.5 for the different adult views and ranged from −1.6 to −0.1, −0.3 to 0.5, −0.1, −0.2 to 1.4 for the different pediatric views, respectively (DI data was solicited only for anteroposterior view of pelvis). Standard deviation values of DI from individual sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 and 1.3 to 3.0 for the different adult and pediatric views, respectively. Also of interest was that target exposure indicators varied by up to a factor of 6 between sites for certain body parts and views. Conclusion: Previously published DI control limits do not reflect the state of clinical practice in digital radiography. Mean DI and target exposure indicators are targets for quality improvement efforts in radiography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, A; Shepard, S; Dave, J; Fisher, R; Hulme, K; Rill, L; Zamora, D; Woodward, A; Brady, S; MacDougall, R; Goldman, L; Lang, S; Peck, D; Apgar, B; Uzenoff, R; Willis, C
2016-01-01
Purpose: To characterize the distribution of the deviation index (DI) in digital radiography practices across the United States. Methods: DI data was obtained from 10 collaborating institutions in the United States between 2012 and 2015. Each institution complied with the requirements of the Institutional Review Board at their site. DI data from radiographs of the body parts chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremity were analyzed for anteroposterior, posteroanterior, lateral, and decubitus views. The DI data was analyzed both in aggregate and stratified by exposure control method, image receptor technology, patient age, and participating site for each body part and view. The number of exposures with DI falling within previously published control limits for DI and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: DI data from 505,930 radiographic exposures was analyzed. The number of exposures with DI falling within published control limits for DI varied from 10 to 20% for adult patients and 10 to 23% for pediatric patients for different body parts and views. Mean DI values averaged over other parameters for radiographs of the abdomen, chest, pelvis, and extremities ranged from 0.3 to 1.0, −0.6 to 0.5, 0.8, and −0.9 to 0.5 for the different adult views and ranged from −1.6 to −0.1, −0.3 to 0.5, −0.1, −0.2 to 1.4 for the different pediatric views, respectively (DI data was solicited only for anteroposterior view of pelvis). Standard deviation values of DI from individual sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 and 1.3 to 3.0 for the different adult and pediatric views, respectively. Also of interest was that target exposure indicators varied by up to a factor of 6 between sites for certain body parts and views. Conclusion: Previously published DI control limits do not reflect the state of clinical practice in digital radiography. Mean DI and target exposure indicators are targets for quality improvement efforts in radiography.
Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Seki, Meikan; Nakano, Masahiro; Hachisuga, Toru; Goto, Yukio
2014-06-01
Disturbance of autonomic nervous activity has been thought to play a role in the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. This study was therefore designed to investigate the relationship between autonomic nervous activity and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal Japanese women. The autonomic nervous activity of 40 Japanese women with climacteric symptoms and 40 Japanese women without climacteric symptoms was measured by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability using a standard hexagonal radar chart. The scores for climacteric symptoms were determined using the simplified menopausal index. Sympathetic excitability and irritability, as well as the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position, were significantly (P standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position and the simplified menopausal index score. The lack of control for potential confounding variables was a limitation of this study. In climacteric women, the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position is negatively correlated with the simplified menopausal index score.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amandeep Chopra
2014-09-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the body mass index (BMI and factors related to BMI in 12-15 years old adolescents attending school in the Panchkula district of Haryana, India. METHODS: Our multistage sampling method enrolled 810 adolescents. Demographic data and dietary history data over 5 days were recorded. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, which was further categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system. Diet was analysed using the Nizel criteria and socioeconomic status (SES was assessed using Prasad’s socioeconomic classification. The chi-squared test and analysis of variance test were performed, and a multinomial regression analysis was performed to find significant correlates with BMI. RESULTS: The prevalences of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 13.6, 58.4, 22.7, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males than that among females. The overall food group, nutrient, sweet, and oral health diet scores were higher among overweight and obese adolescents. Adolescents attending public school were 2.62 times more likely than private school adolescents were to be underweight. Private school adolescents were 2.08 times more likely than public school adolescents were to be overweight. Those with a high SES, vegetarians, and those aged 15 years were highly likely to be obese. CONCLUSIONS: We found 41.6% of these adolescents to have a BMI that deviated from the norm. Important factors related with BMI were age, gender, socioeconomic score, mean daily diet score, and the type of school.
Jones index, secret sharing and total quantum dimension
Fiedler, Leander; Naaijkens, Pieter; Osborne, Tobias J.
2017-02-01
We study the total quantum dimension in the thermodynamic limit of topologically ordered systems. In particular, using the anyons (or superselection sectors) of such models, we define a secret sharing scheme, storing information invisible to a malicious party, and argue that the total quantum dimension quantifies how well we can perform this task. We then argue that this can be made mathematically rigorous using the index theory of subfactors, originally due to Jones and later extended by Kosaki and Longo. This theory provides us with a ‘relative entropy’ of two von Neumann algebras and a quantum channel, and we argue how these can be used to quantify how much classical information two parties can hide form an adversary. We also review the total quantum dimension in finite systems, in particular how it relates to topological entanglement entropy. It is known that the latter also has an interpretation in terms of secret sharing schemes, although this is shown by completely different methods from ours. Our work provides a different and independent take on this, which at the same time is completely mathematically rigorous. This complementary point of view might be beneficial, for example, when studying the stability of the total quantum dimension when the system is perturbed.
Refractive index sensor based on total scattering of plasmonic nanotube
Yao, Kaiqiang; Zeng, Qingbing; Hu, Zengrong; Zhan, Yaohui
2018-03-01
Plasmonic nanostructures can couple free space light into anultrafine space; therefore,they are employed extensively in the refractive index sensors to minimize the device size or further improve the detection sensitivity. In this work, the optical response of the plasmonic nanotube are investigated comprehensively by using full wave finite element method. With a subwavelength scale, the silver nanotube have prominent scattering peaks in the visible range, which is very suitable for observing through the dark field microscope. The geometric dependence of the scattering spectra and the sensing performance are evaluated carefully. Results show that the scattering peaks are in linear relationship to the circumstance refractive index and a sensitivity of 337 nm/RIUcan be achieved easily by such a plasmonicnanotube with an optimized size.
Varadhan, S R S
2016-01-01
The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.
Maassen, Gerard H
2010-08-01
In this Journal, Lewis and colleagues introduced a new Reliable Change Index (RCI(WSD)), which incorporated the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) of a repeated measurement design as the standard error. In this note, two opposite errors in using WSD this way are demonstrated. First, being the standard error of measurement of only a single assessment makes WSD too small when practice effects are absent. Then, too many individuals will be designated reliably changed. Second, WSD can grow unlimitedly to the extent that differential practice effects occur. This can even make RCI(WSD) unable to detect any reliable change.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg
-operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: 2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8–7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p
Takarabe, S; Yabuuchi, H; Morishita, J
2012-06-01
To investigate the usefulness of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high- density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region as features for classification of mammograms into four categories based on the ACR BI-RADS breast composition. We used 36 digital mediolateral oblique view mammograms (18 patients) approved by our IRB. These images were classified into the four categories of breast compositions by an experienced breast radiologist and the results of the classification were regarded as a gold standard. First, a whole mammary region in a breast was divided into two regions such as a high-density mammary glands region and a low/iso-density mammary glands region by using a threshold value that was obtained from the pixel values corresponding to a pectoral muscle region. Then the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was calculated. In addition, as a new method, the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region was calculated as an index based on the intermingling of mammary glands and fats. Finally, all mammograms were classified by using the combination of the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region and the standard deviation of each image. The agreement rates of the classification between our proposed method and gold standard was 86% (31/36). This result signified that our method has the potential to classify mammograms. The combination of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was available as features to classify mammograms based on the ACR BI- RADS breast composition. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...
Comprehensive evaluation index system of total supply capability in distribution network
Zhang, Linyao; Wu, Guilian; Yang, Jingyuan; Jia, Shuangrui; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Weiqing
2018-01-01
Aiming at the lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the distribution network, based on the existing distribution network evaluation index system, combined with the basic principles of constructing the evaluation index, put forward a new evaluation index system of distribution network capacity. This paper is mainly based on the total supply capability of the distribution network, combining single index and various factors, into a multi-evaluation index of the distribution network, thus forming a reasonable index system, and various indicators of rational quantification make the evaluation results more intuitive. In order to have a comprehensive judgment of distribution network, this paper uses weights to analyse the importance of each index, verify the rationality of the index system through the example, it is proved that the rationality of the index system, so as to guide the direction of distribution network planning.
Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique
2001-01-01
This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow
Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de
2013-01-01
This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)
An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher.
Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A
2015-01-01
The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.
Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su
2016-04-01
We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renato Ambrósio Jr
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ability to detect preoperative ectasia risk among LASIK candidates using classic ERSS (Ectasia Risk Score System and Pentacam Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D, and to test the benefit of a combined approach including BAD-D and clinical data. Methods: A retrospective nonrandomized study involved preoperative LASIK data from 23 post-LASIK ectasia cases and 266 stable-LASIK (follow up > 12 months. Preoperative clinical and Pentacam (Oculus; Wetzlar, Germany data were obtained from all cases. Mann-Whitney's test was performed to assess differences between groups. Stepwise logistic regression was used for combining parameters.The areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves (AUC were calculated for all parameters and combinations, with pairwise comparisons of AUC (DeLong's method. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for age, residual stromal bed (RSB, central corneal thickness and BAD-D (p0.05. ERSS was 3 or more on 12/23 eyes from the ectasia group (sensitivity = 52.17% and 48/266 eyes from the stable LASIK group (18% false positive. BAD-D had AUC of 0.931 (95% CI: 0.895 to 0.957, with cut-off of 1.29 (sensitivity = 87%; specificity = 92.1%. Formula combining BAD-D, age and RSB provided 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity, with better AUC (0.989; 95% CI: 0.969 to 0.998 than all individual parameters (p>0.001. Conclusion: BAD-D is more accurate than ERSS. Combining clinical data and BAD-D improved ectasia susceptibility screening. Further validation is necessary. Novel combined functions using other topometric and tomographic parameters should be tested to further enhance accuracy.
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders
2015-07-01
The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5-12 years diagnosed with spastic CP. No systematic bias was observed between the sessions and no heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland-Altman plots. For the GDI and GPS, excellent reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.8-0.9 was found, while the GVS was found to have fair to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4-0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18.5%. For the logarithmically transformed GVS, we found a fair to large variation in SEM% from 7 to 29% and in SDC% from 18 to 81%. The GDI and GPS demonstrated excellent reliability and acceptable agreement proving that they can both be used in research and clinical practice. However, the observed large variability for some of the GVS requires cautious consideration when selecting outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, S; Fahimian, B; Kenyon, M; Hsu, A [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is conventionally delivered through the dosimetric matching of mantle, spleen, and pelvis fields, necessitating multiple isocenters delivered through a combination of couch shifts and sliding of patients relative to the couch rendering the technique susceptible to shifting errors. To address this challenge, a novel technique for the couch indexing of TLI treatments is developed and evaluated through a multi-patient pilot trial. Methods: An immobilization device was designed consisting of a movable indexed slide board with an Exact Lok-Bar drilled into it. A Timo headrests were used fixate the head of the patient relative to the slide board. For the Varian Exact Couch™, the immobilization board was connected to the H3 notch to avoid the metal infrastructure of the couch for the delivery of the mantle and spleen fields. For tall patients the required shift for the pelvis isocenter reaches the shifting limit and the board was slid from H3 to H4 (a fixed distance of 14 cm). A total 22 patients were stratified in two groups of 11, one consisting of the conventional setup, and one group with the proposed immobilization technique. Results: The standard deviations (SD) of the couch positions in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for 10 fractions for each patient in both groups were calculated. In the non-indexed group, the positioning SD ranged from 0.9 to 4.7 cm. Using our device, the positioning SD was reduced to a range of 0.2 to 0.9 cm, with the longitudinal direction showing the largest improvement. Conclusion: Matched field TLI remains error prone to geometrical misses. The feasibility of full indexing TLI treatments was validated and shown to result in a significant reduction of positioning errors.
Total reflection and cloaking by zero index metamaterials loaded with rectangular dielectric defects
Wu, Ying
2013-05-06
In this work, we investigate wave transmission property through a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) waveguide embedded with rectangular dielectric defects. We show that total reflection and total transmission (cloaking) can be achieved by adjusting the geometric sizes and/or permittivities of the defects. Our work provides another possibility of manipulating wave propagation through ZIM in addition to the widely studied dielectric defects with cylindrical geometries.
Total reflection and cloaking by zero index metamaterials loaded with rectangular dielectric defects
Wu, Ying; Li, Jichun
2013-01-01
In this work, we investigate wave transmission property through a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) waveguide embedded with rectangular dielectric defects. We show that total reflection and total transmission (cloaking) can be achieved by adjusting the geometric sizes and/or permittivities of the defects. Our work provides another possibility of manipulating wave propagation through ZIM in addition to the widely studied dielectric defects with cylindrical geometries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rimondi, E.; Molinari, M.; Moio, A.; Busacca, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini; Trentani, F.; Trentani, P.; Tigani, D. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). VII Div.; Nigrosoli, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy). IV Div.
2000-06-01
CT assessment of the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty. From January to July 1999, 17 patients, 10 males and 7 females, mean age 66 years (standard deviation plus or minus 4) were examined after total knee arthroplasty. Exclusion criteria were prosthesis loosening and severe (equal or superior to 7 degrees) varus o valgus deviation. All patients were examined with knee radiography in the standing position completed by axial projection of patella and by CT scanning. It was used a modification of Berger technique and carried out comparative CT scans extended lower limbs and acquisitions perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the knee, from the femoral supracondylar region down to the plane crossing the distal end of the tibial prosthetic component. Reference lines were then drawn electronically on given scanning planes to reckon the axial deviation of the femoral and tibial prosthetic components. Six patients, one female and 5 males with normal rotational values of femoral and tibial prosthetic components presented no clinical symptoms. Eight patients, 4 females and 4 males, with abnormal values presented the following clinical symptoms: medial impingement, (incomplete) dislocation patella, and lateral instability. One female patient with a normal rotational value of femoral prosthetic component and an altered value of tibial prosthetic component presented medial impingement. Finally two patients, one female and one male, were absolutely asymptomatic although the rotational values of the two prosthetic components were beyond the normal range. Total knee arthroplasty is presently a standard treatment for many conditions involving this joint. There are several possible postoperative complications, namely fractures, dislocations (a)septic losening and femoropatellar instability. The latter condition is the most frequent complication among implant failures and is caused by bad orientation of the femoral and tibial
Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in modified atmosphere.
Djekic, Ilija; Vunduk, Jovana; Tomašević, Igor; Kozarski, Maja; Petrovic, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Pudja, Predrag; Klaus, Anita
2017-07-01
The aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP), low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP) and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR). This research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. Thereafter, odor intensities were stronger for all four types of packaging. Color difference and browning index values showed significantly lower color changes for AIR and LOP compared with HNP and LCP mushrooms. The best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are useful with respect to examining two-component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O 2 and CO 2 ) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and the total quality index of A. bisporus mushrooms. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bohannon, Kevin P; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel
2017-10-01
The refractive index in the interior of single cells affects the evanescent field depth in quantitative studies using total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence, but often that index is not well known. We here present method to measure and spatially map the absolute index of refraction in a microscopic sample, by imaging a collimated light beam reflected from the substrate/buffer/cell interference at variable angles of incidence. Above the TIR critical angle (which is a strong function of refractive index), the reflection is 100%, but in the immediate sub-critical angle zone, the reflection intensity is a very strong ascending function of incidence angle. By analyzing the angular position of that edge at each location in the field of view, the local refractive index can be estimated. In addition, by analyzing the steepness of the edge, the distance-to-substrate can be determined. We apply the technique to liquid calibration samples, silica beads, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and primary culture chromaffin cells. The optical technique suffers from decremented lateral resolution, scattering, and interference artifacts. However, it still provides reasonable results for both refractive index (~1.38) and for distance-to-substrate (~150 nm) for the cells, as well as a lateral resolution to about 1 µm.
Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig
2005-01-01
We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...
Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Restoration of body composition indicates successful management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Bioimpedance (BI) index (height(2)/resistance) is used to predict total body water (TBW) but its performance in SAM, especially with oedema, requires further investigation....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference ...Hzs. Pre- and post-deuterium dose saliva samples were analysed using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. TBW was regressed on H(2)/Z. Xc and R were height (H)-indexed, and Xc/H plotted against R/H. RESULTS: Thirty five children (16 non-oedematous and 19 oedematous) with median (interquartile range) age of 42...
Total quality index of ultrasound-treated blueberry and cranberry juices and nectars.
Režek Jambrak, Anet; Šimunek, Marina; Djekic, Ilija
2018-01-01
The influence of ultrasound in combination with elevated temperature (thermosonication) is important in inactivation effects on microorganisms. However, overall quality of these products can be deteriorated. The aim of this study was to examine the use of a single quality index in evaluating effects of ultrasound technology on quality characteristics of blueberry and cranberry juices and nectars. For the purpose of this study based on 10 quality parameters, two mathematical models for calculating a single total quality index have been introduced. Samples were treated according to the experimental design, with high power ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz under various conditions (treatment time: 3, 6 and 9 min, sample temperature: 20 ℃, for thermosonication: 40 and 60 ℃ and amplitude: 60, 90 and 120 µm). Mathematical index of total quality index in order to evaluate total quality of ultrasound-treated juices and nectars was established. For cranberry juices, treatments '11' (amplitude 120 µm) and '16' (amplitude 60 µm) both for 9 min and the temperature of 20 ℃ were best scored for both models. Treatment '6' (amplitude 120 µm, 3 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 20 ℃) for cranberry nectars was among the best for both models. Ultrasound treatments '6' of amplitude 120 µm, 3 min and the temperature of 20 ℃ and '11' same amplitude 120 µm and temperature, but 9 min were best scored blueberry juices for both models. Blueberry nectar had best total quality index for treatments '5' (amplitude 120 µm, 6 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 40 ℃) and '6' (amplitude 120 µm, 3 min treatment time and the sample temperature of 20 ℃).
