WorldWideScience

Sample records for total core damage

  1. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  2. Analysis of core damage frequency: Surry, Unit 1 internal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucio, R.C.; Julius, J.A.; Cramond, W.R.

    1990-04-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Surry Nuclear Station, Unit 1. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 documents the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. The work performed and described here is an extensive of that published in November 1986 as NUREG/CR-4450, Volume 3. It addresses comments form numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved. The context and detail of this report are directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was performed and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency at Surry was calculated to be 4.05-E-5 per year, with a 95% upper bound of 1.34E-4 and 5% lower bound of 6.8E-6 per year. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all AC power) were the largest contributors to the core damage frequency, accounting for approximately 68% of the total. The next type of dominant contributors were Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs). These sequences account for 15% of core damage frequency. No other type of sequence accounts for more than 10% of core damage frequency. 49 refs., 52 figs., 70 tabs

  3. Analysis and research status of severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Severe Core Damage Research and Analysis Task Force was established in Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, in May, 1982 to make a quantitative analysis on the issues related with the severe core damage accident and also to survey the present status of the research and provide the required research subjects on the severe core damage accident. This report summarizes the results of the works performed by the Task Force during last one and half years. The main subjects investigated are as follows; (1) Discussion on the purposes and necessities of severe core damage accident research, (2) proposal of phenomenological research subjects required in Japan, (3) analysis of severe core damage accidents and identification of risk dominant accident sequences, (4) investigation of significant physical phenomena in severe core damage accidents, and (5) survey of the research status. (author)

  4. Present status and needs of research on severe core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The needs for research on severe core damage accident have been emphasized recently, in particular, since TMI-2 accident. The Severe Core Damage Research Task Force was established by the Divisions of Reactor Safety and Reactor Safety Evaluation to evaluate individual phenomenon, to survey the present status of research and to provide the recommended research subjects on severe accidents. This report describes the accident phenomena involving some analytical results, status of research and recommended research subjects on severe core damage accidents, divided into accident sequence, fuel damage, and molten material behavior, fission product behavior, hydrogen generation and combustion, steam explosion and containment integrity. (author)

  5. TMI-2 core damage: a summary of present knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; Mason, R.E.; Meininger, R.D.; Franz, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive fuel damage (oxidation and fragmentation) has occurred and the top approx. 1.5 m of the center portion of the TMI-2 core has relocated. The fuel fragmentation extends outward to slightly beyond one-half the core radius in the direction examined by the CCTV camera. While the radial extent of core fragmentation in other directions was not directly observed, control and spider drop data and in-core instrument data suggest that the core void is roughly symmetrical, although there are a few indications of severe fuel damage extending to the core periphery. The core material fragmented into a broad range of particle sizes, extending down to a few microns. APSR movement data, the observation of damaged fuel assemblies hanging unsupported from the bottom of the reactor upper plenum structure, and the observation of once-molten stainless steel immediately above the active core indicate high temperatures (up to at least 1720 K) extended to the very top of the core. The relative lack of damage to the underside of the plenum structure implies a sharp temperature demarcation at the core/plenum interface. Filter debris and leadscrew deposit analyses indicate extensive high temperature core materials interaction, melting of the Ag-In-Cd control material, and transport of particulate control material to the plenum and out of the vessel

  6. Containment loading during severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Evrard, J.M.; Cenerino, C.; Berthion, Y.; Carvallo, G.

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the article is to study the influence of the state of the reactor cavity (dry or flooded) and of the corium coolability on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment in the case of an accident sequence involving core melting and subsequent containment basemat erosion, in a 900 MWe PWR unit. Calculations are performed by using the JERICHO thermal hydraulics code

  7. USNRC severe core damage assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J E [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls (USA); Johnston, W V; Kelber, C N [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station has significantly altered the perception of the importance of beyond-design-basis accidents in licensing and safety reviews of light-water reactors in the USA. Increased consideration will be given by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to low-probability, high-risk core melt accidents in future licensing proceedings. To this end, the USNRC is mounting experimental and analytic methods development programs to provide the technical basis for future LWR design and licensing criteria related to class-9 accidents. The scope, objectives, and content of five major new programs addressing safety and licensing issues for beyond-design-basis accidents are reviewed and the rationale and logic for formulation of the programs is discussed.

  8. Station blackout core damage frequency in an advanced nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio de

    2004-01-01

    Even though nuclear reactors are provided with protection systems so that they can be automatically shut down in the event of a station blackout, the consequences of this event can be severe. This is because many safety systems that are needed for removing residual heat from the core and for maintaining containment integrity, in the majority of the nuclear power plants, are AC dependent. In order to minimize core damage frequency, advanced reactor concepts are being developed with safety systems that use natural forces. This work shows an improvement in the safety of a small nuclear power reactor provided by a passive core residual heat removal system. Station blackout core melt frequencies, with and without this system, are both calculated. The results are also compared with available data in the literature. (author)

  9. Severe core damage experiments and analysis for CANDU applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, P.M.; White, A.J.; Snell, V.G.; Bonechi, M.

    2003-01-01

    AECL uses the MAAP CANDU code to calculate the progression of a severe core damage accident in a CANDU reactor to support Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accident Management activities. Experimental data are required to ensure that the core damage models used in MAAP CANDU code are adequate. In SMiRT 16, details of single channel experiments were presented to elucidate the mechanisms of core debris formation. This paper presents the progress made in severe core damage experiments since then using single channels in an inert atmosphere and results of the model development work to support the experiments. The core disassembly experiments are conducted with one-fifth scale channels made of Zr-2.5wt%Nb containing twelve simulated fuel bundles in an inert atmosphere. The reference fuel channel geometry consists of a pressure tube/calandria tube composite, with the pressure tube ballooned into circumferential contact with the calandria tube. Experimental results from single channel tests showed the development of time-dependent sag when the reference channel temperature exceeded 850 degC. The test results also showed significant strain localization in the gap at the bundle junctions along the bottom side of the channel, thus suggesting creep to be the main deformation mechanism for debris formation. An ABAQUS finite element model using two-dimensional beam elements with circular cross-section was developed to explain the experimental findings. A comparison of the calculated central sag (at mid-span), the axial displacement at the free end of the channel and the post-test sag profile showed good agreement with the experiments, when strain localization was included in the model, suggesting such a simple modelling approach would be adequate to explain the test findings. The results of the tests are important not only in the context of the validation of the analytical tools and models adopted by AECL for the severe accident analysis of CANDU reactors but

  10. Modeling of reflood of severely damaged reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrata, A.

    2012-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident and recently Fukushima accident demonstrated that the nuclear safety philosophy has to cover accident sequences involving massive core melt in order to develop reliable mitigation strategies for both, existing and advanced reactors. Although severe accidents are low likelihood and might be caused only by multiple failures, accident management is implemented for controlling their course and mitigating their consequences. In case of severe accident, the fuel rods may be severely damaged and oxidized. Finally, they collapse and form a debris bed on core support plate. Removal of decay heat from a damaged core is a challenging issue because of the difficulty for water to penetrate inside a porous medium. The reflooding (injection of water into core) may be applied only if the availability of safety injection is recovered during accident. If the injection becomes available only in the late phase of accident, water will enter a core configuration that will differ from original rod bundle geometry and will resemble to the severe damaged core observed in TMI-2. The higher temperatures and smaller hydraulic diameters in a porous medium make the coolability more difficult than for intact fuel rods under typical loss of coolant accident conditions. The modeling of this kind of hydraulic and heat transfer is a one of key objectives of this. At IRSN, part of the studies is realized using an European thermo-hydraulic computer code for severe accident analysis ICARE-CATHARE. The objective of this thesis is to develop a 3D reflood model (implemented into ICARE-CATHARE) that is able to treat different configurations of degraded core in a case of severe accident. The proposed model is characterized by treating of non-equilibrium thermal between the solid, liquid and gas phase. It includes also two momentum balance equations. The model is based on a previously developed model but is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular

  11. Core damage frequency perspectives based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L.; LaChance, J.L.; Drouin, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1988, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter 88-20 requesting that all licensees perform an individual Plant Examination (IPE) to identify any plant-specific vulnerability to severe accidents and report the results to the Commission. This paper provides perspectives gained from reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals covering 108 nuclear power plant units. Variability both within and among reactor types is examined to provide perspectives regarding plant-specific design and operational features, and modeling assumptions that play a significant role in the estimates of core damage frequencies in the IPEs

  12. Core damage frequency (reactor design) perspectives based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.; Dingman, S.E.; Forester, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives gained from reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals covering 108 nuclear power plant units. Variability both within and among reactor types is examined to provide perspectives regarding plant-specific design and operational features, and C, modeling assumptions that play a significant role in the estimates of core damage frequencies in the IPEs. Human actions found to be important in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are presented and the events most frequently found important are discussed

  13. Technical Note: Does Core Inflation Help Forecast Total Inflation? Evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia core and total inflation are both (1) series, and core inflation is cointegrated with total inflation. Granger causality tests using error correction methodology indicate that divergence of total inflation from core inflation is quickly revers

  14. Analysis of core damage frequency, Surry, Unit 1 internal events appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucio, R.C.; Julius, J.A.; Cramond, W.R.

    1990-04-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events for the Surry Nuclear Station, Unit 1. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 documents the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. The work performed is an extensive reanalysis of that published in November 1986 as NUREG/CR-4450, Volume 3. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved. The context and detail of this report are directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was performed and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency at Surry was calculated to be 4.0E-5 per year, with a 95% upper bound of 1.3E-4 and 5% lower bound of 6.8E-6 per year. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all AC power) were the largest contributors to the core damage frequency, accounting for approximately 68% of the total. The next type of dominant contributors were Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs). These sequences account for 15% of core damage frequency. No other type of sequence accounts for more than 10% of core damage frequency

  15. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  16. An examination of impact damage in glass-phenolic and aluminum honeycomb core composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.; Hodge, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of low velocity impact damage to glass-phenolic and aluminum core honeycomb sandwich panels with carbon-epoxy facesheets is presented. An instrumented drop weight impact test apparatus was utilized to inflict damage at energy ranges between 0.7 and 4.2 joules. Specimens were checked for extent of damage by cross sectional examination. The effect of core damage was assessed by subjecting impact-damaged beams to four-point bend tests. Skin-only specimens (facings not bonded to honeycomb) were also tested for comparison purposes. Results show that core buckling is the first damage mode, followed by delaminations in the facings, matrix cracking, and finally fiber breakage. The aluminum honeycomb panels exhibited a larger core damage zone and more facing delaminations than the glass-phenolic core, but could withstand more shear stress when damaged than the glass-phenolic core specimens.

