WorldWideScience

Sample records for total daily production

  1. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  2. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  3. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  5. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  6. Daily course of transpiration productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W

    1957-01-01

    THIS STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND DRY-MATTER PRODUCTION OF FIELD CROPS, INCLUDED ALSO INVESTIGATIONS OF NEEDLES OF SPRUCE AND SILVER FIR SUFFERING FROM SO/sup 3/ DAMAGE, IN WHICH A MARKED INCREASE IN TRANSPIRATION PRODUCTIVITY WAS NOTED. 25 REFERENCES, 32 FIGURES.

  7. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  8. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  9. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  10. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  11. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  12. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated that the meals should be balanced according to nutritional principles, because of too high energy share derived from fats (average 47.95% while just about 37.57% of daily energy was from carbohydrates origin. The energy values were much higher than recommendations for both genders, respectively. The energy share from milk and dairy products origin was 11% of total energy what should be considered as a suitable. The most served dairy product was milk while the ice-cream took the second place. It is necessary to increase the yogurt and similar fermented products consumption, especially for the elderly guests. With milk and dairy products consumption males and females fulfill 92% RDA for calcium, and 61.80 % DRI for elderly, respectively.

  13. Total design for textile products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafirova Koleta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

  14. Products to Aid in Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by The Association, nor a guarantee of the reliability of the information or product. For further information ... Information ALS Insight Newsletter Living with ALS Resource Guides Families and ALS Resource Guide Familial ALS Resource ...

  15. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection... that when met will assure the attainment and maintenance of all applicable water quality standards for... productive estuaries in the world. Despite significant efforts by federal, state, and local governments and...

  16. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  17. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  18. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  19. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  20. Trends in total and daily precipitation indices in japan from 1901 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Rena; Zaiki, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    Long-term trends in seasonal precipitation amount and daily precipitation indices were investigated for spring, summer, autumn, and winter with a daily precipitation dataset for Japan from 1901 to 2000. Heavy precipitation in spring and summer has significantly increased along the west coast of Japan. Such changes in precipitation have resulted in the increased heavy precipitation intensity. For autumn and winter, total precipitation significantly decreased in the Kanto district and central J...

  1. A Total Factor Productivity Toolbox for MATLAB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert); J. Barbero (Javier); J.L. Zofío (José)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTotal Factor Productivity Toolbox is a new package for MATLAB that includes functions to calculate the main Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indices and their decompositions, based on Shephard’s distance functions and using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) programming techniques. The

  2. A method for daily global solar radiation estimation from two instantaneous values using MODIS atmospheric products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Huaqiang; Zhou, Guomo; Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Fan, Weiliang; Zhu, Dien

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the temporal and spatial distributions of solar radiation is very important in many scientific fields. In this study, instantaneous solar irradiances on a horizontal surface at 10:30 and 13:30 local time (LT) were calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric data products with relatively high spatial resolution using a solar radiation model. These solar irradiances were combined to derive half-hourly averages of solar irradiance (HASI) and daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface using linear interpolation, piecewise linear regression, and quadratic polynomial regression. Compared with field observations, the HASI were estimated accurately when the total cloud fraction (TCF) was 0.6. Overall, the daily GSR estimated in this study was better than that estimated by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis of NASA. The daily GSR estimated in this study was underestimated, whereas it was overestimated by MERRA. The combination of the daily GSR estimates of this study and MERRA offers a simple and feasible technique for reducing uncertainty in daily GSR estimates. - Highlights: • Daily GSR is integrated from two observations from the MODIS products. • Daily GSR from the MODIS products is underestimated. • Biases were attributed primarily to variations in the total cloud percent. • Combining daily GSR estimates from the MODIS and the MERRA increases accuracy.

  3. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  4. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  5. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  6. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An adaptive wavelet-network model for forecasting daily total solar-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellit, A.; Benghanem, M.; Kalogirou, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of wavelet theory and neural networks has lead to the development of wavelet networks. Wavelet-networks are feed-forward networks using wavelets as activation functions. Wavelet-networks have been used successfully in various engineering applications such as classification, identification and control problems. In this paper, the use of adaptive wavelet-network architecture in finding a suitable forecasting model for predicting the daily total solar-radiation is investigated. Total solar-radiation is considered as the most important parameter in the performance prediction of renewable energy systems, particularly in sizing photovoltaic (PV) power systems. For this purpose, daily total solar-radiation data have been recorded during the period extending from 1981 to 2001, by a meteorological station in Algeria. The wavelet-network model has been trained by using either the 19 years of data or one year of the data. In both cases the total solar radiation data corresponding to year 2001 was used for testing the model. The network was trained to accept and handle a number of unusual cases. Results indicate that the model predicts daily total solar-radiation values with a good accuracy of approximately 97% and the mean absolute percentage error is not more than 6%. In addition, the performance of the model was compared with different neural network structures and classical models. Training algorithms for wavelet-networks require smaller numbers of iterations when compared with other neural networks. The model can be used to fill missing data in weather databases. Additionally, the proposed model can be generalized and used in different locations and for other weather data, such as sunshine duration and ambient temperature. Finally, an application using the model for sizing a PV-power system is presented in order to confirm the validity of this model

  8. KLE Translog production function and total factor productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klacek, J.; Vošvrda, Miloslav; Schlosser, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2007), s. 261-274 ISSN 0322-788X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : total factor productivity * translog production function * aggregate production function * least squares method * ridge regression Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  10. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  11. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  12. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  13. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  14. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. Subsequently growth is led by technical change in ASEAN-32, and capital inputs respectively in late industrialising economies, i.e., China and the Philippines. The main differences between the two submodels consist in levels in growth rates and technical progress contributions, which are strongly sped up in China by transition and integration in global production networks. For ASEAN-4 average null or negligible TFP values in the 1990s point to structural vulnerabilities that surface during the Asian financial crisis. ASEAN-3’s recovery is led by technical change though.

  16. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  17. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  19. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  20. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  2. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  3. An ecological function and services approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert K; Guiliano, David; Swanson, Sherman; Philbin, Michael J; Lin, John; Aron, Joan L; Schafer, Robin J; Heggem, Daniel T

    2014-04-01

    Prioritizing total maximum daily load (TMDL) development starts by considering the scope and severity of water pollution and risks to public health and aquatic life. Methodology using quantitative assessments of in-stream water quality is appropriate and effective for point source (PS) dominated discharge, but less so in watersheds with mostly nonpoint source (NPS) related impairments. For NPSs, prioritization in TMDL development and implementation of associated best management practices should focus on restoration of ecosystem physical functions, including how restoration effectiveness depends on design, maintenance and placement within the watershed. To refine the approach to TMDL development, regulators and stakeholders must first ask if the watershed, or ecosystem, is at risk of losing riparian or other ecologically based physical attributes and processes. If so, the next step is an assessment of the spatial arrangement of functionality with a focus on the at-risk areas that could be lost, or could, with some help, regain functions. Evaluating stream and wetland riparian function has advantages over the traditional means of water quality and biological assessments for NPS TMDL development. Understanding how an ecosystem functions enables stakeholders and regulators to determine the severity of problem(s), identify source(s) of impairment, and predict and avoid a decline in water quality. The Upper Reese River, Nevada, provides an example of water quality impairment caused by NPS pollution. In this river basin, stream and wetland riparian proper functioning condition (PFC) protocol, water quality data, and remote sensing imagery were used to identify sediment sources, transport, distribution, and its impact on water quality and aquatic resources. This study found that assessments of ecological function could be used to generate leading (early) indicators of water quality degradation for targeting pollution control measures, while traditional in-stream water

  4. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  5. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  6. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  7. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  8. Total Productivity Management in Small Industries

    OpenAIRE

    FARAJPOUR-KHANAPOSHTANI, Ghassem; HAYATI, Seyyed Iman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The importance of small businesses and SME's has been well established in the literature of the world economy. Thus, both industrialized and developing countries, development, support of small businesses as part and parcel of their productivity strategies have. Small industries are a major driver of employment, economic growth and productivity. About 80% of all companies in the world are less than 10 cases of human resources, so 95% of industries in the UK, Spain and Finland and 94 ...

  9. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  10. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE, A CENTRAL PREOCCUPATION OF THE MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela POPESCU; Adriana SCRIOŞTEANU; ANDREI POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    This present study demonstrates that the role of the mangers in the productive maintenance is currently becoming more important. This assessment is formulated starting from the daily realities regarding the growth of the proportions of productions and along with these the growth of the volume of equipments which need a better care and maintenance for a proper operation. The productive maintenance has developed and emerged out of this necessity. Therefore, the productive maintenance in the eco...

  11. Total productivity; strategy report in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This book gives KMA message, the actual conditions and results of manufacturing competitiveness and maintenance management in 2003, a good illustration of success strategies and best practice report. It has column, special edition and success strategy. Also it presents chage of manufacturing processes and customized production, new paradime 'preservation business management' acording to informationization. And it covers secore energy policy fit for world trend and high grade suggestion of correct objective.

  12. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  13. Daily endogenous cortisol production and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics in adult horses and neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kelsey A; Dirikolu, Levent; Ferguson, Duncan C; Norton, Natalie A; Barton, Michelle H

    2012-01-01

    To compare daily endogenous cortisol production rate and the pharmacokinetics of an i.v. bolus of hydrocortisone between neonatal foals and adult horses. 10 healthy full-term 2- to 4-day-old foals and 7 healthy adult horses. Blood samples were collected from each horse every 15 to 20 minutes for 24 hours for determination of 24-hour mean cortisol concentration. Afterward, dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) was administered i.v. to suppress endogenous cortisol production. Twelve hours afterward, hydrocortisone sodium succinate (1.0 mg/kg) was administered as a rapid i.v. bolus and serial blood samples were collected to determine hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics. Cortisol concentrations, daily cortisol production rate, and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics were determined, and results were compared between adult horses and foals. The mean ± SD 24-hour cortisol concentration was significantly lower in foals (20 ± 4 ng/mL) than in horses (26 ± 6 ng/mL), but the daily cortisol production rate was significantly greater in foals (6,710 ± 320 ng/kg/d) than in horses (2,140 ± 400 ng/kg/d). For hydrocortisone, foals had a significantly greater volume of distribution at steady state (1.92 ± 1.11 L/kg) and total body clearance (1.39 ± 0.108 L/kg/h) and significantly lower peak plasma concentration (1,051 ± 343 ng/mL) than did horses (0.58 ± 0.15 L/kg, 0.349 ± 0.065 L/kg/h, and 8,934 ± 3,843 ng/mL, respectively). Important differences were detected in cortisol production and metabolism between neonatal foals and adult horses consistent with lower plasma protein binding of cortisol in foals. This decrease may contribute to cortisol insufficiency during prolonged critical illness in neonatal foals.

  14. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Krešić; Irena Colić Barić; Borislav Šimundić

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper) on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI) for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated t...

  15. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  16. Determination of optimum values for maximizing the profit in bread production: Daily bakery Sdn Bhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Sim, Raymond

    2015-02-01

    An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear. An ILP has many applications in industrial production, including job-shop modelling. A possible objective is to maximize the total production, without exceeding the available resources. In some cases, this can be expressed in terms of a linear program, but variables must be constrained to be integer. It concerned with the optimization of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equality and inequality constraints and restrictions. It has been used to solve optimization problem in many industries area such as banking, nutrition, agriculture, and bakery and so on. The main purpose of this study is to formulate the best combination of all ingredients in producing different type of bread in Daily Bakery in order to gain maximum profit. This study also focuses on the sensitivity analysis due to changing of the profit and the cost of each ingredient. The optimum result obtained from QM software is RM 65,377.29 per day. This study will be benefited for Daily Bakery and also other similar industries. By formulating a combination of all ingredients make up, they can easily know their total profit in producing bread everyday.

  17. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  18. Daily Sperm Production, Gonadal and Extra-Gonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    animals fed diets 2 and 3 were similar to the control animals but they were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those fed ... Keywords: Prebiotics, probiotics, rabbits, sperm reserves, sperm production. ... Materials and methods .... In: Handbook of.

  19. 27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from the premises. (7) The quantity and testing for alcoholic content of fusel oil or other chemicals removed from the production system and the disposition thereof with the name of the consignee, if...

  20. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  1. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE, A CENTRAL PREOCCUPATION OF THE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study demonstrates that the role of the mangers in the productive maintenance is currently becoming more important. This assessment is formulated starting from the daily realities regarding the growth of the proportions of productions and along with these the growth of the volume of equipments which need a better care and maintenance for a proper operation. The productive maintenance has developed and emerged out of this necessity. Therefore, the productive maintenance in the economic theory represents the maintenance of the equipments and fabric at the highest productive level by cooperating with all departments related to production. This aspect points out that the maintenance and repair works of the equipments have to be the main preoccupation of the personnel and especially of the managers.

  3. Knockout of Murine Mamld1 Impairs Testicular Growth and Daily Sperm Production but Permits Normal Postnatal Androgen Production and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyado, Mami; Yoshida, Kaoru; Miyado, Kenji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2017-06-19

    MAMLD1 has been implicated in testicular function in both human and mouse fetuses. Although three patients with MAMLD1 mutations were reported to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in their teens, the functional significance of MAMLD1 in the postnatal testis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the phenotype of Mamld1 knockout (KO) male mice at reproductive ages. The reproductive organs of KO male mice were morphologically unremarkable, except for relatively small testes. Seminiferous tubule size and number of proliferating spermatogonia/spermatocytes were reduced in the KO testis. Daily sperm production of KO mice was mildly attenuated, whereas total sperm counts in epididymal semen remained normal. Sperm motility and morphology, as well as androgen levels in serum and testicular tissues and the number of pups born from cross-mated wildtype (WT) female mice, were comparable between WT and KO male mice. These results indicate that MAMLD1 contributes to the maintenance of postnatal testicular growth and daily sperm production but is dispensable for androgen biosynthesis and fertility. MAMLD1 likely plays supporting roles in multiple and continuous steps of male reproduction.

  4. Knockout of Murine Mamld1 Impairs Testicular Growth and Daily Sperm Production but Permits Normal Postnatal Androgen Production and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Miyado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MAMLD1 has been implicated in testicular function in both human and mouse fetuses. Although three patients with MAMLD1 mutations were reported to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in their teens, the functional significance of MAMLD1 in the postnatal testis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the phenotype of Mamld1 knockout (KO male mice at reproductive ages. The reproductive organs of KO male mice were morphologically unremarkable, except for relatively small testes. Seminiferous tubule size and number of proliferating spermatogonia/spermatocytes were reduced in the KO testis. Daily sperm production of KO mice was mildly attenuated, whereas total sperm counts in epididymal semen remained normal. Sperm motility and morphology, as well as androgen levels in serum and testicular tissues and the number of pups born from cross-mated wildtype (WT female mice, were comparable between WT and KO male mice. These results indicate that MAMLD1 contributes to the maintenance of postnatal testicular growth and daily sperm production but is dispensable for androgen biosynthesis and fertility. MAMLD1 likely plays supporting roles in multiple and continuous steps of male reproduction.

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  6. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F17 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  7. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F11 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  8. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F13 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  10. Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Levy, Hiram; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    While the export of pollutants from the United States exhibits notable variability from day to day and is often considered to be "episodic," the contribution of strong daily export events to total export has not been quantified. We use carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of anthropogenic pollutants in the Model of OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) to estimate this contribution. We first identify the major export pathway from the United States to be through the northeast boundary (24-48°N along 67.5°W and 80-67.5°W along 48°N), and then analyze 15 summers of daily CO export fluxes through this boundary. These daily CO export fluxes have a nearly Gaussian distribution with a mean of 1100 Gg CO day-1 and a standard deviation of 490 Gg CO day-1. To focus on the synoptic variability, we define a "synoptic background" export flux equal to the 15 day moving average export flux and classify strong export days according to their fluxes relative to this background. As expected from Gaussian statistics, 16% of summer days are "strong export days," classified as those days when the CO export flux exceeds the synoptic background by one standard deviation or more. Strong export days contributes 25% to the total export, a value determined by the relative standard deviation of the CO flux distribution. Regressing the anomalies of the CO export flux through the northeast U.S. boundary relative to the synoptic background on the daily anomalies in the surface pressure field (also relative to a 15 day running mean) suggests that strong daily export fluxes are correlated with passages of midlatitude cyclones over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The associated cyclonic circulation and Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) that lift surface pollutants over the northeastern United States have been shown previously to be associated with long-range transport events. Comparison with observations from the 2004 INTEX-NA field campaign confirms that our model captures the observed enhancements in CO outflow

  11. What's Fit To Print: The Effect Of Ownership Concentration On Product Variety In Daily Newspaper Markets

    OpenAIRE

    George, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ownership concentration on product position, product variety and readership in markets for daily newspapers. US antitrust policy presumes that mergers reduce the amount and diversity of content available to consumers. However, the effects of consolidation in differentiated product markets cannot be determined solely from theory. Because multi-product firms internalize business stealing, mergers may encourage firms to reposition products, leading to more, not ...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  13. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  14. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  15. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  16. Development and daily use of an electronic oncological patient record for the total management of cancer patients: 7 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligioni, E; Berloffa, F; Caffo, O; Tonazzolli, G; Ambrosini, G; Valduga, F; Eccher, C; Ferro, A; Forti, S

    2009-02-01

    We describe our experience with an electronic oncological patient record (EOPR) for the total management of cancer patients. The web-based EOPR was developed on the basis of a user-centred design including user education and training, followed by continuous assistance; user acceptance was monitored by means of three questionnaires administered after 2 weeks, 6 months and 6 years. The EOPR has been used daily for all in-ward, day hospital and ambulatory clinical activities since July 2000. The most widely appreciated functions are its rapid multipoint access, the self-updated summary of the patients' clinical course, the management of the entire therapeutic programme synchronised with working agendas and oncological teleconsultation. Security and privacy are assured by means of the separate storage of clinical and demographic data, with access protected by login and a password. The questionnaires highlighted appreciation of rapid data retrieval and exchange and the perception of improved quality of care, but also revealed a sense of additional work and a negative impact on doctor-patient relationships. Our EOPR has proved to be effective in the total management of cancer patients. Its user-centred design and flexible web technology have been key factors in its successful implementation and daily use.

  17. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  18. 76 FR 17446 - Wausau Daily Herald Advertising Production Division, a Subsidiary of Gannett Co., Inc.; Wausau...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Advertising Production Division, a Subsidiary of Gannett Co., Inc.; Wausau, WI; Notice of Affirmative... workers of Wausau Daily Herald, Advertising Production Division, a subsidiary of Gannett Co., Inc., Wausau... Determination will soon be published in the Federal Register. The workers produce newspaper advertisements. The...

  19. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  20. Correlations between patient satisfaction and ability to perform daily activities after total knee arthroplasty: why aren't patients satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has become an important parameter for assessing overall outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The level of difficulty in performing activities of daily life that affects overall patient satisfaction is unknown. We therefore evaluated the influence of difficulty in performing activities of daily life on patient satisfaction and expectations. The 2011 Knee Society Knee Scoring System Questionnaire was mailed to patients who had undergone TKA with 375 patients completing and returning it. We evaluated the relationship between the ability to perform daily activities, as assessed via the questionnaire, and patient satisfaction and expectations of the same score in each patient using linear regression analysis. We also determined which activities affected patient satisfaction and expectations using multivariate linear regression analyses. All patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient satisfaction score. In particular, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs" followed by "getting into or out of a car," "moving laterally (stepping to the side)" and "walking and standing" correlated strongly with patient satisfaction by linear regression analysis and were revealed to have significant contributions to patient satisfaction by multivariate linear regression analysis. Regarding expectations, all patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient expectation score, although none of the correlation coefficients was very high. "Squatting," followed by "walking and standing," contributed to the patient expectation score by multivariate linear regression analysis. Activities related to walking and standing are some of the most basic movements and basic demands for patients. In addition, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs," "getting into and out of a car" and "squatting" are very important and distressing activities that significantly correlate with patient satisfaction after TKA.

  1. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Wimmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM and (b that there is a significant difference between the subject’s flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857 walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319 stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences.

  2. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  3. Food Management System--Daily Production Reports: General Description and Users Guide. Project SIMU-School: Dallas Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronshey, Raymond W.; Dunklau, M. William

    This booklet describes the Daily Production Reports subsystem of the School Food Management System, a computer program package developed as one part of a family of educational management systems. The Daily Production Reports system produces two major types of reports on a daily basis. Business Analysis Reports display all food service costs, as…

  4. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in German States Since Reunification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2018-01-01

    A quarter-century after reunification, labor productivity in the states of eastern Germany continues to lag systematically behind the West. Persistent gaps in total factor productivity (TFP) are the proximate cause; conventional and capital-free measurements confirm a sharp slowdown in TFP growth...... of managers, low startup intensity and the distribution of firm size in the East rather than R&D activities....

  5. Small phytoplankton contribution to the standing stocks and the total primary production in the Amundsen Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small phytoplankton are anticipated to be more important in a recently warming and freshening ocean condition. However, little information on the contribution of small phytoplankton to overall phytoplankton production is currently available in the Amundsen Sea. To determine the contributions of small phytoplankton to total biomass and primary production, carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of total and small phytoplankton were obtained from 12 productivity stations in the Amundsen Sea. The daily carbon uptake rates of total phytoplankton averaged in this study were 0.42 g C m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.30 g C m−2 d−1 and 0.84 g C m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.18 g C m−2 d−1 for non-polynya and polynya regions, respectively, whereas the daily total nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were 0.12 g N m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.09 g N m−2 d−1 and 0.21 g N m−2 d−1 (SD  =  ± 0.11 g N m−2 d−1, respectively, for non-polynya and polynya regions, all of which were within the ranges reported previously. Small phytoplankton contributed 26.9 and 27.7 % to the total carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of phytoplankton in this study, respectively, which were relatively higher than the chlorophyll a contribution (19.4 % of small phytoplankton. For a comparison of different regions, the contributions for chlorophyll a concentration and primary production of small phytoplankton averaged from all the non-polynya stations were 42.4 and 50.8 %, which were significantly higher than those (7.9 and 14.9 %, respectively in the polynya region. A strong negative correlation (r2 = 0. 790, p<0. 05 was found between the contributions of small phytoplankton and the total daily primary production of phytoplankton in this study. This finding implies that daily primary production decreases as small phytoplankton contribution increases, which is

  6. Experimental application of the "total maximum daily load" approach as a tool for WFD implementation in temporary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, A.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Santese, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, the experience gained in the first experimental use in the UE (as far as we know) of the concept and methodology of the "Total Maximum Daily Load" (TMDL) is reported. The TMDL is an instrument required in the Clean Water Act in U.S.A for the management of water bodies classified impaired. The TMDL calculates the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. It permits to establish a scientifically-based strategy on the regulation of the emission loads control according to the characteristic of the watershed/basin. The implementation of the TMDL is a process analogous to the Programmes of Measures required by the WFD, the main difference being the analysis of the linkage between loads of different sources and the water quality of water bodies. The TMDL calculation was used in this study for the Candelaro River, a temporary Italian river, classified impaired in the first steps of the implementation of the WFD. A specific approach based on the "Load Duration Curves" was adopted for the calculation of nutrient TMDLs due to the more robust approach specific for rivers featuring large changes in river flow compared to the classic approach based on average long term flow conditions. This methodology permits to establish the maximum allowable loads across to the different flow conditions of a river. This methodology enabled: to evaluate the allowable loading of a water body; to identify the sources and estimate their loads; to estimate the total loading that the water bodies can receives meeting the water quality standards established; to link the effects of point and diffuse sources on the water quality status and finally to individuate the reduction necessary for each type of sources. The loads reductions were calculated for nitrate, total phosphorus and ammonia. The simulated measures showed a remarkable ability to reduce the pollutants for the Candelaro River. The use of the Soil and

  7. Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to improve support total maximum daily load development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially detailed mass-loading studies and solute-transport modeling using OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) demonstrate how natural attenuation and loading from distinct and diffuse sources control stream water quality and affect load reductions predicted in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Mass-loading data collected during low-flow from Cement Creek (a low-pH, metal-rich stream because of natural and mining sources, and subject to TMDL requirements) were used to calibrate OTIS and showed spatially variable effects of natural attenuation (instream reactions) and loading from diffuse (groundwater) and distinct sources. OTIS simulations of the possible effects of TMDL-recommended remediation of mine sites showed less improvement to dissolved zinc load and concentration (14% decrease) than did the TMDL (53-63% decrease). The TMDL (1) assumed conservative transport, (2) accounted for loads removed by remediation by subtracting them from total load at the stream mouth, and (3) did not include diffuse-source loads. In OTIS, loads were reduced near their source; the resulting concentration was decreased by natural attenuation and increased by diffuse-source loads during downstream transport. Thus, by not including natural attenuation and loading from diffuse sources, the TMDL overestimated remediation effects at low flow. Use of the techniques presented herein could improve TMDLs by incorporating these processes during TMDL development.

  8. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested absolute and conditional convergence of Total Factor Productivity in Africa using a sample of 23 countries and TFP data covering the period between 1960 and 2003 while deploying the panel unit root methodology. Countries that have experienced sustained economic growth rate are found to have ...

  9. The impact of embedded total productive maintenance with six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to capture the current state of Six Sigma and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) as well as to propose the embedded approach of Six Sigma and TPM on improving supply chain performance. The approach to this paper is to answer the questions such as “how does TPM ...

  10. Health information technology vendor selection strategies and total factor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Menachemi, Nir; Thompson, Mark A; Yu, Feliciano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health information technology (HIT) adoption strategies' relative performance on hospital-level productivity measures. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics for fiscal years 2002 through 2007 were used for this study. A two-stage approach is employed. First, a Malmquist model is specified to calculate hospital-level productivity measures. A logistic regression model is then estimated to compare the three HIT adoption strategies' relative performance on the newly constructed productivity measures. The HIT vendor selection strategy impacts the amount of technological change required of an organization but does not appear to have either a positive or adverse impact on technical efficiency or total factor productivity. The higher levels in technological change experienced by hospitals using the best of breed and best of suite HIT vendor selection strategies may have a more direct impact on the organization early on in the process. However, these gains did not appear to translate into either increased technical efficiency or total factor productivity during the period studied. Over a longer period, one HIT vendor selection strategy may yet prove to be more effective at improving efficiency and productivity.