A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Ming-Chung
2013-01-01
This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.
Horizontal scale calibration of theodolites and total station using a gauge index table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, L H B; Filho, W L O; Barros, W S
2015-01-01
This paper shows a methodology to calibrate the horizontal scale of theodolites and total station using a high accuracy index table. The calibration pursued the method of circular scales and precision polygons (also called Rosette Method [1] or multistep). This method consists in the angle comparison of two circular divisions in all relative positions possibilities. Index table errors and theodolite horizontal scale errors were obtained using the method of least squares which is used to process the data from Rosette Method. An experimental setup was used to evaluate this methodology and the details of the mechanical assembly are also described in this paper. Several theodolites and total stations were calibrated using the proposed system and the results infer that the method is suitable to calibrate the different models available in the market. The system showed good stability over time with measurements uncertainties around 1' (one second) depending on instrument features. (paper)
Spiegel, Matthew A; Lafage, Renaud; Lafage, Virginie; Ryan, Devon; Marascalchi, Bryan; Trimba, Yuriy; Ames, Christopher; Harris, Bradley; Tanzi, Elizabeth; Oren, Jonathan; Vira, Shaleen; Errico, Thomas; Schwab, Frank; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S
2016-01-01
Retrospective. This study assessed the feasibility of combining Oswestry and Neck Disability Index (ODI and NDI) into 1 shorter "Total Disability Index" (TDI) from which reconstructed scores could be computed. ODI and NDI are not pure assessments of disability related to back and neck, respectively. Because of similarities/redundancies of questions, ODI scores may be elevated in neck-pain patients and the converse is true for NDI in back-pain patients. Spine patients completed ODI and NDI, and complaints were recorded as back pain (BP), neck pain (NP), or both (BNP). Questionnaire scores were compared across cohorts via descriptives and Spearman (ρ) correlations. In exploring the feasibility of merging ODI/NDI, TDI was constructed from 9 ODI and 5 NDI items. Extracting questions from TDI, reconstructed 9-item rODI and 10-item rNDI indices were formed and compared with true ODI/NDI. There were a total of 1207 patients: 741 BP, 134 NP, and 268 BNP. Mean ODI was 37 ± 21 and mean NDI was 32 ± 21. Patients with concurrent BP and NP had significantly more disability. Seventy-eight patients of 134 (58%) patients with NP only had at least "moderate disability" by ODI and 297 of 741 (40%) patients with back pain only, had at least "moderate disability" by NDI. ODI versus NDI correlation was ρ = 0.755; ODI versus reconstructed rODI correlated at ρ = 0.985, and NDI versus reconstructed rNDI correlated at ρ = 0.967 (P disability in 1 region affects scores on both surveys. This study constructed a 14-item TDI that represents every domain of ODI/NDI with exception of ODI "Sex Life." From this TDI, reconstructed scores correlated near perfectly with true scores. TDI provides a more global assessment of spinal disability and is a questionnaire that reduces the time burden to patients. The TDI allows for simultaneous assessment of back, neck, and global spinal disability.
Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Valle, Manel del
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. ► It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. ► Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. ► Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. ► Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin–Ciocalteau method and I 280 index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I 280 ) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L −1 gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).
Jurkojć, Jacek; Wodarski, Piotr; Michnik, Robert A; Bieniek, Andrzej; Gzik, Marek; Granek, Arkadiusz
2017-01-01
Indexing methods are very popular in terms of determining the degree of disability associated with motor dysfunctions. Currently, indexing methods dedicated to the upper limbs are not very popular, probably due to difficulties in their interpretation. This work presents the calculation algorithm of new SDDI index and the attempt is made to determine the level of physical dysfunction along with description of its kind, based on the interpretation of the calculation results of SDDI and PULMI indices. 23 healthy people (10 women and 13 men), which constituted a reference group, and a group of 3 people with mobility impairments participated in the tests. In order to examine possibilities of the utilization of the SDDI index the participants had to repetitively perform two selected rehabilitation movements of upper extremities. During the tests the kinematic value was registered using inertial motion analysis system MVN BIOMECH. The results of the test were collected in waveforms of 9 anatomical angles in 4 joints of upper extremities. Then, SDDI and PULMI indices were calculated for each person with mobility impairments. Next, the analysis was performed to check which abnormalities in upper extremity motion can influence the value of both indexes and interpretation of those indexes was shown. Joint analysis of the both indices provides information on whether the patient has correctly performed the set sequence of movement and enables the determination of possible irregularities in the performance of movement given.
Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig
2005-01-01
-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...
Birkebaek, N H; Kahlert, J; Bjarnason, R; Drivvoll, A K; Johansen, A; Konradsdottir, E; Pundziute-Lyckå, A; Samuelsson, U; Skrivarhaug, T; Svensson, J
2018-05-21
Intensified insulin therapy may increase body weight and cause obesity. This study compared body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) and obesity rate in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and uncovered predictors for increasing BMISDS. Data registered in the Nordic national childhood diabetes databases during the period 2008-2012 on children below 15 years with T1D for more than 3 months were compiled, including information on gender, age, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), insulin dose, severe hypoglycemia (SH), treatment modality, height and weight. The Swedish reference chart for BMI was used for calculating BMISDS. Totally, 11 025 children (48% females) (30 994 registrations) were included. Medians by the last recorded examination were: age, 13.5 years; diabetes duration, 4.3 years; HbA 1c , 7.9% (63 mmol/mol); insulin dose, 0.8 IU/kg/d and BMISDS, 0.70. Obesity rate was 18.5%. Adjusted mean BMISDS (BMISDS adj) was inversely related to HbA 1c and directly to diabetes duration. Higher BMISDS adj was found in those with an insulin dose above 0.6 IU/kg/d, and in girls above 10 years. Pump users had higher BMISDS adj than pen users, and patients with registered SH had higher BMISDS adj than patients without SH (both P < .001). Obesity rate in children with T1D in the Nordic countries is high, however, with country differences. Low HbA 1c , long diabetes duration, higher insulin dose, pump treatment and experiencing a SH predicted higher BMISDS. Diabetes caregivers should balance the risk of obesity and the benefit of a very low HbA 1c. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)
2012-06-30
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).
The Distance Standard Deviation
Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel
2017-01-01
The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Campioli, M; Street, LE; Michelsen, Anders
2009-01-01
have not been accurately quantified. We address this knowledge gap by (i) direct measurements of LAI and TFN for C. tetragona, and (ii) determining TFN-LAI and LAI–normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships for typical C. tetragona tundras in the subarctic (Sweden) and High Arctic...... leaf N and biomass. The LAI-NDVI and TFN-LAI relationships showed high correlation and can be used to estimate indirectly LAI and TFN. The LAI-NDVI relationship for C. tetragona vegetation differed from a generic LAI-NDVI relationship for arctic tundra, whereas the TFN-LAI relationship did not. Overall...
Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Oyama, Yusuke; Abe, Akihito; Tago, Kazuma; Tanaka, Genki; Kubota, Keiichi
2014-08-01
To investigate the influence of clinical characteristics including nutritional markers on postoperative survival in patients undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer (GC). One hundred fifty-four patients were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to explore the most valuable clinical characteristic that was associated with postoperative survival. Multivariate analysis using twelve clinical characteristics selected from univariate analyses revealed that age (≤ 72/>72), carcinoembryonic antigen (≤ 20/>20) (ng/ml), white blood cell count (≤ 9.5/>9.5) (× 10(3)/mm(3)), prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (≤ 45/>45) and lymph node metastasis (negative/positive) were associated with postoperative survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed that patients with higher PNI (>45) had a higher postoperative survival rate than those with lower PNI (≤ 45) (p<0.001). PNI is associated with postoperative survival of patients undergoing TG for GC and is able to divide such patients into two independent groups before surgery. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobral, Sidney Pereira; Ribeiro, Carla de Matos; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Goncalves, Mary Ane [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: spsobral@inmetro.gov.br
2009-07-01
This paper determines the total acidity index of bioethanol by volumetric titration with potentiometric detection. Also, viewing the optimization of the method, studies are exhibited related to the repeatable, besides the comparison with the colorimetric method with the objective to contribute to the certification of bioethanol reference materials.
Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galicia C, F. J.
2015-01-01
This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roshan Entezar, S.
2015-01-01
The phase difference between two p-polarized and s-polarized plane waves which are reflected under total internal reflection from the base of a prism with a thin metal coating is studied. Typically such a quantity can be used to measure the refractive index of a test material using the total internal reflection method. It is shown that due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the interface between the tested dielectric material and the thin metal layer, the p-polarized light experiences a large phase shift which enlarges the phase difference between the p-polarized and the s-polarized waves. As a result, the sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases and the error in determining the refractive index decreases. - Highlights: • Phase difference of totally internally reflected p and s polarized beams is studied. • Excitation of the surface wave increases the phase shift of the p-polarized light. • The sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases by using a coated prism. • The error in determining the refractive index decreases using the coated prism
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela
This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...
Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.
Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor
2018-04-01
The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Itandehui Castro-Quezada
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Asato, Ryo
2003-01-01
Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT 4 ), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT 4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine
2003-02-01
Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)
Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.
2013-01-01
The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)
Hagy, Jessica
2008-01-01
Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.
Detecting deviating behaviors without models
Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.
2016-01-01
Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level
Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index
Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan
2015-05-01
The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.
Sirmatel, O; Sert, C; Sirmatel, F; Selek, S; Yokus, B
2007-06-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-strength magnetic field produced by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus on oxidative stress. The effects of a 1.5 T static magnetic field on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in male subjects were investigated. In this study, 33 male volunteers were exposed to a 1.5 T static magnetic field for a short time and the TAC, TOS and OSI of each subject were determined. Magnetic field exposure was provided using a magnetic resonance apparatus; radiofrequency was not applied. Blood samples were taken from subjects and TAC, TOS and OSI values were measured using the methods of Erel. TAC showed a significant increase in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to the magnetic field (p < 0.05). OSI and TOS showed a significant decrease in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to a 1.5 T magnetic field (for each of two, p < 0.01). The 1.5 T static magnetic field used in the MRI apparatus did not yield a negative effect; on the contrary, it produced the positive effect of decreasing oxidative stress in men following short-term exposure.
Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios
2013-08-01
The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...
Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations
Bhosale, Udaysinh T.
2017-12-01
The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.
Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.
2009-01-01
Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.
Waimann, Christian A; Fernandez-Mazarambroz, Rodrigo J; Cantor, Scott B; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Barbo, Andrea G; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Lin, Heather; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E
2016-08-01
Clinical and psychosocial attributes are associated with clinical outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), but their relationship with TKR-related costs is less clear. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of clinical and psychosocial attributes on TKR costs. We conducted a 6-month prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA who underwent TKR. We examined baseline demographic, clinical [body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities], and psychosocial attributes (social support, locus of control, coping, depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy); baseline and 6-month OA clinical outcomes [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function]; and 6-month direct and indirect TKR-related costs. Multiple regression was performed to identify determinants of TKR-related costs. We included 212 patients; 66% were women, 71% were white, and the mean age was 65.2 years. The mean baseline WOMAC pain score was 55 (SD 19) and WOMAC function score was 54 (SD 20). Mean total TKR-related costs were US$30,831 (SD $9893). Multivariate regression analyses showed that increasing BMI and anxiety levels and decreasing levels of positive social interactions were associated with increased costs. A lower cost scenario with a lower range of normal BMI (19.5), highest positive social interaction, and no anxiety predicted TKR costs to be $22,247. Predicted costs in obese patients (BMI 36) with lowest positive social interaction and highest anxiety were $58,447. Increased baseline BMI, anxiety, and poor social support lead to higher TKR-related costs in patients with knee OA. Preoperative interventions targeting these factors may reduce TKR-related costs, and therefore be cost-effective.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de
2013-07-01
This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Baker
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients presenting for total knee replacement who are classified as obese is increasing. The functional benefits of performing TKR in these patients are unclear. AIM: To assess the influence pre-operative body mass index has upon knee specific function, general health status and patient satisfaction at 3 years following total knee replacement. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative cohort study using prospectively collected data from an institutional arthroplasty register. METHODS: 1367 patients were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Medical Outcomes Trust Short Form-36 (SF-36 scores supplemented by a validated measure of satisfaction pre-operatively and subsequently at 1,2 and 3 year post-operatively. Comparisons were made by dividing the cohort into 4 groups based on body mass index (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 (n = 253;>25.0-30.0 kg/m(2 (n = 559;>30.0-35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 373;>35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 182. RESULTS: Despite lower pre-operative, 1 and 3 year WOMAC and SF-36 scores patients with the highest BMIs >35.0 kg/m(2 experienced similar improvements to patients with a 'normal' BMI (18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 at 1 year (Difference in WOMAC improvement = 0.0 (95%CI -5.2 to 5.2, p = 1.00 and this improvement was sustained at up to 3 years (Difference in 1 year to 3 year improvement = 2.2 (95%CI: -2.1 to 6.5, p = 1.00. This effect was also observed for the SF-36 mental and physical component scores. Despite equivalent functional improvements levels of satisfaction in the >35.0 kg/m(2 group were lower than for any other BMI group (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 84.6% satisfied versus 18.5-5.0 kg/m(2 = 93.3% satisfied,p = 0.01 as was the proportion of patients who stated they would have the operation again (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 69.6% versus 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 = 82.2%,p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Obese and morbidly obese patients gain as much functional benefit from
Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M
2016-03-01
Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation
Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur
2017-01-01
The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galicia C, F. J.
2015-07-01
This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
2018-01-01
We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...
Stubbe, J.H.; Gelsema, T.; Delnoij, D.M.J.
2007-01-01
Background: The Dutch Consumer Quality Index Hip Knee Questionnaire (CQI Hip Knee) was used to assess patients' experiences with and evaluations of quality of care after a total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study is to evaluate the construct validity and internal
Berryman, Erin Michele; Ryan, Michael G.; Bradford, John B.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Birdsey, R.
2016-01-01
In forests, total belowground carbon (C) flux (TBCF) is a large component of the C budget and represents a critical pathway for delivery of plant C to soil. Reducing uncertainty around regional estimates of forest C cycling may be aided by incorporating knowledge of controls over soil respiration and TBCF. Photosynthesis, and presumably TBCF, declines with advancing tree size and age, and photosynthesis increases yet C partitioning to TBCF decreases in response to high soil fertility. We hypothesized that these causal relationships would result in predictable patterns of TBCF, and partitioning of C to TBCF, with natural variability in leaf area index (LAI), soil nitrogen (N), and tree height in subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Using three consecutive years of soil respiration data collected from 22 0.38-ha locations across three 1-km2 subalpine forested landscapes, we tested three hypotheses: (1) annual soil respiration and TBCF will show a hump-shaped relationship with LAI; (2) variability in TBCF unexplained by LAI will be related to soil nitrogen (N); and (3) partitioning of C to TBCF (relative to woody growth) will decline with increasing soil N and tree height. We found partial support for Hypothesis 1 and full support for Hypotheses 2 and 3. TBCF, but not soil respiration, was explained by LAI and soil N patterns (r2 = 0.49), and the ratio of annual TBCF to TBCF plus aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was related to soil N and tree height (r2 = 0.72). Thus, forest C partitioning to TBCF can vary even within the same forest type and region, and approaches that assume a constant fraction of TBCF relative to ANPP may be missing some of this variability. These relationships can aid with estimates of forest soil respiration and TBCF across landscapes, using spatially explicit forest data such as national inventories or remotely sensed data products.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Solberg Peter
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.
Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Ma Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C; Olveira, Gabriel
2015-10-01
Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with an increased risk of death, in both the short and the long term. The purpose of this study was to determine which nutrition-related risk index predicts long-term mortality better (three years) in patients who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective, multicenter study involved noncritically ill patients who were prescribed TPN during hospitalization. Data were collected on Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), body mass index, albumin and prealbumin, as well as long-term mortality. Over the 1- and 3-year follow-up periods, 174 and 244 study subjects (28.8% and 40.3%) respectively, died. Based on the Cox proportional hazards survival model, the nutrition-related risk indexes most strongly associated with mortality were SGA and albumin (Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Computer generation of random deviates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cormack, John
1991-01-01
The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.
2013-01-01
The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)
Wagenmakers, Robert; Stevens, Martin; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Groothoff, Johan W.
Background and Purpose Despite the recognized health benefits of physical activity, little is known about the amount of physical activity that patients perform after total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end, the ability of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)
Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
2018-04-01
We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
McLawhorn, Alexander S; Steinhaus, Michael E; Southren, Daniel L; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Dodwell, Emily R; Figgie, Mark P
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients across World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) classes before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis who received elective primary unilateral THA were identified through an institutional registry and categorized based on the World Health Organization BMI classification. Age, sex, laterality, year of surgery, and Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index were recorded. The primary outcome was the EQ-5D-3L index and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) scores at 2 years postoperatively. Inferential statistics and regression analyses were performed to determine associations between BMI classes and HRQoL. EQ-5D-3L scores at baseline and at 2 years were statistically different across BMI classes, with higher EQ-VAS and index scores in patients with lower BMI. There was no difference observed for the 2-year change in EQ-VAS scores, but there was a statistically greater increase in index scores for more obese patients. In the regression analyses, there were statistically significant negative effect estimates for EQ-VAS and index scores associated with increasing BMI class. BMI class is independently associated with lower HRQoL scores 2 years after primary THA. While absolute scores in obese patients were lower than in nonobese patients, obese patients enjoyed more positive changes in EQ-5D index scores after THA. These results may provide the most detailed information on how BMI influences HRQoL before and after THA, and they are relevant to future economic decision analyses on the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...
48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...