  17. Status of the TMI-2 core: a review of damage assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Assessments of the damage within the core of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor, performed by reconstructing the transient thermal-hydraulic sequence of events, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation, and evaluating the amount of fission products released, are reviewed and summarized. Minimum and maximum bounds of damage to the core are identified

  18. Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous

  19. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE [Department of Energy] N-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L.; Baxter, J.T.; Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P.; Brosseau, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs

  20. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  1. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A face/core debond in a sandwich structure may propagate in the interface or kink into either the face or core. It is found that certain modifications of the face/core interface region influence the kinking behavior, which is studied experimentally in the present paper. A sandwich double cantilever....... The transition points where the crack kinks are identified and the influence of four various interface design modifications on the propagation path and fracture resistance are investigated....

  2. Characterization of the Fault Core and Damage Zone of the Borrego Fault, 2010 M7.2 Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, M. T.; Rockwell, T. K.; Girty, G.; Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    We collected a continuous sample of the fault core and 23 samples of the damage zone out to 52 m across the rupture trace of the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapa earthquake to characterize the physical damage and chemical transformations associated with this active seismic source. In addition to quantifying fracture intensity from macroscopic analysis, we cut a continuous thin section through the fault core and from various samples in the damage zone, and ran each sample for XRD analyses for clay mineralogy, XRF for bulk geochemical analyses, and bulk and grain density from which porosity and volumetric strain were derived. The parent rock is a hydrothermally-altered biotite tonalite, with biotite partially altered to chlorite. The presence of epidote with chlorite suggests that these rocks were subjected to relatively high temperatures of 300-400° C. Adjacent to the outermost damage zone is a chaotic breccia zone with distinct chemical and physical characteristics, indicating possible connection to an ancestral fault to the southwest. The damage zone consists of an outer zone of protocataclasite, which grades inward towards mesocataclasite with seams of ultracataclasite. The fault core is anomalous in that it is largely composed of a sliver of marble that has been translated along the fault, so direct comparison with the damage zone is impaired. From collected data, we observe that chloritization increases into the breccia and damage zones, as does the presence of illite. Porosity reaches maximum values in the damage zone adjacent to the core, and closely follows trends in fracture intensity. Statistically significant gains in Mg, Na, K, Mn, and total bulk mass occurred within the inner damage zone, with losses of Ca and P mass, which led to the formation of chlorite and albite. The outer damage zone displays gains in Mg and Na mass with losses in Ca and P mass. The breccia zone shows gains in mass of Mg and Mn and loss in total bulk mass. A gain in LOI in both the

  3. Evaluation of nuclear power plant component failure probability and core damage probability using simplified PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    It is anticipated that the change of frequency of surveillance tests, preventive maintenance or parts replacement of safety related components may cause the change of component failure probability and result in the change of core damage probability. It is also anticipated that the change is different depending on the initiating event frequency or the component types. This study assessed the change of core damage probability using simplified PSA model capable of calculating core damage probability in a short time period, which is developed by the US NRC to process accident sequence precursors, when various component's failure probability is changed between 0 and 1, or Japanese or American initiating event frequency data are used. As a result of the analysis, (1) It was clarified that frequency of surveillance test, preventive maintenance or parts replacement of motor driven pumps (high pressure injection pumps, residual heat removal pumps, auxiliary feedwater pumps) should be carefully changed, since the core damage probability's change is large, when the base failure probability changes toward increasing direction. (2) Core damage probability change is insensitive to surveillance test frequency change, since the core damage probability change is small, when motor operated valves and turbine driven auxiliary feed water pump failure probability changes around one figure. (3) Core damage probability change is small, when Japanese failure probability data are applied to emergency diesel generator, even if failure probability changes one figure from the base value. On the other hand, when American failure probability data is applied, core damage probability increase is large, even if failure probability changes toward increasing direction. Therefore, when Japanese failure probability data is applied, core damage probability change is insensitive to surveillance tests frequency change etc. (author)

  4. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W.; Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D.

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 x 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process

  5. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  6. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  7. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    Various modifications of the face/core interface in foam core sandwich specimens are examined in a series of two papers. This paper constitutes part I and describes the finite element analysis of a sandwich test specimen, i.e. a DCB specimen loaded by uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM). Using...... this test almost any mode-mixity between pure mode I and mode II can be obtained. A cohesive zone model of the mixed mode fracture process involving large-scale bridging is developed. Results from the analysis are used in Part II, which describes methods and results of a series of experiments....

  8. Constrained core solutions for totally positive games with ordered players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; van der Laan, G.; Vasil'ev, V.

    2014-01-01

    In many applications of cooperative game theory to economic allocation problems, such as river-, polluted river- and sequencing games, the game is totally positive (i.e., all dividends are nonnegative), and there is some ordering on the set of the players. A totally positive game has a nonempty

  9. Stiffness and strength degradation of damaged truss core composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiška, Filip; Tawfeeq, Arwa F.; Dlouhý, I.; Barnett, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 125, JUL (2015), s. 287-294 ISSN 0263-8223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Truss core composites * Finite element * Strain rate * High temperature tests Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2015

  10. Compendium of Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Chen, Dakai; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Casey, Megan C.; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Obryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear, and hybrid devices.

  11. Management of radioactive waste from a major core damage in a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Christensen, H.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of fission products would be released in case of a major core damage in a nuclear power reactor. In this theoretical study the core damage is caused by a loss of coolant accident followed by a complete loss of all electric power for about 30 minutes resulting in the release of 10% of the core inventory of noble gases. A second case has also been briefly studied, in which the corresponding core damage is supposed to be created merely by the complete loss of electric power during a limited time period. It appears from the study that the radioactive waste generated as a consequence of an accident of the extent can be managed in the reference reactor with only minor modifications required in the waste plant. The detailed results of the study are reactor specific, but many of the findings and recommendations are generally applicable. (author) 28 refs

  12. Core damage frequency estimation using accident sequence precursor data: 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ongoing Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to assess the potential for severe core damage (henceforth referred to simply as core damage) based on operating events. The types of operating events considered include accident sequence initiators, safety equipment failures, and degradation of plant conditions that could increase the probability that various postulated accident sequences occur. Such operating events potentially reduce the margin of safety available for prevention of core damage an thus can be considered as precursors to core damage. The current process for identifying, analyzing, and documenting ASP events is described in detail in Vanden Heuval et al. The significance of a Licensee Event Report (LER) event (or events) is measured by means of the conditional probability that the event leads to core damage, the so-called conditional core damage probability or, simply, CCDP. When the first ASP study results were published in 1982, it covered the period 1969--1979. In addition to identification and ranking of precursors, the original study attempted to estimate core damage frequency (CDF) based on the precursor events. The purpose of this paper is to compare the average annual CDF estimates calculated using the CCDP sum, Cooke-Goossens, Bier, and Abramson estimators for various reactor classes using the combined ASP data for the four years, 1990--1993. An important outcome of this comparison is an answer to the persistent question regarding the degree and effect of the positive bias of the CCDP sum method in practice. Note that this paper only compares the estimators with each other. Because the true average CDF is unknown, the estimation error is also unknown. Therefore, any observations or characterizations of bias are based on purely theoretical considerations

  13. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu's safety assessment for severe core damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun, Yusuf; Karasulu, Muzaffer

    2015-07-01

    We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents) and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO) is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the "what went wrong " scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors'like in TMI); Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl) and natural disasters( like in Fukushima) and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu's postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  14. SCDAP: a light water reactor computer code for severe core damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, G.P.; Allison, C.M.; Majumdar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Development of the first code version (MODO) of the Severe Core Damage Analysis Package (SCDAP) computer code is described, and calculations made with SCDAP/MODO are presented. The objective of this computer code development program is to develop a capability for analyzing severe disruption of a light water reactor core, including fuel and cladding liquefaction, flow, and freezing; fission product release; hydrogen generation; quenched-induced fragmentation; coolability of the resulting geometry; and ultimately vessel failure due to vessel-melt interaction. SCDAP will be used to identify the phenomena which control core behavior during a severe accident, to help quantify uncertainties in risk assessment analysis, and to support planning and evaluation of severe fuel damage experiments and data. SCDAP/MODO addresses the behavior of a single fuel bundle. Future versions will be developed with capabilities for core-wide and vessel-melt interaction analysis

  15. TMI-2 reactor-vessel head removal and damaged-core-removal planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.; Hultman, C.W.; Lewis, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A major milestone in the cleanup and recovery effort at TMI-2 will be the removal of the reactor vessel closure head, planum, and damaged core fuel material. The data collected during these operations will provide the nuclear power industry with valuable information on the effects of high-temperature-dissociated coolant on fuel cladding, fuel materials, fuel support structural materials, neutron absorber material, and other materials used in reactor structural support components and drive mechanisms. In addition, examination of these materials will also be used to determine accident time-temperature histories in various regions of the core. Procedures for removing the reactor vessel head and reactor core are presented

  16. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA GSFC and NEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Label, Kenneth A.; Cochran, Donna J.; O'Bryan, Martha V.

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include opto-electronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  17. Recent Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Compendium of Candidate Electronics for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Campola, Michael J.; Carts, Martin A.; Casey, Megan C.; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Marshall, Cheryl J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  18. Comparison of advanced mid-sized reactors regarding passive features, core damage frequencies and core melt retention features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.

    2005-01-01

    New Light Water Reactors, whose regular safety systems are complemented by passive safety systems, are ready for the market. The special aspect of passive safety features is their actuation and functioning independent of the operator. They add significantly to reduce the core damage frequency (CDF) since the operator continues to play its independent role in actuating the regular safety devices based on modern instrumentation and control (I and C). The latter also has passive features regarding the prevention of accidents. Two reactors with significant passive features that are presently offered on the market are the AP1000 PWR and the SWR 1000 BWR. Their passive features are compared and also their core damage frequencies (CDF). The latter are also compared with those of a VVER-1000. A further discussion about the two passive plants concerns their mitigating features for severe accidents. Regarding core-melt retention both rely on in-vessel cooling of the melt. The new VVER-1000 reactor, on the other hand features a validated ex-vessel concept. (author)

  19. Review of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Probabilistic Risk Assessment: internal events and core damage frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Shiu, K.; Hanan, N.; Anavim, E.

    1985-11-01

    A review of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating its risks in relation to those identified in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). The scope of the review was limited to the ''front end'' part, i.e., to the evaluation of the frequencies of states in which core damage may occur. Furthermore, the review considered only internally generated accidents, consistent with the scope of the PRA. The review included an assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the Shoreham study. It also encompassed a reevaluation of the main results within the scope and general methodological framework of the Shoreham PRA, including both qualitative and quantitative analyses of accident initiators, data bases, and accident sequences which result in initiation of core damage. Specific comparisons are given between the Shoreham study, the results of the present review, and the WASH-1400 BWR, for the core damage frequency. The effect of modeling uncertainties was considered by a limited sensitivity study so as to show how the results would change if other assumptions were made. This review provides an independently assessed point value estimate of core damage frequency and describes the major contributors, by frontline systems and by accident sequences. 17 figs., 81 tabs

  20. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Surry, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.