  11. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  12. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  13. Development of total maximum daily loads for bacteria impaired watershed using the comprehensive hydrology and water quality simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang M; Brannan, Kevin M; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Benham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop bacteria total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the Hardware River watershed in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. The TMDLs were developed to meet Virginia's water quality standard for bacteria at the time, which stated that the calendar-month geometric mean concentration of Escherichia coli should not exceed 126 cfu/100 mL, and that no single sample should exceed a concentration of 235 cfu/100 mL. The bacteria impairment TMDLs were developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The hydrology and water quality components of HSPF were calibrated and validated using data from the Hardware River watershed to ensure that the model adequately simulated runoff and bacteria concentrations. The calibrated and validated HSPF model was used to estimate the contributions from the various bacteria sources in the Hardware River watershed to the in-stream concentration. Bacteria loads were estimated through an extensive source characterization process. Simulation results for existing conditions indicated that the majority of the bacteria came from livestock and wildlife direct deposits and pervious lands. Different source reduction scenarios were evaluated to identify scenarios that meet both the geometric mean and single sample maximum E. coli criteria with zero violations. The resulting scenarios required extreme and impractical reductions from livestock and wildlife sources. Results from studies similar to this across Virginia partially contributed to a reconsideration of the standard's applicability to TMDL development.

  14. Towards total productive maintenance in the Eastern European mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.D. [Kepner-Tregoe (United Kingdom) Ltd., Windsor

    1999-08-01

    An European Union consultancy project was undertaken to install a `best-in-class` maintenance system for the lignite mines of Romania. The project, funded by PHARE, started with a critical analysis of the maintenance and repair systems of equipment in both the open-pit and underground mines operated by RALO (Regia Autonoma a Lignitului Octenia). This study paved the way for the introduction of a computerised maintenance system and the inception of a planned preventative maintenance scheme. A development strategy leading by a structural methodology towards predictive maintenance and total productive maintenance was drawn up and attention was given to multi-skilling, training and further facilitating activities to enable the success of the total productive maintenance strategy. An abridged version of the paper was presented at MAINTE 97, held in Birmingham, UK in 1997. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  16. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  17. Retrieval of daily gross primary production over Europe and Africa from an ensemble of SEVIRI/MSG products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B.; Sanchez-Ruiz, S.; Gilabert, M. A.; Moreno, A.; Campos-Taberner, M.; García-Haro, F. J.; Trigo, I. F.; Aurela, M.; Brümmer, C.; Carrara, A.; De Ligne, A.; Gianelle, D.; Grünwald, T.; Limousin, J. M.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Sottocornola, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Tagesson, T.

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to derive a method for a daily gross primary production (GPP) product over Europe and Africa taking the full advantage of the SEVIRI/MSG satellite products from the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) sensors delivered from the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) system. Special attention is paid to model the daily GPP response from an optimized Montheith's light use efficiency model under dry conditions by controlling water shortage limitations from the actual evapotranspiration and the potential evapotranspiration (PET). The PET was parameterized using the mean daily air temperature at 2 m (Ta) from ERA-Interim data. The GPP product (MSG GPP) was produced for 2012 and assessed by direct site-level comparison with GPP from eddy covariance data (EC GPP). MSG GPP presents relative bias errors lower than 40% for the most forest vegetation types with a high agreement (r > 0.7) when compared with EC GPP. For drylands, MSG GPP reproduces the seasonal variations related to water limitation in a good agreement with site level GPP estimates (RMSE = 2.11 g m-2 day-1; MBE = -0.63 g m-2 day-1), especially for the dry season. A consistency analysis against other GPP satellite products (MOD17A2 and FLUXCOM) reveals a high consistency among products (RMSD Africa. The major GPP disagreement arises over moist biomes in central Africa (RMSD > 3.0 g m-2 day-1) and over dry biomes with MSG GPP estimates lower than FLUXCOM (MBD up to -3.0 g m-2 day-1). This newly derived product has the potential for analysing spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of GPP at the MSG spatial resolutions on a daily basis allowing to better capture the GPP dynamics and magnitude.

  18. Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio is estimated from 300-400 divided by total daily insulin dose in type 1 diabetes patients who use the insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Kasami, Ryuichi; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kondo, Eri; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Endo, Itsuro; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2012-11-01

    To optimize insulin dose using insulin pump, basal and bolus insulin doses are widely calculated from total daily insulin dose (TDD). It is recommended that total daily basal insulin dose (TBD) is 50% of TDD and that the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) equals 500 divided by TDD. We recently reported that basal insulin requirement is approximately 30% of TDD. We therefore investigated CIR after adjustment of the proper basal insulin rate. Forty-five Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated during several weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served standard diabetes meals (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight). Each meal omission was done to confirm basal insulin rate. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 and 150 mg/dL before and 2 h after each meal, respectively. After the basal insulin rate was fixed and target blood glucose levels were achieved, TBD, CIR, TDD, and their products were determined. Mean (±SD) blood glucose levels before and 2 h after meals were 121±47 and 150±61 mg/dL, respectively. TDD was 31.5±9.0 U, and TBD was 27.0±6.5% of TDD. CIR×TDD of breakfast was significantly lower than those of lunch and supper (288±73 vs. 408±92 and 387±83, respectively; Plunch and supper in type 1 diabetes patients. These results indicate that the insulin dose has been underestimated by using previously established calculations.

  19. Validation of a spectrophotometer-based method for estimating daily sperm production and deferent duct transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present work were 3-fold. First, a new method for estimating daily sperm production was validated. This method, in turn, was used to evaluate testis output as well as deferent duct throughput. Next, this analytical approach was evaluated in 2 experiments. The first experiment compared left and right reproductive tracts within roosters. The second experiment compared reproductive tract throughput in roosters from low and high sperm mobility lines. Standard curves were constructed from which unknown concentrations of sperm cells and sperm nuclei could be predicted from observed absorbance. In each case, the independent variable was based upon hemacytometer counts, and absorbance was a linear function of concentration. Reproductive tracts were excised, semen recovered from each duct, and the extragonadal sperm reserve determined by multiplying volume by sperm cell concentration. Testicular sperm nuclei were procured by homogenization of a whole testis, overlaying a 20-mL volume of homogenate upon 15% (wt/vol) Accudenz (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corporation, Westbury, NY), and then washing nuclei by centrifugation through the Accudenz layer. Daily sperm production was determined by dividing the predicted number of sperm nuclei within the homogenate by 4.5 d (i.e., the time sperm with elongated nuclei spend within the testis). Sperm transit through the deferent duct was estimated by dividing the extragonadal reserve by daily sperm production. Neither the efficiency of sperm production (sperm per gram of testicular parenchyma per day) nor deferent duct transit differed between left and right reproductive tracts (P > 0.05). Whereas efficiency of sperm production did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high sperm mobility lines, deferent duct transit differed between lines (P < 0.001). On average, this process required 2.2 and 1.0 d for low and high lines, respectively. In summary, we developed and then tested a method for quantifying male

  20. Dual economies and international total factor productivity differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanda, Areendam; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a framework that decomposes aggregate total factor productivity (TFP) into a component reflecting relative efficiency across sectors, and another component that reflects the absolute level of efficiency. A development accounting analysis suggests that as much as 85......% of the international variation in aggregate TFP can be attributed to variation in relative efficiency across sectors. Estimation results show that recent findings highlighting the importance of strong protection of property rights, financial development and geographical advantage for the level of TFP, can be explained...

  1. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  2. The role of safe practices in hospitals’ total factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy R Huerta1, Mark A Thompson2, Eric W Ford31Center for Health Innovation, Education, and Research, 2Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 3Forsyth Medical Center Distinguished Professor of Health Care, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: The dual aims of improving safety and productivity are a major part of the health care reform movement hospital leaders must manage. Studies exploring the two phenomena conjointly and over time are critical to understanding how change in one dimension influences the other over time. A Malmquist approach is used to assess hospitals’ relative productivity levels over time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA algorithms were executed to assess whether or not the Malmquist Indices (MIs correlate with the safe practices measure. The American Hospital Association’s annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Case Mix Index for fiscal years 2002–2006, along with Leapfrog Group’s annual survey for 2006 were used for this study. Leapfrog Group respondents have significantly higher technological change (TC and total factor productivity (TFP than nonrespondents without sacrificing technical efficiency changes. Of the three MIs, TC (P < 0.10 and TFP (P < 0.05 had significant relationships with the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices score. The ANOVA also indicates that the mean differences of TFP measures progressed in a monotonic fashion up the Safe Practices scale. Adherence to the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices recommendations had a major impact on hospitals’ operating processes and productivity. Specifically, there is evidence that hospitals reporting higher Safe Practices scores had above average levels of TC and TFP gains over the period assessed. Leaders should strive for increased transparency to promote both quality improvement and increased productivity.Keywords: safety, productivity, quality, safe

  3. Introduction of total productive maintenance in steelworks plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of TPM - Total Productive Maintenance and its basic method 5S (sort, systematize, sweep, sanitize, self-discipline. The new management concept is realized in Japanese and USA companies. On the Polish market the methods was adopted in the first years of 21st century by car manufacturers and household equipment producers. Nowadays the concept is tested by steelworks in Polish steel industry. The process of introduction of these methods is long, difficult and requires organizational and technical changes. The companies which realize Awareness Management Project of workers in Health and Safety System use other methods whose primary goal is to ensure objectivity and comparability of results and skill assessment of particular employees (the Current and Periodic Assessment System for worker and supervision positions.

  4. An Assessment of Three Northeast Asian Economies’ Total Factor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.

  5. Estimation of monthly-mean daily global solar radiation based on MODIS and TRMM products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jun; Chen, Zhuoqi; Yang, Kun; Liang, Shunlin; Tang, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Global solar radiation (GSR) is required in a large number of fields. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since GSR is directly measured at a limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are sparse, especially, in remote areas. Satellite signals (radiance at the top of atmosphere in most cases) can be used to estimate continuous GSR in space. However, many existing remote sensing products have a relatively coarse spatial resolution and these inversion algorithms are too complicated to be mastered by experts in other research fields. In this study, the artificial neural network (ANN) is utilized to build the mathematical relationship between measured monthly-mean daily GSR and several high-level remote sensing products available for the public, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monthly averaged land surface temperature (LST), the number of days in which the LST retrieval is performed in 1 month, MODIS enhanced vegetation index, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) monthly precipitation. After training, GSR estimates from this ANN are verified against ground measurements at 12 radiation stations. Then, comparisons are performed among three GSR estimates, including the one presented in this study, a surface data-based estimate, and a remote sensing product by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Validation results indicate that the ANN-based method presented in this study can estimate monthly-mean daily GSR at a spatial resolution of about 5 km with high accuracy.

  6. [Milk, Daily products and Bone health.Milk or dairy products and bone:Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Junko

    2018-01-01

    An assessment of the association between the intake of milk or dairy products and bone density or the risk of fractures on the basis of epidemiological studies revealed the following findings:(1)a sufficient prepubertal intake of milk or dairy products could contribute to the increased bone growth and maximized peal bone mass because the intake of calcium in the corresponding stage in Japan is inadequate;(2)adequate milk intake could contribute to the maintenance of peal bone mass among menstruating adult females and the decrease of bone loss in postmenopausal females. Adequate milk intake could contribute to the decrease of aging-induced bone loss in elderly males, though there is no sufficient scientific evidence;and(3)a meta-analysis indicated no correlation between the increased milk intake and decreased risks of hip fractures in the elderly. As the intake of milk or dairy products in the Japanese elderly is rather less than that reported by the meta-analysis, the minimal intake of milk or dairy products is anticipated to elevate the risk of fractures in middle-aged or elderly males and females although the scientific evidence is inadequate.

  7. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eMaertens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  8. European Legal Developments in Product Liability and Product Safety and the Total Quality Management Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Antoni; Gieskes, J.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that Product Liability (PL) and Product Safety (PS) are relevant categories in terms of the Total Quality Management literature. From a societal point of view PL and PS are two sides of a coin. The effects of the PL and PS regulation on companies are described

  9. Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011 in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

  10. Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, C; Algora, S; Benito, V; Clemente, M J; Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2002-02-13

    The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.

  11. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  12. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  13. The development of a sub-daily gridded rainfall product to improve hydrological predictions in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Freer, Jim; Coxon, Gemma; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Woods, Ross; Liguori, Sara

    2015-04-01

    In Great Britain and many other regions of the world, flooding resulting from short duration, high intensity rainfall events can lead to significant economic losses and fatalities. At present, such extreme events are often poorly evaluated using hydrological models due, in part, to their rarity and relatively short duration and a lack of appropriate data. Such storm characteristics are not well represented by daily rainfall records currently available using volumetric gauges and/or derived gridded products. This research aims to address this important data gap by developing a sub-daily gridded precipitation product for Great Britain. Our focus is to better understand these storm events and some of the challenges and uncertainties in quantifying such data across catchment scales. Our goal is to both improve such rainfall characterisation and derive an input to drive hydrological model simulations. Our methodology involves the collation, error checking, and spatial interpolation of approximately 2000 rain gauges located across Great Britain, provided by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Error checking was conducted over the entirety of the TBR data available, utilising a two stage approach. First, rain gauge data at each site were examined independently, with data exceeding reasonable thresholds marked as suspect. Second, potentially erroneous data were marked using a neighbourhood analysis approach whereby measurements at a given gauge were deemed suspect if they did not fall within defined bounds of measurements at neighbouring gauges. A total of eight error checks were conducted. To provide the user with the greatest flexibility possible, the error markers associated with each check have been recorded at every site. This approach aims to enable the user to choose which checks they deem most suitable for a particular application. The quality assured TBR dataset was then spatially interpolated to produce a national

  14. Bakery products as a source of total dietary fiber in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata; Moskwa, Justyna; Gromkowska-Kępka, Krystyna; Laskowska, Emilia; Laskowska, Jolanta; Tomczuk, Justyna; Borawska, Maria Halina

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are a source of bioactive compounds, such as dietary fibre (DF), whose proper supply plays an important role in prevention of civilisation diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine total dietary fibre (TDF) content in bakery products and their contribution to TDF supply. The determination of TDF content was performed using enzymatic-gravimetric method in 72 samples of six types of bakery products (wholemeal rye bread, wheat-rye bread, wheat-rye bread with grains, toast bread, crispbread, rolls) included in the young adults diet. Simultaneously, frequency of bakery products consumption and their contribution to TDF supply were assessed based on dietary interview questionnaires carried out among 224 students from Poland. Index of nutritional quality (INQ) of examined bakery products was calculated. Our data indicate that average TDF content depended on the type of bakery products and ranged from 2.19 g/100 g in rolls to 11.80 g/100 g in wholemeal rye bread. All of the tested types of bakery products, except rolls, were a good source of fibre (INQ≥1), but the richest were wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads. Analysis of questionnaires data showed that bakery products were regularly consumed by 80% of young adults; however, most of whom preferred rolls. Consumption of bakery products covered current recommendations for dietary fibre in 27%. Daily intake of bakery products and TDF was not correlated with student's BMI, however, women frequently consuming bread had a lower BMI than those who rarely ate it. Wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads are the rich source of TDF and they should be consumed by young adults in order to achieve the recommended TDF values.

  15. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  16. Comparative methane estimation from cattle based on total CO2 production using different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md N. Haque

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the precision of CH4 estimates using calculated CO2 (HP by the CO2 method (CO2T and measured CO2 in the respiration chamber (CO2R. The CO2R and CO2T study was conducted as a 3 × 3 Latin square design where 3 Dexter heifers were allocated to metabolic cages for 3 periods. Each period consisted of 2 weeks of adaptation followed by 1 week of measurement with the CO2R and CO2T. The average body weight of the heifer was 226 ± 11 kg (means ± SD. They were fed a total mixed ration, twice daily, with 1 of 3 supplements: wheat (W, molasses (M, or molasses mixed with sodium bicarbonate (Mbic. The dry mater intake (DMI; kg/day was significantly greater (P < 0.001 in the metabolic cage compared with that in the respiration chamber. The daily CH4 (L/day emission was strongly correlated (r = 0.78 between CO2T and CO2R. The daily CH4 (L/kg DMI emission by the CO2T was in the same magnitude as by the CO2R. The measured CO2 (L/day production in the respiration chamber was not different (P = 0.39 from the calculated CO2 production using the CO2T. This result concludes a reasonable accuracy and precision of CH4 estimation by the CO2T compared with the CO2R.

  17. Impact of estradiol valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Law, Amy; Jeddi, Mark; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the change in work productivity and activities of daily living in North American women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) treated with estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) compared to placebo. Women in the United States and Canada, aged 20-53 years with an objective diagnosis of HMB and no recognizable anatomical pathology, were treated with E2V/DNG or placebo for seven cycles (196 days). Main outcome measures included work productivity (i.e., productivity while at work) and activities of daily living measured using a modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (mWPAI) on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (higher values denote higher impairment levels). In both countries, significant improvement was observed between baseline and end of treatment in work productivity and activities of daily living impairment. The improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living with E2V/DNG treatment relative to placebo ranged from 37.2% to 39.2% across both countries. Monthly gains due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) associated with improvement in work productivity were estimated to be US$80.2 and Can$70.8 (US$58.5) and those associated with improvement in activities of daily living were estimated to be US$84.9 and Can$73.5 (US$60.7). E2V/DNG was shown to have a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in U.S. and Canadian women with HMB. In addition, these improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living were associated with a reduction in HMB-related monetary burden compared to the placebo group.

  18. COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR DETERMINATION OF COST DAILY SUGAR PRODUCTION AND INCIDENTS DECISIONS FOR COMPANIES SUGAR (SACODI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of sugar production is complex; anything that affects this chain has direct repercussions in the sugar production’s costs, it’s synthetic and decisive indicator for the taking of decisions. Currently the Cuban sugar factory determine this cost weekly, for that, its process of taking of decisions is affected. Looking for solutions to this problem, the present work, being part of a territorial project approved by CITMA, intended to calculate the cost of production daily, weekly, monthly and accumulated until indicated date, according to an adaptation to the methodology used by the National Costs System of sugarcane created by the MINAZ, it’s supported by a computer system denominated SACODI. This adaptation registers the physical and economic indicators of all direct and indirect expenses of the  sugarcane and besides this information generates an economic-mathematical model of goal programming whose solution indicates the best balance in amount of sugar of the entities of the sugar factory, in short term. The implementation of the system in the sugar factory «Julio A. Mella» in Santiago de Cuba in the sugar-cane production 08-09 produced an estimate of decrease of the cost of until 3,5 % for the taking of better decisions. 

  19. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA proposed total maximum... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  20. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

  1. Evaluation of Total Daily Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    regular insulin has significantly increased in recent years. These patients are severely insulin resistant requiring high doses of insulin to achieve...on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital presented at SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 201 6 with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local...59th CSPG/SGVU) C.201 4 . I 52d PROTOCOL TITLE Evaluation of Total Dai ly Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the

  2. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 μg/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 μg/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 μg/kg) and Cd (0.01 μg/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 μg/kg and 0.8-1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    1999-03-09

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 {mu}g/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 {mu}g/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 {mu}g/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 {mu}g/kg) and Cd (0.01 {mu}g/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 {mu}g/kg and 0.8-1.0 {mu}g/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.

  5. 76 FR 46854 - Wausau Daily Herald, Advertising Production Division, a Subsidiary of Gannett Co., Inc.,Wausau...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ..., Advertising Production Division, a Subsidiary of Gannett Co., Inc.,Wausau, WI; Notice of Negative...) applicable to workers and former workers of Wausau Daily Herald, Advertising Production Division, a... the supply of graphic design services for newspaper advertisements. The initial investigation resulted...

  6. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  8. The Short-run Impact on Total Factor Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Jacobsen, Joannes; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus

    This project was prepared for The Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) under The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. The scope of the project was to conduct the first comprehensive productivity impact assessment of the Danish system of innovation...

  9. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  10. Corporate financial structure, misallocation and total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the quantitative relevance of the cross-sectional dispersion of corporate financial structure in explaining the intra-industry allocation efficiency of productive factors. I solve a heterogeneous firms model with financial constraints and distortions to the marginal rental-rate of

  11. Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) in foods with added phytosterols and estimation of their daily intake: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-10-01

    1To evaluate the content of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) of foods with added phytosterols, in total 14 studies measuring POP contents of foods with added phytosterols were systematically reviewed. In non-heated or stored foods, POP contents were low, ranging from (medians) 0.03-3.6 mg/100 g with corresponding oxidation rates of phytosterols (ORP) of 0.03-0.06%. In fat-based foods with 8% of added free plant sterols (FPS), plant sterol esters (PSE) or plant stanol esters (PAE) pan-fried at 160-200°C for 5-10 min, median POP contents were 72.0, 38.1, and 4.9 mg/100 g, respectively, with a median ORP of 0.90, 0.48, and 0.06%. Hence resistance to thermal oxidation was in the order of PAE > PSE > FPS. POP formation was highest in enriched butter followed by margarine and rapeseed oil. In margarines with 7.5-10.5% added PSE oven-heated at 140-200°C for 5-30 min, median POP content was 0.3 mg/100 g. Further heating under same temperature conditions but for 60-120 min markedly increased POP formation to 384.3 mg/100 g. Estimated daily upper POP intake was 47.7 mg/d (equivalent to 0.69 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added PSE and 78.3 mg/d (equivalent to 1.12 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added FPS as calculated by multiplying the advised upper daily phytosterol intake of 3 g/d with the 90% quantile values of ORP. In conclusion, heating temperature and time, chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix are determinants of POP formation in foods with added phytosterols, leading to an increase in POP contents. Practical applications: Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) are formed in foods containing phytosterols especially when exposed to heat treatment. This review summarising POP contents in foods with added phytosterols in their free and esterified forms reveals that heating temperature and time, the chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix itself are determinants of POP formation with heating

  12. ACRIM III Level 2 Daily Mean Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) III Level 2 Daily Mean Data product consists of Level 2 total solar irradiance in the form of daily means...

  13. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE NECESSITIES FOR THE DAILY CARE AND PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE MODERATE AND SEVERED MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunchica DIMITRIJOSKA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessities for the daily care and productive activity of the moderate and severed mentally retarded persons are determinate by many cultural, traditional and social environments. In this context the part-time institutional treatment is very important for this persons.

  14. Evidenced Based Approach for a Definition of Defined Daily Dosages of Antibiotics Used in German Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Kreienbrock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and a resulting development of antimicrobial resistance is a topic of major concern. Especially for primary care, evidence is needed to guarantee the efficacy of anti­biotic drugs in future. For this, the correct dosage is an essential measure to prevent antibiotic resistance. Because veterinarians used practice differs from the manufacturer’s recommendations, data is needed to describe evidence-based defined daily doses for animals (DDDA.In 2011 data was collected on the usage of antibiotics in farm animals in conjunction with the Vet­CAb-study (Veterinary consumption of antibiotics in Germany (see vetcab-s.de, van Rennings et al., 2015. Since then, data is continuously collected on the kind of antibiotics, the number of doses, number of animals treated and treatment frequencies. For this presentation the antibiotic usage in 2011 of 500 German pig farms totalling 18,150 treatment courses were recorded and analysed with regard to their dosage. The used daily dosage (UDD was calculated from the amount of the drug used and a defined standard weight for the four different age groups in pig production: sows (200kg, piglets (4kg, weaners (15kg and fattening pigs (50 kg.Apart from the UDD the expertise of pharmacologists was also taken into account to determine a DDDA for each antibiotic. This definition of DDDA is pinpointed by the recommendation of the EMA and has to be determined for each drug in combination with animal species and the form of application.The study showed that in pig production, the antibiotic groups tetracycline and ß-lactams are mainly used. More than 90% of all treatments are given orally. For tetracycline the manufacturers recommend a dose of approximately 80 mg / kg orally in pigs. The DDDAs determined from expert opinions are around 50mg/ kg. In the present study with 500 analysed pig farms the average UDD was 39.6 mg / kg. Previous stud­ies in Germany identified an

  15. Guideline recommendations for post-acute postoperative physiotherapy in total hip and knee arthroplasty: are they used in daily clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W F; Nelissen, R G H H; Vlieland, T P M Vliet

    2014-09-01

    In a Dutch guideline on physiotherapy (PT) in hip and knee osteoarthritis, a number of recommendations on post-acute (i.e. after discharge from hospital) PT following total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty were included. Little is known about the uptake of these recommendations in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the guideline recommendations regarding post-acute PT after THA and TKA are followed in daily clinical practice. An online pilot survey on the delivery of post-acute, postoperative PT was sent to a random sample of 957 Dutch physiotherapists. The survey included questions on the application of recommended, neither recommended nor advised against, and advised against treatment modalities and various treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations. A total of 219 physiotherapists completed the questionnaire, with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation 12.6), 55% female and 95% working in primary care. The vast majority reported the use of the recommended exercise modalities (muscle strengthening exercises (96%), and functional exercises (99%). Continuous passive motion, which was neither recommended nor advised against, and electrical muscle stimulation, which was not recommended, were provided by 1%. Reported treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations included patient education (99%), gait training (95%), active range of motion (ROM) exercises (93%), balance exercises (86%), passive ROM exercises (58%), aerobic exercises (50%), massage (18%) and cold therapy (11%). The vast majority of physiotherapists reported adhering to recommendations on post-acute postoperative PT in THA and TKA patients after discharge from hospital. Although yet to be confirmed in a larger nationwide survey, the relatively high frequency of use of many other treatment modalities, for which there were no formulated recommendations, suggests the need to extend

  16. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3G (Version 003) is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3g_v003.shtml ) from the...

  17. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3G (Version 003) is made available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3g_v003.shtml ) from the NASA...

  18. No difference between fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty in activities of daily living and pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2017-06-01

    Until now, there are no definitive conclusions regarding functional differences related to middle- and long-term everyday activities and patient pain following implantation of mobile- and fixed-platform tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are middle-term differences in knee function and pain in patients undergoing fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: the first group received TKA implantation with a fixed tibial platform (group A); the second group received TKA with a mobile tibial platform (group B). Patients were followed up (2 years), and their symptoms and limitations in daily living activities were evaluated using the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), in addition to pain evaluation assessed using the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). There were no significant differences in function and symptoms in the ADLS and VAS between the study groups. The type of platform used in TKA (fixed vs. mobile) does not change the symptoms, function or pain of patients 2 years post-surgery. Although mobile TKAs may have better short-term results, at medium- and long-term follow-up they do not present important clinical differences compared with fixed-platform TKAs. This information is important so that surgeons can choose the most suitable implant for each patient. Randomized clinical trial, Level I.