Gillespie, James Bryce
1982-03-01
A specific method of determining the complex refractive index of powdered materials using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was investigated. A very precise laser/goniometric ATR system was assembled and applied to powdered samples of carbon blacks, graphite, kaolin clay, quartz, calcite, and sodalime glass beads. The reflectivity data fell into two categories: (1) data representative of a medium having a unique effective refractive index and (2) data representative of a scattering medium having no unique refractive index. Data of the first kind were obtained from all the carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay samples. The Fahrenfort-Visser solution of the Fresnel equations was applied to the goniometric reflectivity data for these samples to obtain the complex refractive index of these effective media. The complex refractive index obtained in this manner is not that of the bulk material but is instead a value which may be related to the bulk material value through some refractive index mixing rule. A systematic experiment using carbon black of particle size 0.0106 mm diameter was conducted to determine the applicability of several mixture rules for the volume packing fraction range of .2 to .6 which is most often encountered. The Bruggemann effective medium theory produced credible results while the Lorentz-Lorenz rule and the empirical Biot-Arago rule were invalid in this volume packing region. The Bruggemann rule was applied to lampblack, Mogul-L carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay to obtain the complex refractive indices of these materials from the ATR spectroscopy data. Goniometric reflectivity data representative of an inhomogeneous scattering medium were obtained from all the powdered quartz, powdered calcite, and sodalime glass beads samples. These samples all contained particles with diameters nearly as large as the wavelength. These data demonstrate that the ATR technique, coupled with an effective medium analysis, may be used to obtain
Fujinami, Taku; Kigami, Hiroshi; Unno, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Jun; Satake, Shin-ichi
2018-03-01
Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is a promising method for measuring fluid flow close to a wall with nanoscale resolution in a process that is termed "multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry" (MnPIV). TIRFM uses evanescent light that is generated on a substrate (typically a glass slide) by total internal reflection of light. Many researchers have previously studied x-y-z (3D) flows of water close to flat glass slides using MnPIV. On the other hand, a fluid flow close to a structured surface is also important. To measure flows of water near micro-patterns, we previously developed an MnPIV technique that uses a refractive-index-matching method. In previous study, the micropattern is made of a thermoplastic material with a refractive index that closely matches that of water. In this study, ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography was used for fabricating the appropriate micro-patterns because this technique can fabricate a pattern with a high resolution. As a result, we succeeded in performing MnPIV in water with a circular hole array pattern made by ultraviolet nanoimprint using a refractive-index-matching method. We believe that this technique will be helpful in elucidating fluid flows around microstructures.
Deviations in human gut microbiota
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M
2015-01-01
microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M
2015-09-01
Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Yunhee; Shin, Sangah; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kim, Claire E; Lee, Jong-Koo; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kang, Daehee
2018-06-01
Diet quality scores or indices, based on dietary guidelines, are used to summarize dietary intake into a single numeric variable. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the modified diet quality index for Koreans (DQI-K) and mortality among Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study participants. The DQI-K was modified from the original diet quality index. A total of 134,547 participants (45,207 men and 89,340 women) from the HEXA-G study (2004 and 2013) were included. The DQI-K is based on eight components: 1) daily protein intake, 2) percent of energy from fat, 3) percent of energy from saturated fat, 4) daily cholesterol intake, 5) daily whole-grain intake, 6) daily fruit intake, 7) daily vegetable intake, and 8) daily sodium intake. The association between all-cause mortality and the DQI-K was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after adjusting for age, gender, income, smoking status, alcohol drinking, body mass index, and total energy intake. The total DQI-K score was calculated by summing the scores of the eight components (range 0-9). In the multivariable adjusted models, with good diet quality (score 0-4) as a reference, poor diet quality (score 5-9) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratios = 1.23, 95% confidence intervals = 1.06-1.43). Moreover, a one-unit increase in DQI-K score resulted in a 6% higher mortality risk. A poor diet quality DQI-K score was associated with an increased risk of mortality. The DQI-K in the present study may be used to assess the diet quality of Korean adults.
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...
48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...
48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...
48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...
48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...
48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...
Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen
2017-12-01
This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.
Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol
2016-03-10
In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ozgen Saydam, Basak; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Bozdag, Gurkan; Oguz, Kader Karli; Yildiz, Bulent Okan
2017-07-01
To detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. Forty subjects participated in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed. Total brain volume and total gray matter volume (GMV) were decreased in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean PCOS and controls did not show a significant difference. Secondary analyses of regional brain volumes showed decreases in GMV of the caudate nucleus, ventral diencephalon and hippocampus in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean patients with PCOS had lower GMV in the amygdala than lean controls (p PCOS, suggests volumetric reductions in global brain areas in obese women with PCOS. Functional studies with larger sample size are needed to determine physiopathological roles of these changes and potential effects of long-term medical management on brain structure of PCOS.
The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept
Ye, Xiaoming
2017-01-01
Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...
48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...
48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...
48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...
48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...
48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...
Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Hamadneh, Jehan; Hailat, Rae'd; Hamadneh, Shereen
2017-12-01
Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old. The main outcome measures were tHcy, BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. Serum tHcy was analyzed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS) complete kit. The body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Study participants were stratified according to their tHcy level into two groups, ≤10 μmol/L and >10 μmol/L, and the difference between mean values of body compositions was evaluated. The tHcy was significantly and negatively correlated with age, fat-free mass, and total body water, and significantly and positively correlated with BMI, hip circumference, WHR, fat mass, and dry lean weight. The chi-square and the independent sample t-tests showed statistically significant (P ≤ .05) differences between tHcy and BMI, WHR, fat and fat-free mass, and total body water percentages. In conclusion, BMI, WHR and body fat mass were found to be associated with elevated tHcy levels among overweight reproductive women, and they might be used as independent predictors of the tHcy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atan, Doğan; Özcan, Kürşat Murat; Gürbüz, Ayşe Betül Topak; Dere, Hüseyin
2016-07-01
The authors aimed to analyze the effect of septoplasty, performed in 2 groups with different grades of nasal septal deviation (NSD), on voice performance. A total of 43 patients who had septoplasty due to NSD and were included in the study. The study groups were divided into 2 groups as groups A and B. The patients in group A had severe NSD, and 1 of the nasal cavity was obstructed totally or near totally. In group B, the NSD narrowed the nasal passage, and the deviation was not severe. The voice performance was analyzed preoperatively, and 1 month after surgery with both objective and subjective methods. Objective analysis included acoustic voice analysis, and measurement of F0, jitter %, shimmer %. Preoperative and postoperative F0, jitter %, shimmer %, and Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30) were compared in groups A and B. F0 showed a statistically significant improvement after surgery in group A (P performed for severe NSD obstructing nasal lumen totally or near totally results in significant improvements in the voice performance.
Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J
2016-05-01
Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond
2003-11-07
An HPLC method is reported for the separation and quantification of five major polyphenolic groups found in fruits and related products: single ring phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. A binary mobile phase consisting of 6% acetic acid in 2 mM sodium acetate aqueous solution (v/v, final pH 2.55) (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) was used. The use of sodium acetate was new and key to the near baseline separation of 25 phenolics commonly found in fruits. A photodiode array detector was used and data were collected at four wavelengths (280, 320, 360, and 520 nm). This method was sensitive and gave good separation of polyphenolics in apple, cherry, strawberry, blackberry, grape, apple juice, and a processing by-product. The improved separation has led to better understanding of the polyphenolic profiles of these fruits. Individual as well as total phenolic content was obtained, and the latter was close to and correlated well with that obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (FC). The HPLC data can be used as a total phenolic index (TPI) for quantification of fruit phenolics, which is advantageous over the FC because it has more information on individual compounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delnoij Diana MJ
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch Consumer Quality Index Hip Knee Questionnaire (CQI Hip Knee was used to assess patients' experiences with and evaluations of quality of care after a total hip (THA or total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of this new instrument and to assess its ability to measure differences in quality of care between hospitals. Methods Survey data of 1,675 subjects who underwent a THA or TKA were used to evaluate the psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analyses were performed and item-total correlations and inter-factor correlations were calculated to assess the construct validity of the instrument. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Finally, multilevel analyses were performed to assess the ability of the instrument to discriminate between hospitals in quality of care. Results Exploratory factor analyses indicated that the survey consisted of 21 items measuring five aspects of care (i.e. communication with nurses, communication with doctors, communication with general practitioner, communication about new medication, and pain control. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.76 to 0.90 indicating good internal consistency. The survey's ability to discriminate between hospitals was partly supported by multilevel analysis. Two scales (i.e. communication with nurses and communication with doctors were able to measure differences between hospitals with respect to patients' experiences with quality of care. Logistic multilevel analyses indicated that hospitals explained part of the variation between patients in receiving information. Conclusion These findings suggest that the CQI Hip Knee is reliable and valid for use in Dutch health care. Health care providers or health plans can use this survey to measure patients' experiences with hospital care and to identify variations in care
Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Martz, Pierre; Armand, Stéphane; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Suva, Domizio; Turcot, Katia; Miozzari, Hermes H; Lübbeke, Anne
2017-08-01
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on gait parameters preoperatively and 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Seventy-nine patients were evaluated before and 1 year after TKA using clinical gait analysis. The gait velocity, the knee range of motion (ROM) during gait, their gains (difference between baseline and 1 year after TKA), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), quality of life, and patient satisfaction were assessed. Nonobese (BMI gait speed and ROM gains. Adjustment was performed for gender, age, and WOMAC pain improvement. At baseline, gait velocity and knee ROM were significantly lower in obese compared with those in the nonobese patients (0.99 ± 0.27 m/s vs 1.11 ± 0.18 m/s; effect size, 0.53; P = .021; and ROM, 41.33° ± 9.6° vs 46.05° ± 8.39°; effect size, 0.52; P = .022). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions did not show any significant relation between gait speed gain or knee ROM gain and BMI. At baseline, obese patients were more symptomatic than nonobese (WOMAC pain: 36.1 ± 14.0 vs 50.4 ± 16.9; effect size, 0.9; P < .001), and their improvement was significantly higher (WOMAC pain gain, 44.5 vs 32.3; effect size, 0.59; P = .011). These findings show that all patients improved biomechanically and clinically, regardless of their BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
INDICATIVE MODEL OF DEVIATIONS IN PROJECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article shows the process of constructing the project deviations indicator model. It based on a conceptual model of project deviations integrated management (PDIM. During the project different causes (such as risks, changes, problems, crises, conflicts, stress lead to deviations of integrated project indicators - time, cost, quality, and content. For a more detailed definition of where in the project deviations occur and how they are dangerous for the whole project, it needs to develop an indicative model of project deviations. It allows identifying the most dangerous deviations that require PDIM. As a basis for evaluation of project's success has been taken famous model IPMA Delta. During the evaluation, IPMA Delta estimated project management competence of organization in three modules: I-Module ("Individuals" - a self-assessment personnel, P-module ("Projects" - self-assessment of projects and/or programs, and O-module ("Organization" - used to conduct interviews with selected people during auditing company. In the process of building an indicative model of deviations in the project, the first step is the assessment of project management in the organization by IPMA Delta. In the future, built cognitive map and matrix of system interconnections of the project, which conducted simulations and built a scale of deviations for the selected project. They determined a size and place of deviations. To identify the detailed causes of deviations in the project management has been proposed to use the extended system of indicators, which is based on indicators of project management model Project Excellence. The proposed indicative model of deviations in projects allows to estimate the size of variation and more accurately identify the place of negative deviations in the project and provides the project manager information for operational decision making for the management of deviations in the implementation of the project
Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua
2014-01-01
With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李继伟; 林雪彦; 王云; 胡志勇; 刘桂梅; 吴志强; 王中华
2016-01-01
本试验旨在研究全混合日粮( TMR)饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响。选取30个高产牛群,每个牛群采样5 d。采取牛群TMR及剩料样品,进行养分分析和颗粒分级评定,计算各指标的变异系数。记录产奶量,取奶样测乳成分。多元线性回归分析养分、颗粒的变异系数与牛群生产性能的关系。结果表明：30个牛群饲喂的TMR产奶净能(NEL)和粗蛋白质(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、微生物蛋白质(MCP)、瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)、瘤胃能氮平衡( RENB)、小肠可消化粗蛋白质( DCPSI)、钙( Ca)含量分别为6.56 MJ/kg 和16.22%、35.71%、21.38%、77.84 g/kg、92.15 g/kg、14.77 g/kg、104.04 g/kg、1.43%,其中高于配方目标的指标有NDF(1.94%)、Ca(0.57%)、RUP(5.03 g/kg)、RENB (6.95 g/kg ),低于配方目标的指标有 CP (-0.36%)、ADF (-1.54%)、NEL (-0.12 MJ/kg)、MCP(-7.71 g/kg)、DCPSI(-2.12 g/kg)(正值表示提高,负值表示降低)。观测期内,RUP[(16.26±7.10)%]、MCP[(22.78±13.38)%]、RENB[(64.29±34.29)%]3种养分的变异系数大于10%,其他养分的变异系数均小于10%。长、中、短、细4类颗粒含量的变异系数分别为(15.78±9.25)%、(9.12±7.86)%、(6.00±4.00)%、(11.15±9.62)%。回归分析表明, TMR养分和颗粒度变异影响产奶量和乳成分,NEL 变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降3.662 kg/d；长颗粒变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降0.124 kg/d,乳脂率升高0.012%。结果提示,TMR饲喂泌乳奶牛摄入养分因投料不准确、加工质量不稳定、搅拌不均匀、挑食等与配方养分产生差异。 TMR加工质量稳定性影响到产奶量和乳成分,其中NEL、DCPSI、RENB的变异影响产奶量,长颗粒变异影响产奶量和乳脂率。%This experiment analyzed the reason for deviation of nutrient intake of lactating cow herds fed total mixed ration ( TMR) and the effects on
Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burm, K.T.A.L.
2004-01-01
A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously
Kupina, Steve; Roman, Mark
2014-01-01
An international collaborative study was conducted of an HPLC-refractive index (RI) detector method for the determination of the combined amounts of sugars, glycerol, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in wines and wine-like beverages. Nine collaborating laboratories representing major winery, contract laboratories, and government laboratories tested eight different materials as blind duplicates using the proposed method. Sample materials included red and white wines, port, wine cooler, and nonalcoholic wine. One material was a negative control, and one material was a reference material. Samples were either treated with an ion-exchange resin to remove interfering organic acids prior to analysis or left untreated to include organic acids and phenolics. Red wine samples were treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove potential interferences from phenolics prior to analysis. The HPLC analyses were performed on a Bio-Rad Fast Acid Analysis Column using RI detection. Reproducibility (RSD(R)) for untreated samples (sugars + phenolics + organic acids) ranged from 6.6% for Titrivin AA4 reference material to 11.0% for dry red wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) ranged from 6.8% for white zinfandel to 18.9% for dry white wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) + glycerol ranged from 6.4% for white zinfandel to 19.8% for dry red wine. Based on these results, the method was adopted as Official First Action status for determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.
Comparing Standard Deviation Effects across Contexts
Ost, Ben; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj; Schiman, Jeffrey C.
2017-01-01
Studies using tests scores as the dependent variable often report point estimates in student standard deviation units. We note that a standard deviation is not a standard unit of measurement since the distribution of test scores can vary across contexts. As such, researchers should be cautious when interpreting differences in the numerical size of…
FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER
Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya
2017-01-01
Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...
41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110 Deviations...
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation. (a...
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...
Effect of density deviations of concrete on its attenuation efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szymendera, L.; Wincel, K.; Blociszewski, S.; Kordyasz, D.; Sobolewska, I.
In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections--without additional shielding calculation--to the design thickness of the shield. It has been also found that in common cases of shield design, where any necessity of minimizing the shield thickness does not exist, the tendency to minimize the value of this deviation is hardly substantiable
TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.
Vartiainen, Johanna; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Ukkola, Olavi
2006-10-01
Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide with several functions linked to energy metabolism. Low ghrelin plasma concentrations are associated with obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas high concentrations reflect states of negative energy balance. Several studies addressing the hormonal and neural regulation of ghrelin gene expression have been carried out, but the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin plasma levels remains unclear. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin expression, we screened 1657 nucleotides of the ghrelin gene 5' flanking region (promoter and possible regulatory sites) for new sequential variations from patient samples with low (n = 50) and high (n = 50) fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations (low- and high-ghrelin groups). Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3 of which were rare variants (allelic frequency less than 1%) were found in our population. The genotype distribution patterns of the SNPs did not differ between the study groups, except for SNP-501A>C (P = .039). In addition, the SNP-01A>C was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = .018). This variant was studied further in our large and well-defined Oulu Project Elucidating Risk for Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort (n = 1045) by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. No significant association of SNP-501A>C genotypes with fasting ghrelin plasma concentrations was found in the whole OPERA population. However, the association of this SNP with BMI and with waist circumference reached statistical significance in OPERA (P = .047 and .049, respectively), remaining of borderline significance for BMI after adjustments (P = .055). The results indicate that factors other than the 11 SNPs found in this study in the 5' flanking region of ghrelin gene are the main determinants of ghrelin plasma levels. However, SNP-501 A>C genotype distribution seems to be different in subjects having the highest
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
The large deviations theorem and ergodicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Rongbao
2007-01-01
In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touchette, Hugo
2009-01-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Touchette, Hugo
2009-07-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
Jespersen, E.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Holst, R.; Klakk, H.; Heidemann, M.; Rexen, C.T.; Franz, C.; Wedderkopp, N.
2014-01-01
Background Overweight youths are generally recognised as being at increased risk of sustaining lower extremity injuries in sports. However, previous studies are inconclusive and choices for measuring overweight are manifold. Objective To examine two different measures of overweight, body mass index
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chloe Ya Gao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David
2017-10-01
We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.
PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aishwarya Bakshi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.
3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.
Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A
2013-05-01
This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may
SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION(s) CHART UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF MODERATENESS AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Kalpesh S. Tailor
2017-01-01
Moderate distribution proposed by Naik V.D and Desai J.M., is a sound alternative of normal distribution, which has mean and mean deviation as pivotal parameters and which has properties similar to normal distribution. Mean deviation (δ) is a very good alternative of standard deviation (σ) as mean deviation is considered to be the most intuitively and rationally defined measure of dispersion. This fact can be very useful in the field of quality control to construct the control limits of the c...
A robust standard deviation control chart
Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse
Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chela Flores, J.