    1986-11-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analyses for Surry, Unit 1; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Surry, Unit 1, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provide additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Surry core damage frequency estimate. The numerical results are driven to some degree by modeling assumptions and data selection for issues such as reactor coolant pump seal LOCAs, common cause failure probabilities, and plant response to station blackout and loss of electrical bust initiators. The sensitivity studies explore the impact of alternate theories and data on these issues

  1. Analysis of severe core damage accident progression for the heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Lili; Yuan Kai; Yuan Jingtian; Cao Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the severe accident progression analysis of generic Canadian deuterium uranium reactor 6 was preliminarily provided using an integrated severe accident analysis code. The selected accident sequences were multiple steam generator tube rupture and large break loss-of-coolant accidents because these led to severe core damage with an assumed unavailability for several critical safety systems. The progressions of severe accident included a set of failed safety systems normally operated at full power, and initiative events led to primary heat transport system inventory blow-down or boil off. The core heat-up and melting, steam generator response,fuel channel and calandria vessel failure were analyzed. The results showed that the progression of a severe core damage accident induced by steam generator tube rupture or large break loss-of-coolant accidents in a CANDU reactor was slow due to heat sinks in the calandria vessel and vault. (authors)

  2. Preparations to load, transport, receive, and store the damaged TMI-2 [Three Mile Island] reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, H.W.; Schmitt, R.C.; Quinn, G.J.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Lilburn, B.J. Jr.; Uhl, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The March 1979 incident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI) which damaged the core of the Unit 2 reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing, packaging, and transporting the core debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights preparations for transporting the core debris from TMI to INEL and receiving and storing that material at INEL. Issues discussed include interfacing of equipment and facilities at TMI, loading operations, transportation activities using a newly designed cask, receiving and storing operations at INEL, and criticality control during storage. Key to the transportation effort was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks which individually provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 27 figs

  3. Re criticality assessment following reactor core damage in Fukushima unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Chang Je; Ha, Kwang Soon; Song, Yong Mann; Ryu, Eun Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe core damage accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (NPPs), many researchers have studied a possible Re criticality caused by core melting or corium. However, no one can accurately examine the internal conditions of the reactor vessel, and thus there have been different opinions from some organizations depending on their assumption and analysis methods. If there is a potential Re criticality in the reactor vessel, some counter plans for the accident management should be established to prevent and mitigate re criticality, and to return the plant to a safe and stable state. In this study, the criticality level following a severe core damage accident was first analyzed using the MCNPX 2.6.0 code. Based on this result, practical strategies in terms of accident management were obtained by charging soluble boron (H 3B O 3) into re flooded water

  4. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis

  5. Quantification of LOCA core damage frequency based on thermal-hydraulics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong-San; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantified the LOCA core damage frequency based on the best-estimated success criteria analysis. • The thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code has been applied to Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants. • Five new event trees with new break size boundaries and new success criteria were developed. • The core damage frequency is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA event trees. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has always been significantly considered one of the most important initiating events. However, most probabilistic safety assessment models, up to now, have undoubtedly adopted the three groups of LOCA, and even an exact break size boundary that used in WASH-1400 reports was published in 1975. With an awareness of the importance of a realistic PSA for a risk-informed application, several studies have tried to find the realistic thermal-hydraulic behavior of a LOCA, and improve the PSA model. The purpose of this research is to obtain realistic results of the LOCA core damage frequency based on a success criteria analysis using the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code. To do so, the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) was selected for this study. The MARS code was used for a thermal hydraulics analysis and the AIMS code was used for the core damage quantification. One of the major findings in the thermal hydraulics analysis was that the decay power is well removed by only a normal secondary cooling in LOCAs of below 1.4 in and by only a high pressure safety injection in LOCAs of 0.8–9.4 in. Based on the thermal hydraulics results regarding new break size boundaries and new success criteria, five new event trees (ETs) were developed. The core damage frequency of new LOCA ETs is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA ETs. In this research, we obtained not only thermal-hydraulics characteristics for the entire break size of a LOCA in view of the deterministic safety

  6. Quantification of LOCA core damage frequency based on thermal-hydraulics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehyun, E-mail: chojh@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong-San; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • We quantified the LOCA core damage frequency based on the best-estimated success criteria analysis. • The thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code has been applied to Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants. • Five new event trees with new break size boundaries and new success criteria were developed. • The core damage frequency is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA event trees. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has always been significantly considered one of the most important initiating events. However, most probabilistic safety assessment models, up to now, have undoubtedly adopted the three groups of LOCA, and even an exact break size boundary that used in WASH-1400 reports was published in 1975. With an awareness of the importance of a realistic PSA for a risk-informed application, several studies have tried to find the realistic thermal-hydraulic behavior of a LOCA, and improve the PSA model. The purpose of this research is to obtain realistic results of the LOCA core damage frequency based on a success criteria analysis using the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code. To do so, the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) was selected for this study. The MARS code was used for a thermal hydraulics analysis and the AIMS code was used for the core damage quantification. One of the major findings in the thermal hydraulics analysis was that the decay power is well removed by only a normal secondary cooling in LOCAs of below 1.4 in and by only a high pressure safety injection in LOCAs of 0.8–9.4 in. Based on the thermal hydraulics results regarding new break size boundaries and new success criteria, five new event trees (ETs) were developed. The core damage frequency of new LOCA ETs is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA ETs. In this research, we obtained not only thermal-hydraulics characteristics for the entire break size of a LOCA in view of the deterministic safety

  7. A core hSSB1–INTS complex participates in the DNA damage response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Teng; Yu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) plays an important role in the DNA damage response and the maintenance of genomic stability. It has been shown that the core hSSB1 complex contains hSSB1, INTS3 and C9orf80. Using protein affinity purification, we have identified integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) as a major subunit of the core hSSB1 complex. INTS6 forms a stable complex with INTS3 and hSSB1 both in vitro and in vivo. In this complex, INTS6 directly interacts with INTS3. I...

  8. Core damage frequency observations and insights of LWRs based on the IPEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drouin, M.T. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Seventy-eight plants are expected to submit Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) for severe accident vulnerabilities to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The majority of the plants have elected to perform full Level 1 probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to meet the intent of the IPEs. Because of this, it is possible to compare the results from the IPE submittals to determine general observations and {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} from the IPEs. The IPE Insights Program is performing this evaluation, and preliminary results are presented in this paper. The core damage frequency and core damage sequences are identified and compared for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. Examination of the results indicates that variations among plant results are due to a combination of actual plant design/operational features and analysis approaches. The findings are consistent with previous NRC studies, such as WASH-1400 and NUREG-1150.

  9. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  10. Core damage frequency observations and insights of LWRs based on the IPEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L.; Drouin, M.T.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Darby, J.; LaChance, J.L.; Yakle, J.

    1995-01-01

    Seventy-eight plants are expected to submit Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) for severe accident vulnerabilities to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The majority of the plants have elected to perform full Level 1 probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to meet the intent of the IPES. Because of this, it is possible to compare the results from the IPE submittals to determine general observations and open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes from the IPES. The IPE Insights Program is performing this evaluation, and preliminary results are presented in this paper. The core damage frequency and core damage sequences are identified and compared for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. Examination of the results indicates that variations among plant results are due to a combination of actual plant design/operational features and analysis approaches. The findings are consistent with previous NRC studies, such as WASH-1400 and NUREG-1 150

  11. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    2004-01-01

    The core damage frequency during mid-loop operation of a Westinghouse designed 3-loop Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) due to loss of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) events was assessed. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance), and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events was identified and human error probabilities were quantified using HCR and THERP model. The result showed that the core damage frequency due to loss of RHR events during mid-loop operation is 3.1x10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering mid-loop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e. decay heat removal through steam generator secondary side also plays important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events. (author)

  12. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  13. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1996. A status report. Volume 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the 14 operational events in 1996 that affected 13 commercial light-water reactors and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1996 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1995 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  14. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1

  15. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  16. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  17. Assessment of core damage frequency owing to possible fires at NPP with RBMK type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, B. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow, 123 182 (Russian Federation); NRC Kurchatov Inst. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    According to Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the USA and Russia in the field of nuclear engineering the Idaho National Laboratory has transferred to the possession of the National Research Center ' Kurchatov Inst. ' the SAPHIRE software without any fee. With the help of the software Kurchatov Inst. developed a Pilot Living PSA- Model of Leningrad NPP Unit 1. Computations of core damage frequencies were carried out for additional Initiating Events. In the submitted paper such additional Initiating Events are fires in various compartments of the NPP. During the computations of each fire, structure of the PSA - Model was not changed, but Fault Trees for the appropriate systems, which are removed from service during the fire, were changed. It follows from the computations, that for ten fires Core Damaged Frequencies (CDF) are not changed. Other six fires will cause additional core damage. On the basis of the calculated results it is possible to determine a degree of importance of these fires and to establish sequence of performance of fire-prevention measures in various places of the NPP. (authors)

  18. Assessment of core damage frequency owing to possible fires at NPP with RBMK type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, B.

    2012-01-01

    According to Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the USA and Russia in the field of nuclear engineering the Idaho National Laboratory has transferred to the possession of the National Research Center ' Kurchatov Inst. ' the SAPHIRE software without any fee. With the help of the software Kurchatov Inst. developed a Pilot Living PSA- Model of Leningrad NPP Unit 1. Computations of core damage frequencies were carried out for additional Initiating Events. In the submitted paper such additional Initiating Events are fires in various compartments of the NPP. During the computations of each fire, structure of the PSA - Model was not changed, but Fault Trees for the appropriate systems, which are removed from service during the fire, were changed. It follows from the computations, that for ten fires Core Damaged Frequencies (CDF) are not changed. Other six fires will cause additional core damage. On the basis of the calculated results it is possible to determine a degree of importance of these fires and to establish sequence of performance of fire-prevention measures in various places of the NPP. (authors)

  19. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1997 - A status report. Volume 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the five operational events in 1997 that affected five commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1997 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those events that could be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1996 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  20. Visualization of Heat Transfer and Core Damage With RGUI 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesina, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have become an integral and essential part of computer software. In the ever-changing world of computing, they provide the user with a valuable means to learn, understand, and use the application software while also helping applications adapt to and span different computing paradigms, such as different operating systems. For these reasons, GUI development for nuclear plant analysis programs has been ongoing for a decade and a half and much progress has been made. With the development of codes such as RELAP5-3D [1] and SCDAP/RELAP5 that have multi-dimensional modeling capability, it has become necessary to represent three-dimensional, calculated data. The RELAP5-3D Graphical User Interface (RGUI) [4] was designed specifically for this purpose. It reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional models and enhances the analysts' ability to recognize plant behavior visually. Previous versions of RGUI [5] focused on visualizing reactor coolant behavior during a simulated transient or accident. Recent work has extended RGUI to display two other phenomena, heat transfer and core damage. Heat transfer is depicted through the visualization of RELAP5-3D heat structures. Core damage is visualized by displaying fuel rods and other core structures in a reactor vessel screen. Conditions within the core are displayed via numerical results and color maps. These new features of RGUI 1.5 are described and illustrated. (authors)

  1. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0 degree, ±45 degrees relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole

  2. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

  3. Recent Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Irwin, Tim L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Flanigan, Ryan J.; Cox, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others. T

  4. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report. Volume 17, Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D. [Reliability and Performance Associates (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 {times} 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process.