  19. Ethnic variation in the correlation between waist to height ratio and total daily insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Gorman, Shaun; Feltbower, Richard G; Mathai, Mathew

    2017-03-01

    Total daily insulin required to achieve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on numerous factors. Correlation of insulin requirement to body mass index and waist circumference has been variably reported in the literature and that of waist-to-height ratio has not been studied. To study the correlation between daily insulin requirement [total daily dose (TDD)] and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in a multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study of children (5-18 years) with T1D attending a diabetes clinic in a multiethnic population in Bradford, UK was conducted. Physical measurements were undertaken in the clinic setting and data collected from case notes and patients/carers. Sixty nine patients with mean age 12.7(±3.1) yr, duration of diabetes 5.4(±3.5) yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 80(±18)mmol/mol(9.5 ± 1.6%) were recruited. Nearly 54% (n = 37) were white and 46% were non-white (29 Asian Pakistani; 1 Indian; 2 mixed White Afro-Caribbean). The two groups had similar demographics and disease profiles. Non-whites compared with whites had a higher prevalence of obesity (15 vs 5%, p 1), family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (49% vs. 33%), microalbuminuria (22% vs. 11%, p 1). WHtR and TDD were poorly correlated in the whole group. There was however a significant positive correlation in Caucasians (r = 0.583, N = 37, p 1) and a negative correlation in Asian Pakistanis (r = -0.472, N = 32, p 1); with a significant negative correlation seen in subjects with relatives with T2D (r = -0.86, N = 6, p = 0.02). The variation in correlations highlights that the two ethnic groups behave differently and should therefore be studied separately with regards to factors influencing insulin requirements with careful consideration to the presence of parental IR. Further prospective studies are required to explore the reasons for these differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Daily Management System of the Henry Ford Production System: QTIPS to Focus Continuous Improvements at the Level of the Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Varney, Ruan C; Copeland, Jacqueline R; D'Angelo, Rita; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-07-01

    To support our Lean culture of continuous improvement, we implemented a daily management system designed so critical metrics of operational success were the focus of local teams to drive improvements. We innovated a standardized visual daily management board composed of metric categories of Quality, Time, Inventory, Productivity, and Safety (QTIPS); frequency trending; root cause analysis; corrective/preventive actions; and resulting process improvements. In 1 year (June 2013 to July 2014), eight laboratory sections at Henry Ford Hospital employed 64 unique daily metrics. Most assessed long-term (>6 months), monitored process stability, while short-term metrics (1-6 months) were retired after successful targeted problem resolution. Daily monitoring resulted in 42 process improvements. Daily management is the key business accountability subsystem that enabled our culture of continuous improvement to function more efficiently at the managerial level in a visible manner by reviewing and acting based on data and root cause analysis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahuquillo, I; Lagarda, M J; Silvestre, M D; Farré, R

    2007-08-01

    The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50 microg kg(-1). There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species, but also for different samples of the same species - with the methylmercury content ranging from below 54 to 662 microg kg(-1). The highest mean methylmercury content was found in fresh tuna. Based on an average total fish consumption of 363 g/person week(-1), the methylmercury intake was estimated to be 46.2 microg/person week(-1). Therefore, the mercury intake of Spanish people with a body weight Food Additives (JECFA) provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 1.6 microg kg(-1) body weight, but exceeds the US National Research Council (NRC) limit of 0.7 microg kg(-1) body weight week(-1) based on a benchmark dose.

  2. Do personality traits related to affect regulation predict other tobacco product use among young adult non-daily smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence non-cigarette tobacco use is important given these products' prevalence and health risks. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality traits related to affect regulation would be associated with greater frequency of other tobacco product (OTP) use in a sample of young adult non-daily smokers. Participants (n=518, 51% male) aged 18-24 were non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Personality characteristics (impulsivity, anhedonia, and negative affectivity) were measured at baseline, and participants reported recent tobacco use at baseline and 3, 6, and 9months later. Assessments were conducted online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 33-52% of participants reported recent OTP use, with frequency of use decreasing over time. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models indicated that greater sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were associated with more frequent OTP use (psnon-daily cigarette smokers with greater propensity for immediately rewarding behaviors may use OTPs more frequently. Young, non-daily cigarette smokers with high levels of sensation seeking and/or lack of premeditation may be at increased risk for harms related to OTP use and may benefit from prevention and cessation strategies that specifically address affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Improving coal mining production performance through the application of total production management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, J.C. [Devman Consulting Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the application of the Total Productive Management (TPM) technique as a performance improvement initiative for a coal mining operation. It discusses the objectives of TPM, with the driver for improved production performance being the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of the equipment or process, and with the development of ownership as the behavioral approach to equipment management and continuous improvement through cross-functional and area-based teams. It illustrates the concept of equipment management as defects management. The scope for application of TPM to the coal mining industry is immense. The harshness of the operating environment can be a major generator of equipment defects, and a current paradigm in the industry accepts these defects as an unavoidable outcome defining maintenance costs in this environment. However recent benchmarking studies have highlighted that maintenance costs per operating hour in some mining operations are more than double the vendor`s estimate of best practice. The paper refers to these studies which also compare maintenance costs of fixed and mobile plant and equipment to best practice outcomes in comparable process industries. The ultimate goal of any operating strategy must be to translate results to the bottom line through adding revenue from increased volume and quality of operations output, better safety performance, and reducing costs of production through lower operating and maintenance costs. These lower costs result from removal of defects generators, improved maintenance planning, and identification and reduction of hidden operating costs resulting from poor equipment maintenance. Finally the paper outlines the minesite procedures required for successful implementation of TPM to sustain these desired results for all stakeholders. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  6. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  7. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Support Daily Product (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L3 support products are similar to the L3 standard products but contain fields which are not fully validated, or are inputs or intermediary values. Because no...

  8. Monitoring NEON terrestrial sites phenology with daily MODIS BRDF/albedo product and landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and albedo products (MCD43) have already been in production for more than a decade. The standard product makes use of a linear “kernel-driven” RossThick-LiSparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) BRDF m...

  9. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 2. Radioactive cesium in daily food rations of selected population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.; Smoczynski, S.S.; Wisniewska, I.

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium isotopes emitting beta radiation was studied in daily food rations analysed in diets of working-class and non-working-class families from food products from the regions of Olsztyn, Poznan, Lublin, Warsaw and Wroclaw in 1987 and 1988. In 1987 the highest level of radioactive cesium was found in the food rations in Olsztyn, and lowest in the rations in Poznan (3.32 and 0.65 Bq/kg respectively). In 1988 higher radiocesium content was found in rations composed according to the data on the diet consumed daily in non-working-class families. In that case the highest content was in the daily food rations composed in Warsaw - 2.35 Bq/kg and lowest in Poznan - 1.19 Bq/kg in the daily food rations of working-class families about one half of that value was found. The calculated means values of both analysed rations were: 1.35 for Olsztyn, 0.89 for Poznan, and 1.86 Bq/kg for Warsaw. The calculated mean value of the contamination with radioactive cesium was in 1988 0.93 Bq/kg for the rations in working-class families (in 1987 it was 1.80 Bq/kg). (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  10. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  11. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  12. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (pfeeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (pfish were integrated together.

  13. Estimation of Daily Air Temperature Based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products over the Corn Belt in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (Ta is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day or nighttime LST (Ts-night data have been used to estimate Tmax/Tmin (daily maximum or minimum air temperature, respectively. The relationship between Tmax and Ts-night, and the one between Tmin and Ts-day has not been studied. In this study, both the ability of Ts-night data to estimate Tmax and the ability of Ts-day data to estimate Tmin were tested and studied in the Corn Belt during the growing season (May–September from 2008 to 2012, using MODIS daily LST products from both Terra and Aqua. The results show that using Ts-night for estimating Tmax could result in a higher accuracy than using Ts-day for a similar estimate. Combining Ts-day and Ts-night, the estimation of Tmax was improved by 0.19–1.85, 0.37–1.12 and 0.26–0.93 °C for crops, deciduous forest and developed areas, respectively, when compared with using only Ts-day or Ts-night data. The main factors influencing the Ta estimation errors spatially and temporally were analyzed and discussed, such as satellite overpassing time, air masses, irrigation, etc.

  14. The Transition of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Total Ozone Products to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters have analyzed the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery in conjunction with the AIRS total column ozone to aid high wind forecasts. One of the limitations of the total ozone product is that it is difficult for forecasters to determine whether elevated ozone concentrations are related to stratospheric air or climatologically high values of ozone in certain regions. During the summer of 2013, SPoRT created an AIRS ozone anomaly product which calculates the percent of normal ozone based on a global stratospheric ozone mean climatology. With the knowledge that ozone values 125 percent of normal and greater typically represent stratospheric air; the anomaly product can be used with the total column ozone product to confirm regions of stratospheric air. This paper describes the generation of these products along with forecaster feedback concerning the use of the AIRS ozone products in conjunction with the RGB Air Mass product to access the utility and transition of the products.

  15. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  16. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  17. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged ≥18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily

  18. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatlebakk Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD] study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK. All subjects (aged ≥18 years who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit. From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD. Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%; 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week, with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden. Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and

  19. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-10-16

    The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged >or=18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from euro55/week per employed patient in the UK to euro273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life. The resulting costs to the

  20. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  1. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  2. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  3. The Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM – Part 1: The production of a daily streamflow archive and metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. X. Do

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a two-paper series presenting the Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata archive (GSIM, a worldwide collection of metadata and indices derived from more than 35 000 daily streamflow time series. This paper focuses on the compilation of the daily streamflow time series based on 12 free-to-access streamflow databases (seven national databases and five international collections. It also describes the development of three metadata products (freely available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887477: (1 a GSIM catalogue collating basic metadata associated with each time series, (2 catchment boundaries for the contributing area of each gauge, and (3 catchment metadata extracted from 12 gridded global data products representing essential properties such as land cover type, soil type, and climate and topographic characteristics. The quality of the delineated catchment boundary is also made available and should be consulted in GSIM application. The second paper in the series then explores production and analysis of streamflow indices. Having collated an unprecedented number of stations and associated metadata, GSIM can be used to advance large-scale hydrological research and improve understanding of the global water cycle.

  4. The Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata Archive (GSIM) - Part 1: The production of a daily streamflow archive and metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hong Xuan; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2018-04-01

    This is the first part of a two-paper series presenting the Global Streamflow Indices and Metadata archive (GSIM), a worldwide collection of metadata and indices derived from more than 35 000 daily streamflow time series. This paper focuses on the compilation of the daily streamflow time series based on 12 free-to-access streamflow databases (seven national databases and five international collections). It also describes the development of three metadata products (freely available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887477" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.887477): (1) a GSIM catalogue collating basic metadata associated with each time series, (2) catchment boundaries for the contributing area of each gauge, and (3) catchment metadata extracted from 12 gridded global data products representing essential properties such as land cover type, soil type, and climate and topographic characteristics. The quality of the delineated catchment boundary is also made available and should be consulted in GSIM application. The second paper in the series then explores production and analysis of streamflow indices. Having collated an unprecedented number of stations and associated metadata, GSIM can be used to advance large-scale hydrological research and improve understanding of the global water cycle.

  5. Regional economic development in Europe : the role of total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko J.; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    Regional economic development in Europe: the role of total factor productivity. Regional Studies. This paper documents the fact that the large and persistent differences in economic development across subnational regions in European Union countries can largely be attributed to differences in total

  6. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  7. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  8. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  9. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  10. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  11. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  12. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  13. Trends in hospital labor and total factor productivity, 1981-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Jerry; Pope, Gregory C.

    1989-01-01

    The per-case payment rates of Medicare's prospective payment system are annually updated. As one element of the update factor, Congress required consideration of changes in hospital productivity. In this article, calculations of annual changes in labor and total factor productivity during 1981-86 of hospitals eligible for prospective payment are presented using several output and input variants. Generally, productivity has declined since 1980, although the rates of decline have slowed since prospective payment implementation. According to the series of analyses most relevant for policy, significant hospital productivity gains occurred during 1983-86. This may justify a lower update factor. PMID:10313278

  14. Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/m2.day) prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope [9,12,12-2H3]cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed

  15. Statistical model of hadrons multiple production in space of total angular momentum and isotopic spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridneva, S.A.; Rus'kin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Basic features of the statistical model of multiple hadron production based on microcanonical distribution and taking into account the laws of conservation of total angular momentum, isotopic spin, p-, G-, C-eveness and Bose-Einstein statistics requirements are given. The model predictions are compared with experimental data on anti NN annihilation at rest and e + e - annihilation in hadrons at annihilation total energy from 2 to 3 GeV [ru

  16. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  17. Autonomous and professional maintenance in metallurgical enterprise as activities within total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this publication consists of notions connected with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM in metallurgical enterprise. The basic areas of devices condition management through Autonomous and Professional Maintenance are described here. Mentioned areas of activities are performed in metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland within pillars of World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The aims of UR programs are to maintain the basic functionality of the devices and decrease the number of failures in order to reach improvement of production efficiency.

  18. Organizational Culture Influence on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Asaad, Mohd Norhasni; Yusoff, Rushami Zien

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM), even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research i...

  19. A blueprint paradox: Successful but unintended cross-national translation of total productive maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfsen, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if a manufacturing concept such as total productive maintenance (TPM) can be copied from one location to another. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative data were gathered from a single case. This includes interviews, participatory observation and document collection. Findings – The authors present a company with an intention to make a pure copy from one location to another, and with identical technology, production equ...

  20. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, A; Taylor, H; Northstone, K; Golding, J

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that ...

  1. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  2. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  3. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  4. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  5. Status and trends in the development of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - a review of international articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads; Gertsen, Frank; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    Corporate continuous innovation efforts are often guided by (more or less) customized standard management concepts such as "TQM", "BPR" or "Lean". The focus of this article, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), is a contemporary example of such a concept. Although the concept first appeared more...... maintenance and high efficiency of the production facilities. However, during the last ten years, the concepthas been developed into a company wide (management)concept, also compromising efficiency in the administrative part of a company, safety and environmental aspects, as well as product quality. Based...

  6. Relativistic total and differential cross section proton--proton electron--positron pair production calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Circle Feynman diagrams for a specific permutation of variables along with their corresponding algebraic expressions are presented to evaluate [H] 2 for proton-proton electron-positron pair production. A Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced and is used to set up the multiple integral expression for the total pair production cross section. The technique is first applied to the Compton scattering problem and then to an arbitrary multiple integral. The relativistic total cross section for proton-proton electron-positron pair production was calculated for eight different values of incident proton energy. A variety of differential cross sections were calculated for the above energies. Angular differential cross section distributions are presented for the electron, positron, and proton. Invariant mass differential cross section distributions are done both with and without the presence of [H] 2 . Both WGHT and log 10 (TOTAL) distributions were also obtained. The general behavioral trends of the total and differential cross sections for proton-proton electron-positron pair production are presented. The range of validity for this calculation is from 0 to about 200 MeV

  7. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  8. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  9. Total synthesis of the putative structure of the novel triquinane natural product isocapnellenone

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Murthy, Sai Krishna A; Umarye, Jayant D

    2002-01-01

    A total synthesis of the ‘putative structure’ 7, attributed to the novel triquinane sesquiterpene isolated recently from two Buddelia species has been accomplished. The spectral data for 7 is a complete mismatch with those reported for the natural product and warrants a revision of the assigned structure.

  10. Multi-Product Total Cost of Function for Higher Education: A Case of Bible Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshal, Rajindar K.; Koshal, Manjulika; Gupta, Ashok

    2001-01-01

    This study empirically estimates a multiproduct total cost function and output relationship for comprehensive U.S. universities. Statistical results for 184 Bible colleges suggest that there are both economies of scale and of scope in higher education. Additionally, product-specific economies of scope exist for all output levels and activities.…

  11. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of maternal airway exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-Titan) and carbon black (CB, Printex90), on male reproductive function in the two following generations. Time-mated C57BL/6J mice were exposed by inhalation to UV-Titan, or by intratracheal...

  12. IMPLEMENTASI TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE DI DEPARTEMEN NON JAHIT PT. KERTA RAJASA RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Stok

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectivity improvement of production facility in factory is not only on facility manitenance but also on human resources. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM gives an optimal solution to effectivity improvement. A case study of TPM implementation have done in non sewing department of PT Kerta Rajasa Raya. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Peningkatan efektivitas dari fasilitas produksi di suatu perusahaan bukan hanya terbatas pada perawatan fasilitas kerja saja tetapi juga sumber daya manusia. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM memberikan suatu solusi optimal terhadap peningkatan efektivitas dengan melibatkan semua sumber daya manusia yang bertanggung jawab terhadap fasilitas produksi. Suatu studi kasus terhadap pengimplementasian TPM dilakukan di departemen non jahit PT. Kerta Rajasa Raya. Kata kunci : TPM, MTTF, Autonomous Maintenance.

  13. Total disintegration of three-nucleon nuclei in charged-pion photo-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhibuti, R.I.; Kezerashvili, R.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The total disintegration of three-nucleon nuclei in charged-pion photo-production is studied within the framework of the microscopic approach based on the method of hyperspherical functions. The initial and final nuclear states are described using the same NN potentials. The differential and total cross sections are calculated using various NN potentials. It is shown that the cross sections are sensitive to the form of the NN interaction and to the final-state interaction of the three nucleons. It is found that the cross section for π - meson production is systematically larger than the cross section for π + meson production. The importance of an experimental investigation of these reactions is shown

  14. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lorenna; Magnusson, Marie; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Tomkins, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP) and methane (CH4) production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME) analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS), were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1) may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  15. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Machado

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP and methane (CH4 production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS, were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1 may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  16. The daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources – a required condition for the operation of the new energy market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpachka, Gergana; Kalpachki, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The report presented the new energy market model in Bulgaria and the main attention is directed to a daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources. The need of development of a methodology and the development of the most precise methods for predicting is reviewed and some of the used methods at the moment are presented. An analysis of the problems related to the daily hour forecasting is done using data from the producers of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in the territory of western Bulgaria. Keywords: Renewable energy sources, daily hour forecasting, electrical energy

  17. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

  18. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  19. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  20. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  1. Total cross section for Z0 production in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    We present an exact calculation of the total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t) of the Z 0 production in e - +p→e - +Z 0 +X processes. We find a total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t)approx. equal to2.2x10 -36 cm 2 for an energy in the center of mass of 300 GeV and a Z 0 mass of 90 GeV, which is quite a measurable result in some e - proton collider experiments, like HERA or SPS/LEP. (orig.)

  2. Impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Fraser, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Women aged 18-54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine) and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E(2)V/DNG (n = 149) or placebo (n = 82) for seven treatment cycles (196 days). The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work) and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels) at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196). The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated. Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E(2)V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1%) and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%). In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E(2)V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) were estimated to be between US$22-62 and US$18-56 per month (in purchasing power parity of US$), respectively. E(2)V/DNG has a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. These improvements were associated with a reduction in monetary burden of heavy menstrual bleeding compared with the placebo group, consistent with the response to treatment observed.

  3. Effect of warm-smoking on total microbial count of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The frankfurters are amongst the most famous and popular sausages in the world and beef and poultry meat are used in Iran for their preparation. The techniques of warm smoking at 42°c for two hours and then hot smoking together with steam cooking at 8°c for one hour are utilized in proportion of this product. In spite of its carcinogenic properties, smoke is used to create color, flavor and odor and to improve the preservative qualities of sausages. In this study, 14 sausage samples were taken from each of the stages of frankfurter production line including pre-smoking, post- warm smoking and post-hot smoking, their total microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles determined and the means of the three stages compared using the ANOVA statistical test. The results indicated that the total microbial count increased significantly (P

  4. Total Factor Productivity, Demographic Traits and ICT: Empirical Analysis for Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances a model to explain the total factor productivity in Asian countries, most of which are labor surplus and are endowed with substantial human capital. Such promising demographic potentials are considered as complementary factors to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. Population with such favorable demographic traits and access to ICT results in higher Total factor productivity (TFP. We call this as Demo-Tech-TFP Model and is tested by using data for 2000-2010 of 24 Asian countries. Econometric concerns like presence of endogenous and/or predetermined covariates and small time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of panel dataset are tackled by using System Generalized Method of Moments (SYS-GMM. Results show considerable support for the Demo-Tech-TFP hypothesis. Need is to design such models that suit the local demography and patterns of technological diffusion currently taking place in developing countries.

  5. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of “classic” natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge.

  6. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  7. Threshold resummation and the total cross section for top quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Contopanagos, H.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the motivation for resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation, to all orders in the strong coupling strength, for processes in which the near-threshold region in the partonic subenergy is important. We summarize our calculation of the total cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders. Comments are included on the differences between our treatment of subleading logarithmic terms and other methods

  8. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  9. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  10. Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Cláudio E T; Lestayo, Julliana; Guida, Yago S; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E; Torres, João Paulo M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Malm, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight - l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g -1 , followed by phenothrin (24%), 21-3910 ng g -1 , permethrin (14%), 2.96-328 ng g -1 , and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77-16.7 ng g -1 . Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. OMI/Aura Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column Daily L3 Best Pixel Global 0.25deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-3e SO2 Data Product OMSO2e (Version 003) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) for...

  12. OMI/Aura NO2 Total and Tropospheric Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second Release of Collection 003 of OMI/Aura Global Gridded Nitrogen Dioxide Product 'OMNO2G' is now available, from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  13. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  14. Total Discharge Estimation in the Korean Peninsula Using Multi-Satellite Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of total discharge is necessary to understand the hydrological cycle and to manage water resources efficiently. However, the task is problematic in an area where ground observations are limited. The North Korea region is one example. Here, the total discharge was estimated based on the water balance using multiple satellite products. They are the terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, and evapotranspiration from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The satellite-based discharge was compared with land surface model products of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS, and a positive relationship between the results was obtained (r = 0.70–0.86; bias = −9.08–16.99 mm/month; RMSE = 36.90–62.56 mm/month; NSE = 0.01–0.62. Among the four land surface models of GLDAS (CLM, Mosaic, Noah, and VIC, CLM corresponded best with the satellite-based discharge, satellite-based discharge has a tendency to slightly overestimate compared to model-based discharge (CLM, Mosaic, Noah, and VIC in the dry season. Also, the total discharge data based on the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS and the in situ discharge for major five river basins in South Korea show comparable seasonality and high correlation with the satellite-based discharge. In spite of the relatively low spatial resolution of GRACE, and loss of information incurred during the process of integrating three different satellite products, the proposed methodology can be a practical tool to estimate the total discharge with reasonable accuracy, especially in a region with scarce hydrologic data.

  15. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  16. Increasing the total productivity of a land by combining mobile photovoltaic panels and food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, B.; Simonneau, T.; Sourd, F.; Pechier, P.; Hamard, P.; Frisson, T.; Ryckewaert, M.; Christophe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Combining solar panels and crops on the same land increases the total productivity. •Use of solar trackers permits to balance or promote food/energy production. •Controlling mode of trackers strongly affect the total production per unit area. •Dynamic agrivoltaic systems increases productivity without competing with food. -- Abstract: Agrivoltaic systems, consisting of the combination of photovoltaic panels (PVPs) with crops on the same land, recently emerged as an opportunity to resolve the competition for land use between food and energy production. Such systems have proved efficient when using stationary PVPs at half their usual density. Dynamic agrivoltaic systems improved the concept by using orientable PVPs derived from solar trackers. They offer the possibility to intercept the variable part of solar radiation, as well as new means to increase land productivity. The matter was analysed in this work by comparing fixed and dynamic systems with two different orientation policies. Performances of the resulting agrivoltaic systems were studied for two varieties of lettuce over three different seasons. Solar tracking systems placed all plants in a new microclimate where light and shade bands alternated several times a day at any plant position, while stationary systems split the land surface into more stable shaded and sunlit areas. In spite of these differences, transient shading conditions increased plant leaf area in all agrivoltaic systems compared to full-sun conditions, resulting in a higher conversion of the transmitted radiation by the crop. This benefit was lower during seasons with high radiation and under controlled tracking with more light transmitted to the crop. As expected, regular tracking largely increased electric production compared to stationary PVPs but also slightly increased the transmitted radiation, hence crop biomass. A large increase in transmitted radiation was achieved by restricting solar tracking around midday

  17. Comparative methane estimation from cattle based on total CO2 production using different techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Md N.; Hansen, Hanne H.; Storm, Ida M.L.D.

    2017-01-01

    cages for 3 periods. Each period consisted of 2 weeks of adaptation followed by 1 week of measurement with the CO2R and CO2T. The average body weight of the heifer was 226 ± 11 kg (means ± SD). They were fed a total mixed ration, twice daily, with 1 of 3 supplements: wheat (W), molasses (M), or molasses...

  18. OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.125 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G SO2 Data Product OMSO2G (Version 003) is now available http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omso2g_v003.shtml ) from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  19. OMI/Aura NO2 Cloud-Screened Total and Tropospheric Column Daily L3 Global 0.25deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-3 Global Gridded(0.25x0.25 deg) Nitrogen Dioxide Product "OMNO2d" is now released (Jan 10, 2013) to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  20. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

  1. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  2. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  3. Impact of estradiol-valerate dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiak R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radoslaw Wasiak,1 Anna Filonenko,2 David J Vanness,3 Kim U Wittrup-Jensen,2 Donald E Stull,1 Steven Siak,1 Ian Fraser41Centre for Health Economics and Science Policy, United BioSource Corporation, London, United Kingdom; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol valerate-dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia® on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Methods: Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149 or placebo (n = 82 for seven treatment cycles (196 days. The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196. The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated.Results: Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1% and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%. In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power

  4. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  5. Influence of Employee Involvement in Total Productive Maintenance Practices on Job Characteristics: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to examine whether the extent of involvement in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM practices has a positive effect on job characteristics. Data was gathered from a sample of 184 respondents derived from manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Results from the regression analyses revealed that the extent of employee’s involvement in TPM practices is positively related to the five core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  7. Modernity of parts in casting machines and coefficients of total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of equipment efficiency in casting machines on the quality of die castings made of Al-Si alloys in consideration of their modernity. Analysis focused on two cold-chamber die-casting machines. The assessment of modernity ofthe equipment was made based on ABC analysis of technology and Parker’s scale. Then, the coefficients of total productive maintenance(TPM were employed for assessment of the efficiency of both machines. Using correlation coefficients r allowed authors to demonstrate the relationships between individual TPM coefficients and the number of non-conforming products. The finding of the study is pointing to the differences between the factors which determine the quality of castings resulting from the level of modernity of machines.