1986-07-01
By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
2010-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.
Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio
2013-12-01
Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.
2013-07-01
The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.
1979-01-01
Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.
2013-07-01
The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)
Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael
2014-07-01
The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Serrà
Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Hearing protector performance and standard deviation.
Williams, W; Dillon, H
2005-01-01
The attenuation performance of a hearing protector is used to estimate the protected exposure level of the user. The aim is to reduce the exposed level to an acceptable value. Users should expect the attenuation to fall within a reasonable range of values around a norm. However, an analysis of extensive test data indicates that there is a negative relationship between attenuation performance and the standard deviation. This result is deduced using a variation in the method of calculating a single number rating of attenuation that is more amenable to drawing statistical inferences. As performance is typically specified as a function of the mean attenuation minus one or two standard deviations from the mean to ensure that greater than 50% of the wearer population are well protected, the implication of increasing standard deviation with decreasing attenuation found in this study means that a significant number of users are, in fact, experiencing over-protection. These users may be disinclined to use their hearing protectors because of an increased feeling of acoustic isolation. This problem is exacerbated in areas with lower noise levels.
Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo
2009-01-01
We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S 1 /Z 2 , in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HAKAN SARITAŞ
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.
Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.
Fischer, R. E.
1972-01-01
The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Hamzei
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.
1990-01-01
In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)
Sakyo, Yumi; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Hiroko; Setoyama, Yoko
2009-01-01
People are required to take in and comprehend a massive amount of health information and in turn make some serious decisions based on that information. We, at St. Luke's College of Nursing, provide a rich selection of high-quality health information, and have set up Nursing Net (The Kango Net:Kango is Nursing in Japanese). This website provides information for consumers as well as people interested in the nursing profession. In an attempt to identify the needs of users, this study conducted an analysis of the contents on the total consultation page. Many readers voted that responses to nursing techniques and symptoms questions proved instrumental in their queries. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this is an easy-to-access, convenient site for getting health information about physical symptoms and nursing techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İhsan Çaça
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.
Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.
2008-01-01
We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment
Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil
Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...
Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.
Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal
2017-06-19
Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
2010-01-01
... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoegl, A.
1996-01-01
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de
Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery
A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...
Use of Standard Deviations as Predictors in Models Using Large-Scale International Data Sets
Austin, Bruce; French, Brian; Adesope, Olusola; Gotch, Chad
2017-01-01
Measures of variability are successfully used in predictive modeling in research areas outside of education. This study examined how standard deviations can be used to address research questions not easily addressed using traditional measures such as group means based on index variables. Student survey data were obtained from the Organisation for…
Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D
2009-09-01
There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, plean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, pproduction of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.
Deviation in âVis and RÄminâ by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Forouzandeh
2016-09-01
Finally, from among all the norm deviations proposed by Leech, temporal, style, written, lexical and, particularly, semantic norm deviations are the ones that can be considered norm deviations to compose poems. It should be said that there were no evidence to indicate the existence of written and style norm deviations in Vis and Ramin. Totally, by analyzing the verses order of occurrence of norm deviations in Vis and Ramin is as follow: syntactic, phonetic, semantic, lexical, temporal and dialectic norm deviations. It is worth mentioning that the poet has observed the elements of conductivity and aesthetic in applying norm deviations.
Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Arkela-Kautiainen, Marja; Ylinen, Jari
2006-01-01
To study the characteristics and changes in the total Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and in its ten component items in female and male patients pre- and post-surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Ninety-eight patients [mean (SD) age 43 (13), 61% males] undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery were selected for this clinical 12-month follow-up. Subjective disability and back and leg pain were assessed by ODI version 1.0 and the visual analog scale. Pre-operatively females had a significantly higher mean (SD) total ODI [59(3)] than males [51(2)] (P = 0.030). Females were more disabled in the walking, sex life, social life and travelling items of the ODI compared to males. The total Oswestry decreased by 38 (95% CI − 44 to − 31) in females and by 34 (− 39 to − 30) in males at the 1-year follow-up. Most of the improvement (88% in females and 80% in males) occurred during the first 6 weeks; thereafter the changes were minor. In males the changes were greatest in pain, social life and travelling and in females in walking, social life and travelling. Internal consistency value of ODI was 0.88 (95% CI 0.82–0.91). Item analysis of the ODI showed that all the items except pain had high corrected item correlation. As recovery following lumbar disc surgery occurred to a great extent during the first 6 weeks, the early post-operative outcome appears to be quite a reliable indicator of the overall post-operative outcome over the 1-year follow-up. The ODI proved to capture a wide range of disability in these lumbar disc surgery patients, thereby supporting the future use of the index. The “pain intensity” component, which collects data on the use of painkillers in version 1.0 of the ODI did not support the item structure of the index in this study. The use of ODI version 2.0 might remove this problem. PMID:16912888
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...
41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.
2010-07-01
... best interest of the Government; (3) If applicable, the name of the contractor and identification of... background information which will contribute to a full understanding of the desired deviation. (b)(1... authorized to grant deviations to the DOE-PMR. (d) Requests for deviations from the FPMR will be coordinated...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trelia Boel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Some clinicians believed that mandibular deviation leads to facial asymmetry and it also had a correlation with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. Posteroanterior (PA cephalogram was widely reported as a regular record in treating facial asymmetry and craniofacial anomalies. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs symptoms. Materials and Methods. TMJ function was initially screened based on TMD-DI questionnaire. PA cephalogram of volunteer subjects with TMDs (n=37 and without TMDs (n=33 with mean age of 21.61±2.08 years was taken. The menton deviation was measured by the distance (mm from menton point to midsagittal reference (MSR horizontally, using software digitized measurement, and categorized as asymmetric if the value is greater than 3 mm. The prevalence and difference of menton deviation in both groups were evaluated by unpaired t-test. Result. The prevalence of symmetry group showed that 65.9% had no TMDs with mean of 1,815 ± 0,71 mm; in contrast, the prevalence of asymmetry group showed that 95.5% reported TMDs with mean of 3,159 ± 1,053 mm. There was a significant difference of menton deviation to TMDs (p=0.000 in subjects with and without TMDs. Conclusion. There was a significant relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with TMDs based on TMD-DI index.
Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela
2013-01-01
Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.
Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli
2017-09-01
Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan Miao
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion. Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions. Monoclonality is a major characteristic of most tumors, whereas normal tissue and reactive hyperplasia are polyclonal. Methods The clinicopathological features and clonality of MDA were investigated using laser microdissection and a clonality assay based on the polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR and X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues. Results The results demonstrated that the glands were positive for CEA, Ki-67, and p53 and negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV DNA. The index of proliferation for Ki-67 was more than 50%. However, the stromal cells were positive for ER, PR, vimentin, and SM-actin. The clonal assay showed that MDA was monoclonal. Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV. Conclusions Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.
DeSantis, Michael C; DeCenzo, Shawn H; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M
2010-03-29
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera.We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image which is a function of the total number of detected photons, the background photon noise, and the camera pixel size. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental, simulation, and numerical integration results. Using this expression, we show that single-molecule standard deviation measurements offer nanometer precision for a large range of experimental parameters.
Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements
Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang
2016-01-01
We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...
Large deviations for noninteracting infinite-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donsker, M.D.; Varadhan, S.R.S.
1987-01-01
A large deviation property is established for noninteracting infinite particle systems. Previous large deviation results obtained by the authors involved a single I-function because the cases treated always involved a unique invariant measure for the process. In the context of this paper there is an infinite family of invariant measures and a corresponding infinite family of I-functions governing the large deviations
Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation
Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar
2018-01-01
Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...
Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations
De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick
2016-01-01
We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Kruger, OA
2000-01-01
Full Text Available on face-to-face angle measurements. The results show that flatness and eccentricity deviations have less effect on angle measurements than do pyramidal errors. 1. Introduction Polygons and angle blocks are the most important transfer standards in the field... of angle metrology. Polygons are used by national metrology institutes (NMIs) as transfer standards to industry, where they are used in conjunction with autocollimators to calibrate index tables, rotary tables and other forms of angle- measuring equipment...
Speed of Reversion of Deviations of the Purchasing Power Parity for Brazilian Cities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe de Sousa Bastos
Full Text Available This study estimates the rate of reversion of deviations from the PPP for Brazilian cities considering three possible sources of bias: i Nickell, ii the heterogeneity of the autoregressive coefficients, and iii generated by the temporal aggregation of price indices. The values of the estimated half-lives were approximately 4.41 and 3.18 years when considering the price index of Brazil and the average of the indices of cities as references, respectively. When using the price index for each city as the numeraire, the median half-life is 3.13 years.
Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela
2013-01-01
Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Ferro
Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.
Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I
2015-01-01
Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and
Large Deviations for the Annealed Ising Model on Inhomogeneous Random Graphs: Spins and Degrees
Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Hofstad, Remco van der
2018-04-01
We prove a large deviations principle for the total spin and the number of edges under the annealed Ising measure on generalized random graphs. We also give detailed results on how the annealing over the Ising model changes the degrees of the vertices in the graph and show how it gives rise to interesting correlated random graphs.
Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...
Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons.
Ferreira, Jamille Barros; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson
2016-01-01
To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.
Statistics as Unbiased Estimators: Exploring the Teaching of Standard Deviation
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Casey, Stephanie; Champion, Joe; Huey, Maryann
2017-01-01
This manuscript presents findings from a study about the knowledge for and planned teaching of standard deviation. We investigate how understanding variance as an unbiased (inferential) estimator--not just a descriptive statistic for the variation (spread) in data--is related to teachers' instruction regarding standard deviation, particularly…
Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...
Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate the...
The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain
Coolen-Schrijner, P.; van Doorn, E.A.
2001-01-01
The deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a
The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain
Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.
2002-01-01
he deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a
Sensitivity Analysis of Deviation Source for Fast Assembly Precision Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Assembly precision optimization of complex product has a huge benefit in improving the quality of our products. Due to the impact of a variety of deviation source coupling phenomena, the goal of assembly precision optimization is difficult to be confirmed accurately. In order to achieve optimization of assembly precision accurately and rapidly, sensitivity analysis of deviation source is proposed. First, deviation source sensitivity is defined as the ratio of assembly dimension variation and deviation source dimension variation. Second, according to assembly constraint relations, assembly sequences and locating, deviation transmission paths are established by locating the joints between the adjacent parts, and establishing each part’s datum reference frame. Third, assembly multidimensional vector loops are created using deviation transmission paths, and the corresponding scalar equations of each dimension are established. Then, assembly deviation source sensitivity is calculated by using a first-order Taylor expansion and matrix transformation method. Finally, taking assembly precision optimization of wing flap rocker as an example, the effectiveness and efficiency of the deviation source sensitivity analysis method are verified.
Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz, Guiomar; Tsallis, Constantino
2012-01-01
A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e −Nr , r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e q −Nr q (∝1/N 1/(q−1) , q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.
Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics
Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.
1990-01-01
Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation
45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...
Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.
Goldberg, Fred M.
1985-01-01
Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery for horizontal deviation.
Merino, P; Blanco Domínguez, I; Gómez de Liaño, P
2016-02-01
To study the outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) for treating horizontal deviation Case Series of the first 26 consecutive patients operated on using the MISS technique in our hospital from February 2010 to March 2014. A total of 40 eyes were included: 26 patients (mean age: 7.7 years old ± 4.9); 34.61%: male. A total of 43 muscles were operated on: 20 medial, and 23 lateral recti; 28 recessions (range: 3-7.5mm), 6 resections (6-7 mm), and 9 plications (6.5-7.5 mm) were performed. No significant difference was found (P>0.05) for visual acuity at postoperative day 1, and 6 months after surgery. A mild hyperaemia was observed in 29.27%, moderate in 48.78%, and severe in 21.95% at postoperative day 1 and in 63.41%, 31.70% and 4.87%, respectively, at 4 days after surgery. The complications observed were 4 intraoperative conjunctival haemorrhages, 1 scleral perforation, and 2 Tenon's prolapses. A conversion from MISS to a fornix approach was necessary in 1 patient because of bad visualization. The operating time range decreased from 30 to 15 minutes. The MISS technique has obtained good results in horizontal strabismus surgery. The conjunctival inflammation was mild in most of the cases at postoperative day 4. The visual acuity was stable during follow-up, and operating time decreased after a 4-year learning curve. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piumi Francois
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii
Large deviations in the presence of cooperativity and slow dynamics
Whitelam, Stephen
2018-06-01
We study simple models of intermittency, involving switching between two states, within the dynamical large-deviation formalism. Singularities appear in the formalism when switching is cooperative or when its basic time scale diverges. In the first case the unbiased trajectory distribution undergoes a symmetry breaking, leading to a change in shape of the large-deviation rate function for a particular dynamical observable. In the second case the symmetry of the unbiased trajectory distribution remains unbroken. Comparison of these models suggests that singularities of the dynamical large-deviation formalism can signal the dynamical equivalent of an equilibrium phase transition but do not necessarily do so.
Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatnitsky, S.; Izewska, J.
2002-01-01
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Vertical force and wrist deviation angle when using a walker to stand up and sit down.
Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan
2011-08-01
Research investigating walkers suggests that safety and assistance for the elderly with weak lower limbs were important. However, the relationship between the use of a walker and the upper limbs has received little investigation. Standing up and sitting down are important daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance to stand up and sit down. In total, 64 elderly volunteers (M age = 80.22, SD = 9.36) were enrolled. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer. Wrist deviation and vertical force were examined when participants used a walker with horizontal handles to assist in standing up and sitting down. Significant wrist angle deviation occurred with the use of a walker, with dorsiflexion of the right hand greater than that of the left. Males exerted significantly greater vertical force. In the sitting position, greater ulnar deviation was seen among experienced walker users, whereas during standing, experienced users exhibited greater dorsiflexion. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers may cause user wrist deviations, suggesting researchers should pursue improvements in walker design.
Management of Contract Waivers and Deviations for Defense Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
1998-01-01
This report is the fourth and final in a series of reports resulting from our audit of management of contract waivers and deviations for Defense systems and summarizes our overall evaluation. Report...
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges
Wittich, O.
2005-01-01
By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.
Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prince Kumar
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.
Tel, G.
We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of
Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing
Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.
2017-09-01
Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.
Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.
de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
2011-07-01
Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.
Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara
2018-05-02
To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets
Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian
2018-03-01
In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.
Owens, Tom
2006-01-01
This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauer, T.S.; Booth, T.S.; Riedesel, E.
1999-01-01
Retrospective analysis of the radiographs of horses with carpal valgus, presented to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1987-1996, were used to compare 2 methods of geometric analysis for finding the total angle of deviation. The pivot point angle method and the individual joint angle method were found to be comparable for determining the total angle of deviation. The individual joint angle method was used to analyse individual carpal joint angles and physis angle in joints with carpal valgus, as well as the changes that occurred in response to surgical correction. Multiple joint involvement was common with carpal valgus; and surgical manipulation caused a change in angle at all joints. Use of the individual joint angle method for evaluating carpal valgus may aid the surgeon in making a more accurate prognosis
Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.
Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael
2012-08-01
Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vytautas Valaitis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.
A framework for the direct evaluation of large deviations in non-Markovian processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavallaro, Massimo; Harris, Rosemary J
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework to simulate stochastic trajectories with arbitrarily long memory dependence and efficiently evaluate large deviation functions associated to time-extensive observables. This extends the ‘cloning’ procedure of Giardiná et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 120603) to non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate the validity of this method by testing non-Markovian variants of an ion-channel model and the totally asymmetric exclusion process, recovering results obtainable by other means. (letter)
Deviation from Covered Interest Rate Parity in Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungho Lee
2003-06-01
Full Text Available This paper tested the factors which cause deviation from covered interest rate parity (CIRP in Korea, using regression and VAR models. The empirical evidence indicates that the difference between the swap rate and interest rate differential exists and is greatly affected by variables which represent the currency liquidity situation of foreign exchange banks. In other words, the deviation from CIRP can easily occur due to the lack of foreign exchange liquidity of banks in a thin market, despite few capital constraints, small transaction costs, and trivial default risk in Korea.
van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C
2017-02-01
Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...
Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma
Daniel, M; Raghavan, U
2005-01-01
Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farkas, J.
1992-01-01
In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farkas, J
1993-12-31
In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.
48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.
2010-10-01
... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...
A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Dessen
1988-04-01
Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.
Oscillations in deviating difference equations using an iterative technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George E Chatzarakis
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract The paper deals with the oscillation of the first-order linear difference equation with deviating argument and nonnegative coefficients. New sufficient oscillation conditions, involving limsup, are given, which essentially improve all known results, based on an iterative technique. We illustrate the results and the improvement over other known oscillation criteria by examples, numerically solved in Matlab.
Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatalov, V R
2003-01-01
Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields
Patterns of deviation in Niyi Osundare's poetry | Dick | Mgbakoigba ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A critical stylistic study of the poetry of Niyi Osundare from Nigeria reveals that he has made an exemplary ... deviate from norms and conventions of language thereby creating aesthetics ...
International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations
Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.
2007-01-01
We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...
Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a
Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation
de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
Sample-path large deviations in credit risk
Leijdekker, V.J.G.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Spreij, P.J.C.
2011-01-01
The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a
Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding
Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.
2018-02-01
Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.
Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...
Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.
On asymptotically efficient simulation of large deviation probabilities.
Dieker, A.B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.
2005-01-01
ABSTRACT: Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often impractical, particularly if the
Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...
Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms.
Sansone, Stephanie M; Schneider, Andrea; Bickel, Erika; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Prescott, Christina; Hessl, David
2014-01-01
Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment.