  5. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  6. Whole-core damage analysis of EBR-II driver fuel elements following SHRT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Koenig, J.F.; Porter, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In the Shutdown Heat Removal Testing (SHRT) program in EBR-II, fuel element cladding temperatures of some driver subassemblies were predicted to exceed temperatures at which cladding breach may occur. A whole-core thermal analysis of driver subassemblies was performed to determine the cladding temperatures of fuel elemnts, and these temperatures were used for fuel element damage calculation. The accumulated cladding damage of fuel element was found to be very small and fuel element failure resulting from SHRT transients is unlikely. No element breach was noted during the SHRT transients. The reactor was immediately restarted after the most severe SHRT transient had been completed and no driver fuel breach has been noted to date. (orig.)

  7. Recreational stimulants, herbal, and spice cannabis: The core psychobiological processes that underlie their damaging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A

    2017-05-01

    Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate. The acute mood gains underlie their recreational usage, while the mood deficits on withdrawal explain their addictiveness. Cyclical mood changes are found with every central nervous system stimulant and also occur with cannabis. These mood state changes provide a surface index for more profound psychobiological fluctuations. Homeostatic balance is altered, with repetitive disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and disrupted cortisol-neurohormonal secretions. Hence, these drugs cause increased stress, disturbed sleep, neurocognitive impairments, altered brain activity, and psychiatric vulnerability. Equivalent deficits occur with novel psychoactive stimulants such as mephedrone and artificial "spice" cannabinoids. These psychobiological fluctuations underlie drug dependency and make cessation difficult. Psychobiological stability and homeostatic balance are optimally restored by quitting psychoactive drugs. Recreational stimulants such as cocaine or MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and sedative drugs such as cannabis damage human homeostasis and well-being through similar core psychobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effect of uncertainties in nuclear reactor plant-specific failure data on core damage frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    It is sometimes the case in PRA applications that reported plant-specific failure data are, in fact, only estimates which are uncertain. Even for detailed plant-specific data, the reported exposure time or number of demands is often only an estimate of the actual exposure time or number of demands. Likewise the reported number of failure events or incidents is sometimes also uncertain because incident or malfunction reports may be ambiguous. In this report we determine the corresponding uncertainty in core damage frequency which can b attributed to such uncertainties in plant-specific data using a simple but typical nuclear power reactor example

  9. Consequence analysis of core damage states following severe accidents for the CANDU reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, N.N.; Kim, Y.T.; Lie, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    The analytical methodology used to evaluate severe accident sequences is described. The relevant thermal-mechanical phenomena and the mathematical approach used in calculating the timing of the accident progression and source term estimate are summarized. The postulated sever accidents analyzed, in general, mainly differ in the timing to reach and progress through each defined c ore damage state . This paper presents the methodology and results of the timing and steam discharge calculations as well as source term estimate out of containment for accident sequences classified as potentially leading to core disassembly following a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenario as a specific example. (author)

  10. Core food of the French food supply: second Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, V; Volatier, J L; Calamassi-Tran, G; Dubuisson, C; Menard, C; Dufour, A; Leblanc, J C

    2009-05-01

    As first described in the 1980s, the core food intake model allows a precise assessment of dietary nutrient intake and dietary exposure to contaminants insofar as it reflects the eating habits of a target population and covers the most important foods in terms of consumption, selected nutrient and contaminant contribution. This model has been used to set up the sampling strategy of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS) with the aim of obtaining a realistic panorama of nutrient intakes and contaminant exposure for the whole population, useful for quantitative risk assessment. Data on consumption trends and eating habits from the second French individual food consumption survey (INCA2) as well as data from a 2004 purchase panel of French households (SECODIP) were used to identify the core foods to be sampled. A total of 116 core foods on a national scale and 70 core foods on a regional scale were selected according to (1) the consumption data for adults and children, (2) their consumer rates, and (3) their high contribution to exposure to one or more contaminants of interest. Foods were collected in eight French regions (36 cities) and prepared 'as consumed' to be analysed for their nutritional composition and contamination levels. A total of 20 280 different food products were purchased to make up the 1352 composite samples of core foods to be analysed for additives, environmental contaminants, pesticide residues, trace elements and minerals, mycotoxins and acrylamide. The establishment of such a sampling plan is essential for effective, high-quality monitoring of dietary exposure from a public health point of view.

  11. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs

  12. Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, Alex

    2013-10-30

    The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

  13. Characterization of total ionizing dose damage in COTS pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn; Ma, Wuying; Huang, Shaoyan; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; He, Baoping; Sheng, Jiangkun; Xue, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The characterization of total ionizing dose (TID) damage in COTS pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) is investigated. The radiation experiments are carried out at a {sup 60}Co γ-ray source. The CISs are produced by 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the pixel architecture is 8T global shutter pixel with correlated double sampling (CDS) based on a 4T PPD front end. The parameters of CISs such as temporal domain, spatial domain, and spectral domain are measured at the CIS test system as the EMVA 1288 standard before and after irradiation. The dark current, random noise, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU), overall system gain, saturation output, dynamic range (DR), signal to noise ratio (SNR), quantum efficiency (QE), and responsivity versus the TID are reported. The behaviors of the tested CISs show remarkable degradations after radiation. The degradation mechanisms of CISs induced by TID damage are also analyzed.

  14. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  15. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  16. Review of the Oconee-3 probabilistic risk assessment: external events, core damage frequency. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, N.A.; Ilberg, D.; Xue, D.; Youngblood, R.; Reed, J.W.; McCann, M.; Talwani, T.; Wreathall, J.; Kurth, P.D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the Oconee-3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (OPRA) was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively (as much as possible) the OPRA assessment of the important sequences that are ''externally'' generated and lead to core damage. The review included a technical assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the OPRA within its stated objective and with the limited information available. Within this scope, BNL performed a detailed reevaluation of the accident sequences generated by internal floods and earthquakes and a less detailed review (in some cases a scoping review) for the accident sequences generated by fires, tornadoes, external floods, and aircraft impact. 12 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. The IPE Database: providing information on plant design, core damage frequency and containment performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Pratt, W.T.; Su, T.; Danziger, L.

    1996-01-01

    A database, called the IPE Database has been developed that stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants have conducted in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter GL88-20. The IPE Database is a collection of linked files which store information about plant design, core damage frequency (CDF), and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. The information contained in the various files is based on data contained in the IPE submittals. The information extracted from the submittals and entered into the IPE Database can be manipulated so that queries regarding individual or groups of plants can be answered using the IPE Database

  18. Review of the Oconee-3 probabilistic risk assessment: external events, core damage frequency. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Ilberg, D.; Xue, D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the Oconee-3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (OPRA) was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively (as much as possible) the OPRA assessment of the important sequences that are ''externally'' generated and lead to core damage. The review included a technical assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the OPRA within its stated objective and with the limited information available. Within this scope, BNL performed a detailed reevaluation of the accident sequences generated by internal floods and earthquakes and a less detailed review (in some cases a scoping review) for the accident sequences generated by fires, tornadoes, external floods, and aircraft impact. 12 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs

  19. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  20. Estimation of irradiation-induced material damage measure of FCM fuel in LWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Chungchan; Park, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jin-Young; Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    An irradiation-induced material damage measure on tri-isotropic (TRISO) multi-coating layers of fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel to replace conventional uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel for existing light water reactors (LWRs) has been estimated using a displacement per atom (DPA) cross section for a FCM fuel performance analysis. The DPA cross sections in 47 and 190 energy groups for both silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite are generated based on the molecular dynamics simulation by SRIM/TRIM. For the selected FCM fuel assembly design with FeCrAl cladding, a core depletion analysis was carried out using the DeCART2D/MASTER code system with the prepared DPA cross sections to evaluate the irradiation effect in the Korean OPR-1000. The DPA of the SiC and IPyC coating layers is estimated by comparing the discharge burnup obtained from the MASTER calculation with the burnup-dependent DPA for each coating layer calculated using DeCART2D. The results show that low uranium loading and hardened neutron spectrum compared to that of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) result in high discharge burnup and high fast neutron fluence. In conclusion, it can be seen that the irradiation-induced material damage measure is noticeably increased under LWR operating conditions compared to HTGRs. (author)

  1. Phenomena occurring in the reactor coolant system during severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The reactor coolant system (RCS) of a nuclear power plant consists of the reactor pressure vessel and the piping and associated components that are required for the continuous circulation of the coolant which is used to maintain thermal equilibrium throughout the system. In the event of an accident, the RCS also serves as one of several barriers to the escape of radiotoxic material into the biosphere. In contrast to normal operating conditions, severe core damage accidents are characterized by significant temporal and spatial variations in heat and mass fluxes, and by eventual geometrical changes within the RCS. Furthermore, the difficulties in describing the system in the severe accident mode are compounded by the occurrence of chemical reactions. These reactions can influence both the thermal and the mass transport behavior of the system. In addition, behavior of the reactor vessel internals and of materials released from the core region (especially the radioactive fission products) in the course of the accident likewise become of concern to the analyst. This report addresses these concerns. 9 refs., 1 tab

  2. A backward method to estimate the Dai-ichi reactor core damage using radiation exposure in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM Udiyani; S Kuntjoro; S Widodo

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident resulted in the melting of the reactor core due to loss of supply of coolant when the reactor stopped from operating conditions. The earthquake and tsunami caused loss of electricity due to the flooding that occurred in the reactor. The absence of the coolant supply after reactor shutdown resulted in heat accumulation, causing the temperature of the fuel to rise beyond its melting point. In the early stages of the accident, operator could not determine the severity of the accident and the percentage of the reactor core damaged. The available data was based on the radiation exposure in the environment that was reported by the authorities. The aim of this paper is to determine the severity of the conditions in the reactor core based on the radiation doses measured in the environment. The method is performed by backward counting based on the measuring radiation exposure and radionuclides releases source term. The calculation was performed by using the PC-COSYMA code. The results showed that the core damage fraction at Dai-ichi Unit 1 was 70%, and the resulting individual effective dose in the exclusion area is 401 mSv, while the core damage fraction at Unit 2 was 30%, and the resulting individual effective dose was 9.1 mSv, while for Unit 3, the core damage fraction was 25% for an individual effective dose of 92.2 mSv. The differences between the results of the calculation for estimation of core damage proposed in this paper with the previously reported results is probably caused by the applied model for assessment, differences in postulations and assumptions, and the incompleteness of the input data. This difference could be reduced by performing calculations and simulations for more varied assumptions and postulations. (author)