  8. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  9. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  10. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  11. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  12. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  13. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Alexandra; Taylor, Hazel; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2003-10-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that approximated 6 mo of pregnancy and the infants' first 6 mo of life. This paper presents (a) the mothers' self-reports of the use of these products in their homes and (b) self-reported medical symptoms of mothers and infants postnatally. Higher TVOC levels were associated with air freshener and aerosol use. Infant diarrhea and earache were statistically significantly associated with air freshener use, and diarrhea and vomiting were significantly associated with aerosol use. Headache experienced by mothers 8 mo after birth was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners and aerosols; maternal depression was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners. The results of the study suggest a link between the use of products that raise indoor levels of TVOCs and an increased risk of certain symptoms among infants and their mothers.

  14. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is tied to the concept of productivity. New and efficient technologies are the most important factor for productivity growth. Technology was enhanced through internal and external sources. External sources include spillover technology from developed countries into another country. Empirical evidence on the impact of spillover technology on productivity growth of indigenous producer is vague. One perspective proposes that FDI, technology transferred from developed countries has positive effects on developing countries and another perspective is against it. This paper explores the role of technological spillover on total factor productivity (TFP growth in agricultural sectors of Iran uses time series data during 1971-2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, Kendrick model was used to calculate total factor productivity. After calculating productivity, affective factors on it, were examined through ARDL model. The aim of this study is examination of technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors. The degree of technology diffusion grows with increase in technology distance between the hosts and the foreign countries. The greater the technology distance, the more difficult it becomes for developing countries to boost independent innovation. To calculate the index of technology spillover, commercial partners should be considered that are more advanced in science and technology than Iran. For this purpose, commercial partners in this study are

  15. 7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.

  16. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During in vitro fertilization (IVF, fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Methods Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Results Completed questionnaires (n = 71 revealed a mean +/− SD patient age of 34 +/− 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1% had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s. When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/− 11.75 and $654.55 +/− 106.34, respectively (p  Conclusions This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs

  18. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Salem, Shala A; Jones, Christopher A; Peck, Alison C; Salem, Rifaat D

    2012-08-30

    During in vitro fertilization (IVF), fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Completed questionnaires (n = 71) revealed a mean +/- SD patient age of 34 +/- 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1%) had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s). When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/- 11.75 and $654.55 +/- 106.34, respectively (p cost difference increased. This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist) was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs reach a critical level.

  19. Hydrogen production by the iodine-sulphur thermochemical cycle. Total and partial pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Doizi; V Dauvois; J L Roujou; V Delanne; P Fauvet; B Larousse; O Hercher; P Carles; C Moulin

    2006-01-01

    The iodine sulphur thermochemical cycle appears to be one of the most promising candidate for the massive production of hydrogen using nuclear energy. The key step in this cycle is the HI distillation section which must be optimized to get a good efficiency of the overall cycle. The concept of reactive versus extractive distillation of HI has been proposed because of its potentiality. The design and the optimization of the reactive distillation column requires the knowledge of the liquid vapour equilibrium over the ternary HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixtures up to 300 C and 100 bars. A general methodology based on three experimental devices imposed by the very corrosive and concentrated media will be described: 1) I1 for the total pressure measurement versus different ternary compositions. 2) I2 for the partial and total pressure measurements around 130 C and 2 bars to validate the choice of the analytical optical 'online' techniques we have proposed. 3) I3 for the partial and total pressures measurements in the process domain. The results obtained on pure samples, binary mixtures HI-H 2 O and ternary mixtures using an experimental design analysis in the experimental device I2 will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Influence of oil pollution to the total biological productivity of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of a numerous researches it was defined that among all the species of pollutants polluting water reservoirs, oil and its components has a leading role. In this respect the Caspian Sea is in a special condition, as it exists as an isolated water reservoirs it had a direct relation with oil and oil products earlier than others and more than the rest. For this reason the oil in the Caspian Sea in its turn has become a permanent substrate. The main reservoirs of contamination of environmental medium of the Caspian Sea by oil and oil products are oil industries, oil pipelines, oil processing ventures, oil transportation, oil-gas service and oil drilling. At the same time oil components due to dried lands appear in the sea by river floods that are a heavy showers. Oil is a complex environmental compound of carbohydrogenes and distributed in environmental medium. Its characteristic that no other pollutant as dangerous it hasn't been and cannot be compared with oil according to the range of distribution, amount of pollutant resources and range of pressure to all the compounds of environmental medium. During the involvement of oil in the hydrosphere deep, often inattentive changes of its chemical, physiological and microbiological features and even reconstruction of all the hydrospheric profile take place. Being dynamic and mobile it penetrates toxic metals increasing their emigrational ability, subsides to the bottom and oppresses benthofauna. At the same time oil products in water reservoirs in common negatively influence to the balance of oxygen and position of biocenoses in the surface layers of sea water. In the given information the results of many years and monitoring character of researches about the influence of pollution in the base of total biological productivity of the Caspian Sea are presented (as well as oil pollution). It was defined that in the basins of the North (Makachkala - from Berbash, Bautina, Shevchenko fleet), Middle (Sand

  1. Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM to Improve Sheeter Machine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Nofri Eka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose is an evaluation of TPM implementation, as a case study at sheeter machine cut size line 5 finishing department, PT RAPP, Indonesia. Research methodology collected the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE data of sheeter machine and computed its scores. Then, OEE analysis big losses, statistical analysis using SPSS 20 and focused maintenance evaluation of TPM were performed. The data collected to machine sheeter’s production for 10 months (January-October 2016. The data analyses was resulted the OEE average score of 82.75%. This score was still below the world class OEE (85% and the company target (90%. Based the big losses of OEE analysis was obtained the reduce speed losses, which most significant losses of OEE scores. The reduce speed losses value was 44.79% of total losses during the research period. The high score of these losses due to decreasing of machine production speed by operators, which intended to improve the quality of resulting products. The OEE scores statistical analysis was found breakdown losses and reduces speed losses, which significantly affected to OEE scores. Implementations of focused maintenance of TPM in the case study may need to improve because there were still occurred un-expecting losses during the research period.

  2. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows

  4. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    Municipalities in Johnson County in northeastern Kansas are required to implement stormwater management programs to reduce pollutant discharges, protect water quality, and comply with applicable water-quality regulations in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for stormwater discharge. To this end, municipalities collect grab samples at streams entering and leaving their jurisdiction to determine levels of excessive nutrients, sediment, and fecal bacteria to characterize pollutants and understand the factors affecting them.In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, with input from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, initiated a 5-year monitoring program to satisfy minimum sampling requirements for each municipality as described by new stormwater permits issued to Johnson County municipalities. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program. The monitoring program is described, a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program design is provided using water-quality data collected during the first 2 years of the program, and the ability of the current monitoring network and sampling plan to provide data sufficient to quantify improvements in water quality resulting from implemented and planned best management practices is evaluated. The information in this initial report may be used to evaluate changes in data collection methods while data collection is still ongoing that may lead to improved data utility.Discrete water-quality samples were collected at 27 sites and analyzed for nutrients, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, total suspended solids, and suspended-sediment concentration. In addition, continuous water-quality data (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, and nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at one site to characterize variability and provide a basis for comparison to discrete

  5. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  6. Daily rhythms in renal blood flow and urine production rate in the near-term sheep fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, FMI; Aarnoudse, JG

    Daily rhythmicity of renal blood flow (RBF) and urine flow (UF) was studied in fetal sheep between 121-125 d of gestation. Fetal arterial blood pressure, heart rate, UF, and right RBF were measured continuously for 24-h periods in 10 sheep, Rhythmic variations during a 24-h period were found for all

  7. A Daily-Adjusted Goal-Setting and Feedback Procedure for Improving Productivity in a University Admissions Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Leslie A.; Redmon, William K.

    1990-01-01

    Daily goals set by supervisors and feedback were used with three female application processors in a college admissions office. After 39 weeks, comparison with baseline data showed large increases in the amount of work done and decreases in overtime, use of temporaries, and absenteeism. (SK)

  8. Product analysis and initial reliability testing of the total mesorectal excision-quality assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko R; DeNardi, Franco G; Coates, Angela J; Szalay, David A; Eva, Kevin W

    2014-07-01

    Product analysis of rectal cancer resection specimens before specimen fixation may provide an immediate and relevant evaluation of surgical performance. We tested the interrater reliability (IRR) of a product analysis tool called the Total Mesorectal Excision-Quality Assessment Instrument (TME-QA). Participants included two gold standard raters, five pathology assistants, and eight pathologists. Domains of the TME-QA reflect total mesorectal excision principles including: (1) completeness of mesorectal margin; (2) completeness of mesorectum; (3) coning of distal mesorectum; (4) physical defects; and (5) overall specimen quality. Specimens were scored independently. We used the generalizability theory to assess the tool's internal consistency and IRR. There were 39 specimens and 120 ratings. Mean overall specimen quality scores for the gold standard raters, pathologists, and assistants were 4.43, 4.43, and 4.50, respectively (p > 0.85). IRR for the first nine items was 0.68 for the full sample, 0.62 for assistants alone, 0.63 for pathologists alone, and 0.74 for gold standard raters alone. IRR for the item overall specimen quality was 0.67 for the full sample, 0.45 for assistants, 0.80 for pathologists, and 0.86 for gold standard raters. IRR increased for all groups when scores were averaged across two raters. Assessment of surgical specimens using the TME-QA may provide rapid and relevant feedback to surgeons about their technical performance. Our results show good internal consistency and IRR when the TME-QA is used by pathologists. However, for pathology assistants, multiple ratings with the averaging of scores may be needed.

  9. Implementation of total productive maintenance (TPM to increase overall equipment efficiency of an hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotel industries are one of the fastest growing areas in India, which is attracting more number of jobs & tourists. This also results in direct impact on Indian economy. All Hotels comprises a higher element of total working cost and they are a good source of income. Hospitality is one of the most important components of hotel industry. To give a good hospitality in hotels to customers, we need to use different machines in different departments. For example if we take section of housekeeping it consists of different sub departments like Rooms & corridors, Toilets, Linen, Furniture and furnishings, Gardens, Public areas etc. In this connection a small implementation of TPM tool called focused improvement & planned maintenance, implemented in alternative usage of electrical systems (energy conservation. Result showed a very significant improvement in energy saving. By adopting Small changes show a significant improvement in the overall system. It also indicates the dire need of proper industrial tools in hotels. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM is one of the pioneering approaches which can be achieved in above said things [1][2].

  10. The seminiferous epithelium cycle and daily spermatic production in the adult maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Viviane Lewicki; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio César; dos Anjos Benjamin, Laércio; Costa, Deiler Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    The duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle was estimated in adult maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1811), by applying intratesticular injections with tritiated thymidine. The total duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle in this species was calculated in 8.99 days. So, taking into account that approximately 4.5 cycles of the seminiferous epithelium are necessary for the whole spermatogenesis process to complete, the production of spermatozoa from one spermatogonia will take about 40.45 days. The duration of the spermiogenesis was calculated to be 12.3 days. The eight stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were described by the tubular morphology method, which is based either on the form and position of the spermatid nuclei and the occurrence of meiotic divisions. The values of the relative frequency for the pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases in this species were 3.5, 0.78 and 4.8 days, respectively. The maned wolf produces about 29 million spermatozoa a day for each testis gram, therefore being classified among the species provided with a high spermatogenetic efficiency.

  11. Energy management for cost reduction in the production. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management; Energiemanagement zur Kostensenkung in der Produktion. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westkaemper, Engelbert; Verl, Alexander (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the workshop of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) at 6th October, 2009, in Stuttgart the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Engelbert Westkaemper); (2) TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management - ''With energy management to an energy efficient production'' (Alexander Schloske); (3) DIN EN 16001 Introduction of an energy management system - utilization and advantages for companies (Sylvia Wahren); (4) Analysis of the energy efficiency with power flow - Support and implementation at factory planning and optimization of production (Klaus Erlach); (5) Total Energy Efficiency Management - Approaches at the company Kaercher in injection moulding for example (Axel Leschtar); (6) Modelling the embodied product energy (Shahin Rahimifard); (7) Acquisition of energy data in the production - Technologies and possibilities (Joachim Neher); (8) Active energy management by means of an ''energy control centre'' - Analysis of the real situation and upgrading measures in the production using coating plants as an example (Wolfgang Klein); (9) Visualisation and simulation of energy values in the digital factory (Carmen Constantinescu, Axel Bruns).

  12. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  13. A neutron detector for measurement of total neutron production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekharan, K K; Laumer, H; Kern, B D; Gabbard, F [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1976-03-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 60 cm diameter in which eight /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from /sup 7/Li(p, n)/sup 7/Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF/sub 3/ counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from /sup 51/V(p, n)/sup 51/Cr and /sup 57/Fe(p, n)/sup 57/Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for determination of neutron production cross sections are given.

  14. A neutron detector for measurement of total neutron production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Kern, B.D.; Gabbard, F.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 60 cm diameter in which eight 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p, n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p, n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for determination of neutron production cross sections are given. (Auth.)

  15. Study on the green total factor productivity in main cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiansheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate China’s urban green total factor productivity (TFP under the background of progressing urbanization and intensifying environmental pollution, and found out its main influencing factors. In this paper, green TFP of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2012 was estimated through Malmquist productivity index. Results showed that the annual growth of green TFP in main cities in China is 3.5% and the overall growth declines gradually. Viewed from decomposition of green TFP, technical progress is the main contributor of green TFP growth. Furthermore, the northern coastal region has achieved the highest annual growth of green TFP (4.5% and the northwest region achieved the lowest growth of green TFP (1.24%, indicating the great regional differences of green TFP and economic growth quality in China. According to analysis on influencing factors of green TFP in main cities, it has been concluded that per-capita urban road area, number of Internet users, proportion of fiscal expenditures, environmental regulation level and technical input are significantly positively correlated with green TFP, while industrial structure and foreign direct investment (FDI are significantly negatively correlated. Finally, policy suggestions to improve urban green TFP in China were proposed.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: impact on work productivity and daily-life activities of daytime workers. A French cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas; Ducrotté, Philippe; Vallot, Thierry; Garofano, Anna; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Carrois, Frédéric; Ricci, Léa

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms on work productivity and no French data are available. To compare the impact of typical symptoms of nocturnal vs diurnal gastroesophageal reflux disease on work productivity and daily activities. A French prospective, multicenter, observational study was performed in primary care setting. Patient characteristics, symptomatology and treatment were reported. Work productivity loss was assessed using the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, predictors were identified using multivariate regression models, and estimated cost was calculated. 716 eligible patients (mean age: 46.3 years) were included by 407 physicians. Nocturnal symptoms were reported in 50.8% of patients and exclusively diurnal symptoms in 49.2%. Mean work productivity and daily activities decreased by 31.4% and 32.6%, respectively (both pWork productivity was influenced by symptom intensity, diurnal symptoms occurrence, regurgitation and diurnal sleepiness. The mean associated cost per patient/week (€313) was higher in patients with diurnal symptoms (without (€346) or with nocturnal (€312) symptoms) than in patients with exclusive nocturnal symptoms (€253) (pwork productivity loss especially in patients with diurnal symptoms. Further medico-economic analyses are needed to estimate the cost effectiveness ratio according to therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Total Syntheses of Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinol Natural Products and Analogs Utilizing Alkylative Dearomatizations and Cationic Cyclizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jonathan H.

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are structurally complex natural products with promising biological activities. These compounds have interesting anticancer and anti-HIV properties as well as other biological activities making them highly attractive synthetic targets. We report a stereodivergent, asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-clusianone in six steps from commercial materials. We have implemented a challenging cationic cyclization forging a bond between two sterically encumbered quaternary carbon atoms. Mechanistic studies point to the unique ability of formic acid to mediate the cyclization forming the clusianone framework. We also present a biosynthesis-inspired, diversity-oriented synthesis approach for rapid construction of PPAP analogs via palladium-catalyzed dearomative conjunctive allylic alkylation (DCAA). These efficient palladium-catalyzed protocols construct the [3.3.1]-bicyclic PPAP core in a single step from their stable aromatic precursors. The first syntheses of 13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and garcimultiflorone A stereoisomers are reported in six steps from a commercially available phloroglucinol. Lewis acid-controlled, diastereoselective cationic oxycyclizations enabled asymmetric syntheses of (-)-6-epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and (+)-30-epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol. A similar strategy enabled production of the meso-derived isomers (+/-)-6,30- epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and (+/-)-6,30-epi -garcmultiflorone A. A convenient strategy for gram scale synthesis of these stereoisomers was developed utilizing diastereomer separation at a later stage in the synthesis that minimized the number of necessary synthetic operations to access all possible stereoisomers. Finally, we report cationic rearrangements of dearomatized acylphloroglucinols leading to the formation of unprecedented PPAP scaffolds. A novel type A [3.3.1]-bicyclic PPAP was produced as a major product and the structure confirmed by X-ray crystallographic

  18. Research on the industry environmental total factor productivity in Jiangsu Province based on the SBM-SML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingfang, Sun; Han, Wang; Jian, Gong

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses the SBM-SML to measure the industry environmental total factor productivity in Jiangsu province of its 13 cities during 2005-2014 with SO2 emissions as the undesirable output, and discomposes the total factor productivity into the pure technical efficiency, the scale efficiency change, the pure technical change and the scale technical change. The research shows that the overall trend of the industry environmental total factor productivity is increasing in Jiangsu province during 2005-2014, the technical change is a main reason pushing up growth rates of economy, and the pure technical change is the intrinsic motivation of the technical change.Introduction.

  19. Assessment of ecotoxicity and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from food and children's toy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Natalia; Marć, Mariusz; Kudłak, Błażej; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-09-30

    The development of new methods for identifying a broad spectrum of analytes, as well as highly selective tools to provide the most accurate information regarding the processes and relationships in the world, has been an area of interest for researchers for many years. The information obtained with these tools provides valuable data to complement existing knowledge but, above all, to identify and determine previously unknown hazards. Recently, attention has been paid to the migration of xenobiotics from the surfaces of various everyday objects and the resulting impacts on human health. Since children are among those most vulnerable to health consequences, one of the main subjects of interest is the migration of low-molecular-weight compounds from toys and products intended for children. This migration has become a stimulus for research aimed at determining the degree of release of compounds from popular commercially available chocolate/toy sets. One of main objectives of this research was to determine the impact of time on the ecotoxicity (with Vibrio fischeri bioluminescent bacteria) of extracts of products intended for children and to assess the correlation with total volatile organic compound emissions using basic chemometric methods. The studies on endocrine potential (with XenoScreen YES/YAS) of the extracts and showed that compounds released from the studied objects (including packaging foils, plastic capsules storing toys, most of toys studied and all chocolate samples) exhibit mostly androgenic antagonistic behavior while using artificial saliva as extraction medium increased the impact observed. The impact of time in most cases was positive one and increased with prolonging extraction time. The small-scale stationary environmental test chambers - μ-CTE™ 250 system was employed to perform the studies aimed at determining the profile of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) emissions. Due to this it was possible to state that objects from which the

  20. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  1. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  2. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  3. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  4. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  5. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  6. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  7. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  8. Shadow Price Approach to Total Factor Productivity Measurement: With an Application to Finnish Grass-Silage Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Post, T.; Sipiläinen, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores an intermediate route between the Fisher and the Malmquist productivity indexes so as to minimize data requirements and assumptions about economic behavior of production units and their production technology. Assuming quantity data of inputs and outputs and the behavioral

  9. Evaluation of the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for nonelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Nefedov, Yu.Ya; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei were analysed. The total gamma-ray production cross-sections, grouped according to E γ , were evaluated in the neutron energy range 0.5-19 MeV. The statistical spline approximation method was used to evaluate the experimental data. Evaluated data stored in the ENDF, JENDL, BROND, and other libraries on gamma-ray production spectra and cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei, were analysed. (author)

  10. Estimativa do total de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base através das medidas diárias da temperatura do ar Number of hours below any base temperature estimated by daily measurements of air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz B. Angelocci

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São propostas equações matemáticas para estimar o total diário de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base, em certo período, utilizando-se somente dos valores diários das temperaturas máxima, mínima e das 21 horas (hora local. A comparação entre os totais diários e mensais de "horas de frio" estimados pelas equações propostas e os observados através de termogramas, para várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, mostrou boa concordância entre os métodos de cálculo. O modelo proposto dispensa o uso de registros contínuos de temperatura. As vantagens de tal estimativa residem na maior disponibilidade de registros de temperaturas máximas, mínimas e das 21 horas, permitindo maior densidade de pontos em trabalhos de zoneamento agroclimático e de cartografia, além da eliminação do processo de cotação de termogramas.Mathematical equations are proposed to estimate the daily number of hours in which the air temperature remains below a determined treshold value. The equations require only daily values of maximum, minimum and 9 p.m. local time temperature, measured inside the meteorological shelter. This technique is suitable for machine computation thus avoiding the tremendous task of quantifying a large number of thermograms. This fact permits the utilization of a greater number of stations in studies of crop zonation and cartography. Good correlations were obtained between estimated and observed data of the daily and monthly total number of hours below 7°C, 13°C and 17°C, for five stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, showing relative accuracy of the proposed equations.

  11. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  12. A clinical audit of the utilisation of red cell products in elective total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in elective total hip replacement surgery. Y G Peters,1,2 MTech; A R ... Background. Previous studies have documented a marked variation in transfusion practice for total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Objective. ..... European Overview (OSTHEO) Study: Blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in. Europe.

  13. U.S. Agriculture, 1960-96 A Multilateral Comparison of Total Factor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, V. Eldon; Butault, Jean-Pierre; Nehring, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the growth and relative levels of agricultural productivity for the 48 contiguous States for the period 1960 to 1996. For the full 1960-96 period, every State exhibits a positive and generally substantial average annual rate of productivity growth. There is considerable variance, however. The wide disparity in growth rates resulted in substantial changes in the ranking order of States by productivity. For each year, we calculate the coefficient of variation of...

  14. Use of and reasons for using multiple other tobacco products in daily and nondaily smokers: Associations with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria O

    2016-11-01

    Use of other tobacco products (OTPs) among smokers is increasing. Little is known about types of OTP used and the reasons for use, and how OTP use and reasons for use correlate with smoking patterns and nicotine dependence in daily and nondaily smokers. This paper addresses these gaps in the literature. 656 daily smokers and 203 nondaily smokers provided information on their use of different OTPs (hookah, e-cigarettes, chew/snuff, snus, cigars, dissolvables), and reasons for using OTPs (e.g., "to cut down on smoking"), as well as their cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models assessed the association of smoking status with OTP use (ever and current) and reasons for use. Within each smoking group, separate logistic regression models examined the associations of OTP use and reasons for use with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were more likely to use hookah and cigars, less likely to use dissolvables, and less likely to endorse using OTPs to reduce their smoking. Among non-daily smokers, nicotine dependence was associated with a higher likelihood of current OTP use (OR=1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]; p<0.05), whereas cigarette consumption was not. Results suggest OTP use in nondaily smokers does not correlate with less frequent smoking, but may correlate with higher nicotine dependence. Use of combustible OTPs among nondaily smokers may offset any potential benefits achieved through less frequent cigarette consumption. Providers should explicitly address OTP use when discussing cigarette cessation and reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EPHECT I: European household survey on domestic use of consumer products and development of worst-case scenarios for daily use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Lucica, E; Johnson, A; Ashmore, M R; Sakellaris, I; Stranger, M; Goelen, E

    2015-12-01

    Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  17. Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Analysis on Islamic Banks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to measure productivity and efficiency, to analyze factors which affect the level of efficiency and to analyze correlation between productivity and efficiency of Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The objects of this study are 11 (eleven Islamic Banks (BUS in Indonesia which are analyzed from the second quarter of 2010 to the third quarter of 2015. The result shows only six of the eleven banks that have a good productivity levels, otherwise for efficiency there are only three banks that efficient enough. Furthermore, the relationship between productivity and efficiency levels that are categorized into 4 (four quadrants. In quadrant I, three banks have high productivity and efficiency namely Syariah Mandiri, Panin Syariah and Victoria Syariah; quadrant IV two banks in low level of productivity and efficiency namely Mega Syariah and Bukopin Syariah. While the quadrant II namely BCA Syariah, BRI syariah and Muamalat and quadrant III namely BJB Syariah, BNI Syariah and Maybank Syariah required further research to determine the factors that affect the productivity and efficiency relationships that occur. 

  18. Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.

  19. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  20. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  1. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  2. THE FACTORS AFFECTING ON THE SUCCESS OF IMPLEMENTING TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING COMPANY (NS BLUESCOPE VIETNAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Van Tai (PhD)*, Dean of International Trade, College of Foreign Economic Relations Phan Cao Huy (MBA), Technical Manager, Bosch Vietnam

    2017-01-01

    The competition in business environment becomes more strictly, manufacturers must introduce lots of new products on the high quality level with suitable price. Thus, new technologies have been applied, manufacturing systems become more complex. Therefore, a new strategy for maintenance such as Total productive maintenance (TPM) becomes really necessary. Many organizations have implemented TPM to increase the effectiveness of manufacturing system. However, implementation of TPM still meets a l...

  3. FY 1998 annual summary report on shared product life-cycle total information system. 3; 1998 nendo joho kyoyugata product lifecycle system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Recycling resources is gaining importance increasingly to correspond to global environmental problems. In urban areas, in particular, it is important to efficiently recover and recycle used large-size consumer products, e.g., home electric appliances and automobiles, which are discharged in large quantities. This study proposes a shared product life-cycle total information system, based on recognition that material recycling systems, encompassing stock materials, product production, consumption, and disposal and recycling of wastes, are essential. This system corresponds a material to information, in an attempt to realize more efficient recycling of products. The study for this fiscal year was focused on use of information modules attached to products and their members, product recycling systems using these modules, necessity for and problems involved in thermal recycle systems, problems involved in recycling home electric appliances and extraction of the data for their recycling, and material recycling process systems for home electric appliances and automobiles. (NEDO)

  4. Total peroxy nitrates and ozone production : analysis of forest fire plumes during BORTAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busilacchio, Marcella; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Lewis, Ally; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the connection between PNS and ozone within plumes emitted from boreal forest fires and the possible perturbation to oxidant chemistry in the troposphere. During the Aircraft campaign in Canada called BORTAS (summer 2011 ) were carried out several profiles from ground up to 10 km with the BAe-146 aircraft to observe the atmospheric composition inside and outside fire plumes. The BORTAS flights have been selected based on the preliminary studies of 'Plume identification', selecting those effected by Boreal forest fire emissions (CO > 200 ppbv). The FLAMBE fire counts were used concertedly with back trajectory calculations generated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to locate the sources of Boreal biomass burning.Profiles measured on board the BAe-146 aircraft are used to calculate the productions of PNs and O3 within the biomass burning plume. By selecting the flights that intercept the biomass burning plume, we evaluate the ratio between the ozone production and the PNs production within the plume. Analyzing this ratio it is possible to determine whether O3 production or PNs production is the dominant process in the biomass burning boreal plume detected during BORTAS campaign.