Nemr, Katia; Cota, Ariane; Tsuji, Domingos; Simões-Zenari, Marcia
2018-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D) and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP), the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10). METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses. The correlation between the score for each questionnaire and the overall degree of vocal deviation was analyzed, as was the correlation among the scores for the three questionnaires. RESULTS: Most of the participants (62%) were female, and the mean age of the sample was 49 years. The most common laryngeal diagnosis was organic dysphonia (79.5%). The mean D was 59.54, and the predominance of roughness had a mean of 54.74. All the participants exhibited at least one abnormal acoustic aspect. The mean questionnaire scores were DRSP, 44.7; V-RQOL, 57.1; and VHI-10, 16. An inverse correlation was found between the V-RQOL score and D; however, a positive correlation was found between both the VHI-10 and DRSP scores and D. CONCLUSION: A predominance of adult women, organic dysphonia, moderate voice deviation, high dysphonia risk, and low to moderate quality of life impact characterized our sample. There were correlations between the scores of each of the three questionnaires and the degree of voice deviation. It should be noted that the DRSP monitored the degree of dysphonia severity, which reinforces its applicability for patients with different laryngeal diagnoses. PMID:29538494
Voice symptoms and vocal deviation self-assessment in different types of dysphonia.
Moreti, Felipe; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara
2014-01-01
To identify the relationship among the type of dysphonia, vocal deviation self-assessed and the presence of voice symptoms in adults. One hundred sixty-four subjects of both genders (58 males and 106 females, mean age 42.89 years) diagnosis of dysphonia, divided into three groups according to the type of dysphonia: 87 individuals with functional dysphonia, 35 individuals with organofunctional dysphonia and 42 individuals with organic dysphonia, answered the Brazilian validated version of Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) (Escala de Sintomas Vocais - ESV), that consists of 30 questions with four scores: Impairment, Emotional, Physical and Total, and self-assessed their voices as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. According to the dysphonia type, there were differences in ESV Impairment, Emotional and Total mean scores, which was not found in the Physical score. The Impairment, Emotional and Total mean scores were higher in organic dysphonia, followed by organofunctional dysphonia and finally functional dysphonia. When the vocal self-assessment is poor, the higher are the deviations in the Impairment, Emotional and Total ESV scores. Individuals with organic dysphonia reported higher perception of voice symptoms, followed by subjects with organofunctional dysphonia and finally individuals with functional dysphonia. In general, individuals with dysphonia presented physical voice symptoms, regardless of the type of the dysphonia. Finally, there are direct correlations between Impairment, Emotional and Total ESV scores and the vocal self-assessment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.
1976-01-01
It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)
Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.
2016-01-01
A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10−8) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Junior, S. dos; Ghilardi N, T.
1998-01-01
In order to guarantee that the error limit in the dose administration is inside of the recommended limit by the ICRU (the ICRU recommends that the doses administrated in radiotherapy must be inside of a total deviation ± 5 %), the radiotherapy services are maintaining quality control programs and dosimetry which guarantee that the equipment yield or source should be known with precision. The Quality Control Programs foresee moreover the radiation beam calibration dosimetry, the In vivo dosimetry for obtaining a greater control of the administered doses. At present it counts on greater devices for maintaining the deviations inside this margin, and one of them is the u se of masks. The present work was carried out on a Siemens equipment model Gammatron S-80 (Co-60) in the Radiotherapy Service of the Sao Paulo University Hospital where teletherapy procedures are realized. (Author)
Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)], E-mail: jporitz@gmail.com
2009-05-04
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.
Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical Communication over Quantum Channels
Chubb, Christopher T.; Tan, Vincent Y. F.; Tomamichel, Marco
2017-11-01
We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altŭg and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdú. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
Colistete, R J; Kerner, R
2002-01-01
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)
2016-12-20
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation
Edvardsson, Bo; Tronvoll, Bård; Höykinpuro, Ritva
2011-01-01
Purpose – This article seeks to develop a new framework to outline factors that influence the resolution of unfavourable service experiences as a result of double deviation. The focus is on understanding and managing complex service recovery processes. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive, explorative and narrative approach was selected. Data were collected in the form of narratives from the field through interviews with actors at various levels in organisations as well as with custo...
Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushner, Harold J.
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.
OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.
Olsen, Harold W.
1985-01-01
This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.
Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de, R.; Zanten, van, J.H.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2001-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution
[Deviation in psychosexual development in the pre-puberty children].
Liavshina, G Kh
2002-01-01
Psychosexual health of 308 children, aged 2-11 years, as well as that of their families, was studied. Deviations in psychosexual development were found in 34.6% of the children examined. The following types were detected: difficulties in formation of gender-determined behavior features--64.4%, precocious psychosexual development--13.7%, delayed psychosexual development--12.3%, obsessive masturbation--9.6%. Risk factors for deviant psychosexual development were found.
Direct training of robots using a positional deviation sensor
Dessen, Fredrik
1988-01-01
A device and system for physically guiding a manipulator through its task is described. The device consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors, enabling the rcbot to track a motion marker. Factors limiting the tracking performance are the kinematics of the sensor device and the bartdwidth of the servo system. Means for improving it includes the use of optimal motion coordination and force and velocity feedback. This enables real-time manual training o...
Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.
Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija
2011-07-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
user1
Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.
Multiple Scale Analysis of the Dynamic State Index (DSI)
Müller, A.; Névir, P.
2016-12-01
The Dynamic State Index (DSI) is a novel parameter that indicates local deviations of the atmospheric flow field from a stationary, inviscid and adiabatic solution of the primitive equations of fluid mechanics. This is in contrast to classical methods, which often diagnose deviations from temporal or spatial mean states. We show some applications of the DSI to atmospheric flow phenomena on different scales. The DSI is derived from the Energy-Vorticity-Theory (EVT) which is based on two global conserved quantities, the total energy and Ertel's potential enstrophy. Locally, these global quantities lead to the Bernoulli function and the PV building together with the potential temperature the DSI.If the Bernoulli function and the PV are balanced, the DSI vanishes and the basic state is obtained. Deviations from the basic state provide an indication of diabatic and non-stationary weather events. Therefore, the DSI offers a tool to diagnose and even prognose different atmospheric events on different scales.On synoptic scale, the DSI can help to diagnose storms and hurricanes, where also the dipole structure of the DSI plays an important role. In the scope of the collaborative research center "Scaling Cascades in Complex Systems" we show high correlations between the DSI and precipitation on convective scale. Moreover, we compare the results with reduced models and different spatial resolutions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnet, Poul Martin
2007-01-01
basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lopez Moris E
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.
Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps
2014-01-15
N ŕ’"(dt; dy) and the controls ’" : X [0; T ] ! [0;1) are predictable processes satisfying LT (’") Ma2 (") for some constantM . Here LT denotes...space. Although in the moderate deviations problem one has the stronger bound LT (’") Ma2 (") on the cost of controls, the mere tightness of ’" does not...suitable quadratic form. For " > 0 and M ə, consider the spaces SM+;" : = f’ : X [0; T ]! R+j LT (’) Ma2 (")g (2.5) SM" : = f : X [0; T ]! Rj
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, A Silva; Santos, A Costa; E Sousa, J Alves; Forbes, A B
2015-01-01
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment
Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics
Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.
2018-05-01
We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.
Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo
2016-01-01
The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.
Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states
Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo
2016-10-01
The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.
Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states
Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo
2016-01-01
The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...
Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, P.C.
1975-01-01
The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series
Setyawan, Juliana; Hodgkins, Paul; Guérin, Annie; Gauthier, Geneviève; Cloutier, Martin; Wu, Eric; Erder, M Haim
2013-10-01
To compare therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients initiated on lisdexamfetamine (LDX) vs other once-daily Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved stimulants. ADHD patients initiated on a long-acting ADHD stimulant medication (index medication) in/after 2007 were selected from a large U.S. administrative claims database. Patients were required to be persistent for ≥90 days and continuously enrolled in their healthcare plan for ≥12 months following treatment initiation date. Based on age and previous treatment status, patients were classified into treatment-naïve children and adolescents (6-17 years old), previously treated children and adolescents, treatment-naïve adults (≥18 years old), and previously treated adults. Furthermore, patients were classified into four mutually exclusive treatment groups, based on index medication: lisdexamfetamine (LDX), osmotic release methylphenidate hydrochloride long-acting (OROS MPH), other methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate long-acting (MPH LA), and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine long-acting (AMPH LA). The average daily consumption was measured as the quantity of index medication supplied in the 12-month study period divided by the total number of days of supply. Therapy augmentation was defined as the use of another ADHD medication concomitantly with the index medication for ≥28 consecutive days. Therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen were compared between treatment groups using multivariate logistic regression models. Compared to the other treatment groups, LDX patients were less likely to augment with another ADHD medication (range odds ratios [OR]; 1.28-3.30) and to deviate from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen (range OR; 1.73-4.55), except for previously treated adult patients, where therapy augmentation differences were not statistically
Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach
Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun
2018-03-01
In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.
Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V
2016-09-01
Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schreiber, M.
2010-08-01
The Hirsch index or h-index is widely used to quantify the impact of an individual's scientific research output, determining the highest number h of a scientist's papers that received at least h citations. Several variants of the index have been proposed in order to give more or less preference to highly cited papers. I analyse the citation records of 26 physicists discussing various suggestions, in particular A, e, f, g, h(2), h_w, h_T, \\hbar, m, {\\pi}, R, s, t, w, and maxprod. The total number of all and of all cited publications as well as the highest and the average number of citations are also compared. Advantages and disadvantages of these indices and indicators are discussed. Correlation coefficients are determined quantifying which indices and indicators yield similar and which yield more deviating rankings of the 26 datasets. For 6 datasets the determination of the indices and indicators is visualized.
Tian, Xu; Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui
2017-09-08
Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20-59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004-2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns.
ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013-12-31
Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong
1996-01-01
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm
Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble
Schönhammer, K.
2017-07-01
Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.
Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.
1994-01-01
Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of β-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The β-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of couplings of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. (orig.)
Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.
Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko
2014-12-01
We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo
2006-01-01
This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.
Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations
Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan
2016-01-01
The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .
The response to prism deviations in human infants.
Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E
1999-09-23
Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.
The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.
Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren
2016-05-01
Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime
Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.
Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-02-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.
Evaluating deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT.
Sá, Ana Cravo; Peres, Ana; Pereira, Mónica; Coelho, Carina Marques; Monsanto, Fátima; Macedo, Ana; Lamas, Adrian
2016-01-01
To evaluate the deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT in order to calculate appropriate margins to create the PTV. Defining inappropriate margins can lead to underdosing in target volumes and also overdosing in healthy tissues, increasing morbidity. 223 CBCT images used for alignment with the CT planning scan based on bony anatomy were analyzed in 12 patients treated with IMRT following prostatectomy. Shifts of CBCT images were recorded in three directions to calculate the required margin to create PTV. The mean and standard deviation (SD) values in millimetres were -0.05 ± 1.35 in the LR direction, -0.03 ± 0.65 in the SI direction and -0.02 ± 2.05 the AP direction. The systematic error measured in the LR, SI and AP direction were 1.35 mm, 0.65 mm, and 2.05 mm with a random error of 2.07 mm; 1.45 mm and 3.16 mm, resulting in a PTV margin of 4.82 mm; 2.64 mm, and 7.33 mm, respectively. With IGRT we suggest a margin of 5 mm, 3 mm and 8 mm in the LR, SI and AP direction, respectively, to PTV1 and PTV2. Therefore, this study supports an anisotropic margin expansion to the PTV being the largest expansion in the AP direction and lower in SI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H.C.; Chui, C.S.; Tsai, H.Y.; Chen, C.H.; Tsai, L.F.
2008-01-01
Introduction: Multileaf collimator (MLC) is currently a widely used system in the delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The accuracy of the multileaf position plays an important role in the final outcome of the radiation treatment. According to ICRU recommendation, a dose inaccuracy over than 5% of prescribed dose affects treatment results. In order to quantify the influence of leaf positional errors on dose distribution, we set different MLC positional inaccuracy from 0 to 6 mm for step-and-shoot IMRT in clinical cases. Two-dimensional dose distributions of radiotherapy plans with different leaf displacements generated with a commercial treatment planning system. And verification films were used to measure two-dimensional dose distributions. Then a computerized dose comparison system will be introduced to analyze the dose deviations. Materials/methods: We assumed MLC positional inaccuracy from 0 to 6 mm for step-and-shoot IMRT in clinical cases by simulating the different leaf displacements with a commercial treatment planning system. Then we transferred the treatment plans with different leaf offset that may be happened in clinical situation to linear accelerator. Verification films (Kodat EDR2) were well positioned within solid water phantoms to be irradiated by the simulated plans. The films were scanned to display two-dimensional dose distributions. Finally, we compared with the dose distributions with MLC positional inaccuracy by a two-dimensional dose comparison software to analyze the deviations in Gamma indexes and normalized agreement test (NAT) values. Results: In general, the data show that larger leaf positional error induces larger dose error. More fields used for treatment generate lesser errors. Besides, leaf position relative to a field influences the degree of dose error. A leaf lying close to the border of a field leads to a more significant dose deviation than a leaf in the center. Algorithms for intensity modulation also affect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Izewska, Joanna
2002-01-01
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas
BACKGROUND: The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. METHODS: A
WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations
Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch
2017-06-01
Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.
Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.
1986-02-01
Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)
Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K
2015-01-01
We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)
Phage display peptide libraries: deviations from randomness and correctives
Ryvkin, Arie; Ashkenazy, Haim; Weiss-Ottolenghi, Yael; Piller, Chen; Pupko, Tal; Gershoni, Jonathan M
2018-01-01
Abstract Peptide-expressing phage display libraries are widely used for the interrogation of antibodies. Affinity selected peptides are then analyzed to discover epitope mimetics, or are subjected to computational algorithms for epitope prediction. A critical assumption for these applications is the random representation of amino acids in the initial naïve peptide library. In a previous study, we implemented next generation sequencing to evaluate a naïve library and discovered severe deviations from randomness in UAG codon over-representation as well as in high G phosphoramidite abundance causing amino acid distribution biases. In this study, we demonstrate that the UAG over-representation can be attributed to the burden imposed on the phage upon the assembly of the recombinant Protein 8 subunits. This was corrected by constructing the libraries using supE44-containing bacteria which suppress the UAG driven abortive termination. We also demonstrate that the overabundance of G stems from variant synthesis-efficiency and can be corrected using compensating oligonucleotide-mixtures calibrated by mass spectroscopy. Construction of libraries implementing these correctives results in markedly improved libraries that display random distribution of amino acids, thus ensuring that enriched peptides obtained in biopanning represent a genuine selection event, a fundamental assumption for phage display applications. PMID:29420788
Standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
Lee, Dong Kyu; In, Junyong; Lee, Sangseok
2015-06-01
In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results.
Channel Deviation-Based Power Control in Body Area Networks.
Van, Son Dinh; Cotton, Simon L; Smith, David B
2018-05-01
Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and ambient assisted living technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability. The proposed schemes are both flexible and relatively simple to implement on hardware platforms with constrained resources making them inherently suitable for BAN applications. We present the key algorithm parameters used to dynamically respond to the channel variation. This allows the algorithms to achieve a better energy efficiency and signal reliability in everyday usage scenarios such as those in which a person undertakes many different activities (e.g., sitting, walking, standing, etc.). We also profile their performance against traditional, optimal, and other existing schemes for which it is demonstrated that not only does the outage probability reduce significantly, but the proposed algorithms also save up to average transmit power compared to the competing schemes.
WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch
2017-01-01
Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)
Obtaining TEM images with a uniform deviation parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eades, Alwyn
2006-01-01
In transmission electron microscopes made during the last quarter of a century, it has been impossible to take images in which the diffraction contrast conditions are uniform across the field of view. This is inconvenient when, for example, imaging dislocations at a relatively low magnification. The problem arises because modern microscopes use immersion lenses in which the sample sits in a high magnetic field. The resulting helical trajectories of the electrons at the sample plane mean that it is not possible to make a beam that is parallel at the sample. Results of a method to overcome this problem are presented. It is shown that a simple modification to the microscope (which, on a computer-controlled microscope, could be implemented in software) can be used to produce images in which the deviation parameter is essentially constant across many microns of image. By a happy accident, this method can be used, not only to correct for the helicity imparted by immersion lenses, but also to correct for buckling of the sample (up to a point)
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol
2007-01-01
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2007-04-20
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.
Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices
Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.
2018-03-01
Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deirdre Kindregan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Wind power limit calculation basedon frequency deviation using Matlab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Salgado Duarte, Yorlandis; MejutoFarray, Davis
2017-01-01
The utilization of the wind energy for the production of electricity it’s a technology that has promoted itself in the last years, like an alternative before the environmental deterioration and the scarcity of the fossil fuels. When the power generation of wind energy is integrated into the electrical power systems, maybe take place problems in the frequency stability due to, mainly, the stochastic characteristic of the wind and the impossibility of the wind power control on behalf of the dispatchers. In this work, is make an analysis of frequency deviation when the wind power generation rise in an isolated electrical power system. This analysis develops in a computerized frame with the construction of an algorithm using Matlab, which allowed to make several simulations in order to obtain the frequency behavior for different loads and wind power conditions. Besides, it was determined the wind power limit for minimum, medium and maximum load. The results show that the greatest values on wind power are obtained in maximum load condition. However, the minimum load condition limit the introduction of wind power into the system. (author)
Deviations from excitation equilibrium in optically thick mercury arc plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.
1989-01-01
Up to date mercury arcs at pressure greater than 1 atm have been investigated as plasma systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state. These studies have been motivated by the applications of mercury arcs, e.g., in the lighting industry. The LTE-assumption simplifies the use of spectroscopic diagnostics and the performance of species-concentration calculations. A high pressure mercury arc of about 1 atm had been considered in two possibilities: excitation and gas temperatures are the same, the electron temperature is higher and excitation and electron temperatures are the same, the gas temperature is lower. Recent measurements in mercury arcs reveal the existence of severe departures from thermal equilibrium and suggest the absence of excitation equilibrium in the axis and in the periphery in such an arc. The deviation from equilibrium leads to complicated distributions, such that the system cannot be described correctly by any single temperature. This becomes quite complicated when plasma inhomogeneity and strong reabsorption of the radiation are present
Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.
Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André L.F. Santos
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pudji Andayani
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.
Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)
Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin
2013-04-01
The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').
[Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].
Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar
2014-04-01
Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical.
Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Albertini, Giorgio
2011-01-01
Gait analysis (GA) is widely used for clinical evaluations and it is recognized as a central element in the quantitative evaluation of gait, in the planning of treatments and in the pre vs. post intervention evaluations in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Otherwise, GA produces a large volume of data and there is the clinical need to provide…
Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.
The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad
2016-01-01
Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MICHAEL
potential for hydrocarbon accumulation and could be evaluated for its efficacy as a tool in phytoremediation exercise for cleaning ... often assessed from changes in the physical, chemical ... Germination test: The approach adapted by Agboola.
Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borovkov, A A; Mogul' skii, A A [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2001-10-31
The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N{>=}0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x{sub 2}, y{sub 2}, and x{sub 1}-y{sub 1} in the domain x{sub 1}>N, y{sub 1}>N, and only on x{sub 1}, y{sub 1}, and x{sub 2}-y{sub 2} in the domain x{sub 2}>N, y{sub 2}>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s{yields}{infinity}, |x|{yields}{infinity}, and n{yields}{infinity}. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|{yields}{infinity}, |y|{yields}{infinity}. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general
The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight.
Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav
2015-04-01
Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it's important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997) format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72) as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21) which was followed by underweight (2.31) and obese children (2.23). Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES) is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors such as diet
Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India
Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini
2014-10-01
A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.
Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliev, B.Z.
1987-01-01
The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H
1992-01-01
after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...
Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures
Zijlmans, M.; van Eijsden, P.; Ferrier, C. H.; Kho, K. H.; van Rijen, P. C.; Leijten, F. S. S.
Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporoparietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates from...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
2010-01-01
... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...
48 CFR 1352.219-71 - Notification to delay performance (Deviation).
2010-10-01
... performance (Deviation). 1352.219-71 Section 1352.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....219-71 Notification to delay performance (Deviation). As prescribed in 48 CFR 1319.811-3(b), insert the following clause: Notification To Delay Performance (Deviation) (APR 2010) The contractor shall...
Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe
2006-01-01
Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)
Behavior of visual field index in advanced glaucoma.
Rao, Harsha L; Senthil, Sirisha; Choudhari, Nikhil S; Mandal, Anil K; Garudadri, Chandra S
2013-01-14
To evaluate the magnitude of Visual Field Index (VFI) change attributable to change in the estimation algorithm from the pattern deviation probability plot (PDPP) to the total deviation probability plot (TDPP) when the mean deviation (MD) crosses -20 decibels (dB). In a retrospective study, 37 stable glaucoma eyes in which MD of the VFs crossed -20 dB were identified. For each eye, a pair of VFs was selected so that one VF of the pair had a MD better than but close to -20 dB and the other had a MD worse than but again close to -20 dB. The change in VFI in the VF pairs and its associations with the number of points in probability plots with normal threshold sensitivities were evaluated. Similar pairs of VFs from 28 stable glaucoma eyes where the MD crossed -10 dB were chosen as controls. The change in VFI in VF pairs when the MD crossed 20 dB ranged from 3% to 33% (median: 15%), while the change when MD crossed -10 dB ranged from 1% to 8% (median: 4%). Difference in the number of points with normal threshold sensitivities in PDPP when MD was better than -20 dB compared to those in TDPP when MD crossed -20 dB significantly influenced the VFI change (R(2) = 0.65). Considering the eccentricity of these points further explained the VFI change (R(2) = 0.81). The decrease in VFI when MD crosses -20 dB can be highly variable. This has to be considered with the use of VFI in clinical and research settings.
Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.
Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo
2011-01-01
We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medium-Index Mixed-Oxide Layers for Use in AR-Coatings
Ganner, Peter
1986-10-01
Ttedesign philosophy of MC-AR-Coatings can be divided into two categories: a) Restriction to two film materials, namely one high-index and one low-index material and b) Use of medium-index layers in addition to high- and low-index layers. Both philosophies have advan-tages and drawbacks. In case a) the total number of layers necessary to obtain a required reflectance curve has to be higher. Thus in case of production errors it can be a problem to find out which layer was responsible for a deviation of the measured reflectance from the nominal one. In case b) using more than two materials reduces the total number of layers and consequently, pinpointing the cause of even small production errors is made simpler. Unfortunately there are not many materials commercially available which can be used to make hard, durable and robust films in the medium-index range namely between n=1.65 and n=2.00. In this paper the results of homogeneous mixtures of Alumina (Al203) and Tantala (Ta205) used for EB-gun evaporated medium-index films in AR-coatings is presented. It is shown that by proper adjustment of the weight percentages of the oxide mixture one can get homogeneous films in this index range. A number of design examples show the favourable application of such layers in AR-coatings. Among the most important ones is the well known QHQ-design for BBAR-coatings as well as AR-designs of the multiple half wave type with extended bandwidth. Further applications of the mixed-oxide layers are AR-coatings for cemented optical elements and beam splitters.
Lazzeri, Massimo; Abrate, Alberto; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Gadda, Giulio Maria; Freschi, Massimo; Mistretta, Francesco; Lista, Giuliana; Fossati, Nicola; Larcher, Alessandro; Kinzikeeva, Ella; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Dell'Acqua, Vincenzo; Bini, Vittorio; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio
2014-03-01
To investigate the relationship between serum [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and derivatives with chronic histologic prostatic inflammation (CHPI) in men undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). This nested case-control study resulted from an observational prospective trial for the definition of sensibility, specificity, and accuracy of p2PSA, %p2PSA, and Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index (PHI), in men undergoing prostate biopsy, with a total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. CHPI was the outcome of interest and defined as the presence of moderate to large infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells with interstitial and/or glandular disruption in absence of PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were considered the index tests and compared with the established biomarker reference standard tests: tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA. Of 267 patients subjected to prostate biopsy, 73 (27.3%) patients were diagnosed with CHPI. Comparing CHPI with PCa patients, %p2PSA and PHI were found to be significantly lower, whereas fPSA and %fPSA were significantly higher. %p2PSA and PHI were the most accurate predictors of CHPI at biopsy, significantly outperforming tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA. On the contrary, no significant differences were found in PSA, p2PSA, and derivatives between CHPI and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Our findings showed that p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI values might discriminate PCa from CHPI or BPH, but not CHPI from BPH, in men with a total PSA 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. p2PSA isoform and its derivatives could be useful in clinical decision making to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with CHPI and elevated tPSA value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jun Mo; Cirineo, Nila; Ramanathan, Meera; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Morales, Esteban; Coleman, Anne L; Caprioli, Joseph
2014-01-01
To explore the relationship between the visual field index (VFI) and the visual field mean deviation (MD) in glaucoma patients with moderately advanced perimetric damage and to identify the magnitude of the boundary effect of VFI that occurred when the VFI estimation strategy changed from pattern deviation probability value to total deviation probability value as the MD crossed -20 dB in longitudinal visual field (VF) series. A retrospective cohort study of longitudinal data analysis. The MD and VFI values obtained from VF tests conducted on 148 eyes of 148 glaucoma patients having an MD around -20 dB were studied. A total of 1286 VFs with MD values within the range of -16 dB to -24 dB were included. The eyes were divided into 2 groups, with the first having serial MDs all better than or all worse than -20 dB and the second with serial MDs crossing the -20 dB value. Change in MD (ΔMD) was defined as the absolute difference between the MD values of 2 consecutive VFs. Based on the 2 VFI values of the same VFs, the absolute value of change in VFI (ΔVFI) was calculated. The means (± standard deviation) for the ΔVFI were 4.17% (± 3.3%) in the group of eyes with MDs on either side of -20 dB, and were 15.8% (± 8.4%) in the group with MDs crossing -20 dB (P values were 6.8%/dB (± 10.5%) when the range of MD falls on either side of -20 dB, and 7.9%/dB (± 6.2%) when the range of MD crosses the -20 dB values (P = .042). The values of the VFI become highly variable in serial VFs of eyes with MDs crossing -20 dB, in comparison to those VFIs associated with MDs on either side of -20 dB. The likelihood for this effect is the change from use of pattern deviation probability value to total deviation probability value in the points included in the calculation of VFI at -20 dB of MD. The development of indices to measure VF rates that are free from this boundary effect in moderately advanced glaucoma is desirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharmila V Jalgaonkar
Full Text Available Protocol deviations (PDs may jeopardize safety, rights, and welfare of subjects and data integrity. There is scarce literature and no guidelines for Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs to process PD reports. The PD reports submitted to IECs from Jan 2011 to August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Types of studies reporting PDs, category and type of PDs, PD rate per participant, time of reporting PD since its occurrence and corrective actions stated by principal investigator (PI for major deviations were noted. Out of 447 PDs from 73/1387 total studies received during study period, 402 were from 126 pharma studies. Investigator initiated studies and dissertations reported negligible PDs. Median number of PDs was 4 per protocol. Out of 447 PDs, 304 were related to study procedure, 87, 47 and 9 were from safety, informed consent document (ICD and eligibility category respectively. The most common reason for PDs was incomplete ICD (22/47. Maximum study procedure related PDs were due to patient visiting outside window period (126/304. Thirty five of 87 PDs were due to missed safety assessment. The overall PD reporting rate per participant was 0.08. In 90% of reports, date of occurrence of PD was not specified. The median delay for reporting PDs after occurrence was 94 days. PDs classified as Major were 73% (323/447. The most common corrective actions stated by PI were participant counseling (85/323 and caution in future (70/323. The study findings emphasize the need for GCP training at regular interval of study team members. IEC have to be vigilant and visit sites frequently, take initiative and formulate guidelines regarding PD reporting.
J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)
2016-01-01
textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...
Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Kitanova, Martina; Donev, Ivan S; Ghenev, Peter
2017-01-01
Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a class IV astrocytic tumor, the most malignant of the four groups of World Health Organization (WHO) tumors with astrocytic differentiation. Aim The aim of this study was to establish whether a correlation exists between the Ki-67 index of tumors with astrocytic differentiation, WHO grade, and patient survival. Materials and methods A retrospective non-clinical approach to patient selection was chosen for the aim of the study. A total of 47 patients diagnosed and treated for CNS tumors with astrocytic differentiation in the St. Marina University Hospital, Varna, Bulgaria, from September 2012 to July 2016 were retrospectively included into the study cohort. The cases were tested for their immunohistochemistry (IHC) reaction with Ki-67 after their original Hematoxylin and Eosin and IHC slides were reviewed by a single author and blind coded. The Ki-67 positivity index of the nuclei was estimated after digitalization of the slides and calculated by the ImmunoRatio automated counting tool. The individual Ki-67 index and patient survival of each case were statistically compared. Results The histopathological groups, after the blind Ki-67 index automated calculation was carried out, revealed no WHO grade I, two WHO grade II samples, four WHO grade III samples and 41 WHO grade IV cases, and these were included in the analysis. The two samples of WHO grade II astrocytic tumors had a mean Ki-67 index of 25%; however, they comprised tumors with an individual index of 43% and 7%, both individual values with a highly unlikely index for this group. The four samples of WHO grade III had a mean Ki-67 index of 4%, standard deviation ±2.16 (p>0.05), with the lowest index being 1% and the highest one being 6%. Both WHO grade II and III did not include enough samples to allow for a proper statistical analysis of patient survival. The 41 GBM cases had a mean Ki-67 index of 17.34%, standard deviation ±10.79 (p>0
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation
Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika
2006-01-01
Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...
Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin
2015-10-01
This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs.
Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements
Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu
2008-12-01
A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.
FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.
Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos
2017-01-01
To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.
An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘聪
2013-01-01
Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.
A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuncheng Zhou
Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.
Park, Sohyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kweon, Soon Ju; Wang, Youfa; Gittelsohn, Joel
2017-10-01
The role of a school's nutrition environment in explaining students' eating behaviors and weight status has not been examined in an Asian setting. The purpose of this study was to create a school nutrition environment index and to pilot test the index in elementary and middle schools in urban South Korea. This study used a mixed-methods approach. Environment assessment tools were developed based on formative research, which comprised literature reviews, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Key elements from the formative research were included in the assessment tool, which consisted of a structured survey questionnaire for school dietitians. Fifteen school dietitians from 7 elementary and 8 middle schools in Seoul completed the questionnaire. The formative research revealed four main sections that guided a summary index to assess a school's nutrition environment: resource availability, education and programs, dietitians' perceptions and characteristics, and school lunch menu. Based on the literature reviews and interviews, an index scoring system was developed. The total possible score from the combined four index sections was 40 points. From the 15 schools participating in the pilot survey, the mean school nutrition-environment index was 22.5 (standard deviation ± 3.2; range 17-28). The majority of the schools did not offer classroom-based nutrition education or nutrition counseling for students and parents. The popular modes of nutrition education were school websites, posters, and newsletters. This paper illustrates the process used to develop an instrument to assess a school's nutrition environment. Moreover, it presents the steps used to develop a scoring system for creation of a school nutrition environment index. As pilot testing indicated the total index score has some variation across schools, we suggest applying this instrument in future studies involving a larger number of schools. Future studies with larger samples will allow investigation
Zarbo, Richard J; Copeland, Jacqueline R; Varney, Ruan C
2017-10-01
To develop a business subsystem fulfilling International Organization for Standardization 15189 nonconformance management regulatory standard, facilitating employee engagement in problem identification and resolution to effect quality improvement and risk mitigation. From 2012 to 2016, the integrated laboratories of the Henry Ford Health System used a quality technical team to develop and improve a management subsystem designed to identify, track, trend, and summarize nonconformances based on frequency, risk, and root cause for elimination at the level of the work. Programmatic improvements and training resulted in markedly increased documentation culminating in 71,641 deviations in 2016 classified by a taxonomy of 281 defect types into preanalytic (74.8%), analytic (23.6%), and postanalytic (1.6%) testing phases. The top 10 deviations accounted for 55,843 (78%) of the total. Deviation management is a key subsystem of managers' standard work whereby knowledge of nonconformities assists in directing corrective actions and continuous improvements that promote consistent execution and higher levels of performance. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. 99.17 Section 99.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. (a) No pilot may...
Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters
Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2011-01-01
This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the
Mokkink, H.G.A.
2002-01-01
Standard deviation and standard error have a clear mutual relationship, but at the same time they differ strongly in the type of information they supply. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings. Standard deviation describes the variability in a sample of measures of a variable, for instance
40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2220 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report required under...
40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter that...
2010-06-23
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9166-1] Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes... provides notice of availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and... of performance and potential partial or complete cooperative agreement termination, associated with...
Advantages of heavy metal collars in directional drilling and deviation control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, W.B.; Murphey, C.E.; McLamore, R.T.; Dickson, L.L.
1976-01-01
A heavy, stiff-bottom drill collar can substantially improve deviation performance, theoretically increasing penetration rates by 50 to 100 percent in deviation-prone areas. This paper presents the underlying theory, practical charts on performance characteristics, and Shell Development Co.'s experience in fabricating and field testing two depleted-uranium alloy, heavy metal collars
40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance... Model Rule-Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.3053 What must I include in the deviation report? In each...
14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.
2010-01-01
... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...
40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2958 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...
2013-09-24
... Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health... and quality data that is timely. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Intended Recipient of the Award...
2010-01-05
...] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market Testing... test products designated as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to...
Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M
2013-04-01
Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.
The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-02-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Large deviation function for a driven underdamped particle in a periodic potential
Fischer, Lukas P.; Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo
2018-02-01
Employing large deviation theory, we explore current fluctuations of underdamped Brownian motion for the paradigmatic example of a single particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Two different approaches to the large deviation function of the particle current are presented. First, we derive an explicit expression for the large deviation functional of the empirical phase space density, which replaces the level 2.5 functional used for overdamped dynamics. Using this approach, we obtain several bounds on the large deviation function of the particle current. We compare these to bounds for overdamped dynamics that have recently been derived, motivated by the thermodynamic uncertainty relation. Second, we provide a method to calculate the large deviation function via the cumulant generating function. We use this method to assess the tightness of the bounds in a numerical case study for a cosine potential.
The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang
2007-01-01
Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches
... achieved. View Video Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farrar, G.L.
1993-01-01
The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period
Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...
Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.
Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo
2016-01-01
Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Agus Sartono
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje
2017-01-01
Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.
Analysis of some fuel characteristics deviations and their influence over WWER-440 fuel cycle design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, K.
2001-01-01
The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of some deviations in WWER-440 fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics upon fuel core design. A large number of different fresh fuel assemblies with enrichment of 3.5 t % are examined related to the enrichment, mass of initial metal Uranium and assembly shroud thickness. Infinite multiplication factor (Kinf) in fuel assembly has been calculated by HELIOS spectral code for basic assembly and for different FA with deviation of a single parameter. The effects from single parameter deviation (enrichment) and from two parameter deviations (enrichment and wall thickness) on the neutron-physics characteristics of the core are estimated for different fuel assemblies. Relatively week burnup dependence on Kinf is observed as result of deviation in the enrichment of the fuel and in the wall thickness of the assembly. An assessment of a FA single and two parameter deviations effects on design fuel cycle duration and relative power peaking factor is also considers in the paper. As a final conclusion can be settled that the maximum relative shortness of fuel cycle can be observed in the case of two FA parameters deviations
Measurement and analysis of the thoracic patient setup deviations in routine radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Mingxuan; Zou Huawei; Wu Rong; Sun Jian; Dong Xiaoqi
2003-01-01
Objective: To determine the magnitude of the setup deviations of the thoracic patients in routine radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 408 films for 21 thoracic patients were recorded using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and comparison with reference CT simulator digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR) for anterior-posterior fields was performed. The deviation of setup for 21 patients in the left-right (RL), superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotation about the anterior-posterior (AP) axis were measured and analyzed. Results: Without immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.7±3.1) mm and (1.5±4.1) mm in the RL and SI directions, respectively, and (0.3±2.4) degree about AP axis. With immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.5±2.4) mm and (0.8±2.7) mm in the RL and SI directions respectively, and (0.2±1.6) degree about AP axis. Conclusion: The setup deviations in thoracic patients irradiation may be reduced with the use of the immobilization device. The setup deviation in the SI direction is greater than that in the RL direction. The setup deviations are mainly random errors
Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...
... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seda BAĞDATLI KALKAN
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Consumer confidence index is a national indicator that suggest about current and future expectations of the economic conditions. With consumer confidence index, it is aimed to determine the trends and expectations of consumers according to their general economic situation, employment opportunities, their financial situations and developments in the markets. Another parameter is also the Human Development Index (HDI. This index is an indicator that examines the development of countries both economically and socially. Countries are sorted by these two indices and are considered as basic parameters in international platforms. The purpose of this study is to group the selected countries according to the consumer confidence index and reveal the features of the groups and then determine the position of the grouped countries with the Human Development Index. According to the results of cluster analysis, it is shown that India, China, Sweden and USA have the highest total consumer confidence index, employment, expectation and investment index
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tscherning, Carl Christian
2015-01-01
outside the data area. On the other hand, a comparison of predicted quantities with observed values show that the error also varies depending on the local data standard deviation. This quantity may be (and has been) estimated using the GOCE second order vertical derivative, Tzz, in the area covered...... by the satellite. The ratio between the nearly constant standard deviations of a predicted quantity (e.g. in a 25° × 25° area) and the standard deviations of Tzz in smaller cells (e.g., 1° × 1°) have been used as a scale factor in order to obtain more realistic error estimates. This procedure has been applied...
The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.
1989-08-01
The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs
Medium-term evaluation of total knee arthroplasty without patellar replacement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Wanderley Vasconcelos
2013-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To mid-term evaluate patients who were submitted to total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing. METHODS: It was realized a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients who were submitted to total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing. In all patients clinical examination was done based on the protocol of the Knee Society Scoring System, which assessed pain, range of motion, stability, contraction, knee alignment and function, and radiological evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were evaluated. Of these, 07 were operated only on left knee, 12 only on right knee and 17 were operated bilaterally, totaling 53 knees. Ages ranged from 26 to 84 years. Of the 53 knees evaluated, 33 (62.26% had no pain. The maximum flexion range of motion averaged 104.7°. No knee had difficulty in active extension. As to the alignment for anatomical axis twelve knees (22.64% showed deviation between 0° and 4° varus. Thirty-nine (75.49% knees showed pace without restriction and the femorotibial angle ranged between 3° varus and 13° valgus with an average of 5° valgus. The patellar index ranged from 0.2 to 1.1. CONCLUSION: Total knee arthroplasty whitout patellar resurfacing provides good results in mid-term evaluation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cirbus Ján
2001-03-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.
Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1992-08-15
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.
Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo
1992-01-01
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.
Axial power deviation control strategy and computer simulation for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Yehong; Zhou Xiaoling, Xiao Min
2004-01-01
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has very tight operation diagram especially at its right side. Therefore the successful control of axial power deviation for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various core characters' effect on axial power distribution, several axial power deviation control strategies has been proposed to comply with different power varying operation scenario. Application and computer simulation of the strategies has shown that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution are comparable to the measurement values, and that our control strategies are effective. Engineering experience shows that the application of our methodology can predict accurately the transient of axial power deviation, and therefore has become a useful tool for reactor operation and safety control. This paper presents the axial power control characteristics, reactor operation strategy research, computer simulation, and comparison to measurement results in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. (author)
Ensemble standar deviation of wind speed and direction of the FDDA input to WRF
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NetCDF file of the SREF standard deviation of wind speed and direction that was used to inject variability in the FDDA input. variable U_NDG_OLD contains standard...
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Jianliang; Zhang, Tusheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kock, Peder, E-mail: Peder.Kock@med.lu.s [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Finck, Robert R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden)
2010-09-15
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R.; Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer
2010-01-01
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded 137 Cs and 241 Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, M.; Waynert, J.A.
1994-01-01
The magnetic multipole sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations is analyzed in the two-dimensional cross-section of SSC quadrupole magnets. Deviations in the 2D cross-section caused by variations in the superconducting cable locations due to changes in the thickness of the pole sheet, mid plane insulation, inter-layer spacer, backing sheet, and copper wedges have direct impact on the magnetic field gradient and multipoles in the straight section of the magnets. Asymmetric deviations due to different coil sizes in a cross-section are also analyzed. The analyses are performed mainly with the software package AHARM. SSCMAG and finite element software PE2D were also used to obtain baselines and to verify the results. The results provide information essential to an understanding of the deviations of the multipoles resulting from manufacturing processes, and suggest possibilities for tuning the multipoles to meet the magnetic requirements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion BULAC
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Due to technical deviations, in the elements of the 4R spatial spherical mechanism appear efforts thatadditionally loads the mechanism, efforts that can be determined with the calculation algorithm that will bepresented in this paper
A course on large deviations with an introduction to Gibbs measures
Rassoul-Agha, Firas
2015-01-01
This is an introductory course on the methods of computing asymptotics of probabilities of rare events: the theory of large deviations. The book combines large deviation theory with basic statistical mechanics, namely Gibbs measures with their variational characterization and the phase transition of the Ising model, in a text intended for a one semester or quarter course. The book begins with a straightforward approach to the key ideas and results of large deviation theory in the context of independent identically distributed random variables. This includes Cramér's theorem, relative entropy, Sanov's theorem, process level large deviations, convex duality, and change of measure arguments. Dependence is introduced through the interactions potentials of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The phase transition of the Ising model is proved in two different ways: first in the classical way with the Peierls argument, Dobrushin's uniqueness condition, and correlation inequalities and then a second time through the ...
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: zhaijl@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: Tusheng.Zhang@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
Ren, Jiagang; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Hua
2015-01-01
In this paper, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell's type for the multivalued stochastic differential equations. As an application, we derive a functional iterated logarithm law for the solutions of multivalued stochastic differential equations.
Hemingway’s Internal Deviation from His Primary Norm in The Old Man and the Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trisnowati Tanto
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Ernest Hemingway is well known for the use of short and simple sentences when writing his novels since he aims at ‘[getting] the most out of the least’. This sentence-simplicity style is Hemingway’s primary norm. The Old Man and the Sea is the perfect example of this. However, in this novel, he sometimes uses long, complex sentences to describe certain points, and this sentence-complexity style can be said to be Hemingway’s secondary norm. In this case, there is a deviation within Hemingway’s own style of writing – an internal deviation. The deviation is obviously done on purpose as a kind of distraction so as to make the readers aware of the special and important ‘message’ that Hemingway wants to convey. In this novel, the deviation is used to build the elements of suspense and foreshadowing in much detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Yu Si
2015-06-01
Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the variation of horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening, and to explore the effect of the inferior oblique muscle recession on horizontal deviations in primary position.METHODS:, In the study, 30 cases in the Department of ophthalmology of our hospital from January 2014 to September 2014 underwent the inferior oblique muscle recession as the sole without horizontal muscles surgery, who were superior obliquer paralysis and V pattern strabismus with small angle of horizontal strabismus, were analyzed. Of the 30 patients, 25 had unilateral inferior oblique muscle surgery, and then 5 had bilateral surgeries.Followed up for three to six mo, all patients were received full ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, including measurement of the deviation in the diagnostic positions of gaze at near 33cm and at distance 6m by prism and alternate cover test, synoptophore, Titmus stereo graph examination, Worth four lighting inspection, eye movement examination, and fundus photography preoperatively and postoperatively. The changes of horizontal deviations in the primary position after procedures were investigated. RESULT:(1The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre- and post-operation in the exotropia group(P=0.00. It was postoperative respectively to reduce the original in external oblique average 3.35±2.87△ and 4.37±2.65△.(2The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre-and post-operation in the esotropia group(P=0.02, and it decreased postoperatively in average 2.43±1.99△. There was no significant difference for horizontal deviation position between pre- and post-operation(P=0.089. CONCLUSION:The horizontal deviation in primary position, either exotropia or esotropia, will decrease after the Inferior oblique muscle recession. This change can be compensated by the gradually improving and establishing the fusion function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shchukina, N.G.
1980-01-01
The methodology of the problem of deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere is presented. The difficulties of solution and methods of realization are systematized. The processes of line formation are considered which take into account velocity fields, structural inhomogeneity, radiation non-coherence etc. as applied to a quiet solar atmosphere. The conclusion is made on the regularity of deviation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in upper layers of the solar atmosphere
Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Shahriar, M. Selim
2010-01-01
We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10 -4 . The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.
Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R; Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer
2010-01-01
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded (137)Cs and (241)Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPG...
Soda, Giuseppe; Bizzi, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
In this study, we investigate how network relations affect project performance through creativity. We challenge previous conceptualizations of creativity by proposing the idea that creative outcomes in project industries can be conceptualized as deviation from past projects and deviation from partners’ projects. While previous research has mostly assumed that network relations are beneficial to performance because they increase innovation and creativity, our conceptualization of creativity al...
Imaging performance of annular apertures. VI - Limitations by optical surface deviations
Tschunko, Hubert F. A.
1987-01-01
The performance of optical systems is limited by imperfect optical surfaces that degrade the images below the level set by wave theoretical limits. The central irradiance functions are derived for slit and circular apertures with five distributions of wavefront errors and for a range of maximal wavefront deviations. For practical frequency of occurrence distributions of wavefront deviations, the point spread and the image energy integral functions are determined. Practical performances of optical systems are derived and performance limits discussed.
Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan
2010-01-01
textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...
Regional Mc parity: do common pricing points reduce deviations from the law of one price?
Mathä, Thomas Y.
2009-01-01
Abstract This paper analyses price differences of McDonald?s products in four different countries. I show that pricing at pricing points in different currencies may contribute to explaining deviations from the law of one price. Observing strictly equal prices is more probable if prices are set at psychological and fractional pricing points in a common currency. The latter is also found to reduce the size of price deviations. Additionally, price differences increase as transaction c...
Deviation of longitudinal and shear waves in austenitic stainless steel weld metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.
1980-01-01
One of the difficulties associated with the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel weld metal is the deviation of the ultrasonic beams. This can lead to errors in determining both the location and size of reflectors. The present paper compares experimental and theoretical data related to beam steering for longitudinal and shear waves in a sample of 308 SS weld metal. Agreement between predicted and measured beam deviations is generally good. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed
Large Deviation Bounds for a Polling System with Two Queues and Multiple Servers
Wei, Fen
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present large deviation bounds for a discrete-time polling system consisting of two-par-allel queues and m servers. The arrival process in each queue is an arbitrary, and possibly correlated, stochastic process. Each server (serves) independently serves the two queues according to a Bernoulli service schedule. Using large deviation techniques, we analyze the tail behavior of the stationary distribution of the queue length processes, and derive upper and lower bounds of the b...
Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Naderi, Ali; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Faghihi, Mohammad
2017-12-01
To report the surgical outcomes of graded versus ungraded inferior oblique anterior transposition (IOAT) in treatment of patients with asymmetric dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and bilateral inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). A total of 74 eyes of 37 patients with asymmetric DVD (interocular difference of ≥5 Δ ) and bilateral IOOA of > +1 were included in this randomized clinical trial. In the ungraded group (n = 18), both inferior oblique muscles were sutured at the inferior rectus level; in the graded group (n = 19), the inferior oblique muscles of eyes with more DVD were sutured at the level of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles of eyes with less DVD were sutured 2 mm posterior to the level of the inferior rectus muscle. DVD was significantly reduced in each group (P < 0.001 for both). Although the postoperative mean difference of asymmetry of DVD was less in the ungraded group compared to the graded group (1.2 ± 1.9 vs 3.2 ± 1.2 [P = 0.001]), the absolute amounts of reduction of DVD asymmetry were similar (4.3 ± 2.3 vs 4.4 ± 3.1 [P = 0.78]). IOOA and V patterns were also reduced postoperatively. Each method of IOAT was effective in reducing DVD, asymmetry, IOOA, and V patterns. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping
2018-02-01
An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome.
Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J; Lopes, Coeli M; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L; Locati, Emanuela H; Ackerman, Michael J; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Platonov, Pyotr G; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Michael Vincent, G; Wilde, Arthur A M; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan
2013-05-01
Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital LQTS who carry the same mutation provides incremental prognostic information on the patient-specific QTc. The study population comprised 1206 patients with LQTS with 95 different mutations and ≥ 5 individuals who carry the same mutation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the effect of mutation-specific standard deviation of QTc (QTcSD) on the risk of cardiac events (comprising syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death) from birth through age 40 years in the total population and by genotype. Assessment of mutation-specific QTcSD showed large differences among carriers of the same mutations (median QTcSD 45 ms). Multivariate analysis showed that each 20 ms increment in QTcSD was associated with a significant 33% (P = .002) increase in the risk of cardiac events after adjustment for the patient-specific QTc duration and the family effect on QTc. The risk associated with QTcSD was pronounced among patients with long QT syndrome type 1 (hazard ratio 1.55 per 20 ms increment; P<.001), whereas among patients with long QT syndrome type 2, the risk associated with QTcSD was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.99; P = .95; P value for QTcSD-by-genotype interaction = .002). Our findings suggest that mutations with a wider variation in QTc duration are associated with increased risk of cardiac events. These findings appear to be genotype-specific, with a pronounced effect among patients with the long QT syndrome type 1 genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire
2010-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.
Clustering Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Tracks by the Standard Deviational Ellipse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Shahinoor Rahman
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The standard deviational ellipse is useful to analyze the shape and the length of a tropical cyclone (TC track. Cyclone intensity at each six-hour position is used as the weight at that location. Only named cyclones in the Indian Ocean since 1981 are considered for this study. The K-means clustering algorithm is used to cluster Indian Ocean cyclones based on the five parameters: x-y coordinates of the mean center, variances along zonal and meridional directions, and covariance between zonal and meridional locations of the cyclone track. Four clusters are identified across the Indian Ocean; among them, only one cluster is in the North Indian Ocean (NIO and the rest of them are in the South Indian Ocean (SIO. Other characteristics associated with each cluster, such as wind speed, lifespan, track length, track orientation, seasonality, landfall, category during landfall, total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE, and cyclone trend, are analyzed and discussed. Cyclone frequency and energy of Cluster 4 (in the NIO have been following a linear increasing trend. Cluster 4 also has a higher number of landfall cyclones compared to other clusters. Cluster 2, located in the middle of the SIO, is characterized by the long track, high intensity, long lifespan, and high accumulated energy. Sea surface temperature (SST and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR associated with genesis of TCs are also examined in each cluster. Cyclone genesis is co-located with the negative OLR anomaly and the positive SST anomaly. Localized SST anomalies are associated with clusters in the SIO; however, TC geneses of Cluster 4 are associated with SSTA all over the Indian Ocean (IO.
The phonatory deviation diagram: a novel objective measurement of vocal function.
Madazio, Glaucya; Leão, Sylvia; Behlau, Mara
2011-01-01
To identify the discriminative characteristics of the phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in rough, breathy and tense voices. One hundred and ninety-six samples of normal and dysphonic voices from adults were submitted to perceptual auditory evaluation, focusing on the predominant vocal quality and the degree of deviation. Acoustic analysis was performed with the VoxMetria (CTS Informatica). Significant differences were observed between the dysphonic and normal groups (p < 0.001), and also between the breathy and rough samples (p = 0.044) and the breathy and tense samples (p < 0.001). All normal voices were positioned in the inferior left quadrant, 45% of the rough voices in the inferior right quadrant, 52.6% of the breathy voices in the superior right quadrant and 54.3% of the tense voices in the inferior left quadrant of the PDD. In the inferior left quadrant, 93.8% of voices with no deviation were located and 72.7% of voices with mild deviation; voices with moderate deviation were distributed in the inferior and superior right quadrants, the latter ones containing the most deviant voices and 80% of voices with severe deviation. The PDD was able to discriminate normal from dysphonic voices, and the distribution was related to the type and degree of voice alteration. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin
2017-10-01
In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.
Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.
Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min
2015-06-01
Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.
2007-01-01
Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup
Spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index in Greece
Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Politi, Nadia; Kapsomenakis, John
2013-01-01
The objective of this paper is to study the spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index (AI) in Greece, per decade, during the 50-year period (1951-2000). Besides, the projected changes in ensemble mean AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations were presented, based on the simulation results, derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. The projection of the future climate was done under SRES A1B. The climatic data used, concern monthly precipitation totals and air temperature from 28 meteorological stations (22 stations from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and 6 stations from neighboring countries, taken from the Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The estimation of the AI was carried out based on the potential evapotranspiration (PET) defined by Thornthwaite (1948). The data processing was done by the application of the statistical package R-project and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results of the analysis showed that, within the examined period (1951-2000), a progressive shift from the "humid" class, which characterized the wider area of Greece, towards the "sub-humid" and "semi-arid" classes appeared in the eastern Crete Island, the Cyclades complex, the Evia and Attica, that is mainly the eastern Greece. The most significant change appears during the period 1991-2000. The future projections at the end of twentieth century, using ensemble mean simulations from 8 RCMs, show that drier conditions are expected to establish in regions of Greece (Attica, eastern continental Greece, Cyclades, Dodecanese, eastern Crete Island and northern Aegean). The inter-model standard deviation over these regions ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 against high values (0.09-0.15) illustrated in western mountainous continental Greece, during 2021-2050. Higher values of inter
Ionospheric earthquake effects detection based on Total Electron Content (TEC) GPS Correlation
Sunardi, Bambang; Muslim, Buldan; Eka Sakya, Andi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri; Murjaya, Jaya
2018-03-01
Advances in science and technology showed that ground-based GPS receiver was able to detect ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances caused by various natural phenomena such as earthquakes. One study of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake, March 11, 2011, magnitude M 9.0 showed TEC fluctuations observed from GPS observation network spread around the disaster area. This paper discussed the ionospheric earthquake effects detection using TEC GPS data. The case studies taken were Kebumen earthquake, January 25, 2014, magnitude M 6.2, Sumba earthquake, February 12, 2016, M 6.2 and Halmahera earthquake, February 17, 2016, M 6.1. TEC-GIM (Global Ionosphere Map) correlation methods for 31 days were used to monitor TEC anomaly in ionosphere. To ensure the geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity, we also compare with Dst index in the same time window. The results showed anomalous ratio of correlation coefficient deviation to its standard deviation upon occurrences of Kebumen and Sumba earthquake, but not detected a similar anomaly for the Halmahera earthquake. It was needed a continous monitoring of TEC GPS data to detect the earthquake effects in ionosphere. This study giving hope in strengthening the earthquake effect early warning system using TEC GPS data. The method development of continuous TEC GPS observation derived from GPS observation network that already exists in Indonesia is needed to support earthquake effects early warning systems.