  3. One-speed neutron transport in spheres with totally absorbing cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Stationary and time-dependent transport of neutrons of one speed has been studied in spheres with totally absorbing cores. For stationary, critical reactors the number of secondaries per collision has been calculated numerically for various inner and outer radii. In the time-dependent case, the decay constant has been calculated for spherical shells of different inner radii and thicknesses. For a fixed ratio between shell thickness and inner radius, the curve of the decay constant versus shell thickness crosses the Corngold limit in the same way as the curve for a homogeneous sphere. When the ratio goes to zero the curve approaches that for an infinite slab. The behaviour is discussed in view of a new result from collision theory, viz. that the following condition must be fulfilled for a body at the point where the decay constant curve crosses the Corngold limit: the average exit distance of the neutrons is equal to the mean free path for scattering

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage by Loss of Auxiliary Feed Water during the Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Chung, Soon Il; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the reactor core damage time for OPR1000 type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was analyzed to develop a strategy to handle ELAP and to apply to the EOP. The reactor core damage time in the ELAP condition was calculated according to the time of Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) loss. Fukushima accident was caused by long hours of Station Black Out (SBO) caused by natural disaster beyond Design Based Accident (DBA) criteria. It led to the reactor core damage. After the accident, the regulatory authorities of each country (Japan, US, EU, IAEA, and etc.) recommended developing the necessary systems and strategies in order to cover up the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) such as one occurred in the Fukushima accident. And the need of procedure or guideline to cope with ELAP has been raised through the stress test for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant unit 1. Current Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) used in domestic nuclear power plant are seemed to be insufficient to cope with ELAP. Therefore, it has been required to be improved. As the result, the time of AFW loss in the ELAP condition influences greatly on core damage time.

  5. Total intermittent Pringle maneuver during liver resection can induce intestinal epithelial cell damage and endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A W G Dello

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The intermittent Pringle maneuver (IPM is frequently applied to minimize blood loss during liver transection. Clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament blocks the hepatic inflow, which leads to a non circulating (hepatosplanchnic outflow. Also, IPM blocks the mesenteric venous drainage (as well as the splenic drainage with raising pressure in the microvascular network of the intestinal structures. It is unknown whether the IPM is harmful to the gut. The aim was to investigate intestinal epithelial cell damage reflected by circulating intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels (I-FABP in patients undergoing liver resection with IPM. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver surgery received total IPM (total-IPM or selective IPM (sel-IPM. A selective IPM was performed by selectively clamping the right portal pedicle. Patients without IPM served as controls (no-IPM. Arterial blood samples were taken immediately after incision, ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, transection, 8 hours after start of surgery and on the first post-operative day. RESULTS: 24 patients (13 males were included. 7 patients received cycles of 15 minutes and 5 patients received cycles of 30 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion. 6 patients received cycles of 15 minutes selective hepatic occlusion and 6 patients underwent surgery without inflow occlusion. Application of total-IPM resulted in a significant increase in I-FABP 8 hours after start of surgery compared to baseline (p<0.005. In the no-IPM group and sel-IPM group no significant increase in I-FABP at any time point compared to baseline was observed. CONCLUSION: Total-IPM in patients undergoing liver resection is associated with a substantial increase in arterial I-FABP, pointing to intestinal epithelial injury during liver surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099475.

  6. IPE Data Base: Plant design, core damage frequency and containment performance information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Lin, C.C.; Pratt, W.T.; Su, T.; Danziger, L.

    1995-01-01

    This data base stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants have conducted in response to NRC's Generic Letter GL88-20. The IPE Data Base is a collection of linked files which store information about plant design, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. The information contined in the various files is based on data contained in the IPE submittals. The information extracted from the submittals and entered into the IPE Data Base can be maniulated so that queries regarding individual or groups of plants can be answered using the IPE Data Base. The IPE Data Base supports detailed inquiries into the characteristics of individual plants or classes of plants. Progress has been made on the IPE Data Base and it is largely complete. Recent focus has been the development of a user friendly version which is menu driven and allows the user to ask queries of varying complexity easily, without the need to become familiar with particular data base formats or conventions such as those of DBase IV or Microsoft Access. The user can obtain the information he desired by quickly moving through a series of on-screen menus and ''clicking'' on appropriate choices. In this way even a first time user can benefit from the large amount of information stored in the IPE Data Base without the need of a learning period

  7. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Methodology guidelines: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouin, M.T.; Harper, F.T.; Camp, A.L.

    1987-09-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from a selected group of nuclear power plants. This report describes the methodology used to estimate the internal event core damage frequencies of four plants in support of NUREG-1150. In principle, this methodology is similar to methods used in past probabilistic risk assessments; however, based on past studies and using analysts that are experienced in these techniques, the analyses can be focused in certain areas. In this approach, only the most important systems and failure modes are modeled in detail. Further, the data and human reliability analyses are simplified, with emphasis on the most important components and human actions. Using these methods, an analysis can be completed in six to nine months using two to three full-time systems analysts and part-time personnel in other areas, such as data analysis and human reliability analysis. This is significantly faster and less costly than previous analyses and provides most of the insights that are obtained by the more costly studies. 82 refs., 35 figs., 27 tabs

  8. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex. However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  9. Calculation of the Incremental Conditional Core Damage Probability on the Extension of Allowed Outage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2006-01-01

    RG 1.177 requires that the conditional risk (incremental conditional core damage probability and incremental conditional large early release probability: ICCDP and ICLERP), given that a specific component is out of service (OOS), be quantified for a permanent change of the allowed outage time (AOT) of a safety system. An AOT is the length of time that a particular component or system is permitted to be OOS while the plant is operating. The ICCDP is defined as: ICCDP = [(conditional CDF with the subject equipment OOS)- (baseline CDF with nominal expected equipment unavailabilities)] [duration of the single AOT under consideration]. Any event enabling the component OOS can initiate the time clock for the limiting condition of operation for a nuclear power plant. Thus, the largest ICCDP among the ICCDPs estimated from any occurrence of the basic events for the component fault tree should be selected for determining whether the AOT can be extended or not. If the component is under a preventive maintenance, the conditional risk can be straightforwardly calculated without changing the CCF probability. The main concern is the estimations of the CCF probability because there are the possibilities of the failures of other similar components due to the same root causes. The quantifications of the risk, given that a subject equipment is in a failed state, are performed by setting the identified event of subject equipment to TRUE. The CCF probabilities are also changed according to the identified failure cause. In the previous studies, however, the ICCDP was quantified with the consideration of the possibility of a simultaneous occurrence of two CCF events. Based on the above, we derived the formulas of the CCF probabilities for the cases where a specific component is in a failed state and we presented sample calculation results of the ICCDP for the low pressure safety injection system (LPSIS) of Ulchin Unit 3

  10. Core damage vulnerability due to the loss of ESW [essential service water] systems at multiplant sites: An assessment and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish the core damage vulnerability caused by the failure of the ESW systems in multiplant units that have only two sw pumps per unit with crosstie capability. Design and operating data have been surveyed to derive system failure frequency. A core damage model is constructed including operating configurations, specific recovery actions, and time and leak rate dependent RCP seal LOCA model. The estimated CDF SW = 2.55 x 10 -4 /yr is significant indicating the potential vulnerability of this particular SW design arrangement. A number of different potential improvements have been considered. The addition of a swing pump serving both units is shown to have the most significant CDF reduction potential (∼50%) combined with advantageous cost/benefit aspects. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 21: Main report and appendices A--H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1

  12. Review of the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 code structure and core T/H model before core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Dong Ha

    1998-04-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during a severe accident. The code is being developed at the INEL under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. NRC. As The current time, the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 code is the result of merging the RELAP5/MOD3 and SCDAP models. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system, core, fission product released during a severe accident transient as well as large and small break loss of coolant accidents, operational transients such as anticipated transient without SCRAM, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. Major purpose of the report is to provide information about the characteristics of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 core T/H models for an integrated severe accident computer code being developed under the mid/long-term project. This report analyzes the overall code structure which consists of the input processor, transient controller, and plot file handler. The basic governing equations to simulate the thermohydraulics of the primary system are also described. As the focus is currently concentrated in the core, core nodalization parameters of the intact geometry and the phenomenological subroutines for the damaged core are summarized for the future usage. In addition, the numerical approach for the heat conduction model is investigated along with heat convection model. These studies could provide a foundation for input preparation and model improvement. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Geometry of the Nojima fault at Nojima-Hirabayashi, Japan - I. A simple damage structure inferred from borehole core permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, David A.; Tanaka, Hidemi; Ito, Hisao; Ikeda, Ryuji; Omura, Kentaro; Naka, Hisanobu

    2009-01-01

    The 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken Nanbu) earthquake, M = 7.2, ruptured the Nojima fault in southwest Japan. We have studied core samples taken from two scientific drillholes that crossed the fault zone SW of the epicentral region on Awaji Island. The shallower hole, drilled by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), was started 75 m to the SE of the surface trace of the Nojima fault and crossed the fault at a depth of 624 m. A deeper hole, drilled by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was started 302 m to the SE of the fault and crossed fault strands below a depth of 1140 m. We have measured strength and matrix permeability of core samples taken from these two drillholes. We find a strong correlation between permeability and proximity to the fault zone shear axes. The half-width of the high permeability zone (approximately 15 to 25 m) is in good agreement with the fault zone width inferred from trapped seismic wave analysis and other evidence. The fault zone core or shear axis contains clays with permeabilities of approximately 0.1 to 1 microdarcy at 50 MPa effective confining pressure (10 to 30 microdarcy at in situ pressures). Within a few meters of the fault zone core, the rock is highly fractured but has sustained little net shear. Matrix permeability of this zone is approximately 30 to 60 microdarcy at 50 MPa effective confining pressure (300 to 1000 microdarcy at in situ pressures). Outside this damage zone, matrix permeability drops below 0.01 microdarcy. The clay-rich core material has the lowest strength with a coefficient of friction of approximately 0.55. Shear strength increases with distance from the shear axis. These permeability and strength observations reveal a simple fault zone structure with a relatively weak fine-grained core surrounded by a damage zone of fractured rock. In this case, the damage zone will act as a high-permeability conduit for vertical and horizontal flow in the plane of the

  14. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Cochran, Donna J.; Label, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Mondy, Timothy K.; O'Bryan, Martha V.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices. Displacement Damage, Optoelectronics, Proton Damage, Single Event Effects, and Total Ionizing Dose.