  5. Heronapyrrole D: A case of co-inspiration of natural product biosynthesis, total synthesis and biodiscovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The heronapyrroles A–C have first been isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-0423 in 2010. Structurally, these natural products feature an unusual nitropyrrole system to which a partially oxidized farnesyl chain is attached. The varying degree of oxidation of the sesquiterpenyl subunit in heronapyrroles A–C provoked the hypothesis that there might exist other hitherto unidentified metabolites. On biosynthetic grounds a mono-tetrahydrofuran-diol named heronapyrrole D appeared a possible candidate. We here describe a short asymmetric synthesis of heronapyrrole D, its detection in cultivations of CMB-0423 and finally the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. We thus demonstrate that biosynthetic considerations and the joint effort of synthetic and natural product chemists can result in the identification of new members of a rare class of natural products.

  6. The comparison analysis of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Xingle; Zhao, Xicang; Cheng, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly compares total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures from 2005 to 2010. First, we evaluate total factor productivity and eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures through distance function and directional slack-based measure (DSBM) respectively. Furthermore, we also explore the difference of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency. Last, we investigate the determinants of Malmquist, Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures through random-effect Tobit and bootstrap truncated econometric methods. We find that there are some gaps between Malmquist and Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures. Per labor cement industry value has U-shape relationship with both Malmquist and Malmquist–Luenberger. It is necessary to adopt advanced technology to reduce pollutant emissions. -- Highlights: •Eco-efficiency of cement manufactures is evaluated through slack-based measure. •Eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures has biases with total factor productivity. •Environmental Kuznets curve is existed for China's cement manufactures

  7. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) w...

  8. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  9. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  10. Long-term influence of alternative forest management treatments on total ecosystem and wood product carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Ivan J. Fernandez; Shawn Fraver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; Randall K. Kolka; Lindsey E. Rustad; John C. Brissette

    2016-01-01

    Developing strategies for reducing atmospheric CO2 is one of the foremost challenges facing natural resource professionals today. The goal of this study was to evaluate total ecosystem and harvested wood product carbon (C) stocks among alternative forest management treatments (selection cutting, shelterwood cutting, commercial clearcutting, and...

  11. Analysis of vanadium slags, roasted and leached products. Determination of contents of total vanadium, chromium, sodium, and soluble vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasek, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Accurate, rapid and simple methods were elaborated of determining total vanadium, chromium, and sodium in vanadium slags, and in roasted and leached products in one sample batch. The analysis was conducted in a teflon vial using inorganic acids. A method od determining soluble vanadium in similar materials was also elaborated and verified. (B.S.)

  12. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the association between rising levels of carbon dioxide, the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas, and pollen production has been established, few data are available regarding the function of rising carbon dioxide on quantitative or qualitative changes in allergenic fungal sp...

  13. Coherent production on nuclei and measurements of total cross sections for unstable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.; Zielinski, M.

    1980-01-01

    The Koelbig-Margolis Formula is fitted to some explicity nonperturbative models of diffractive production. It is shown that, in spite of the fact that the standard procedure of fitting the integrated cross sections may give acceptable fits, thus obtained ''cross sections of unstable particles'', grossly disagree with the ''true'' cross sections known exactly from the models. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  15. WEFTA interlaboratory comparison on total lipid determination in fishery products using the Smedes method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Karl; Oehlenschaeger, J.; Bakaert, K.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid determination by the Smedes method was tested in an interlaboratory trial performed by 9 laboratories from 7 countries belonging to the West European Fish Technologists Association Analytical Methods Working Group. 5 samples of fish and fishery products with different lipid contents, includ...

  16. Total synthesis and related studies of large, strained, and bioactive natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMA, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins. PMID:27725470

  17. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  18. The impact of extended release exenatide as adjuvant therapy on hemoglobin A1C, weight, and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using U-500 insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Phillip A; Zielinski, Angela J; Accursi, Mallory L; Burant, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant exenatide extended release (ER) therapy in patients treated with regular U-500 insulin. In this retrospective chart review at an ambulatory care center in the Midwest, 18 patients with type 2 diabetes being treated with regular U-500 insulin and adjuvant exenatide ER were identified. These patients were evaluated for outcomes following the addition of exenatide ER. The primary outcome was change in HbA 1C from baseline to 3, 6, and 12months. Secondary outcomes included change in weight, total daily dose (TDD) of insulin, and hypoglycemia. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to assess the differences in mean scores over four time periods. A total of 18 of 50 patients met inclusion criteria with sufficient data to be included in analysis. HbA 1C showed non-significant findings from baseline to 12months (8.08% vs. 8.23%; p=0.75). A non-significant, modest weight loss occurred (146.4kgvs. 144.2kg; -2.2kg; p=0.31). A significant decrease in TDD of insulin was observed (378 units vs. 326 units; p1). There was a trend towards hypoglycemia from baseline to month 3 post addition of exenatide ER (0.33 events vs. 1.33 events; p=0.055). In patients treated with regular U-500 insulin, adjuvant exenatide ER therapy showed no significant improvement in HbA 1C , but did show modest weight loss as well as decreased insulin requirements to achieve a HbA 1C that was comparable to baseline. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Measuring Acetabular Cup Orientation on Antero-Posterior Radiographs of the Hip after Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Vector Arithmetic Radiological Method. Is It Valid and Verified for Daily Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiovan, B; Weber, M; Worlicek, M; Schneider, M; Springorum, H R; Zeman, F; Grifka, J; Renkawitz, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to validate a vector arithmetic method for measuring acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to verify the clinical practice. We measured cup anteversion and inclination of 123 patients after cementless primary THA twice by two examiners on AP pelvic radiographs with a vector arithmetic method and compared with a 3D-CT based reconstruction model within the same radiographic coronal plane. The mean difference between the radiographic and the 3D-CT measurements was - 1.4° ± 3.9° for inclination and 0.8°± 7.9° for anteversion with excellent correlation for inclination (r = 0.81, p cup position after THA on pelvic radiographs by this vector arithmetic method, there is a need for a correct postoperative ap view, with special regards to the pelvic tilt for the future. • Measuring acetabular cup orientation on anteroposterior radiographs of the hip after THA is a helpful procedure in everyday clinical practice as a first-line imaging modality• CT remains the golden standard to accurately determine acetabular cup position.• Future measuring on radiographs for cup orientation after THA should account for integration of the pelvic tilt in order to maximize the measurement accuracy. Citation Format: • Craiovan B, Weber M, Worlicek M et al. Measuring Acetabular Cup Orientation on Antero-Posterior Radiographs of the Hip after Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Vector Arithmetic Radiological Method. Is It Valid and Verified for Daily Clinical Practice?. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 574 - 581. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Criterion 6, indicator 33 : recovery or recycling of forest products as a percentage of total forest products consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; James Howard; Rebecca. Westby

    2011-01-01

    This indicator shows the trend in recovering wood and paper for reuse in products in the United States. This reuse can hold down the need to harvest wood to meet U.S. consumption needs. The paper recycling rate (utilization rate in producing new paper) increased from 22% to 38% between 1970 and 1996, but then stabilized at 37% to 38% between 1996 and 2006. This rate...

  1. Development of a High Resolution BRDF/Albedo Product by Fusing Airborne CASI Reflectance with MODIS Daily Reflectance in the Oasis Area of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin You

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A land-cover-based linear BRDF (bi-directional reflectance distribution function unmixing (LLBU algorithm based on the kernel-driven model is proposed to combine the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI reflectance with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS daily reflectance product to derive the BRDF/albedo of the two sensors simultaneously in the foci experimental area (FEA of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER, which was carried out in the Heihe River basin, China. For each land cover type, an archetypal BRDF, which characterizes the shape of its anisotropic reflectance, is extracted by linearly unmixing from the MODIS reflectance with the assistance of a high-resolution classification map. The isotropic coefficients accounting for the differences within a class are derived from the CASI reflectance. The BRDF is finally determined by the archetypal BRDF and the corresponding isotropic coefficients. Direct comparisons of the cropland archetypal BRDF and CASI albedo with in situ measurements show good agreement. An indirect validation which compares retrieved BRDF/albedo with that of the MCD43A1 standard product issued by NASA and aggregated CASI albedo also suggests reasonable reliability. LLBU has potential to retrieve the high spatial resolution BRDF/albedo product for airborne and spaceborne sensors which have inadequate angular samplings. In addition, it can shorten the timescale for coarse spatial resolution product like MODIS.

  2. Penerapan Total Productive Maintenance dengan menggunakan metode OEE pada turbin uap Type C5 DS II – GVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bastanta Perangin Angin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Secara harfiah, tidak ada barang ataupun benda buatan manusia yang tidak dapat rusak, mesin turbin uap misalnya. Namun kerusakan tersebut dapat dicegah dengan metode perawatan yang tepat demi masa pakai yang lebih lama. Penelitian ini menganalisis tentang penerapan Total Productive Maintenace (TPM pada mesin turbin uap untuk peningkatan produktivitas dengan menggunakan metode Overall Equipment Efectiveness (OEE di PT PP London Sumatera Indonesia, tbk. Didalam analisis TPM dengan menggunakan metode OEE ini ada terdapat enam penyebab kerugian yang disebut dengan Six Big Losses yaitu diantaranya : kerusakan peralatan, persiapan peralatan, gangguan kecil dan waktu nganggur, kecepatan rendah, cacat produk dalam proses, hasil rendah.Kesimpulan yang didapat adalah nilai rata – rata OEE selama tahun 2015 adalah 65,08 % masih dibawah standar. Nilai gangguan kecil dan waktu nganggur 85,44 % dengan total waktu 2449,54 jam, hasilCacat produk dalam proses2,52 % dengan total waktu 72,12 jam, hasilKecepatan rendah 11,58 % dengan total waktu 331,88 jam, hasil Kerusakan peralatan0,38 % dengan total waktu 11 jam, hasil Persiapan peralatan 0,08 % dengan total waktu 2,41 jam, hasil Hasil rendah 0. Kata kunci: Total Productive Maintenance, Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Six Big Losses,Maintenance, Turbin Uap Abstract Generally, there is nothing properties hand made without damaging, steam turbine engines as an example. But the damage can be prevent by the precise method maintenance in the machines for the long life time. This study analyzes the application of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM at the steam turbine machinery to increase productivity by using the method Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE. In the analysis of TPM using OEE there are six causes of loss called Six Big Losses, such as: damage to equipment ( breakdown losses , preparation of equipment ( set- up and adjustment , disorders of the small and idle time ( idling and minor stoppages

  3. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents in fast-food products across ten countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-11-01

    Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data have linked the consumption of fast foods to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast-food items from five major chains across ten countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n 550) and fewest from the United Arab Emirates (n 106). There was considerable variability in energy and fat contents of fast foods across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197 kJ/100 g) and sandwiches (552-1050 kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat contents (g/100 g); for example, extreme variation in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets with 12 g total fat/100 g in Germany compared with 21·1 g/100 g in New Zealand. These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast-food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption.

  4. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  5. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  6. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, N; Santoso, M; Damayanti, S; Kartawinata, T.G

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was use...

  7. 7S’s System Foundation of Total Productive Maintenance House for Lean Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Lean TPM or TPM for lean organization approach is maintaining international competitiveness . This Lean TPM from our article, approach proposes tree additions to the current understanding of the TPM system: the 7Ss as a critical first step in any improvement program; instant maintenance; improvement setup operations. A company cannot make business gains solely by using cost-cutting measures because it cannot cost enough to become a world-class competitor. Instead, it must invest resources in productivity improvement. This generally increases factory throughput and cuts costs at the same time. Maintaining equipment in its optimal state and continually improving its productivity is the whole strategy behind TPM. The main objective of the 7S system is to grow the value added to each worker. To grow the added value, we must create ordered and well adjusted production lines based on the principles of the 7S’s: organization and order. Above all these two S’s bring to the factory standard positions and acknowledgement. Focus on the first two S’s brings a new perspective on understanding the 7S’s.

  8. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Godermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.

    1979-10-01

    The cross section for the process e + e - → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e + e - → μ + μ - cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)

  9. Exploiting hidden symmetry in natural products: total syntheses of amphidinolides C and F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Subham; Carter, Rich G

    2013-07-24

    The total synthesis of amphidinolide C and a second-generation synthesis of amphidinolide F have been accomplished through the use of a common intermediate to access both the C1-C8 and the C18-C25 sections. The development of a Ag-catalyzed cyclization of a propargyl benzoate diol is described to access both trans-tetrahydrofuran rings. The evolution of a Felkin-controlled, 2-lithio-1,3-dienyl addition strategy to incorporate C9-C11 diene as well as C8 stereocenter is detailed. Key controlling aspects in the sulfone alkylation/oxidative desulfurization to join the major subunits, including the exploration of the optimum masking group for the C18 carbonyl motif, are discussed. A Trost asymmetric alkynylation and a stereoselective cuprate addition to an alkynoate have been developed for the rapid construction of the C26-C34 subunit. A Tamura/Vedejs olefination to introduce the C26 side arm of amphidnolides C and F is employed. The late-stage incorporation of the C15, C18 diketone motif proved critical to the successful competition of the total syntheses.

  10. Computer-guided total synthesis of natural products: Recent examples and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della-Felice, Franco; Pilli, Ronaldo A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química; Sarotti, Ariel M., E-mail: pilli@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: sarotti@iquir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional de Rosario-CONICET (Argentina)

    2018-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts and coupling constants have been extensively employed in recent years mainly to facilitate structural elucidation of organic molecules. When the results of such calculations are used to determine the most likely structure of a natural product in advance, guiding the subsequent synthetic work, the term 'computer-guided synthesis' could be coined. This review article describes the most relevant examples from recent literature, highlighting the scope and limitations of this merged computational/experimental approach as well. (author)

  11. Total K-vacancy production in Ne (10 MeV) traversing Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, K.O.; Kolb, B.; Schader, J.; Sevier, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    Deexcitation of projectile inner shell vacancies created while traversing a solid foil may take place via competing processes: a) vacancy sharing with foil atoms in close impacts, b) radiative and non-radiative electron capture, and c) such X-ray and Auger electron transitions are possible in the heavy ion projectile. The change in K-vacancy creation with foil thickness can be investigated by measuring either projectile or target X-rays where the vacancies are created by Coulomb excitation and process a. In the system Ne (10 MeV) on Al, detecting Al K X-rays, the Ne K-vacancy production probability has been determined. (orig.) [de

  12. Measurement of the total proANP product in mammals by processing independent analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    (proANP) and its products irrespective of variable post-translational processing. The processing-independent assay (PIA) was developed raising mono-specific antibodies against the C-terminus of sequence 1-16 in proANP. The assay procedure included plasma extraction followed by tryptic cleavage, which...... releases the assay epitope from the N-terminal region. The PIA was tested in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure (n=450), in pigs with acute myocardial infarction (n=21), and in normal dogs and dogs with heart failure (n=77). The epitope specificity permitted reliable measurement in man, dog...

  13. Computer-guided total synthesis of natural products: Recent examples and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della-Felice, Franco; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts and coupling constants have been extensively employed in recent years mainly to facilitate structural elucidation of organic molecules. When the results of such calculations are used to determine the most likely structure of a natural product in advance, guiding the subsequent synthetic work, the term 'computer-guided synthesis' could be coined. This review article describes the most relevant examples from recent literature, highlighting the scope and limitations of this merged computational/experimental approach as well. (author)

  14. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  15. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  17. Determination of the total $c\\overline{c}$ production cross section in 340 GeV/c $\\Sigma^{-}$ - nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M.I.; Barberis, D.; Beck, M.; Berat, C.; Beusch, W.; Boss, M.; Brons, S.; Bruckner, W.; Buenerd, M.; Busch, C.; Buscher, C.; Charignon, F.; Chauvin, J.; Chudakov, E.A.; Dersch, U.; Dropmann, F.; Engelfried, J.; Faller, F.; Fournier, A.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Godbersen, M.; Grafstrom, P.; Haller, T.; Heidrich, M.; Hubbard, E.; Hurst, R.B.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konorov, I.; Keller, N.; Martens, K.; Martin, P.; Masciocchi, S.; Michaels, R.; Muller, U.; Neeb, H.; Newbold, D.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Potashnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Ransome, R.; Ren, Z.; Rey-Campagnolle, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, L.; Rudolph, H.; Scheel, C.; Schmitt, L.; Siebert, H.W.; Simon, A.; Smith, V.J.; Thilmann, O.; Trombini, A.; Vesin, E.; Volkemer, B.; Vorwalter, K.; Walcher, T.; Walder, G.; Werding, R.; Wittmann, E.; Zavertyaev, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The production of charmed particles by Sigma- of 340 Gev/c momentum was studied in the hyperon beam experiment WA89 at the CERN-SPS, using the Omega-spectrometer. In two data-taking periods in 1993 and 1994 an integrated luminosity of 1600 microb^-1 on copper and carbon targets was recorded. From the reconstruction of 930 +- 90 charm particle decays in 10 decay channels production cross sections for D, antiD, Ds and Lambdac were determined in the region xF>0. Assuming an A^1 dependence of the cross section on the nucleon number, we calculate a total ccbar production cross section of sigma(x_F > 0) = 5.3+- 0.4(stat)+-1.0(syst)+1.0(Xi_c) microb per nucleon. The last term is an upper limit on the unknown contribution from charmed-strange baryon production.

  18. Pilot production of the wedge filter for the TBI (total body irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Ikuo; Maruyama, Yasushi; Nako, Yasunobu; Tonari, Ayako; Kusuda, Junko; Takayama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed by various methods, such as a long SSD method and a translational couch method. For patient safety in carrying out TBI, the patient should be placed on the supine position and prone position near the floor. TBI is performed from 2 opposite ports (AP/PA) with a linear accelerator (10 MV X-ray). We experimented with a wedge filter for TBI created by us, which makes dose distribution to a floor uniform. The wedge filter, made of iron alloy, was attached to the linear accelerator. In designing the wedge filter, thickness of the lead-made wedge filter can be calculated numerically from the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient of iron alloy and lead. In measuring the dose profile for a phantom of 20 cm thick, dose homogeneity less than 10% was proved by the wedge filter for TBI. (author)

  19. The effects of feeding rations that differ in fiber and fermentable starch within a day on milk production and the daily rhythm of feed intake and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2017-01-01

    A daily pattern of feed intake, milk synthesis, and plasma metabolites and hormones occurs in dairy cows fed a total mixed ration once or twice a day. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations within a day, complementing these rhythms, would improve milk production. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were housed in tie stalls with feed tubs, and feed weight was recorded every 10 s for observation of feeding behavior. Rations were a low fiber and high fermentable starch ration [LFHS; 27.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 31.7% starch based on 55.7% corn silage and 14.1% steam-flaked corn], a high fiber and low fermentable starch ration (HFLS; 31.7% NDF and 22.3% starch based on 44% corn silage, 26.3% alfalfa haylage, and no steam-flaked corn), and a total mixed ration that was a 1:3 ratio of LFHS and HFLS (30.7% NDF, 24.5% starch). The control treatment (CON) cows were fed the total mixed ration at 0700h, the high/low treatment (HL) fed HFLS ration at 0700h and LFHS ration at 2200h, and the low/high (LH) treatment fed LFHS ration at 0700h and HFLS ration at 1100h (LFHS and HFLS rations fed at a 1:3 ratio). No effect was found of treatment on daily milk, but LH decreased milk fat concentration and yield compared with HL (0.2 percentage units and 0.24kg, respectively). Daily dry matter and NDF intake and total-tract digestibility did not differ between treatments. The HL treatment reduced intake at the morning-conditioned meal after feeding and reduced intake before the evening feeding. A treatment by time of day interaction was found for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF concentration, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma insulin, and fatty acid concentration, and body temperature. The CON and LH treatments increased the daily amplitude of fecal NDF by 1.0 and 1.1 percentage units compared with HL. Plasma insulin was higher in HL than CON at 0100 and 0400h, but lower at 1300 and

  20. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L. at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70% for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB. in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of incubation. The byproducts of Moringa had the highest degradability, and castor presented the lowest values at all evaluated levels of replacement. Castor bean byproduct showed the highest total gas production, cotton showed the lowest production, and the byproduct of Moringa at the 70% level showed the best ruminal fermentation results. These results demonstrate that the use of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Helianthus annuus L. and Ricinus communis can replace cane sugar in ruminant feed.

  1. Seasonally-induced alterations of some facial signs in Caucasian women and their changes induced by a daily application of a photo-protective product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Gautier, B; Benize, A-M; Charbonneau, A; Cassier, M

    2017-12-01

    These were two-fold: (i) to assess the possible changes in some facial signs induced in a 6-month period by the periodical shift from winter to summer in Caucasian women and (ii) to appraise the preventive effects of a strong photo-protective product. The facial signs of two cohorts of French women (N= 40 and 42), of comparable ages were graded between winter to summer. One group was left unprotected whereas the other daily applied a strong photo-protective product for 6 months. Facial signs (structural and pigmentation-related) were graded in blind by a panel of 12 experts from photographs taken under standard conditions. A global and focused analysis of the skin colour or dark spots, when present, was carried out through spectro-radiometry under diffuse and standardized visible light, using the L*, a*, b* referential system. The unprotected group showed significant changes in summer as compared to winter on 10 facial signs (two-third of the studied signs) that presented an increased severity, of variable respective amplitude. Five signs among the 10 were particularly and significantly affected by the seasonal transition, of an amplitude above the precision of the grading scale. Three of these five signs concerned structural elements (wrinkles), the two others being related to vascular disorders (redness). These season-induced alterations appear efficiently reduced in the photo-protected group. The colour of the facial skin then appears more homogeneous, less red, less dull, all criteria being quantified by the L*, a*, b* referential system. The comparison with a previous work carried out on Chinese women, through a similar protocol, shows that the photo-protective product brings, in Caucasian women, a more important effect upon structural and vascular features than upon pigmentation disorders, inversely to the results previously observed in Chinese women. The alterations in some facial signs occurring in a 6-month period between winter and summer are confirmed in

  2. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  3. Conceptualisation for implementing total productive maintenance throught the ISO 9001:2008 standard-based quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaram, N. M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available his paper conceptualises the integration of total productive maintenance (TPM and ISO 9001 certification by contributing a model called TPM 9001:2008. Through this conceptualisation, the eight TPM pillars are amended to the five major clauses of the ISO 9001:2008 standard. To illustrate this conceptualisation, the contents of a sub-clause of the TPM 9001:2008 model are presented, and the rationale behind its designation is appraised.

  4. Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Microbial Origins(Recent Topics of the Agricultunal Biological Science in Tohoku University)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromasa, KIYOTA; Shigefumi, KUWAHARA; Laboratory of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry, Division of Bioscience & Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry, Division of Bioscience & Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms are an important rich source of secondary metabolites, which could be useful leads to valuable agrochemicals and/or medicinal drugs. This mini-review describes our recent achievements on the total synthesis of biologically active natural products of microbial origins: pteridic acids A and B (strong plant growth promoters), epoxyquinols A and B (anti-angiogenic compounds), communiols A-F, G, and H, and macrotetrolide α (antibiotics), pyricuol and tabtoxinine-β-lactam (phytotoxin...

  5. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results.  Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b Panneerselvam (2012 Singh et al. (2013 and Poduval & Pramod (2015 in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  7. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  8. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  9. Risk Assessment of Total Coliform in X WTP’s Water Production Using Failure Mode And Effect Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Apriliani Amanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The greatest risk of drinking water supply is a failure to provide safe drinking water for communities. Based on IPA Kedunguling testing report on March 2016 noted that sample exceeding the quality standart of Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI No 492/2010 for the total coliform quality standart. The presence of total coliforms indicating water contamination by pathogen means the water is not safe to consume. The disinfection process has an importance rule in pathogen inactivation. Disinfectant performance is influenced by temperature, pH, turbidity, and the presence of organic materials. One way to control the quality of water produced by using a risk management approach Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods. The potential risks should be measured to determine causes of the problems and find the appropriate risk reduction. The risk assessment is using Risk Priority Number (RPN scale as a basis prioritization of remedial action on issues. Based on identification and risk analysis using FMEA known that the greatest risk of failure is the stipulation of chlorine dose and organic substances (category of high risk level; residual chlorine (category of moderate risk level; turbidity and pH (very low risk level category. Improvement proposal that can be done to reduce total coliforms presence in IPA Kedunguling is by increasing residual chlorine to 0.6 mg/l, set a daily chlorine level, controlling DBPs forming by lowering the concentration of organic precursor using granular activated carbon (GAC or aeration, by lowering the dose of disinfectant, set aside DBPs after the compound is formed using granular activated carbon (GAC, turbidity and pH monitoring, and regularly washing the filters

  10. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  11. For which option is credit risk more representative on China banks' total factor productivity Efficiency change or technological progress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the impact of credit risk on China banks' total factor productivity.Design/methodology/approach-The paper employs the Malmquist Productivity Index (MP1) which allows for the examination of five different indices:total factor productivity change (TFPCH);technological change (TECHCH);efficiency change (EFFCH);pure technical efficiency change (PEFFCH);and scale efficiency change (SECH) indices.Findings-The empirical findings indicate that the State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCB),Joint Stock Commercial Banks (JSCB),and City Commercial Banks (CCB) have exhibited lower TFPCH levels with the inclusion of risk factor.It was found that the JSCB and CCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to TECHCH,while the SOCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to EFFCH.The empirical findings suggest that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a higher JSCB EFFCH levels.On the other hand,the SOCB and CCB have exhibited a lower EFFCH levels due to SECH and PEFFCH,respectively.Research limitations/implications-The results clearly highlight the importance of credit risk and lending quality in determining the total factor productivity change of banks operating in the China banking sector.The author demonstrates that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a lower TFPCH level of all banks operating in the China banking sector.Thus,excluding the credit risk factor from the analysis on the China banking sector may potentially bias the result upwards.Practical impIications-In an environment of heavy government influence over the lending process,a large proportion of loans extended by Chinese banks over the years have gone bad.Policymakers should prevent the flow of new non-performing loans by separating bad clients from banks that are being restructured and recapitalized in the reform of the banking sector.Originality/value-By employing the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI),the present paper contributes to

  12. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans C

    2010-02-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (Ppigmentation. In addition, we paired a dark-skinned group with a fair-skinned group according to baseline 25(OH)D levels and found no differences in 25(OH)D increase after identical UVB exposure.