Total parenteral nutrition - infants
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...
Technique of total thyroidectomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, R.S.
1999-01-01
It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...
Supplement: Commodity Index Report
Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...
Indexing mergers and acquisitions
Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi
2017-01-01
We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...
Fractionated homogenous total-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duehmke, E; Brix, F; Hebbinghaus, D; Jensen, M; Wendhausen, H; Schmitz, N
1985-03-01
At the University of Kiel, myeloid and acute lymphatic leukemia is treated since 1983 by total-body irradiation applied prior to bone marrow transplantation. Dose deviations in the midplane caused by the irregular surface and tissue inhomogeneities of the patient are reduced down to +-3.5% compared to the central ray, with the help of CT-based individual compensators. This method prevents above all an excessive dose to the lungs. The radiobiologic advantages of fractionated irradiation have been employed for all patients treated hitherto (n = 9). At present, a total body dose of 12 Gy in six fractions is applied within three days. There were no undesired acute radiogenic reactions except a mild acute mucositis found in all patients. Chronic side effects, especially in the lungs, were not demonstrated, too. However, the average follow-up time of 149 days has been rather short. One patient died from relapse of leukemia after a total dose of 10 Gy, another patient died because the transplanted bone marrow was rejected, and a third died from catheter sepsis. Six out of nine patients are in complete remission with a maximum index of Karnofsky. The limited experiences gained hitherto show that the homogeneous accelerated-fractionated total-body irradiation offers essential advantages compared to non-compensated single dose irradiation with respect to the prevention of undesired radiogenic effects in sound tissues and that its therapeutic efficacy is at least the same.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.
cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....
Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther
2001-04-01
The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.
Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamhalter, Jan
2012-01-01
In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tung-Lung Tsai
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson’s chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P=0.292 and P=0.593, resp.. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis.
de Neef, Marjorie; Bos, Albert P.; Tol, Dirk
2009-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The Critical Nursing Situation Index (CNSI) identifies deviations from safe practice as laid down in guidelines, using an observational approach. The CNSI contains a list of predefined items that stem from nursing protocols and guidelines. Deviation from these may lead to adverse
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mai, Jens Erik
2005-01-01
is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Hans Dam
2017-01-01
Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...
World Bank
2017-01-01
This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...
World Bank
2016-01-01
This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...
Global Ecosystem Restoration Index
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor
2015-01-01
The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...
EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...
Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys
Murphy, S. T.
2010-08-03
Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beitz Eric
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.
[Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].
Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming
2013-10-01
In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Dai Nghiep; Vu Hoang Lam; Vo Tuong Hanh; Do Nguyet Minh; Nguyen Ngoc Son
1995-01-01
Present work is aimed at a formulation of an experimental approach to search the proposed nonexponential deviations from decay curve and at description of an attempt to test them in case of 52 V. Some theoretical description of decay processes are formulated in clarified forms. A continuous kinetic function (CKF) method is described for analysis of experimental data and CKF for purely exponential case is considered as a standard for comparison between theoretical and experimental data. The degree of agreement is defined by the factor of goodness. Typical deviations of oscillation behaviour of 52 V decay were observed in a wide range of time. The proposed deviation related to interaction between decay products and environment is researched. A complex type of decay is discussed. (authors). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations
Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Lazerson, Samuel A.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi
2018-05-01
The presence of error fields has been shown to degrade plasma confinement and drive instabilities. Error fields can arise from many sources, but are predominantly attributed to deviations in the coil geometry. In this paper, we introduce a Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations. A primary cost function used for designing stellarator coils, the surface integral of normalized normal field errors, was adopted to evaluate the deviation of the generated magnetic field from the desired magnetic field. The FOCUS code (Zhu et al 2018 Nucl. Fusion 58 016008) is utilized to provide fast and accurate calculations of the Hessian. The sensitivities of error fields to coil displacements are then determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. A proof-of-principle example is given on a CNT-like configuration. We anticipate that this new method could provide information to avoid dominant coil misalignments and simplify coil designs for stellarators.
On the Horizontal Deviation of a Spinning Projectile Penetrating into Granular Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waseem Ghazi Alshanti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The absence of a general theory that describes the dynamical behavior of the particulate materials makes the numerical simulations the most current powerful tool that can grasp many mechanical problems relevant to the granular materials. In this paper, based on a two-dimensional soft particle discrete element method (DEM, a numerical approach is developed to investigate the consequence of the orthogonal impact into various granular beds of projectile rotating in both clockwise (CW and counterclockwise (CCW directions. Our results reveal that, depending on the rotation direction, there is a significant deviation of the x-coordinate of the final stopping point of a spinning projectile from that of its original impact point. For CW rotations, a deviation to the right occurs while a left deviation has been recorded for CCW rotation case.
Large deviations for solutions to stochastic recurrence equations under Kesten's condition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buraczewski, Dariusz; Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin
2013-01-01
In this paper we prove large deviations results for partial sums constructed from the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation. We assume Kesten’s condition [17] under which the solution of the stochastic recurrence equation has a marginal distribution with power law tails, while the noise...... sequence of the equations can have light tails. The results of the paper are analogs of those obtained by A.V. and S.V. Nagaev [21, 22] in the case of partial sums of iid random variables. In the latter case, the large deviation probabilities of the partial sums are essentially determined by the largest...... step size of the partial sum. For the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation, the magnitude of the large deviation probabilities is again given by the tail of the maximum summand, but the exact asymptotic tail behavior is also influenced by clusters of extreme values, due to dependencies...
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.
Impact of image noise on gamma index calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, M; Mo, X; Parnell, D; Olivera, G; Galmarini, D; Lu, W
2014-01-01
Purpose: The Gamma Index defines an asymmetric metric between the evaluated image and the reference image. It provides a quantitative comparison that can be used to indicate sample-wised pass/fail on the agreement of the two images. The Gamma passing/failing rate has become an important clinical evaluation tool. However, the presence of noise in the evaluated and/or reference images may change the Gamma Index, hence the passing/failing rate, and further, clinical decisions. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of the image noise on the Gamma Index calculation. Methods: We used both analytic formulation and numerical calculations in our study. The numerical calculations included simulations and clinical images. Three different noise scenarios were studied in simulations: noise in reference images only, in evaluated images only, and in both. Both white and spatially correlated noises of various magnitudes were simulated. For clinical images of various noise levels, the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, calculation against measurement, and measurement against measurement, were evaluated. Results: Numerical calculations for both the simulation and clinical data agreed with the analytic formulations, and the clinical data agreed with the simulations. For the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, its distribution has an increased mean and an increased standard deviation as the noise increases. On the contrary, for the Gamma index of calculation against measurement, its distribution has a decreased mean and stabilized standard deviation as the noise increases. White noise has greater impact on the Gamma Index than spatially correlated noise. Conclusions: The noise has significant impact on the Gamma Index calculation and the impact is asymmetric. The Gamma Index should be reported along with the noise levels in both reference and evaluated images. Reporting of the Gamma Index with switched roles of the images as reference and
Impact of Image Noise on Gamma Index Calculation
Chen, M.; Mo, X.; Parnell, D.; Olivera, G.; Galmarini, D.; Lu, W.
2014-03-01
Purpose: The Gamma Index defines an asymmetric metric between the evaluated image and the reference image. It provides a quantitative comparison that can be used to indicate sample-wised pass/fail on the agreement of the two images. The Gamma passing/failing rate has become an important clinical evaluation tool. However, the presence of noise in the evaluated and/or reference images may change the Gamma Index, hence the passing/failing rate, and further, clinical decisions. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of the image noise on the Gamma Index calculation. Methods: We used both analytic formulation and numerical calculations in our study. The numerical calculations included simulations and clinical images. Three different noise scenarios were studied in simulations: noise in reference images only, in evaluated images only, and in both. Both white and spatially correlated noises of various magnitudes were simulated. For clinical images of various noise levels, the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, calculation against measurement, and measurement against measurement, were evaluated. Results: Numerical calculations for both the simulation and clinical data agreed with the analytic formulations, and the clinical data agreed with the simulations. For the Gamma Index of measurement against calculation, its distribution has an increased mean and an increased standard deviation as the noise increases. On the contrary, for the Gamma index of calculation against measurement, its distribution has a decreased mean and stabilized standard deviation as the noise increases. White noise has greater impact on the Gamma Index than spatially correlated noise. Conclusions: The noise has significant impact on the Gamma Index calculation and the impact is asymmetric. The Gamma Index should be reported along with the noise levels in both reference and evaluated images. Reporting of the Gamma Index with switched roles of the images as reference and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Vieira Batistão
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Postural deviations are frequent in childhood and may cause pain and functional impairment. Previously, only a few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in school children, and to determine, using multiple logistic regression analysis, whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, handedness and physical activity might explain these deviations. Methods: The posture of 288 students was assessed by observation. Subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, 59.4% (n = 171 of which were female. The mean age was 10.6 (± 2.4 years. Mean body weight was 38.6 (± 12.7 kg and mean height was 1.5 (± 0.1 m. A digital scale, a tapeline, a plumb line and standardized forms were used to collect data. The data were analyzed descriptively using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis (significance level of 5%. Results: We found the following deviations to be prevalent among schoolchildren: forward head posture, 53.5%, shoulder elevation, 74.3%, asymmetry of the iliac crests, 51.7%, valgus knees, 43.1%, thoracic hyperkyphosis, 30.2%, lumbar hyperlordosis, 37.2% and winged shoulder blades, 66.3%. The associated factors were age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of postural deviations and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors partially explain the postural deviations. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of how and why these deviations develop, and to the implementation of preventive and rehabilitation programs, given that some of the associated factors are modifiable.
Speaks, Crystal; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B
2012-10-01
The current working model of type II testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) pathogenesis states that carcinoma in situ arises during embryogenesis, is a necessary precursor, and always progresses to cancer. An implicit condition of this model is that only in utero exposures affect the development of TGCT in later life. In an age-period-cohort analysis, this working model contends an absence of calendar period deviations. We tested this contention using data from the SEER registries of the United States. We assessed age-period-cohort models of TGCTs, seminomas, and nonseminomas for the period 1973-2008. Analyses were restricted to whites diagnosed at ages 15-74 years. We tested whether calendar period deviations were significant in TGCT incidence trends adjusted for age deviations and cohort effects. This analysis included 32,250 TGCTs (18,475 seminomas and 13,775 nonseminomas). Seminoma incidence trends have increased with an average annual percentage change in log-linear rates (net drift) of 1.25 %, relative to just 0.14 % for nonseminoma. In more recent time periods, TGCT incidence trends have plateaued and then undergone a slight decrease. Calendar period deviations were highly statistically significant in models of TGCT (p = 1.24(-9)) and seminoma (p = 3.99(-14)), after adjustment for age deviations and cohort effects; results for nonseminoma (p = 0.02) indicated that the effects of calendar period were much more muted. Calendar period deviations play a significant role in incidence trends of TGCT, which indicates that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.
Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States
Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn
1981-01-01
The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...
Improved iterative oscillation tests for first-order deviating differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George E. Chatzarakis
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, improved oscillation conditions are established for the oscillation of all solutions of differential equations with non-monotone deviating arguments and nonnegative coefficients. They lead to a procedure that checks for oscillations by iteratively computing \\(\\lim \\sup\\ and \\(\\lim \\inf\\ on terms recursively defined on the equation's coefficients and deviating argument. This procedure significantly improves all known oscillation criteria. The results and the improvement achieved over the other known conditions are illustrated by two examples, numerically solved in MATLAB.
Quasi-potential and Two-Scale Large Deviation Theory for Gillespie Dynamics
Li, Tiejun
2016-01-07
The construction of energy landscape for bio-dynamics is attracting more and more attention recent years. In this talk, I will introduce the strategy to construct the landscape from the connection to rare events, which relies on the large deviation theory for Gillespie-type jump dynamics. In the application to a typical genetic switching model, the two-scale large deviation theory is developed to take into account the fast switching of DNA states. The comparison with other proposals are also discussed. We demonstrate different diffusive limits arise when considering different regimes for genetic translation and switching processes.
Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.
Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.
Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.
Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y
2012-08-01
Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2014-01-01
A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....
Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo
2017-09-01
We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sampa Ray (Bhattacharya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.
Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves
Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.
We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.
Beam deviation method as a diagnostic tool for the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, H.; Rueckle, B.
1978-01-01
The application of an optical method for density measurements in cylindrical plasmas is described. The angular deviation of a probing light beam sent through the plasma is proportional to the maximum of the density in the plasma column. The deviation does not depend on the plasma dimensions, however, it is influenced to a certain degree by the density profile. The method is successfully applied to the investigation of a dense plasma focus with a time resolution of 2 ns and a spatial resolution (in axial direction) of 2 mm. (orig.) [de
Optimal Orientation Planning and Control Deviation Estimation on FAST Cable-Driven Parallel Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Li
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted theoretically to the optimal orientation planning and control deviation estimation of FAST cable-driven parallel robot. Regarding the robot characteristics, the solutions are obtained from two constrained optimizations, both of which are based on the equilibrium of the cabin and the attention on force allocation among 6 cable tensions. A kind of control algorithm is proposed based on the position and force feedbacks. The analysis proves that the orientation control depends on force feedback and the optimal tension solution corresponding to the planned orientation. Finally, the estimation of orientation deviation is given under the limit range of tension errors.
Hilton, Maren E; Gioe, Terence; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Singh, Jasvinder A
2016-10-07
Previous studies suggested that pre-operative comorbidity was a risk factor for worse outcomes after TKA. To our knowledge, studies have not examined whether postoperative changes in comorbidity impact pain and function outcomes longitudinally. Our objective was to examine if increasing comorbidity postoperatively is associated with worsening physical function and pain after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We performed a retrospective chart review of veterans who had completed Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form-36 (SF36) surveys at regular intervals after primary TKA. Comorbidity was assessed using a variety of scales: validated Charlson comorbidity index score, and a novel Arthroplasty Comorbidity Severity Index score (Including medical index, local musculoskeletal index [including lower extremity and spine] and TKA-related index subscales; higher scores are worse ), at multiple time-points post-TKA. We used mixed model linear regression to examine the association of worsening comorbidity post-TKA with change in WOMAC and SF-36 scores in the subsequent follow-up periods, controlling for age, length of follow-up, and repeated observations. The study cohort consisted of 124 patients with a mean age of 71.7 years (range 58.6-89.2, standard deviation (SD) 6.9) followed for a mean of 4.9 years post-operatively (range 1.3-11.4; SD 2.8). We found that post-operative worsening of the Charlson Index score was significantly associated with worsening SF-36 Physical Function (PF) (beta coefficient (ß) = -0.07; p < 0.0001), SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) (ß = -0.06; p = 0.002), and WOMAC PF subscale (ß = 0.08; p < 0.001; higher scores are worse) scores, in the subsequent periods. Worsening novel medical index subscale scores were significantly associated with worsening SF-36 PF scores (ß = -0.03; p = 0.002), SF-36 BP (ß = -0.04; p < 0.001) and showed a non-significant trend
Arora, Karun S; Boland, Michael V; Friedman, David S; Jefferys, Joan L; West, Sheila K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
2013-12-01
To determine the extent of difference between better-eye visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and integrated VF (IVF) MD among Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) subjects and a larger group of glaucoma clinic subjects and to assess how those measures relate to objective and subjective measures of ability/performance in SEE subjects. Retrospective analysis of population- and clinic-based samples of adults. A total of 490 SEE and 7053 glaucoma clinic subjects with VF loss (MD ≤-3 decibels [dB] in at least 1 eye). Visual field testing was performed in each eye, and IVF MD was calculated. Differences between better-eye and IVF MD were calculated for SEE and clinic-based subjects. In SEE subjects with VF loss, models were constructed to compare the relative impact of better-eye and IVF MD on driving habits, mobility, self-reported vision-related function, and reading speed. Difference between better-eye and IVF MD and relationship of better-eye and IVF MD with performance measures. The median difference between better-eye and IVF MD was 0.41 dB (interquartile range [IQR], -0.21 to 1.04 dB) and 0.72 dB (IQR, 0.04-1.45 dB) for SEE subjects and clinic-based patients with glaucoma, respectively, with differences of ≥ 2 dB between the 2 MDs observed in 9% and 18% of the groups, respectively. Among SEE subjects with VF loss, both MDs demonstrated similar associations with multiple ability and performance metrics as judged by the presence/absence of a statistically significant association between the MD and the metric, the magnitude of observed associations (odds ratios, rate ratios, or regression coefficients associated with 5-dB decrements in MD), and the extent of variability in the metric explained by the model (R(2)). Similar associations of similar magnitude also were noted for the subgroup of subjects with glaucoma and subjects in whom better-eye and IVF MD differed by ≥ 2 dB. The IVF MD rarely differs from better-eye MD, and similar associations between VF loss and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.
1992-01-01
We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)
Instability after total hip arthroplasty
Werner, Brian C; Brown, Thomas E
2012-01-01
Instability following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an unfortunately frequent and serious problem that requires thorough evaluation and preoperative planning before surgical intervention. Prevention through optimal index surgery is of great importance, as the management of an unstable THA is challenging even for an experienced joints surgeon. However, even after well-planned surgery, a significant incidence of recurrent instability still exists. Non-operative management is often successful if the components are well-fixed and correctly positioned in the absence of neurocognitive disorders. If conservative management fails, surgical options include revision of malpositioned components; exchange of modular components such as the femoral head and acetabular liner; bipolar arthroplasty; tripolar arthroplasty; use of a larger femoral head; use of a constrained liner; soft tissue reinforcement and advancement of the greater trochanter. PMID:22919568
1991-01-01
More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.
Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik
2009-01-01
The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...