  15. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations. NfPfB=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and bulk-fill resin foundation restoration (B); NfPfP=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and dual-polymerized composite resin core foundation restoration (P); NfPt=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and resin core foundation restoration; and NfPtB=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and bulk-fill resin core foundation restoration (B). Two additional groups from previously published data from the same authors (FPf=2mm of ferrule (F) and glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration; and NfPf=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration), which were tested concomitantly and using the same experimental arrangement, were included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass-ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerized resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing under submerged conditions at room temperature. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees with a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied every 15000 cycles. The specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 1000 N (140000 cycles). The 6 groups (4 groups from the present study and 2 groups from the previously published study) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival

  16. Protection of radiation induced DNA and membrane damages by total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Maurya, D K; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2015-05-25

    The total triterpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum was examined for its potential to prevent γ-radiation induced membrane damage in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. The effects of total triterpenes on γ-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in pBR 322 plasmid DNA in vitro and human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo were evaluated. The protective effect of total triterpenes against γ-radiation-induced micronuclei formations in mice bone marrow cells in vivo were also evaluated. The results indicated the significant effectiveness of Ganoderma triterpenes in protecting the DNA and membrane damages consequent to the hazardous effects of radiation. The findings suggest the potential use of Ganoderma triterpenes in radio therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  18. Numerical study on core damage and interpretation of in situ state of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    Core disking is a phenomenon where a diamond cored core sample will be sliced when released from a stressed host rock. Ring disking is a similar phenomenon which takes place during overcoring with a pilot hole. Because of the uniform shape and spacing of disk fracturing, it has the potential to be used for estimating the in situ state of stress. If this is feasible, it could be used in high stress states where the traditional stress measuring techniques are not valid or even possible. In this work the both the core disking and ring disking phenomena were studied based on the elastic bottom hole stress application developed and a series of fracture growth stability simulations. The results-showed that both phenomena are very complicated and site specific, but the spacing, shape, extent and initiation point are clearly stress state dependent. Throughout the work, guidelines for the in situ stress field interpretation method were developed and implemented for the borehole aligned orthogonal stress field and Poisson`s ratio of 0.25. Based on this study, the in situ state of stress can be estimated with acceptable accuracy if information on both core disking and ring disking is available. On the other hand, as an indirect method, there are no reasons to use it if direct measurements can be used. (orig.) 35 refs.

  19. Numerical study on core damage and interpretation of in situ state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    1999-06-01

    Core disking is a phenomenon where a diamond cored core sample will be sliced when released from a stressed host rock. Ring disking is a similar phenomenon which takes place during overcoring with a pilot hole. Because of the uniform shape and spacing of disk fracturing, it has the potential to be used for estimating the in situ state of stress. If this is feasible, it could be used in high stress states where the traditional stress measuring techniques are not valid or even possible. In this work the both the core disking and ring disking phenomena were studied based on the elastic bottom hole stress application developed and a series of fracture growth stability simulations. The results-showed that both phenomena are very complicated and site specific, but the spacing, shape, extent and initiation point are clearly stress state dependent. Throughout the work, guidelines for the in situ stress field interpretation method were developed and implemented for the borehole aligned orthogonal stress field and Poisson's ratio of 0.25. Based on this study, the in situ state of stress can be estimated with acceptable accuracy if information on both core disking and ring disking is available. On the other hand, as an indirect method, there are no reasons to use it if direct measurements can be used. (orig.)

  20. Core damage frequency prespectives for BWR 3/4 and Westinghouse 4-loop plants based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Camp, S.; LaChance, J.; Mary Drouin

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the core damage frequency (CDF) insights gained by analyzing the results of the Individual Plant Examinations (IPES) for two groups of plants: boiling water reactor (BWR) 3/4 plants with Reactor Core Isolation Cooling systems, and Westinghouse 4-loop plants. Wide variability was observed for the plant CDFs and for the CDFs of the contributing accident classes. On average, transients-with loss of injection, station blackout sequences, and transients with loss of decay heat removal are important contributors for the BWR 3/4 plants, while transients, station blackout sequences, and loss-of-coolant accidents are important for the Westinghouse 4-loop plants. The key factors that contribute to the variability in the results are discussed. The results are often driven by plant-specific design and operational characteristics, but differences in modeling approaches are also important for some accident classes

  1. Assessment of damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head due to thermal attack by core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Behling, S.R.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Camera inspection of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) inlet plenum region has shown that approximately 10 to 20 percent of the core material loading may have relocated to the lower plenum. Although vessel integrity was maintained, a question of primary concern is ''how close to vessel failure'' did this accident come. This report summarizes the results of thermal analyses aimed at assessing damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head and attached instrument penetration tubes due to thermal attack by hot core debris. Results indicate that the instrument penetration nozzles could have experienced melt failure at localized hot spot regions, with attendant debris drainage and plugging of the instrument lead tubes. However, only minor direct thermal attack of the vessel liner is predicted

  2. Evaluation of re-criticality potential in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors following core damage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The re-criticality potential of the debris-bed, formed of the degraded core materials, cannot be ruled out during the cooling-down procedure of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. In this study the re-criticality potential has systematically investigated based on the core disruption phase analysis using a IMPACT-SAMPSON code prepared by The Institute of Applied Energy (IAE). The results obtained for the re-criticality potential, characterized by the eigen-values k-eff dependent on the debris composition formed at the core, RPV bottom, and PCV pedestal, are reflected to the arguments on the re-criticality prevention measures, such as timing and concentration of boron-compounds, during the cooling-down process of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. (author)

  3. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that systematic

  4. Radiation damage studies on new liquid scintillators and liquid-core scintillating fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovkin, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistant of some new liquid scintillation and capillaries filled with liquid scintillators has been presented. It was found that scintillation efficiency of the scintillator based on 1-methyl naphthalene with a new R39 only by 10% at the dose of 190 Mrad and the radiation resistance of thin liquid-core scintillating was decreased fibers exceeded 60 Mrad. 35 refs

  5. Concept and methodology for evaluating core damage frequency considering failure correlation at multi units and sites and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, K.; Teragaki, T.; Nomura, S. [Former Incorporated Administrative Agency, Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (Japan); Abe, H., E-mail: Hiroshi_abe@nsr.go.jp [Former Incorporated Administrative Agency, Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (Japan); Shigemori, M.; Shimomoto, M. [Mizuho Information & Research Institute, 2-3, Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We develop a method to evaluate CDF considering failure correlation at multi units. • We develop a procedure to evaluate correlation coefficient between multi components. • We evaluate CDF at two different BWR units using correlation coefficients. • We confirm the validity of method and correlation coefficient through the evaluation. - Abstract: The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with six units were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. Authors proposed the concept and method for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) considering failure correlation at the multi units and sites. Based on the above method, one of authors developed the procedure for evaluating the failure correlation coefficient and response correlation coefficient between the multi components under the strong seismic motion. These method and failure correlation coefficients were applied to two different BWR units and their CDF was evaluated by seismic probabilistic risk assessment technology. Through this quantitative evaluation, the validity of the method and failure correlation coefficient was confirmed.

  6. Concept and methodology for evaluating core damage frequency considering failure correlation at multi units and sites and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Teragaki, T.; Nomura, S.; Abe, H.; Shigemori, M.; Shimomoto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method to evaluate CDF considering failure correlation at multi units. • We develop a procedure to evaluate correlation coefficient between multi components. • We evaluate CDF at two different BWR units using correlation coefficients. • We confirm the validity of method and correlation coefficient through the evaluation. - Abstract: The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with six units were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. Authors proposed the concept and method for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) considering failure correlation at the multi units and sites. Based on the above method, one of authors developed the procedure for evaluating the failure correlation coefficient and response correlation coefficient between the multi components under the strong seismic motion. These method and failure correlation coefficients were applied to two different BWR units and their CDF was evaluated by seismic probabilistic risk assessment technology. Through this quantitative evaluation, the validity of the method and failure correlation coefficient was confirmed

  7. Design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system to ensure limitation of core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane, N.A.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-09-01

    Safety-based functional requirements and design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) are derived in accordance with LOA-2 success criteria and reliability goals. The design basis transients have been defined and evaluated for the CDS Phase II design, which is a 2550 MWt mixed oxide heterogeneous core reactor. A partial set of reactor responses for selected transients is provided as a function of SASS characteristics such as reactivity worth, trip points, and insertion times

  8. Centennial-scale records of total organic carbon in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lin, Jia; Hong, Yuehui; Yuan, Lirong; Liu, Jinzhong; Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling is a significant factor that controls climate change. The centennial-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) contents and its sources in marginal sea sediments may reflect the influence of human activities on global climate change. In this study, two fine-grained sediment cores from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass of the South Yellow Sea were used to systematically determine TOC contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. These results were combined with previous data of black carbon and 210Pb dating from which we reconstructed the centennial-scale initial sequences of TOC, terrigenous TOC (TOCter) and marine autogenous TOC (TOCmar) after selecting suitable models to correct the measured TOC (TOCcor). These sequences showed that the TOCter decreased with time in the both cores while the TOCmar increased, particularly the rapid growth in core H43 since the late 1960s. According to the correlation between the Huanghe (Yellow) River discharge and the TOCcor, TOCter, or TOCmar, we found that the TOCter in the two cores mainly derived from the Huanghe River and was transported by it, and that higher Huanghe River discharge could strengthen the decomposition of TOCmar. The newly obtained initial TOC sequences provide important insights into the interaction between human activities and natural processes.

  9. Flow with boiling in four-cusp channels simulating damaged core in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of subcooled nucleate flow boiling in non-circular channels is of great importance to engineering applications in particular to Nuclear Engineering. In the present work, an experimental apparatus, consisting basically of a refrigeration system, running on refrigerant-12, has been developed. Preliminary tests were made with a circular tube. The main objective has been to analyse subcooled flow boiling in four-cusp channels simulating the flow conditions in a PWR core degraded by accident. Correlations were developed for the forced convection film coefficient for both single-phase and subcooled flow boiling. The incipience of boiling in such geometry has also been studied. (author) [pt

  10. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the advanced neutron source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effect of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  11. Muscle Damage After Total Hip Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Okura, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the direct anterior approach (DAA) is known to cause less muscle damage than other surgical approaches. However, more complex primary cases, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), might often cause muscle damage. The objective of the present study was to clarify the muscle damage observed 1 year after THA through the DAA for DDH using magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively compared the muscle cross-sectional area (M-CSA) and fatty atrophy (FA) in muscles by magnetic resonance imaging and the Harris hip score before and at 1-year follow-up after THA through the DAA in 3 groups: 37 patients with Crowe group 1 DDH (D1), 13 patients with Crowe group 2 and 3 DDH (D2 + 3), and 12 patients with osteonecrosis as a control. THA through the DAA for D1 displayed significantly decreased M-CSA and significantly increased FA in the gluteus minimus (Gmini), the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and the obturator internus (OI). Patients with D2 + 3 group did not have decreased M-CSA in the TFL or increased FA in the Gmini. Postoperatively, a significant negative correlation was observed between the M-CSA and FA for the OI in patients with D1 and D2 + 3. THA through the DAA for DDH caused the damage in the Gmini, the TFL, and the OI; severe damage was observed in the OI, showing increased FA with decreased M-CSA in patients with both D1 and D2 + 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the core-wide fuel rod damage during a LWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Sairanen, R.; Stengaard, J.-O.