  13. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  14. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  15. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  16. Determinants of urea nitrogen production in sepsis. Muscle catabolism, total parenteral nutrition, and hepatic clearance of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Placko, R

    1989-03-01

    The major determinants of urea production were investigated in 26 patients with multiple trauma (300 studies). The body clearances (CLRs) of ten amino acids (AAs) were estimated as a ratio of muscle-released AAs plus total parenteral nutrition-infused AAs to their extracellular pool. While clinically septic trauma (ST) patients without multiple-organ failure syndrome (MOFS) had a higher level of urea nitrogen production (25.6 +/- 13.4 g of N per day) compared with nonseptic trauma (NST) patients (14 +/- 7.5 g of N per day) and with ST patients with MOFS (4.28 +/- 1.5 g of N per day), in all groups urea N production was found to be a function of muscle protein degradation (catabolism), total parenteral nutrition-administered AAs, and the ratio between leucine CLR and tyrosine CLR (L/T) (r2 = .82, P less than .0001). Since tyrosine is cleared almost exclusively by the liver, the L/T ratio may be regarded as an index of hepatic function. The significant differences between urea N production in ST and NST patients lay in an increased positive dependence on muscle catabolism and increased negative correlation with L/T in the ST group. At any L/T ratio, urea N production was increased in ST patients over NST patients, but in ST patients with MOFS, it fell to or below levels of NST patients. These data show that the ST process is associated with enhancement of ureagenesis, due to increased hepatic CLR of both exogenous and endogenous AAs. In sepsis with MOFS, a marked inhibition of urea synthesis occurs, partially explained by a decreased hepatic CLR of non-branched-chain AAs.

  17. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  18. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  19. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kongerslev Thorning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results: The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion: The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most

  20. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have

  1. USING A TOTAL QUALITY STRATEGY IN A NEW PRACTICAL APPROACH FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCT RELIABILITY IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a Total Quality Management strategy is proposed, refined and used with the aim at improving the quality of large-mass industrial products far beyond the technical specifications demanded at the end-customer level. This approach combines standard and non-standard tools used for Reliability, Availability and Maintainability analysis. The procedure also realizes a stricter correlation between theoretical evaluation methods and experimental evidences as part of a modern integrated method for strengthening quality in design and process. A commercial Intake Manifold, largely spread in the market, is used as test-case for the validation of the methodology. As general additional result, the research underlines the impact of Total Quality Management and its tools on the development of innovation.

  2. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  3. Measurement of the total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons at small Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Deuter, A.; Genzel, H.; Lackas, W.; Pielorz, J.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Cartwright, S.L.; Dainton, J.B.; King, B.T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thomson, J.C.; Achterberg, O.; Blobel, V.; Burkart, D.; Diehlmann, K.; Feindt, M.; Kapitza, H.; Koppitz, B.; Krueger, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Staa, R. van; Almeida, F.; Baecker, A.; Barreiro, F.; Brandt, S.; Derikum, K.; Grupen, C.; Meyer, H.J.; Mueller, H.; Neumann, B.; Rost, M.; Stupperich, K.; Zech, G.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Junge, H.; Kraski, K.; Maxeiner, C.; Maxeiner, H.; Meyer, H.; Schmidt, D.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Ferrarotto, F.; Franke, G.; Gaspero, M.; Gerke, C.; Knies, G.; Lewendel, B.; Meyer, J.; Michelsen, U.; Pape, K.H.; Stella, B.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zachara, M.; Zimmermann, W.

    1984-09-01

    The total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons, sigmasub(γγ)(W,Q 2 ), has been measured in the single tag condition for 0.1 2 2 and 1.5 2 dependence of sigmasub(γγ) averaged over W can be described by GVDM. The dependence of sigmasub(γγ) on the mass W of the hadronic final state has been extracted at Q 2 =0.44 GeV 2 by unfolding the effects of experimental resolution and acceptance. The cross section is found to rise at small W. The result is compared with VDM and the parton model. (orig.)

  4. Total and differential cross sections for pion production via coherent isobar and giant resonance formation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutchman, P.A.; Norbury, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    A quantal many-body formalism is presented that investigates pion production through the coherent formation of a nucleonic isobar in the projectile and its subsequent decay to various pion charge states along with concomitant excitation of the target to a coherent spin-isospin giant resonance via a peripheral collision of relativistic heavy ions. Total cross sections as a function of the incident energy per nucleon and Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of pion energy and angle are calculated. It is shown that the pion angular distributions, in coincidence with the target giant resonance excitations, might provide a well-defined signature for these coherent processes

  5. Aplicação do método da carga máxima total diária (CMTD para a amônia no Rio Atibaia, região de Campinas/Paulínia - SP Application of ammonia total maximum daily load (TMDL to Atibaia River, Campinas/Paulínia region - São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Silvério da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas a capacidade de suporte e o estado de degradação do Rio Atibaia, considerando a ameaça para a vida aquática pela presença da Amônia, a qual representa um dos principais riscos às comunidades aquáticas no Rio Atibaia. Com este objetivo foi aplicado o método da Carga Máxima Total Diária (CMTD, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos (EPA. Os resultados revelaram que as cargas de Amônia aumentavam progressivamente ao longo do Rio Atibaia, principalmente devido às fontes pontuais. As cargas de Amônia diárias assumiram valores de 30 a 5000 kg NH3. A capacidade de suporte das águas Rio Atibaia, para proteger a vida aquática contra os efeitos tóxicos da Amônia, tem sido violadas em trechos próximos à sua foz. A degradação dessas águas foi mais intensa na estação seca. Este trabalho mostrou que o esgoto doméstico não-tratado de uma população aproximada de 250 mil habitantes da cidade de Campinas, via Ribeirão Anhumas, é a principal fonte de Amônia na bacia do Rio Atibaia, apesar do grande número de indústrias ali presentes.This study evaluated the tolerance capacity and the impairment state of the Atibaia River, considering the threat to aquatic life by the presence of Ammonia, which represents one of the main risks to the aquatic communities in the Atibaia River. With this aim, the method Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was applied. The results revealed that the Ammonia loads increased progressively through the Atibaia River, especially due to the point sources. The daily Ammonia loads assumed values that ranged from 30 to 5000 kg NH3. The tolerance capacity of the waters of the Atibaia River, to protect aquatic life against the toxic effects of the Ammonia, has been violated in reaches near its mouth. The impairment of these waters was more intense during the dry season. This study showed that the domestic sewer

  6. Measurement of total and differential cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino coherent π± production on carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislivec, A.; Higuera, A.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres v., G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chavarria, E.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Zavala, G.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Neutrino induced coherent charged pion production on nuclei, ν¯ μA →μ±π∓A , is a rare inelastic interaction in which the four-momentum squared transferred to the nucleus is nearly zero, leaving it intact. We identify such events in the scintillator of MINERvA by reconstructing |t | from the final state pion and muon momenta and by removing events with evidence of energetic nuclear recoil or production of other final state particles. We measure the total neutrino and antineutrino cross sections as a function of neutrino energy between 2 and 20 GeV and measure flux integrated differential cross sections as a function of Q2 , Eπ, and θπ . The Q2 dependence and equality of the neutrino and antineutrino cross sections at finite Q2 provide a confirmation of Adler's partial conservation of axial current hypothesis.

  7. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  8. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  9. Evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production processes by measuring total organic halogen formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Kohei; Iwase, Yoko

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of organic substances in water with high accuracy and high sensitivity was proposed, in which a hypochlorite is added to water, and the resultant total amount of organic halogen compounds (TOX formation potential) was measured, and it was applied to the evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production process. In this investigation, the TOX formation potential of the raw water which was to be used for the ultra-pure water production process, intermediately treated water and ultra-pure water was measured to clarify the behavior of organic substances in the ultra-pure water production process and to demonstrate the usefulness of this procedure to evaluate trace organic contaminants in water. The measurement of TOX formation potential requires no specific technical skill, and only a short time, and gives accurate results, therefore, it is expected that the water quality control in the ultra-pure water production process can be performed more exactly by applying this procedure. (Yoshitake, I.)

  10. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  11. Relationships between Personal Measurements of 'Total' Dust, Respirable, Thoracic, and Inhalable Aerosol Fractions in the Cement Production Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notø, Hilde P; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationships and establish conversion factors between 'total' dust, respirable, thoracic, and inhalable aerosol fractions measured by parallel personal sampling on workers from the production departments of cement plants. 'Total' dust in this study refers to aerosol sampled by the closed face 37-mm Millipore filter cassette. Side-by-side personal measurements of 'total' dust and respirable, thoracic, and inhalable aerosol fractions were performed on workers in 17 European and Turkish cement plants. Simple linear and mixed model regressions were used to model the associations between the samplers. The total number of personal samples collected on 141 workers was 512. Of these 8.4% were excluded leaving 469 for statistical analysis. The different aerosol fractions contained from 90 to 130 measurements and-side-by side measurements of all four aerosol fractions were collected on 72 workers.The median ratios between observed results of the respirable, 'total' dust, and inhalable fractions relative to the thoracic aerosol fractions were 0.51, 2.4, and 5.9 respectively. The ratios between the samplers were not constant over the measured concentration range and were best described by regression models. Job type, position of samplers on left or right shoulder and plant had no substantial effect on the ratios. The ratios between aerosol fractions changed with different air concentrations. Conversion models for estimation of the fractions were established. These models explained a high proportion of the variance (74-91%) indicating that they are useful for the estimation of concentrations based on measurements of a different aerosol fraction. The calculated uncertainties at most observed concentrations were below 30% which is acceptable for comparison with limit values (EN 482, 2012). The cement industry will therefore be able to predict the health related aerosol fractions from their former or future measurements of one of the

  12. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  13. Technical note: In vitro total gas and methane production measurements from closed or vented rumen batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, M; Tagliapietra, F; Maccarana, L; Hansen, H H; Bailoni, L; Schiavon, S

    2014-03-01

    This study compared measured gas production (GP) and computed CH4 production values provided by closed or vented bottles connected to gas collection bags. Two forages and 3 concentrates were incubated. Two incubations were conducted, where the 5 feeds were tested in 3 replicates in closed or vented bottles, plus 4 blanks, for a total of 64 bottles. Half of the bottles were not vented, and the others were vented at a fixed pressure (6.8 kPa) and gas was collected into one gas collection bag connected to each bottle. Each bottle (317 mL) was filled with 0.4000 ± 0.0010 g of feed sample and 60 mL of buffered rumen fluid (headspace volume = 257 mL) and incubated at 39.0°C for 24 h. At 24 h, gas samples were collected from the headspace of closed bottles or from headspace and bags of vented bottles and analyzed for CH4 concentration. Volumes of GP at 24 h were corrected for the gas dissolved in the fermentation fluid, according to Henry's law of gas solubility. Methane concentration (mL/100mL of GP) was measured and CH4 production (mL/g of incubated DM) was computed using corrected or uncorrected GP values. Data were analyzed for the effect of venting technique (T), feed (F), interaction between venting technique and feed (T × F), and incubation run as a random factor. Closed bottles provided lower uncorrected GP (-18%) compared with vented bottles, especially for concentrates. Correction for dissolved gas reduced but did not remove differences between techniques, and closed bottles (+25 mL of gas/g of incubated DM) had a greater magnitude of variation than did vented bottles (+1 mL of gas/g of incubated DM). Feeds differed in uncorrected and corrected GP, but the ranking was the same for the 2 techniques. The T × F interaction influenced uncorrected GP values, but this effect disappeared after correction. Closed bottles provided uncorrected CH4 concentrations 23% greater than that of vented bottles. Correction reduced but did not remove this difference. Methane

  14. Total Quality Management and Productivity in Information Centers Bilgi Kurumlarında Toplam Kalite Yönetimi ve Verimlilik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Üstün

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a new management style known as "Total Quality Management" is adapted by all institutions. Naturally, high quality of products or services is important in all estabilishments, but factors effecting quality has recently been reassesed and a new outlook has been developed. Libraries, documentation-information centers are service institutions. Performance and success depend mainly on the skill and talent of employers. Total quality management, information services and productivity relationship is discussed in this paper. Günümüzde turn işletmelerde "toplam kalite yönetimi" adı verilen yeni bir yönetim anlayışı benimsenmektedir. Tüm kurumlarda kaliteli mal ya da hizmet önemlidir. Ancak kaliteyi etkileyen ögeler değişime uğramış, yeni bir anlam kazanmıştır. Kütüphane, arşiv, belge-bılgi merkezleri birer hizmet işletmesi türüdürler. Başarı ve performans büyük ölçüde çalışanların beceri ve yeteneklerine bağlıdır. Bu makalede toplam kalite yönetimi, bilgi hizmetleri ve verimlilik ilişkileri tartışılmaktadır.

  15. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  16. TOMS EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSEPL3zaer) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Version...

  17. Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE Enhancement in Manufacture of Electronic Components & Boards Industry through Total Productive Maintenance Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fam Soo-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment of intense global competition, both creative and proven strategies need to be considered in order to bring about the effectiveness and efficiency in manufacturing operation. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM is one of the effective maintenance strategy in enhancing the equipment effectiveness and to achieve a significant competitive advantage. This research paper addresses the impact of three TPM pillars namely planned maintenance (PM, autonomous maintenance (AM and focused maintenance (FM on overall equipment effectiveness (OEE of die attach equipment in the production line of semiconductor industry. The effect of TPM on the OEE is also investigated depending on the equipment types, in where die attach process consist of two models-CANON and ESEC. The primary data was collected from an organization's database and was analysed by SPSS V23. The preliminary results of the analysis showed that the performance of OEE in ESEC is better than the CANON after the implementation of TPM. The analysis also showed that out of the three TPM practices deployed, planned maintenance of equipment by production and maintenance team played the biggest role in increasing the equipment effectiveness. In conclusion, this study provides insights the importance of implementing TPM in order to succeed in a highly demanding market arena.

  18. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY: NEW GENERATION PANEL DATA ANALYSIS ON OECD COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖMER YALÇINKAYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the factors which are effective on total factor productivity (TFP increments include the productivity of all factors in the production process and making improvements for these factors via policies have importance concerning speed the potential growth rate up in the long term and making this sustainable. The mediumlong term determinants of TFP are examined in this research for the 1994-2015 period as econometric within the scope of new generation panel data analysis on the OECD countries who are classified as OECD-1 and OECD-2 by their income levels. From this aspect, purposed in this research that to reveal the primary determinants which cause the differentiations between OECD-1 and OECD-2 countries in terms of their long-term economic growth performances and/or income levels. Determined as a result of the research that the effect of the variables which are used to determine the medium-long term determinants of the TFP on OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups parallelly increased and decreased as long as enhancing the representation degree of the knowledge, innovation and technological development level of the variables. These results show that the differentiation of countries in OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups in terms of long-term economic growth and/or income levels is majorly rooted in indicators which are used on behalf of knowledge, innovation, and technological development.

  19. THE EVALUATION OF EIGHT PILLARS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM IMPLEMENTATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS (OEE AND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Agung Prabowo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this global era where the level of competition is higher, in addition to the influence of the suitable marketing strategy is also required strategy from the side of production/productivity. PT. XYZ is a company engaged in the manufacturing of snacks especially biscuits. The problem that often occurs in this company is the number of biscuits that are not in accordance with the standard and the production does not reach the target set because the machine suddenly breaks down frequently. To overcome the problems PT. XYZ then choose to implement the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM strategy. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of 8 TPM Pillars and measure the effects on manufacturing performance in the form of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE and Waste. This study uses questionnaire-based survey method. The number of samples distributed is 40 units. Which returned and filled 33 questionnaires and which is worth to be processed as many as 30 samples. Then tested the validity and reliability of data using SPSS program. Validity critical value R = 0.361 for n = 30 and error rate 5%. For reliability test, R value = 0.60 was selected. From the validity test, there are 7 items of questions that are not valid so it is not included in the next process. For the reliability test of the questionnaire is quite reliable with the value of Cronbach's alpha of 0.811. From the CFA analysis, only 6 of 8 TPM pillars are significant while for manufacturing performance only OEE variable is significant. Correlation between 8 Pillars of TPM and manufacturing performance is Strong enough with a value of R = 0.862, which also means 74.3% (R2 variable manufacturing performance can be explained/influenced by variable 8 Pillar TPM and 26.7% the rest by other variables.

  20. Relationship between product demand, tibial polyethylene insert shelf age, and total knee arthroplasty survival: retrospective review of total knees of one design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joshua A; Collier, Matthew B; Engh, C Anderson; Engh, Gerard A

    2006-04-01

    Shelf aging of gamma-irradiated-in-air polyethylene tibial components has been associated with increased articular surface wear and an elevated risk for revision. Nine hundred fifty cruciate-retaining inserts of one design were implanted between 1987 and 1996 (shelf age, 1.0 +/- 1.2 years). Less frequently used inserts (smallest/largest sizes, thicker thicknesses, supplemental articular constraint) had longer shelf ages (means ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 years). Survival analysis showed that shelf age (P product demand and can be of aid when diagnosing the painful knee.

  1. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  2. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  3. Optimization of biomass, total carotenoids and astaxanthin production in Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow strain Steptoe (Nevada, USA under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA S CIFUENTES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is one of the natural sources of astaxanthin, a pigment widely used in salmon feed. This study was made to discover optimal conditions for biomass and astaxanthin production in H. pluvialis from Steptoe, Nevada (USA, cultured in batch mode. Growth was carried out under autotrophic (with NaNO3, NH4Cl and urea and mixotrophic conditions (with 4, 8, 12 mM sodium acetate under two photon flux densities (PFD (35 and 85 µmol m-2 s-1. The carotenogenesis was induced by 1 addition of NaCl (0.2 and 0.8 %, 2 N-deprivation and 3 high PFD (150 µmol m-2 s-1. Total carotenoids were estimated by spectrophotometry and total astaxanthin by HPLC. Ammonium chloride was the best N-source for growth (k=0.7 div day-1, 228-258 mg l-1and 2.0 x 10(5 - 2.5 x 10(5 cells ml-1 at both PFD, respectively. With increasing acetate concentration, a slight increment in growth occurred only at 85 µmol m-2 s-1. Light was the best inductive carotenogenic factor, and the highest carotenoid production (4.9 mg l-1, 25.0 pg cell-1 was obtained in cultures pre-grown in nitrate at low light. The NaCl caused an increase in carotenoid content per cell at increasing salt concentrations, but resulted in a high cell mortality and did not produce any increment in carotenoid content per volume compared to cultures grown at 150 µmol m-2 s-1. The highest carotenoid content per cell (22 pg and astaxanthin content per dry weight (10.3 mg g-1 (1% w/w were obtained at 85 µmol m-2 s-1 with 0.8% NaCl.

  4. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  5. Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  6. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  7. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  8. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  9. Investigation of forced and total degradation products of amlodipine besylate by liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Zora Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was applied for the investigation of the degradation products of amlodipine besylate under the stressed conditions in solution. Amlodipine besylate stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation and photodegradation as well as to the electrochemical degradation by cyclic voltammetry in 0.05 mol/L NaHCO3 on gold electrode. The total degradation of amlodipine besylate was achieved in 5 mol/L NaOH at 80°C for 6 h and the compound with molecular formula C15H16NOCl was identified as a main degradation product. Under acidic (5 mol/L HCl at 80°C for 6 h stress conditions 75.2% of amlodipine besylate degradation was recorded. Oxidative degradation in the solution of 3% H2O2-methanol 80:20 at 80°C for 6 h showed that amlodipine besylate degraded to 80.1%. After 14 days of expose in photostability chamber amlodipine besylate solution showed degradation of 32.2%. In electrochemical degradation after 9 hours of cyclization the beginning of amlodipine oxidation was shifted for 200 mV to more negative potentials, with the degradation of 66.5%. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of dehydro amlodipine derivate with molecular formula C20H23N2O5Cl in oxidative and acidic conditions while in electrochemical degradation was detected in traces. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  10. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  11. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  12. Suppression of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Engleman, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, 200 rad). The authors previously reported long-lasting clinical improvement in this group associated with a persistent decrease in circulating Leu-3 (helper subset) T cells and marked impairment of in vitro lymphocyte function. In the present experiments, they studied the mechanisms underlying the decrease in pokeweed mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion observed after TLI. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBL) from TLI-treated patients produced 10-fold less Ig (both IgM and IgG) in response to pokeweed mitogen than before radiotherapy. This decrease in Ig production was associated with the presence of suppressor cells in co-culture studies. By using responder cells obtained from normal individuals (allogeneic system), PBL from eight of 12 patients after TLI suppressed Ig synthesis by more than 50%. In contrast, PBL from the same patients before TLI failed to suppress Ig synthesis. PBL with suppressive activity contained suppressor T cells, and the latter cells bore the Leu-2 surface antigen. In 50% of the patients studied suppressor cells were also found in the non-T fraction and were adherent to plastic. Interestingly, the Leu-2 + cells from TLI-treated patients were no more potent on a cell per cell basis than purified Leu-2 + cells obtained before TLI. Additional experiments suggested that the suppression mediated by T cells after TLI is related to the increased ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 cells observed after radiotherapy

  13. Effect of Cover Crops and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Total Production of Forage Corn and Dry Weight of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fakhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of cover crops, split application of nitrogen and control weeds on forage corn and weed biomass a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications and three factors was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2012 crop year. The first factor was cover crops (consisting of winter rye, hairy vetch, berseem clover, with and without weeding as controls. The second factor was two levels of split application of 225 kg.ha-1 urea at two growth stages forage corn: the first level (N1= 1/2 at planting and 1/2 at 8-10 leaf stage, second level (N2= 1/3 at planting, 1/3 at 8-10 leaf and 1/3 one week before tasselling stage. The third factor consisted of two levels of weed control: weeding at 8 leaves and weeding one week before tasselling. Results showed that winter rye, hairy vetch and berseem clover cover crops decreased total weed dry weights up to 87, 82 and 65 % respectively as compared to control (without weeding. Cover crops and nitrogen application time had a significant effect on yield of fresh forage corn and cover crops. Based on the advantages of effective weed control and higher forage production of hairy vetch it can be recommended as proper cover crop.

  14. A General Approach to the Basiliolide/Transtaganolide Natural Products: Total Syntheses of Basiliolide B, epi-8-Basiliolide B, Transtaganolide C, and Transtaganolide D

    KAUST Repository

    Nelson, Hosea M.; Murakami, Kei; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    (Figure Presented) In a flash: The total synthesis of transtaganolide and basiliolide natural products is achieved in three steps from achiral, monocyclic esters (see scheme). Featured in the syntheses are an Ireland-Claisen/Diels- Alder cascade

  15. Total Productive Maintenance And Role Of Interpretive Structural Modeling And Structural Equation Modeling In Analyzing Barriers In Its Implementation A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth S. Poduval; Dr. Jagathy Raj V. P.; Dr. V. R. Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance TPM. The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling ISM and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. T...

  16. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  17. EVALUASI KINERJA KEGIATAN PERAWATAN MESIN INJECTION MOLD MENGGUNAKAN METODE TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM PADA PT ICHIKOH INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tirtana Siregar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran deskriptif mengenai perawatan mesin atau maintenance, meliputi Total Productive Maintenance, Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Overall Human Ineffectiveness dan Six Big Losses pada PT Ichikoh Indonesia. Permasalahan yang terjadi diperusahaan yaitu banyaknya jumlah part defect dikarenakan mesin sering breakdown. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan wawancara terstruktur dengan Manager Departement Molding Upstream 1 dan Departement Maintenance. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan metode kuantitatif dan evaluatif dari periode bulan April 2016 sampai Maret 2017. Dari hasil analisis ini PT Ichikoh Indonesia memiliki nilai efektifitas mesin yang masih dibawah standar JIPM (Japan Institude of Plant Maintenance yaitu dengan nilai tertinggi pada bulan Februari 74%, sedangkan standar JIPM (Japan Institude of Plant Maintenance adalah minimal sebesar 85% yang dihitung menggunakan metode Overall Equipment Effectiveness. Sedangkan untuk pengukuran tingkat ketidakefektifan kerja operator yang dianalisis menggunakan metode Overall Human Ineffectiveness mendapatkan nilai yang masih besar pada bulan May 2016 yaitu sebesar 17%.  Faktor yang menyebabkan rendahnya nilai efektifitas mesin dan tingkat ketidakefektifan kinerja operator adalah faktor Idling and Minor Stoppagges dengan nilai losses sebesar 54% yang sudah dianalisis menggunakan diagram pareto. Sesuai dengan diagram sebab-akibat (fishbone didapat faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya Idling and Minor Stoppagges yang menjadi prioritas utama adalah a. faktor manusia yaitu masih kurang disiplin, sering terjadi kesalahan dalam perbaikan mesin, b. faktor material yaitu kesalahan spesifikasi material dan rendahnya perawatan bahan baku, c. faktor mesin yaitu mesin sering breakdown, kesalahan setup, d. faktor metode yaitu penjadwalan pengganti komponen yang belum efektif dan autonomous maintenance kurang berjalan dengan baik, e. faktor lingkungan

  18. A fast H2O total column density product from GOME – Validation with in-situ aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas which is responsible for about 2/3 of the natural greenhouse effect, therefore changes in atmospheric water vapour in a changing climate (the water vapour feedback is subject to intense debate. H2O is also involved in many important reaction cycles of atmospheric chemistry, e.g. in the production of the OH radical. Thus, long time series of global H2O data are highly required. Since 1995 the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME continuously observes atmospheric trace gases. In particular it has been demonstrated that GOME as a nadir looking UV/vis-instrument is sensitive to many tropospheric trace gases. Here we present a new, fast H2O algorithm for the retrieval of vertical column densities from GOME measurements. In contrast to existing H2O retrieval algorithms it does not depend on additional information like e.g. the climatic zone, aerosol content or ground albedo. It includes an internal cloud-, aerosol-, and albedo correction which is based on simultaneous observations of the oxygen dimer O4. From sensitivity studies using atmospheric radiative modelling we conclude that our H2O retrieval overestimates the true atmospheric H2O vertical column density (VCD by about 4% for clear sky observations in the tropics and sub-tropics, while it can lead to an underestimation of up to -18% in polar regions. For measurements over (partly cloud covered ground pixels, however, the true atmospheric H2O VCD might be in general systematically underestimated. We compared the GOME H2O VCDs to ECMWF model data over one whole GOME orbit (extending from the Arctic to the Antarctic including also totally cloud covered measurements. The correlation of the GOME observations and the model data yield the following results: a slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.86 and an average bias of 5%. Even for measurements with large cloud fractions between 50% and 100% an average underestimation of only -18% was found. This

  19. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone and Radiative Cloud Fraction Daily L3 Global 0.25x0.25 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-003 of Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3e) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by picking the best...