    1975-01-01

    The number of fuel rods puncturing during a LWR LOCA must be estimated as a part of the plant radioactivity release analysis. Due to the great number of fuel rods in the core and the great number of contributing parameters, many of them associated with wide uncertainty and/or truly random variability limits, probabilistic methods are well applicable. A succession of computer models developed for this purpose is described together with applications to WWER-440 PWR. Deterministic models are shown to be seriously inadequate and even misleading under certain circumstances. A simple analytical probabilistic model appears to be suitable for many applications. Monte Carlo techniques allow the development of such sophisticated models that errors in the input data presently available probably become dominant in the residual uncertainty of the corewide fuel rod puncture analysis. (author)

  13. Primary Damage Characteristics in Metals Under Irradiation in the Cores of Thermal and Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechenkin, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    For an analysis and forecasting of radiation-induced phenomena in structural materials of WWERs, PWRs and BN reactors the fast neutron fluence is usually used (for structural materials of the reactor cores and internals the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.1 MeV, for WWER and PWRs vessel steels the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.5 MeV in Russia and East Europe, and with energy > 1.0 MeV in USA and France). Displacements per atom (dpa) seem to be a more appropriate correlation parameter, because it allows comparing the results of materials irradiation in different neutron energy spectra or with different types of particles (neutrons, ions, fast electrons). Energy spectra of primary knocked atoms (PKA) and 'effective' dpa, which are introduced to take into account the point defect recombination during the relaxation stage of a displacement cascade, can be still better representation of the effect of irradiation on material properties. In this work the results of calculating dose rates (dpa/s, NRT-model), PKA energy spectra and PKA mean energies in metals under irradiation in the cores of Russian reactors WWER-440, WWER-1000 (both power thermal reactors) and BN-600 (power fast reactor) and BR-10 (test fast reactor) are presented. In all the reactors Fe and Zr are considered, with addition of Ti and W in BN-600. 'Effective' dose rates in these metals are calculated. Limitations and uncertainties in the standard dpa formulation (the NRT-dpa) are discussed. IPPE activities in the fields related to the TM subject are considered

  14. Applicability of PRISM PRA Methodology to the Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis of KALIMER-600 (I) (Core Damage Event Tree Analysis Part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, B. Y.

    2009-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the PSA domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of KALIMER-600 reactor. An applicability of the PSA of the PRISM plant to the KALIMER-600 has been studied. The study is confined to a core damage event tree analysis which is a part of a level 2 PSA. Assuming that the accident types, which can be developed from level 1 PSA, are same as the PRISM PRA, core damage categories are defined and core damage event trees are developed for the KALIMER-600 reactor. Fission product release fractions of the core damage categories and branch probabilities of the core damage event trees are referred from the PRISM PRA temporarily. Plant specific data will be used during the detail analysis

  15. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  16. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Calculation of Core Damage Frequency for the Change of the Common Cause Failure Parameters According to the Testing Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil You; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2011-01-01

    Common cause failure (CCF) probabilities are differently estimated according to testing strategies. There are two representative testing schemes; staggered testing and non-staggered testing schemes. For the cases where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing scheme, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Kang et al. derived the formulas for the estimations of the CCF probabilities of the components under the mixed testing scheme. This paper presents the sensitivity study results on the core damage frequency (CDF) of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) for the changes of the CCF parameters according to the testing strategies

  18. 3 mm GMVA Observations of Total and Polarized Emission from Blazar and Radio Galaxy Core Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present total and linearly polarized 3 mm Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA; mm-VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations at millimetre wavelengths images of a sample of blazars and radio galaxies from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR 7 mm monitoring program designed to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets and locate the sites of gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT. The lower opacity at 3 mm and improved angular resolution—on the order of 50 microarcseconds—allow us to distinguish features in the jet not visible in the 7 mm VLBA data. We also compare two different methods used for the calibration of instrumental polarisation and we analyze the resulting images for some of the sources in the sample.

  19. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu’s safety assessment for severe core damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavun Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the “what went wrong ” scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors’like in TMI; Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl and natural disasters( like in Fukushima and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu’s postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  1. An improved method for quantitatively measuring the sequences of total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Jianping; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global carbon cycle is critical to uncover the mechanisms of global warming and remediate its adverse effects on human activities. Organic carbon in marine sediments is an indispensable part of the global carbon reservoir in global carbon cycling. Evaluating such a reservoir calls for quantitative studies of marine carbon burial, which closely depend on quantifying total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores and subsequently on obtaining their high-resolution temporal sequences. However, the conventional methods for detecting the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon cannot resolve the following specific difficulties, i.e., (1) a very limited amount of each subsample versus the diverse analytical items, (2) a low and fluctuating recovery rate of total organic carbon or black carbon versus the reproducibility of carbon data, and (3) a large number of subsamples versus the rapid batch measurements. In this work, (i) adopting the customized disposable ceramic crucibles with the microporecontrolled ability, (ii) developing self-made or customized facilities for the procedures of acidification and chemothermal oxidization, and (iii) optimizing procedures and carbon-sulfur analyzer, we have built a novel Wang-Xu-Yuan method (the WXY method) for measuring the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon in marine sediment cores, which includes the procedures of pretreatment, weighing, acidification, chemothermal oxidation and quantification; and can fully meet the requirements of establishing their highresolution temporal sequences, whatever in the recovery, experimental efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the measurements, and homogeneity of samples. In particular, the usage of disposable ceramic crucibles leads to evidently simplify the experimental scenario, which further results in the very high recovery rates for total organic carbon and black carbon. This new technique may provide a significant support for

  2. Comparing damage on retrieved total elbow replacement bushings with lab worn specimens subjected to varied loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan

    2018-01-09

    Complication rates following total elbow replacement (TER) with conventional implants are relatively high due to mechanical failure involving the UHMWPE bushings. Unfortunately, there are no standardized pre-clinical durability testing protocols for assessing the durability of TER components. This study examines the damage observed on retrieved humeral bushings, and then uses in vitro durability testing with two different loading protocols to compare resulting damage. Damage on 25 pairs of retrieved humeral bushings was characterized using micro-computed tomographic imaging techniques. The damage was compared with that of in vitro test specimens which were subjected to 200 K cycles of either high joint reaction force (high JRF) or high varus moment (high VM) loading. Material removal (mass loss) from bushing components was measured using gravimetric techniques. Thinning was less for retrieved bushings which were still assembled in their humeral component, versus bushings which were loose (0.3 ± 0.3 mm vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mm, p = 0.02). Comparing in vitro test specimens, thinning due to high VM loading was 0.9 ± 0.3 mm, versus 0.2 ± 0.0 mm for high JRF loading (p = 0.08); however, the actual material removal rates from the humeral bushings were not different between the two protocols (48 ± 5 mm 3 /Mc vs. 43 ± 2 mm 3 /Mc, p = 1). Neither loading protocol could produce damage patterns fully representative of the spectrum of damage patterns observed on clinical retrievals. Pre-clinical testing should employ multiple loading protocols to characterize implant performance under a broader spectrum of usage. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Procedures for the external event core damage frequency analyses for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents methods which can be used to perform the assessment of risk due to external events at nuclear power plants. These methods were used to perform the external events risk assessments for the Surry and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants as part of the NRC-sponsored NUREG-1150 risk assessments. These methods apply to the full range of hazards such as earthquakes, fires, floods, etc. which are collectively known as external events. The methods described in this report have been developed under NRC sponsorship and represent, in many cases, both advancements and simplifications over techniques that have been used in past years. They also include the most up-to-date data bases on equipment seismic fragilities, fire occurrence frequencies and fire damageability thresholds. The methods described here are based on making full utilization of the power plant systems logic models developed in the internal events analyses. By making full use of the internal events models one obtains an external event analysis that is consistent both in nomenclature and in level of detail with the internal events analyses, and in addition, automatically includes all the appropriate random and tests/maintenance unavailabilities as appropriate. 50 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Ex-core fuel damage event at paks causes, consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsz, J.; Gado, J.

    2004-01-01

    On April 10, 2003 Paks NPP experienced a loss of decay-heat removal to 30 irradiated fuel assemblies undergoing a cleaning process in a fuel service pit near the unit 2 spent fuel pool. Following chemical cleaning of high decay-heat fuel, a delay in removing the cleaning vessel's lid left the cleaning system in such a condition that did not provide adequate cooling to the fuel. After several hours of the fuel being under-cooled, a steam bubble developed in the vessel, essentially uncovering the fuel. When the lid of the vessel was removed, the sudden introduction of cool water thermally shocked the fuel causing significant structural damage and a release of fission product gases to the reactor building. The paper will discuss the causes of the event as well as the contributing factors to it. Detailed information will be given about the planning and preparation of the recovery actions. The in-depth analyses of the consequences and lessons learned complete the lecture. (author)

  5. The loadings and strength of nuclear power plant structures in core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1994-01-01

    The reactor cavity of VVER-91 NPP is a thick-walled, cylindrical reinforced concrete structure. In case of molten core-water reaction during the severe reactor accident the load carrying capacity of the cavity structure is of interest against the short impulse type loading caused by the steam explosion phenomenon. The assumed size of the impulse was 20 kPa-s and the duration was 10 ms. This investigation was divided in several phases. First, the elastic response of the cavity was determined using the ABAQUS code. Next, the static response of the cavity was evaluated using elasto-plastic properties of reinforcement and concrete and also taking into account the cracking of the concrete. This analysis was done with the aid of ABAQUS/STANDARD and ANSYS codes and the obtained results agreed reasonably with each other. In order to obtain a qualitative picture of the behaviour of the structure under the impulse load a simplified single degree of freedorn model was developed. The hoop reinforcement of the cavity was taken as an elasto-plastic spring and the wall concrete acted as a mass. Using this model the suitable amount of hoop reinforcement was determined. In next phase, the dynamic analysis of the structure was attempted using elasto-plastic material properties and concrete cracking. (13 refs., 57 figs.)

  6. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation

  7. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  8. Comparison of computer codes relative to the aerosol behavior in the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; Dunbar, I.; Gauvain, J.; Ricchena, R.