  20. Measuring acetabular cup orientation on antero-posterior radiographs of the hip after total hip arthroplasty with a vector arithmetic radiological method. Is it valid and verified for daily clinical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craiovan, B.; Weber, M.; Worlicek, M.; Schneider, M.; Springorum, H.R.; Grifka, J.; Renkawitz, T. [University Medical Center Regensburg, Bad Abbach/Regensburg (Germany). Orthopedic Surgery; Zeman, F. [University Medical Center Regensburg, Bad Abbach/Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Studies

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this prospective study is to validate a vector arithmetic method for measuring acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to verify the clinical practice. We measured cup anteversion and inclination of 123 patients after cementless primary THA twice by two examiners on AP pelvic radiographs with a vector arithmetic method and compared with a 3D-CT based reconstruction model within the same radiographic coronal plane. The mean difference between the radiographic and the 3D-CT measurements was -1.4 ±3.9 for inclination and 0.8 ±7.9 for anteversion with excellent correlation for inclination (r=0.81, p < 0.001) and moderate correlation for anteversion (r=0.65, p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for measurements on radiographs ranged from 0.98 (95%-CI: 0.98; 0.99) for the first observer to 0.94 (95%-CI: 0.92; 0.96) for the second observer. The interrater reliability was 0.96 (95%-CI: 0.93; 0.98) for inclination and 0.93 (95%-CI: 0.85; 0.96) for anteversion. The largest errors in measurements were associated with an extraordinary pelvic tilt. In order to get a valuable measurement for measuring cup position after THA on pelvic radiographs by this vector arithmetic method, there is a need for a correct postoperative ap view, with special regards to the pelvic tilt for the future.

  1. Absorption-based algorithm of primary production for total and size-fractionated phytoplankton in coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.K.; Tilstone, G.H.; Smyth, T.J.; Suggett, D.J.; Astoreca, R.; Lancelot, C.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Most satellite models of production have been designed and calibrated for use in the open ocean. Coastal waters are optically more complex, and the use of chlorophyll a (chl a) as a first-order predictor of primary production may lead to substantial errors due to significant quantities

  2. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  3. Seasonal to hour variation scales in abundance and production of total and particle-attached bacteria in the open NW Mediterranean Sea (0–1000 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mével

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the vertical and temporal dynamics of total vs. particle-attached bacterial abundance and activity over a 5 week period under summer to autumn transition in NW Mediterranean Sea. At a weekly time scale, total bacterial biomass and production in the euphotic layers was significantly correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass. At an hourly time scale, total bacterial biomass responded very rapidly to chlorophyll a fluctuations, suggesting a tight coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria for resource partitioning during the summer-autumn transition. In contrast, no influence of diel changes on bacterial parameters was detected. Episodic events such as coastal water intrusions had a significant positive effect on total bacterial abundance and production, whereas we could not detect any influence of short wind events whatever the magnitude. Finally, we show that particle-attached bacteria can represent a large proportion (up to 49% of the total bacterial activity in the euphotic layer but display rapid and sporadic changes at hourly time scales. In the mesopelagic layers, bacterial abundance and production linearly decreased with depth, except some production peaks at 400–750 m. This study underlines the value of large datasets covering different temporal scales to clarify the biogeochemical role of bacteria in the cycling of organic matter in open seawater.

  4. Impact-parameter dependence of the total probability for electromagnetic electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hencken, K.; Trautmann, D.; Baur, G.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the impact-parameter-dependent total probability P total (b) for the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in lowest order. We study expecially impact parameters smaller than the Compton wavelength of the electron, where the equivalent-photon approximation cannot be used. Calculations with and without a form factor for the heavy ions are done; the influence is found to be small. The lowest-order results are found to violate unitarity and are used for the calculation of multiple-pair production probabilities with the help of the approximate Poisson distribution already found in earlier publications

  5. Daily users compared to less frequent users find vape as or more satisfying and less dangerous than cigarettes, and are likelier to use non-cig-alike vaping products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the roles of perceived satisfaction and perceived danger and vaping-product-type as correlates of more frequent use of vaping products. In a baseline assessment of a longitudinal study of US Army Reserve/National Guard Soldiers and their partners (New York State, USA, 2014–2016, participants were asked about current use of vaping products (e-cigarettes and perceived satisfaction and danger in comparison to cigarettes as well as type of product used. Fisher-exact tests and multiple ordinal logistic regressions were used. In multivariable and univariate models, more perceived satisfaction, less perceived danger, and use of non-cig-alike products were associated with more frequent use of vaping products (ps < 0.05, two-tailed. For self-selected, more frequent adult users, e-cigs can be at least as satisfying as cigarettes and often more satisfying and are perceived as less dangerous than cigarettes. Non-cig-alike products were more likely in daily users. Some concern that e-cigs are a gateway to cigarettes arises from assuming that e-cigs may not be as reinforcing and pleasurable as cigarettes. These results indicate that accurate perception of comparative risk and use of more effective-nicotine delivery product can produce for some users a highly-satisfying alternative to cigarettes.

  6. Daily users compared to less frequent users find vape as or more satisfying and less dangerous than cigarettes, and are likelier to use non-cig-alike vaping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Homish, D Lynn; Homish, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    We assessed the roles of perceived satisfaction and perceived danger and vaping-product-type as correlates of more frequent use of vaping products. In a baseline assessment of a longitudinal study of US Army Reserve/National Guard Soldiers and their partners (New York State, USA, 2014-2016), participants were asked about current use of vaping products (e-cigarettes) and perceived satisfaction and danger in comparison to cigarettes as well as type of product used. Fisher-exact tests and multiple ordinal logistic regressions were used. In multivariable and univariate models, more perceived satisfaction, less perceived danger, and use of non-cig-alike products were associated with more frequent use of vaping products ( p s < 0.05, two-tailed). For self-selected, more frequent adult users, e-cigs can be at least as satisfying as cigarettes and often more satisfying and are perceived as less dangerous than cigarettes. Non-cig-alike products were more likely in daily users. Some concern that e-cigs are a gateway to cigarettes arises from assuming that e-cigs may not be as reinforcing and pleasurable as cigarettes. These results indicate that accurate perception of comparative risk and use of more effective-nicotine delivery product can produce for some users a highly-satisfying alternative to cigarettes.

  7. Omalizumab decreases IgE production in patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma; PKPD analysis of a biomarker, total IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip J; Renard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine whether excessive IgE production by patients with atopic allergic asthma decreases with omalizumab therapy. METHODS Omalizumab, free and total IgE data were obtained from an epidemiological study and six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with allergic asthma. The binding between omalizumab and IgE together with the production and elimination of IgE were modelled as previously, except that, in order to explain why total IgE was decreasing over a period of 5 years, the expression of IgE was allowed to change. RESULTS The prior constant IgE production model failed to converge on the data once long-term observations were included, whereas models allowing IgE production to decrease fitted. A feedback model indicated that, on average, IgE production decreased by 54% per year. This model was further developed with covariate searches indicating clinically small but statistically significant effects of age, gender, body mass index and race on some parameters. Model predictions were checked internally and externally against 3–5 year data from paediatric and adult atopic asthmatic patients and externally against extensive total IgE data from a long-duration (>1 year) phase 1 study which was not used in the model building. CONCLUSIONS A pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model incorporating omalizumab–IgE binding and feedback for control of IgE production indicates that omalizumab reduces production of IgE. This raises the possibility that indefinite treatment may not be required, only for perhaps a few years. After the initial accumulation, total IgE should provide a means to monitor IgE production and guide individual treatment decisions. PMID:21392073

  8. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  9. Interest of Supportive and Barrier Protective Skin Care Products in the Daily Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Antoine; Regueiro, Carlos; Hijal, Tarek; Pasquier, David; De La Fuente, Cristina; Le Tinier, Florence; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Lartigau, Eric; Moyal, Dominique; Seité, Sophie; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2018-01-01

    As many as 50% of patients with cancer develop acute skin reactions to some degree with radiotherapy. Proactive skin care is often recommended to minimise these skin reactions and maintain the integrity of the epidermal barrier; nevertheless, no consensual guidelines are systematically used. This multicentre, observational, prospective study evaluated the tolerability and benefit of supportive and barrier protective skin care products in preventing radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in 253 women initiating radiotherapy (exclusive or adjuvant) for breast cancer. Patients received a kit of 5 commercially available skin care products before the first radiotherapy treatment. The following variables were assessed: cutaneous adverse events, investigator-assessed skin reactions (oedema, erythema, dryness, desquamation) before and after radiotherapy course, investigator, and patient opinion on products benefit. Results were analysed by frequency of product use (heavy versus low). Average age was 60 years (range: 34-85). Over 92% of patients reported good to excellent tolerance on irradiated skin for each product. During the 6-week radiotherapy period, we observed that heavy product users had less skin reactions than the low users, particularly within 10 days of radiotherapy initiation (8% versus 18%; p  = .031). Positive physician's opinion on product use was more frequent for high (66.6%) versus low (32%) users. Patient-assessed patient benefit index was generally >1, indicating relevant treatment benefit, with a tendency for better benefit in high versus low users. These results support recommendations to use skin care products to minimise the impact of secondary cutaneous reactions with radiotherapy cancer treatment.

  10. Interest of Supportive and Barrier Protective Skin Care Products in the Daily Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Berger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As many as 50% of patients with cancer develop acute skin reactions to some degree with radiotherapy. Proactive skin care is often recommended to minimise these skin reactions and maintain the integrity of the epidermal barrier; nevertheless, no consensual guidelines are systematically used. This multicentre, observational, prospective study evaluated the tolerability and benefit of supportive and barrier protective skin care products in preventing radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in 253 women initiating radiotherapy (exclusive or adjuvant for breast cancer. Methods: Patients received a kit of 5 commercially available skin care products before the first radiotherapy treatment. The following variables were assessed: cutaneous adverse events, investigator-assessed skin reactions (oedema, erythema, dryness, desquamation before and after radiotherapy course, investigator, and patient opinion on products benefit. Results were analysed by frequency of product use (heavy versus low. Results: Average age was 60 years (range: 34-85. Over 92% of patients reported good to excellent tolerance on irradiated skin for each product. During the 6-week radiotherapy period, we observed that heavy product users had less skin reactions than the low users, particularly within 10 days of radiotherapy initiation (8% versus 18%; p  = .031. Positive physician’s opinion on product use was more frequent for high (66.6% versus low (32% users. Patient-assessed patient benefit index was generally >1, indicating relevant treatment benefit, with a tendency for better benefit in high versus low users. Conclusions: These results support recommendations to use skin care products to minimise the impact of secondary cutaneous reactions with radiotherapy cancer treatment.

  11. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  12. Neutrons production of very low energy by filtration through graphite and measurement of total cross sections; Production de neutrons de tres basse energie par filtration a travers du graphite et mesure de sections efficaces totales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaud, A; Beauge, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In this report, we done on the reactor of Chatillon analogous experiences to those of Fermi in Argonne. The temperature of the neutrons filtered ba a more or less thickness of graphite is measured by the method of absorption. This method permits the production and the study of a very low energy neutron beam. (M.B.) [French] Dans ce rapport, nous avons repris sur la pile de Chatillon des experiences analogues a celles de FERMI a Argonne. La temperature des neutrons filtree par une epaisseur plus ou moins grande de graphite est mesuree par la methode d'absorption. Cette methode permettant la production et l'etude d'un faisceau de neutron de tres basse energie. (M.B.)

  13. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  14. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  15. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  16. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  17. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  18. A General Approach to the Basiliolide/Transtaganolide Natural Products: Total Syntheses of Basiliolide B, epi-8-Basiliolide B, Transtaganolide C, and Transtaganolide D

    KAUST Repository

    Nelson, Hosea M.

    2011-03-25

    (Figure Presented) In a flash: The total synthesis of transtaganolide and basiliolide natural products is achieved in three steps from achiral, monocyclic esters (see scheme). Featured in the syntheses are an Ireland-Claisen/Diels- Alder cascade and a novel methoxyacetylide coupling/cyclization sequence. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  20. Differential and total M-shell X-ray production cross-sections of some selected elements between Au and U at 5.96 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Yueksel

    2007-01-01

    Differential M-shell X-ray production (MXRP) cross-sections for selected heavy elements between Au and U have been measured at 5.59 keV incident photon energy, respectively at seven angles varying from 120 o to 150 o a Si(Li) detector. The differential M-shell X-ray production cross-sections have been derived, using M-shell fluorescence yields, experimental total M X-ray production cross-sections and theoretical M-shell photoionization cross-sections. The differential M-shell X-ray production cross-sections have been compared with the semi-empirical fits. The measured differential M X-ray production cross-sections have been found within experimental error. Differential M X-ray production cross-section can be fitted to the Σ n a n Z n (n = 2) as a function of cos θ. Total M X-ray production cross-sections have been derived using the fitted values

  1. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily records. 19.829 Section 19.829 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process...

  2. Total Arsenic Determination and Speciation in Infant Food Products by Ion Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health risk associated with dietary arsenic intake may be different for infants and adults. Seafood is the main contributor to arsenic intake for adults while terrestrial-based food is the primary source for infants. Processed infant food products such as rice-based cereals, mi...

  3. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-muthu, Sabita S.; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat.
    Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of

  4. Divergent solid-phase synthesis of natural product-inspired bipartite cyclodepsipeptides : total synthesis of seragamide A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arndt, H.-D.; Rizzo, S.; Nöcker, Chr.; Wackchaure, V.N.; Milroy, L.G.; Bieker, V.; Calderon, A.; Tran, T.T.N.; Brand, S.; Dehmelt, L.; Waldmann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic natural products (NPs) and analogues thereof often show high affinity, selectivity, and metabolic stability, and methods for the synthesis of NP-like macrocycle collections are of major current interest. We report an efficient solid-phase/cyclorelease method for the synthesis of a

  5. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  6. Navigating the Path of Totality - Results and Lessons Learned from the 2017 Eclipse Broadcast, Webcast, Mobile App and Online Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, R.; Higdon, R.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 total solar eclipse provided unique opportunity to provide public outreach about astronomy, heliophysics, and scientific discovery. The Navigating the Path of Totality project was designed to produce eclipse related educational resources including live video feeds and distribute them to museums, schools, libraries and the public through online and broadcast media. Using special telescope video camera setups, five feeds were produced including a live one hour English program and in parallel a live one hour Spanish program from Casper, WY with a cutaway to Madras, OR, complete (C1-C4) telescope only feeds from both Madras, OR and Casper, Wy, and a complete (C1-C4) telescope only feed with live musical sonification and accompaniment by the Kronos Quartet. Images from the live feeds were made available on the NASA Website, NASA TV, Exploratorium website, Exploratorium Solar Eclipse mobile app, local television and in museums, libraries and schools worldwide. Associated educational video material including images from the 2016 total eclipse from Micronesia was produced and disseminated. In this talk we will discuss the evaluation results including an examination of the effectiveness of the digital strategy of many mobile channels and mobile apps using different analytics including IBM Watson social media analytics services. We will also present the lessons learned from the project.

  7. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    , particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer...... of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have been reported.......BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta...

  8. Task 0715: Army Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    NDCEE/CTC The NDCEE is operated by: Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army for Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment Technology Transition...stockpiles of soils and sands; – Air emissions with deposition potential; – Construction projects; – Existence of septic systems/sewage holding tanks

  9. Clean Water Act Approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information from Approved and Established TMDL Documents as well as TMDLs that have been Withdrawn. This includes the pollutants identified in the TMDL Document, the...

  10. Effect of pH buffering capacity and sources of dietary sulfur on rumen fermentation, sulfide production, methane production, sulfate reducing bacteria, and total Archaea in in vitro rumen cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three types of dietary sulfur on in vitro fermentation characteristics, sulfide production, methane production, and microbial populations at two different buffer capacities were examined using in vitro rumen cultures. Addition of dry distilled grain with soluble (DDGS) generally decreased total gas production, degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of total volatile fatty acids, while increasing ammonia concentration. High buffering capacity alleviated these adverse effects on fermentation. Increased sulfur content resulted in decreased methane emission, but total Archaea population was not changed significantly. The population of sulfate reducing bacteria was increased in a sulfur type-dependent manner. These results suggest that types of dietary sulfur and buffering capacity can affect rumen fermentation and sulfide production. Diet buffering capacity, and probably alkalinity, may be increased to alleviate some of the adverse effects associated with feeding DDGS at high levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinação da fibra alimentar insolúvel, solúvel e total de produtos derivados do milho Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber of corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kolinski Callegaro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho é de grande importância na agricultura brasileira, com ampla distribuição do norte ao sul do país. O milho pode ser uma fonte significativa de fibra, dependendo da forma como é utilizado na alimentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel (FAI, solúvel (FAS e total (FAT de produtos derivados do milho. Determinou-se também os teores de umidade, resíduo mineral fixo, extrato etéreo e proteína bruta das amostras analisadas. Trabalhou-se com amostras de canjica, pipoca, farinha fina, farinha média e farinha pré-cozida. O método utilizado na determinação de fibra foi o de Prosky et al. Entre os produtos analisados observou-se que a pipoca apresentou o maior teor de FAT (média de 12,15% e a canjica o menor (média de 2,39 %. Em relação às farinhas, a fina e a média apresentaram teores de fibra semelhantes, enquanto as amostras de farinha pré-cozida apresentaram um teor um pouco mais baixo. Em todos os produtos analisados, a FAI correspondeu a mais de 90% da fibra total. Quanto aos demais constituintes avaliados, encontrou-se, neste trabalho, valores de acordo com os já disponíveis na literatura.Corn crop is of great importance to Brazilian agriculture, ranging from the north to the south of the country. Corn can be an important source of fiber, depending on the way it is used as food. The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of insoluble (IDF, soluble (SDF, and total (TDF dietary fiber of corn-derived products. The content of moisture, ash, lipids, and crude protein were also determined in the samples. We have worked with "canjica", popcorn, and meal (finely ground, medium ground, and pre-cooked. The PROSKY'S enzymic-gravimetric method was used to determine dietary fiber. Among the products analyzed, we have observed that the popcorn showed the greatest content of TDF (12.15%, and the "canjica" showed the smallest one (2.39%. Thin and medium corn meals

  12. Effects of Wine by-Products on Growth Performance, Complete Blood Count and Total Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Pascariu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP, grape seed (GS and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS and complete blood count (CBC of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500. A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rate in 5 g/kg GS group, from the first week of the chicks’ life throughout their growth, the average body weight of the chicks being significantly higher (p0.05 at 40 days of age. As a conclusion, the amount of 5 g/kg seeds, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg pomace, can be added to the diet of the broilers, the dose of 5 g/kg seeds in the diet offering advantages in growing rate and feed valorization in weight gain.

  13. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  14. Total primary production and the balance between benthic and pelagic plants in different nutrient regimes in a shallow estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markager, Svend Stiig; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Dalsgaard, Tage

    on a large monitoring data set in combination with historical information we have quantified and compared the benthic and the pelagic primary production along nutrient gradients in space and time for the shallow estuary Limfjorden, Denmark. As expected, increases in nutrient load stimulated the pelagic...... was again reduced, and the ecosystem entered a phase of oligotrophication, pelagic GPP declined gradually while benthic GPP did not increase correspondingly leading to an decline in overall GPP. Instead the ecosystem showed a resistance or time lag against return to a clear water state with benthic...

  15. Analysis of total productive maintenance (TPM) implementation using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and six big losses: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martomo, Zenithia Intan; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo

    2018-02-01

    In improving the productivity of the machine, the management of the decision or maintenance policy must be appropriate. In Spinning II unit at PT Apac Inti Corpora, there are 124 ring frame machines that often have breakdown and cause a high downtime so that the production target is not achieved, so this research was conducted on the ring frame machine. This study aims to measure the value of equipment effectiveness, find the root cause of the problem and provide suggestions for improvement. This research begins with measuring the achievement of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) value, then identifying the six big losses that occur. The results show that the average value of OEE in the ring frame machine is 79.96%, the effectiveness value is quite low because the standard of OEE value for world class company ideally is 85%. The biggest factor that influences the low value of OEE is performance rate with percentage factor six big losses at reduced speed losses of 17.303% of all time loss. Proposed improvement actions are the application of autonomous maintenance, providing training for operators and maintenance technicians and supervising operators in the workplace.

  16. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pdetermined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of

  17. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  18. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  19. Daily, seasonal, and latitudinal variations in solar ultraviolet A and B radiation in relation to vitamin D production and risk for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalavicius, Mantas; Moan, Johan; Dahlback, Arne; Juzeniene, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation varies with latitude, time of day, and season. Both spectral UV composition and ambient UV dose lead to different health outcomes at different latitudes. Finding the optimal time for sun exposure, whereby the positive effects of UV exposure (vitamin D) are facilitated and the negative effects (skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression) avoided are the most important consideration in modern skin cancer prevention programs. This paper focuses on the latitude dependency of UVB, UVA, vitamin D production, and skin cancer risk in Caucasians. Biologically effective UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) doses were calculated using radiative transfer models with appropriate climatologic data for selected locations. Incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) were retrieved from cancer registries and published articles. Annual doses of UVA radiation decrease much less with increasing latitude than annual doses of UVB. Incidences of CM also decrease less steeply with increasing latitude than incidences of SCC. As SCC is caused mainly by UVB, these observations support the assumption that UVA plays an important role in the development of CM. The variations in UVA (relevant to CM) and UVB (relevant to vitamin D production) over 1 day differ: the UVB : UVA ratio is maximal at noon. The best way to obtain a given dose of vitamin D with minimal carcinogenic risk is through a non-burning exposure in the middle of the day, rather than in the afternoon or morning. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in studies of the T cell dependence of autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.; Logue, G.L.; Schiffman, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on T cell-dependent and -independent humoral immune responses was studied in patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The serum levels of several autoantibodies and of antibodies to diphtheria (DT) and tetanus (TT) toxoids and to pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS; 12 antigenic types) were studied before and after TLI. In addition, the patients were given a booster injection of DT and TT and a single injection of pneumococcal vaccine after radiotherapy. Antibody levels to DT and TT decreased about twofold after TLI and did not rise significantly after a booster injection. However, there was no reduction in antibody levels to PPS after TLI, and a significant rise in titers was observed after a single vaccination. The serum levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), and granulocyte associated IgG rose slightly after TLI. Thus, the autoantibodies and antibodies to polysaccharides appear to be relatively independent of helper T cell function, which is markedly reduced after TLI. On the other hand, antibodies to protein antigens such as DT and TT appear to be more closely dependent upon T helper function in man, as has been reported in rodents. The findings suggest that T cell-independent autoantibody responses alone do not maintain the joint disease activity in RA, because improvement in joint disease after TLI has been reported

  2. Total Productive Maintenance And Role Of Interpretive Structural Modeling And Structural Equation Modeling In Analyzing Barriers In Its Implementation A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth S. Poduval

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance TPM. The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling ISM and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. The paper moves on to introduction to Structural Equation Modeling SEM and its role in validating ISM in analyzing barriers in implementation of TPM. The paper concludes with a gap analysis from the current literature research that can be carried out and expected outcomes from the proposed research.

  3. VENDOR SELECTION AND DETERMINING PROCUREMENT QUOTAS IN CONDITIONS WHEN DISCOUNTS ARE OFFERED ON THE TOTAL VALUE OF THE CONTRACTED PROCUREMENT OF MANY DIFFERENT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Babic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vendor selection is a very significant business problem for ensuring the competitiveness on the market. That is why companies pay great attention to this problem. To solve the vendor selection problems can be applied to a number of quantitative methods. Depending on the goals of the company the vendor selection can be a mono-criterion or multi-criterion programming problem. This paper deals with the problem of vendor selection and determining procurement quotas from selected vendors under conditions where vendors offer discounts to the total order value within a specified period where the buyer buys more products from the vendors. The total value of procurement costs in a given period is taken as an optimization criterion. In this paper the specific flour purchase problem is solved for a company that manufactures bakery products

  4. VENDOR SELECTION AND DETERMINING PROCUREMENT QUOTAS IN CONDITIONS WHEN DISCOUNTS ARE OFFERED ON THE TOTAL VALUE OF THE CONTRACTED PROCUREMENT OF MANY DIFFERENT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Babić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vendor selection is a very significant business problem for ensuring the competitiveness on the market. That is why companies pay great attention to this problem. To solve the vendor selection problems can be applied to a number of quantitative methods. Depending on the goals of the company the vendor selection can be a mono-criterion or multi-criterion programming problem. This paper deals with the problem of vendor selection and determining procurement quotas from selected vendors under conditions where vendors offer discounts to the total order value within a specified period where the buyer buys more products from the vendors. The total value of procurement costs in a given period is taken as an optimization criterion. In this paper the specific flour purchase problem is solved for a company that manufactures bakery products.

  5. Assessing the relationship between total factor productivity and foreign direct investment in an economy with a skills shortage: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Phume, Maphelane

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between total factor productivity (TFP) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with skills shortage. South Africa is used as a case study. Literature is inconclusive on how FDI should affect TFP. This paper shows that it is important to account for the interactivity between FDI and human capital when assessing the effects of FDI on TFP. Moreover, the empirical results show that, contrary to countries with abundance of skills, in countries with sk...

  6. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Feldman, G.J.; Fischer, G.E.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Kadyk, J.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Zipse, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The total cross section for hadron production by e + e - annihilation has been measured at center-of-mass energies between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV. Aside from the very narrow resonances psi (3105) and psi (3695), the cross section varies between 32 and 17 nb over this region with structure in the vicinity of 4.1 GeV

  7. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.C.; Sussman, N.B.; Enterline, P.E.; Morgan, W.K.; Belk, H.D.; Dinman, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified B readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05)

  8. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Sussman, N B; Enterline, P E; Morgan, W K; Belk, H D; Dinman, B D

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified "B" readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05).

  9. Evaluation of Toxic and Essential Metals in Some Selected Chewing Food Products and their Daily Intake by the Population of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Bhutto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on different brands of chewing food products which containing some toxic metals (TMs and essential metals and these samples were analyzed to determine the levels of some toxic metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr and Mn and essential metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn. The samples of gutka (100, sweet supari (63, sweet paan (16 and paan masala (21 were randomly collected from different shops of Karachi, Pakistan. The validity of conventional wet acid digestion method (CAD was assessed by analyzing two certified reference materials (CRM Virgina tobacco leaf (CTA-VTL-2 and Bovine liver (1577b and standard addition recovery test. The limit of detections (LODs, n=10 of the method were found to be 0.144, 14.4, 8.89, 2.76, 4.06, 15.3 and 2.99, 22.9, 9.97, 4.54, 1.89, 1.76 µg L-1 for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The CAD method was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of toxic and essential metals. 

  10. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  11. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minioti, K. S.; Georgiou, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (Tac) of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2'-amino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (Abets), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and F olin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg{sup -}1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg{sup -}1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg{sup -}1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg{sup -}1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89) and the ABTS (r = 0.69) assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81). However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil. (Author) 14 refs.

  12. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  13. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. PMID:22394592

  14. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total and inclusive hadron production by e+e- annihilation at √S = 5.2, 6.5 and 29.0 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements are presented of R, the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to the cross section for mu pair production, and of the inclusive charged particle momentum distribution so sigma/dx for e + e - annihilation at center of mass energies of 5.2, 6.5, and 29.0 GeV. The ratio R is found to be approximately 3.9, consistent with quark-parton model expectations, at each of the three energies with an estimated systematic uncertainty of 6%. The inclusive cross sections show significant deviation from the scaling behavior predicted by the quark-parton model

  17. Rapid formation of complexity in the total synthesis of natural products enabled by oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Corinna S; Carreira, Erick M

    2009-11-01

    This critical review showcases examples of rapid formation of complexity in total syntheses starting from 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives. An overview of methods allowing synthetic access to these building blocks is provided and their application in recently developed synthetic transformations to structurally complex systems is illustrated. In addition, the facile access to a novel oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene derived building block is presented which significantly enlarges the possibilities of previously known chemical transformations and is highlighted in the enantioselective route to the core of the banyaside and suomilide natural products (107 references).

  18. Updated predictions for the total production cross sections of top and of heavier quark pairs at the Tevatron and at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    We present updated predictions for the total production cross section of top-quark pairs at the Tevatron and at the LHC, and, at the LHC, of heavy-quark pairs with mass in the range 0.5-2 TeV. For t\\bar{t} production at the LHC we also present results at \\sqrt{S}= 10 TeV, in view of the expected accelerator conditions during the forthcoming 2008 run. Our results are accurate at the level of next-to-leading order in alpha_s, and of next-to-leading threshold logarithms (NLO+NLL). We adopt the most recent parametrizations of parton distribution functions, and compute the corresponding uncertainties. We study the dependence of the results on the top mass, and we assess the impact of missing higher-order corrections by independent variations of factorisation and renormalisation scales.

  19. Studies and developments for the analysis of products of nuclear reprocessing plants with the help of the X-ray fluorescence analysis on totally reflecting sample holders (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, H.; Eggers, I.; Gibau, F.; Haarich, M.; Hastenteufel, S.; Haurand, M.; Knoechel, A.; Salow, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies with inactive and active simulates of products of nuclear reprocessing plants show the suitability of the X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Totally Reflecting Sample Holders (TXRF), to detect the available elements simultaneously by direct measurements of specially prepared thin samples. High dilution enables in the most cases, to avoid working in hot cells and to carry out the analysis in glove boxes. The analysis of uranium products and great amounts of matrix elements containing solutions like LAW and MAW demands the separation of the matrix elements before TXRF measurement. Procedures for this task have been developed. The potential of the new analytical procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of highly diluted high active wastes. (orig.) With 65 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  20. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  1. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  3. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  4. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg-1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg-1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg-1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg-1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89 and the ABTS (r = 0.69 assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81. However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil.El objetivo de este estudio es el mapeo de la actividad antioxidante total (TAC de 50 aceites de oliva Griego de los años 2005-2006 de acuerdo a su región y cultivar, y se comparan los ensayos del ácido 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-etilbenzo-tiazolina- 6-sulfónico (ABTS, del 2,2-difenil-1-picrlhidrazil radical (DPPH y de Folin-Ciocalteu. La capacidad antioxidante determinada en la fracción hidrofílica varió entre 5.42-22.5 mM de ácido gálico Kg-1 de aceite para el método ABTS y 1.29- 9.95 mM Kg-1 de aceite para el método de DPPH mientras que la TAC del aceite de oliva completo varió entre 77-177 m

  5. Energy loss, range and fluence distributions, total reaction and projectile fragment production cross sections for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L.; Kanai, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computer code for calculations of energy loss (dE/dx) and range distributions for heavy ions in any media. The results from our calculations are in very good agreement with previous calculations. We have developed semiempirical total reaction cross section formulae for proton-nucleus (with Z p ≤26) and nucleus-nucleus (with Z p and Z t ≤26) reactions. These formulae apply for incident energies above 15 MeV and 100 MeV/nucleon respectively. From the total reaction cross sections, we can calculate the mean free paths and the fluence distributions of protons and heavy ions in any media. We have compared all the calculated reaction cross sections and the mean free paths with experimental data, and the agreement is good. We have also constructed a procedure for calculating projectile fragment production cross sections, by scaling semiempirical proton-nucleus partial cross section systematics. The scaling is performed using a scaling parameter deduced from our reaction cross sections formulae, and additional enhancements factors. All products with atomic number ranging from that of the projectile (Z p ) down to Z=2 can be calculated. The agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is better than earlier published results. (author)

  6. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  7. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  8. Effects of ionophores and antibiotics on in vitro hydrogen sulfide production, dry matter disappearance, and total gas production in cultures with a steam-flaked corn-based substrate with or without added sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; May, M L; Hales, K E; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2009-05-01

    Effects of 3 ionophores and 2 antibiotics on in vitro H(2)S production, IVDMD, total gas production, and VFA profile with or without added S were examined. In Exp. 1, ruminal fluid from 2 ruminally cannulated steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet (75% concentrate) without ionophore and antibiotics for 28 d before collection was used to inoculate in vitro cultures. Treatments were control (no ionophore or antibiotic), 3 ionophores (lasalocid sodium and monensin sodium at 5 mg/L or laidlomycin propionate at 1.65 mg/L), and 2 antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride at 5 mg/L and tylosin tartarate at 1.25 mg/L). Cultures also had 0 or 1.75 mg of S/L (from sodium sulfate). No S x ionophore-antibiotic treatment interactions were noted (P > 0.53) for IVDMD, total gas production, and H(2)S production. Hydrogen sulfide (mumol/g of fermentable DM) was increased (P production tended (P = 0.09) to be increased with additional S; however, IVDMD was not affected by added S (P = 0.90). Production of H(2)S was not affected by ionophores or antibiotics (P > 0.18). On average, IVDMD (P = 0.05) was greater for ionophores than for antibiotics, whereas total gas production was less for ionophores than for control (P antibiotics (P 0.20) in acetate, propionate, or acetate:propionate between ionophores and control (S x treatment interaction, P = 0.03). In Exp. 2, the effects of ionophore-antibiotic combinations with added S were examined using the same procedures as in Exp. 1. Treatments were control, monensin plus tylosin (MT), and lasalocid plus chlortetracycline (LCTC), with concentrations of the ionophores and antibiotics as in Exp. 1. No differences were observed among treatments for H(2)S production (P > 0.55). Treatments MT and LCTC tended (P = 0.06) to increase IVDMD and decreased (P = 0.02) gas production vs. control. Proportion of acetate (P = 0.01) and acetate:propionate (P antibiotics we evaluated did not affect production of H(2)S gas in an in vitro rumen culture

  9. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  10. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  11. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  12. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  13. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  14. The influence of total solids content and initial pH on batch biohydrogen production by solid substrate fermentation of agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ortega-Clemente, L Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Salazar-Montoya, J Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Hydrogen is a valuable clean energy source, and its production by biological processes is attractive and environmentally sound and friendly. In México 5 million tons/yr of agroindustrial wastes are generated; these residues are rich in fermentable organic matter that can be used for hydrogen production. On the other hand, batch, intermittently vented, solid substrate fermentation of organic waste has attracted interest in the last 10 years. Thus the objective of our work was to determine the effect of initial total solids content and initial pH on H2 production in batch fermentation of a substrate that consisted of a mixture of sugarcane bagasse, pineapple peelings, and waste activated sludge. The experiment was a response surface based on 2(2) factorial with central and axial points with initial TS (15-35%) and initial pH (6.5-7.5) as factors. Fermentation was carried out at 35 °C, with intermittent venting of minireactors and periodic flushing with inert N2 gas. Up to 5 cycles of H2 production were observed; the best treatment in our work showed cumulative H2 productions (ca. 3 mmol H2/gds) with 18% and 6.65 initial TS and pH, respectively. There was a significant effect of TS on production of hydrogen, the latter decreased with initial TS increase from 18% onwards. Cumulative H2 productions achieved in this work were higher than those reported for organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and mixtures of OFMSW and fruit peels waste from fruit juice industry, using the same process. Specific energetic potential due to H2 in our work was attractive and fell in the high side of the range of reported results in the open literature. Batch dark fermentation of agrowastes as practiced in our work could be useful for future biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could influence the management of this type of agricultural wastes in México and other countries and regions as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  16. GPM, DPR Level 3 DPR Daily V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The precipitation estimates in the 3DPRD product are a subset of those in the full daily 3DPR product; the retrieval estimates are the same. Since this is a subset,...

  17. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  18. GPM, DPR Level 3 DPR Descending Daily V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level 3 DPR products present the user with summary information over daily and monthly time periods. These gridded products are in a convenient gridded form and...

  19. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  20. Daily storage management of hydroelectric facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is

  1. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perubahan Struktur Ekonomi, Dekomposisi Sumber Pertumbuhan Output, dan Pertumbuhan Total Factor Productivity (TFP: Analisis Lanjutan Tabel Input-Output Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fajri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth is the target of economic development in each area. Economic development should be prioritized in sectors that can be a major driver of the economy so that the economy can grow faster. Economic growth can be seen from the aggregate demand side, namely consumption, investment, government spending, exports and imports, and the aggregate supply side namely labor growth, capital growth and the growth of TFP (Total Factor Productivity. This study uses South Kalimantan’s Input-Output Tables of 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results showed that although the structure of the value-added of the mining sector remains the main economic pillar, but this sector has low linkages with other sectors. The prime mover and driving economic growth sector are manufacturing sector i.e chemical industry, food, beverages and tobacco industry, rubber and plastics industry, paper, printing and publishing industry and industry of metal, machinery, transport equipment and other manufacturing industries. Based Multiplier Product Matrix, manufacturing industry suggest a leading role in the economy so that it can be said that the province of South Kalimantan are heading toward a change in the economic structure. Decomposition of sources of growth based on the Chenery’s model (1960 showed that the main source of economic growth in South Kalimantan is exports by 67 percent in the period 2000-2005 and 73.72 percent in the period 2005-2010, especially the export of coal. Decomposition of productivity growth made by Namura and Kuroda’s model (2004 and suggests that TFP growth and capital have a strong linear relationship and significant Output growth, while labor productivity have no significant correlation with Output growth. Finally, the wealth of the abundant natural resources, industry-oriented economic growth and sustainable development in South Kalimantan Province is agriculture-based industries and mining-based industries with the main strategy is to

  3. The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of total quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor); Still, William T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of Total Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.

  4. Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections by 400-700 keV proton impact for elements with 34≤Z≤53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Ledesma, R.; Lucio, O.G. de

    2001-01-01

    Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections induced by protons with energies between 400 and 700 keV were measured for elements with atomic number Z between 34 and 53. The ECPSSR theory describes appropriately the results. This model modifies the plane wave born approximation by considering projectile energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection of the incoming ion (C), polarization and change in electron binding energies through a perturbed stationary states method (PSS) and relativistic values of target electron mass (R). A comparison is given with previously published data for proton energies below 1 MeV and 26 ≤ Z ≤ 53, based on a scaling obtained from a reduced velocity parameter ξ L R . The results show that the scaling for these atomic numbers and energy ranges is adequate and a semi-empirical expression to calculate those cross sections is proposed

  5. Combining Radar and Daily Precipitation Data to Estimate Meaningful Sub-daily Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, G. G. S.; Bardossy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short duration extreme rainfalls are important for design. The purpose of this presentation is not to improve the day by day estimation of precipitation, but to obtain reasonable statistics for the subdaily extremes at gauge locations. We are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauge locations. We do not employ the common procedure of using time series of control station to determine the missing data values in a target. We are interested in individual rare events, not sequences. The idea is to use radar to disaggregate daily totals to sub-daily amounts. In South Arica, an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at Bethlehem from 1998 to 2003, whose scan at 1.5 km above ground [CAPPI] overlapped a dense (10 km spacing) set of 45 pluviometers recording in the same 6-year period. Using this valuable set of data, we are only interested in rare extremes, therefore small to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected, leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprised about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals in subdaily intervals down to 15 minutes in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall at each of 37 selected radar pixels [1 km square in plan] which contained one of the 45 pluviometers not masked out by the radar foot-print. The pluviometer data were aggregated to daily totals, to act as if they were daily read gauges; their only other task was to help in the cross-validation exercise. The extrema were obtained as quantiles by ordering the 12 daily maxima of each interval per year. The unusual and novel goal was not to obtain the reproduction of the precipitation matching in space and time, but to obtain frequency distributions of the gauge and radar extremes, by matching their ranks, which we found to be stable and meaningful in cross-validation tests. We provide and

  6. Effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on resting energy production rate and total body substrate utilization in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-12-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) beta-blockers reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve myocardial efficiency by shifting myocardial substrate utilization from increased free fatty acid oxidation to increased glucose oxidation. The effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on total body resting energy production rate (EPR) and substrate utilization is not known. Twenty-six noncachectic patients with moderately severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III, left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40) were treated with carvedilol (37.5 +/- 13.5 mg/12 h) or bisoprolol (5.4 +/- 3.0 mg/d) for 6 months. Indirect calorimetry was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. Resting EPR was decreased in carvedilol (5.021 +/- 0.803 to 4.552 +/- 0.615 kJ/min, P <.001) and bisoprolol group (5.230 +/- 0.828 to 4.978 +/- 0.640 kJ/min, P <.05; nonsignificant difference between groups). Lipid oxidation rate decreased in carvedilol and remained unchanged in bisoprolol group (2.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 mg m(2)/kg min versus 2.7 +/- 1.1 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05). Glucose oxidation rate was increased only in carvedilol (2.6 +/- 1.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.6 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05), but did not change in bisoprolol group. Both selective and nonselective beta-blockers reduce total body resting EPR in noncachectic CHF patients. Carvedilol compared to bisoprolol shifts total body substrate utilization from lipid to glucose oxidation.

  7. Optimising multi-product multi-chance-constraint inventory control system with stochastic period lengths and total discount under fuzzy purchasing price and holding costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador

    2010-10-01

    While the usual assumptions in multi-periodic inventory control problems are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review) or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review), in this article, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming that the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space and service level constraints, total discount are considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid meta-heuristic intelligent algorithm is proposed. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to compare its performance with one of the existing algorithms in real world inventory control problems.

  8. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  9. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method for the analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in cheese and milk products: Development and validation using the total error approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Kahina; Féret, Aurélie; Pirotais, Yvette; Maris, Pierre; Abjean, Jean-Pierre; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique

    2017-09-29

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are both cationic surfactants and biocidal substances widely used as disinfectants in the food industry. A sensitive and reliable method for the analysis of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) and dialkyldimethylammonium chlorides (DDACs) has been developed that enables the simultaneous quantitative determination of ten quaternary ammonium residues in dairy products below the provisional maximum residue level (MRL), set at 0.1mgkg -1 . To the best of our knowledge, this method could be the one applicable to milk and to three major processed milk products selected, namely processed or hard pressed cheeses, and whole milk powder. The method comprises solvent extraction using a mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, without any further clean-up. Analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS) operating in positive mode. A C18 analytical column was used for chromatographic separation, with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water both containing 0.3% formic acid; and methanol in the gradient mode. Five deuterated internal standards were added to obtain the most accurate quantification. Extraction recoveries were satisfactory and no matrix effects were observed. The method was validated using the total error approach in accordance with the NF V03-110 standard in order to characterize the trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision and analytical limits within the range of 5-150μgkg -1 for all matrices. These performance criteria, calculated by e.noval ® 3.0 software, were satisfactory and in full accordance with the proposed provisional MRL and with the recommendations in the European Union SANTE/11945/2015 regulatory guidelines. The limit of detection (LOD) was low (ammoniums in foodstuffs from dairy industries at residue levels, and could be used for biocide residues monitoring plans and to measure the exposition consumer to biocides products

  10. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  11. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with 99m Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  12. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  14. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on

  15. Forcasting Philippine daily stock exchange index | Urrutia | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to produce a model that can estimate a three-year forecast of the Philippine Daily Stock Exchange Index. Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model is applied ona total of 4,927 daily data observations from 1995 to 2014. By then, actual and predicted values was ...

  16. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social...

  17. Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, E.; Safari, A.; Mostafaie, A.; Schumacher, M.; Delavar, M.; Awange, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and Iran's six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs) over 2003-2013 is assessed in this study. Our investigation is performed based on the TWF that are estimated as temporal derivatives of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) products and those from the reanalysis products of ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land. An inversion approach is applied to consistently estimate the spatio-temporal changes of soil moisture and groundwater storage compartments of the seven basins during the study period from GRACE TWS, altimetry, and land surface model products. The influence of TWF trends on separated water storage compartments is then explored. Our results, estimated as basin averages, indicate negative trends in the maximums of TWF peaks that reach up to -5.2 and -2.6 (mm/month/year) over 2003-2013, respectively, for the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins, which are most likely due to the reported meteorological drought. Maximum amplitudes of the soil moisture compartment exhibit negative trends of -11.1, -6.6, -6.1, -4.8, -4.7, -3.8, and -1.2 (mm/year) for Urmia, Tigris-Euphrates, Khazar, Persian, Markazi, Sarakhs, and Hamun basins, respectively. Strong groundwater storage decrease is found, respectively, within the Khazar -8.6 (mm/year) and Sarakhs -7.0 (mm/year) basins. The magnitude of water storage decline in the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins is found to be bigger than the decrease in the monthly accumulated TWF indicating a contribution of human water use, as well as surface and groundwater flow to the storage decline over the study area.

  18. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in oral lichen planus by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanni; Zhang, Han; Du, Guanhuan; Wang, Yufeng; Cao, Tianyi; Luo, Qingqiong; Chen, Junjun; Chen, Fuxiang; Tang, Guoyao

    2016-07-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a bioactive compound extracted from paeony roots and has been widely used to ameliorate inflammation in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TGP on oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory oral condition characterized by T-cell infiltration and abnormal epithelial keratinization cycle remains unclear. In this study, we found that TLR4 was highly expressed and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway was obviously observed in the OLP tissues. Moreover, there was significant higher mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in OLP keratinocytes than normal oral epithelial keratinocytes. With the help of the cell culture model by stimulating the keratinocyte HaCaT cells with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we mimicked the local inflammatory environment of OLP. And we further confirmed that TGP could inhibit LPS-induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α in HaCaT cells via a dose-dependent manner. TGP treatment decreased the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 proteins, thus leading to less nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in HaCaT cells. Therefore, our data suggested that TGP may be a new potential candidate for the therapy of OLP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine- Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. P. Koskinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills.

  1. Effects of 20 standard amino acids on the growth, total fatty acids production, and γ-linolenic acid yield in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2014-12-01

    Twenty standard amino acids were examined as single nitrogen source on the growth, total fatty acids production, and yield of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) in Mucor circinelloides. Of the amino acids, tyrosine gave the highest biomass and lipid accumulation and thus resulted in a high GLA yield with respective values of 17.8 g/L, 23 % (w/w, dry cell weight, DCW), and 0.81 g/L, which were 36, 25, and 72 % higher than when the fungus was grown with ammonium tartrate. To find out the potential mechanism underlying the increased lipid accumulation of M. circinelloides when grown on tyrosine, the activity of lipogenic enzymes of the fungus during lipid accumulation phase was measured. The enzyme activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and ATP-citrate lyase were up-regulated, while NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase was down-regulated by tyrosine during the lipid accumulation phase of the fungus which suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the increased lipid biosynthesis by tyrosine in this fungus.

  2. Clean Bleaching Engineering Practice for Bagasse Pulp: Totally Chlorine-Free and Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching Realized with the Same Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research, process design principles, and engineering practice of a bagasse pulp production line that could run both totally chlorine-free (OPQ(PO and elemental chlorine-free (OPD(EOP bleaching sequences are discussed in this paper. Under specified process conditions, the oxygen delignification rate was up to 50% and the brightness of unbleached pulp increased. The (OPQ(PO sequence bleached pulp had a brightness of 83.1% ISO and an intrinsic viscosity of 888 mL/g, and the (OPD(EOP sequence bleached pulp had a brightness of 85.7% ISO and an intrinsic viscosity of 905 mL/g. Pulp quality produced from both bleaching sequences was better than pulp bleached by the chlorination, alkaline extraction, and hypochlorite (CEH sequence. The wastewater was discharged only from the Q or D stage, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD of Q or D stage was about 650 mg/L or 1100 mg/L, respectively. It was easy to alternate between these two bleaching sequences, and the bleached pulp quality from these sequences was stable.

  3. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  4. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  5. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  6. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  7. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  8. The Cumulative Daily Tolerance Levels of Potentially Toxic Excipients Ethanol and Propylene Glycol Are Commonly Exceeded in Neonates and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2018-01-01

    neonates and infants and compare these levels to the tolerance limits found in guidelines published by European Medicines Agency (EMA). As part of the SEEN study, all medicinal products administered to neonates and infants were recorded. All included neonates received ≥2 medicinal products/day and infants...... ≥3 medicinal products/day. Daily excipient levels were calculated based on quantities obtained from manufacturers or databases. Excipient levels were compared to tolerance limits proposed by the EMA. Altogether, 470 neonates and 160 infants were included, recording 4207 prescriptions and 316 products...... exceed tolerance limit of 6 mg/kg/day. Of the total number of prescriptions involving PG-containing medicinal products (n = 174), 70% would alone exceed a maximum tolerance limit of 50 mg/kg/day. Maximal daily exposure to ethanol (1563 mg/kg/day) or PG (954 mg/kg/day) exceeded the tolerance limits...

  9. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123... transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage facility; however, these records may be kept at...

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de subprodutos de frutas in natura (abacaxi, goiaba, mamão, manga e maracujá e do nível (10 e 30% utilizado na dieta de bovinos em substituição parcial à silagem de milho sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade total dos nutrientes, a produção de proteína microbiana (Pmic e o balanço de nitrogênio e sobre a predição das frações digestíveis e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT desses subprodutos. Todos os animais receberam silagem de milho e mistura ureia/sulfato de amônio (9:1 para que as rações se mantivessem isonitrogenadas. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS (kg/dia, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e NDT, além da digestibilidade de PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF foram afetados pela origem do subproduto. Houve efeito para o nível de inclusão dos subprodutos na digestibilidade da PB e EE. Os subprodutos de mamão, manga e abacaxi apresentaram valor energético 23,1; 18,0 e 7,1%, respectivamente, superior ao da silagem de milho. A fonte do subproduto influenciou as excreções urinárias de derivados de purinas totais e purinas absorvidas e a produção de proteína microbiana, além da ingestão (g/dia, a excreção dos compostos nitrogenados nas fezes e na urina (g/dia e o balanço de nitrogênio (g/dia. O nível de inclusão dos subprodutos na dieta afetou as excreções urinárias de derivados de purinas totais e purinas absorvidas e a produção de proteína microbiana. Os subprodutos de abacaxi, mamão e manga têm valor energético superior ao da silagem de milho e podem substituir parcialmente concentrados energéticos em dietas para ruminantes. O subproduto de maracujá tem potencial para substituir parcialmente volumosos em dietas para ruminantes. O subproduto de goiaba apresenta limitações para uso em dietas para ruminantes.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of by-product

  11. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  12. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  13. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  14. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  15. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Near and Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  16. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  17. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  18. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  19. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    ammonia-nitrogen and milk concentration of urea, corresponding to an increase in percentage of protein in milk. Compared with multiparous cows, primiparous cows had greater rumen pH, metabolite concentrations in plasma (glucose, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, total protein, and globulins), milk production, and concentrations of milk components. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage at up to 12% of dietary dry matter can be beneficial during heat stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hard X-ray total scattering study on the structure of Si-dopped ferric oxyhydroxides and products of their transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczara, Gabriela; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Manecki, Maciej; Rzepa, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the results of a detailed structural investigation, using synchrotron-based pair distribution function analyses (PDF) and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), on a series of Si-bearing synthetic analogues of ferrihydrite with a range of Si/Fe ratio relevant to geological environments and on products of their thermal transformation. Hard X-ray total scattering data suitable for PDF analyses have been collected at the PDF-dedicated beamline 11-ID-B and the HR-XRD data at beamline 11-BM of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Ferrihydrite is a poorly crystalline, nano-sized hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide with a nominal/ideal formula Fe5HO8•4H2O. Its chemical composition however, can vary significantly and the atomic structure is yet to be fully understood despite multitude of structural studies undertaken over the past two decades (Michel et al., 2007; Manceau, 2009). One of the most commonly discussed and still unsettled contention points regarding the structural arrangements of ferrihydrite is related to the presence or absence of tetraherdally coordinated iron(III) within its structure. The majority of experimental work carried out to date focused on pure, synthetic ferrihydrite analogues with chemical composition close to ideal/nominal. This approach is clearly a significant oversimplification of natural ferrihydrite which always contains substantial amounts of admixtures, with Si, C, P, As, Ca, S and Al being the most common. One of the most important and the most commonly encountered impurities is Si, in the form of silicate ion that has strong affinity for ferrihydrite. SiO2content in natural ferrihydrites can vary substantially but generally falls with the range of 2.6-31.5 wt% (Cismasu et al., 2011). In certain environments however, such as modern seafloor hydrothermal vents, higher Si/Fe ratios (up to ca. 3) have been reported (Sun et al., 2013). The results of previous reports indicate that silicate