    1986-01-01

    The present study concerns a comparative exercise, performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities, of the computer codes (AEROSIM-M, UK; AEROSOLS/B1, France; CORRAL-2, CEC and NAUA Mod5, Germany) used in order to assess the aerosol behavior in the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR. Topics considered in this paper include aerosols, containment buildings, reactor safety, fission product release, reactor cores, meltdown, and monitoring

  9. The total triterpenoid saponins of Xanthoceras sorbifolia improve learning and memory impairments through against oxidative stress and synaptic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Fei; Chi, Tian-Yan; Liu, Peng; Li, Lu-Yi; Xu, Ji-Kai; Xu, Qian; Zou, Li-Bo; Meng, Da-Li

    2017-02-15

    X. sorbifolia is a widely cultivated ecologicalcrop in the north of China which is used to produce biodiesel fuel. It also possesses special medicinal value and has attracted keen interests of researchers to explore its bioactivity. To extract the total triterpenoid saponins from the husk of X. sorbifolia (TSX) and investigate its effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). TSX was prepared via modern extraction techniques. Its effects on two AD animal models, as well as the preliminary mechanism were investigated comprehensively. The behavioral experiments including Y maze test, Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test were performed to observe the learning and memory abilities of the animals. ELISA assays, transmission electron microscope observation and Western blotting were employed in mechanism study. TSX, the main composition of X. sorbifolia, accounted for 88.77% in the plant material. It could significantly increase the spontaneous alternation in Y maze test (F (6, 65)=3.209, Plearning and memory. The preliminary mechanism might associate with its protection effects against oxidative stress damage, cholinergic system deficiency and synaptic damage. TSX are perfectly suitable for AD patients as medicine or functional food, which would be a new candidate to treat AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  11. Using CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots to detect DNA and damage to DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulick A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amitava Moulick,1,2 Vedran Milosavljevic,1,2 Jana Vlachova,1,2 Robert Podgajny,3 David Hynek,1,2 Pavel Kopel,1,2 Vojtech Adam1,2 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland Abstract: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dot (QD, one of the strongest and most highly luminescent nanoparticles, was directly synthesized in an aqueous medium to study its individual interactions with important nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine in detail. The results obtained from the optical analyses indicated that the interactions of the QDs with different nucleobases were different, which reflected in different fluorescent emission maxima and intensities. The difference in the interaction was found due to the different chemical behavior and different sizes of the formed nanoconjugates. An electrochemical study also confirmed that the purines and pyrimidines show different interactions with the core/shell QDs. Based on these phenomena, a novel QD-based method is developed to detect the presence of the DNA, damage to DNA, and mutation. The QDs were successfully applied very easily to detect any change in the sequence (mutation of DNA. The QDs also showed their ability to detect DNAs directly from the extracts of human cancer (PC3 and normal (PNT1A cells (detection limit of 500 pM of DNA, which indicates the possibilities to use this easy assay technique to confirm the presence of living organisms in extreme environments. Keywords: nanoparticles, nucleobases, biosensor, fluorescence, mutation

  12. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Selected NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Cochran, Donna J.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Mondy, Timothy K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  13. Comparison of computer codes relative to the aerosol behavior in the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Dunbar, I.; Gauvain, J.; Ricchena, R.

    1986-02-01

    The present study concerns a comparative exercise, performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities, of the computer codes (AEROSISM-M, UK; AEROSOLS/BI, France; CORRAL-2, CEC and NAUA Mod5, Germany) used in order to assess the aerosol behavior in the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR

  14. Does core mobility of lumbar total disc arthroplasty influence sagittal and frontal intervertebral displacement? Radiologic comparison with fixed-core prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delécrin, Joël; Allain, Jérôme; Beaurain, Jacques; Steib, Jean-Paul; Chataigner, Hervé; Aubourg, Lucie; Huppert, Jean; Ameil, Marc; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background An artificial disc prosthesis is thought to restore segmental motion in the lumbar spine. However, it is reported that disc prosthesis can increase the intervertebral translation (VT). The concept of the mobile-core prosthesis is to mimic the kinematic effects of the migration of the natural nucleus and therefore core mobility should minimize the VT. This study explored the hypothesis that core translation should influence VT and that a mobile core prosthesis may facilitate physiological motion. Methods Vertebral translation (measured with a new method presented here), core translation, range of motion (ROM), and distribution of flexion-extension were measured on flexion-extension, neutral standing, and lateral bending films in 89 patients (63 mobile-core [M]; 33 fixed-core [F]). Results At L4-5 levels the VT with M was lower than with F and similar to the VT of untreated levels. At L5-S1 levels the VT with M was lower than with F but was significantly different compared to untreated levels. At M levels a strong correlation was found between VT and core translation; the VT decreases as the core translation increases. At F levels the VT increases as the ROM increases. No significant difference was found between the ROM of untreated levels and levels implanted with either M or F. Regarding the mobility distribution with M and F we observed a deficit in extension at L5-S1 levels and a similar distribution at L4-5 levels compared to untreated levels. Conclusion The intervertebral mobility was different between M and F. The M at L4-5 levels succeeded to replicate mobility similar to L4-5 untreated levels. The M at L5-S1 succeeded in ROM, but failed regarding VT and mobility distribution. Nevertheless M minimized VT at L5-S1 levels. The F increased VT at both L4-5 and L5-S1. Clinical Relevance This study validates the concept that the core translation of an artificial lumbar disc prosthesis minimizes the VT. PMID:25802632

  15. Comparison of european computer codes relative to the aerosol behavior in PWR containment buildings during severe core damage accidents. (Modelling of steam condensation on the particles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunz, H.; Dunbar, L.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1987-11-01

    An aerosol code comparison exercise was performed within the framework of the Commission of European Communities (Division of Safety of Nuclear Installations). This exercise, focused on the process of steam condensation onto the aerosols occurring in PWR containment buildings during severe core damage accidents, has allowed to understand the discrepancies between the results obtained. These discrepancies are due, in particular, to whether the curvature effect is modelled or not in the codes

  16. Estimation of core-damage frequency to evolutionary ALWR [advanced light water reactor] due to seismic initiating events: Task 4.3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Harrison, D.G.; Summitt, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presently developing a requirements document for the design of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One of the basic goals of the EPRI ALWR Requirements Document is that the core-damage frequency for an ALWR shall be less than 1.0E-5. To aid in this effort, the Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) initiated a functional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to determine how effectively the evolutionary plant requirements contained in the existing EPRI Requirements Document assure that this safety goal will be met. This report develops an approximation of the core-damage frequency due to seismic events for both evolutionary plant designs (pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor(BWR)) as modeled in the corresponding functional PRAs. Component fragility values were taken directly form information which has been submitted for inclusion in Appendix A to Volume 1 of the EPRI Requirements Document. The results show a seismic core-damage frequency of 5.2E-6 for PWRS and 5.0E-6 for BWRs. Combined with the internal initiators from the functional PRAs, the overall core-damage frequencies are 6.0E-6 for the pwr and BWR, both of which satisfy the 1.0E-5 EPRI goal. In addition, site-specific considerations, such as more rigid components and less conservative fragility data and seismic hazard curves, may further reduce these frequencies. The effect of seismic events on structures are not addressed in this generic evaluation and should be addressed separately on a design-specific basis. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during midloop operation due to loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    1995-01-01

    The core damage frequency caused by loss of residual heat removal (RHR) events was assessed during midloop operation of a Westinghouse-designed three-loop pressurized water reactor. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance) and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events were identified and human error probabilities were quantified using the human cognitive reliability (HCR) and the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) models. The results showed that the core damage frequency caused by loss of RHR events during midloop operation was 3.4 x 10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering midloop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e., decay heat removal through the steam generator secondary side, also plays an important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events during midloop operation

  18. Grain boundary sweeping and liquefaction-induced fission product behavior in nuclear fuel under severe-core damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1984-05-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from: (1) irradiated high-burnup LWR fuel in a flowing steam atmosphere during high-temperature, in-cell heating tests performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and (2) trace-irradiated and high-burnup LWR fuel during severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during both types of tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in high-burnup fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquefied lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and high-burnup fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in high-burnup fuel are highlighted

  19. Use of Added Sugars Instead of Total Sugars May Improve the Capacity of the Health Star Rating System to Discriminate between Core and Discretionary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menday, Hannah; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Baines, Surinder; Petersen, Kristina S

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610). The product categories included in the analyses were breakfast cereals (n=513), fruit (n=571), milk (n=309), non-alcoholic beverages (n=1,040), vegetables (n=787), and yogurt (n=390). Added sugar values were estimated for each product using a validated method. HSRs were then estimated for every product according to the established method using total sugar, and then by substituting added sugar for total sugar. The scoring system was not modified when added sugar was used in place of total sugar in the HSR calculation. Products were classified as core or discretionary based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. To investigate whether use of added sugar in the HSR algorithm improved the distinction between core and discretionary products as defined by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, the proportion of core products that received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and the proportion of discretionary products that received an HSR of added sugars were determined. There were 2,263 core and 1,347 discretionary foods; 1,684 of 3,610 (47%) products contained added sugar (median 8.4 g/100 g, interquartile range=5.0 to 12.2 g). When the HSR was calculated with added sugar instead of total sugar, an additional 166 (7.3%) core products received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and 103 (7.6%) discretionary products received a rating of ≥3.5 stars. The odds of correctly identifying a product as core vs discretionary were increased by 61% (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.06; Padded compared to total sugars. In the six

  20. A chronology of the PY608E–PC sediment core (Lake Pumoyum Co, southern Tibetan Plateau) based on radiocarbon dating of total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Zhu Liping; Wang Junbo; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Nishimura, Mitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from the Tibetan Plateau provide important clues for understanding the Asian monsoon and Asian climate systems. To reconstruct climatic and environmental changes in the southern Tibetan Plateau, a 3.77-m-long sediment core (PY608E–PC) was taken from the southeastern part of Lake Pumoyum Co in August 2006. Because terrestrial plant residues are extremely rare in this core, we performed radiocarbon dating on the total organic carbon fraction. We also estimated the old carbon effect and radiocarbon reservoir age of the total organic carbon fraction. Using these estimates, we propose a new radiocarbon chronology for past climatic changes from ca. 12,500 to 700 cal BP. The linear sedimentation rate of the core was founded to be constant at 32.0 cm/kyr, indicating stable sedimentation conditions in Lake Pumoyum Co from the period of the Younger Dryas to the Holocene.

  1. A chronology of the PY608E-PC sediment core (Lake Pumoyum Co, southern Tibetan Plateau) based on radiocarbon dating of total organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Takahiro, E-mail: twatanabe@geo.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-20 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Matsunaka, Tetsuya [School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902 (Japan); Nara, Fumiko Watanabe [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Zhu Liping; Wang Junbo [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Science, No. 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Kakegawa, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nishimura, Mitsugu [School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Paleoclimatic records from the Tibetan Plateau provide important clues for understanding the Asian monsoon and Asian climate systems. To reconstruct climatic and environmental changes in the southern Tibetan Plateau, a 3.77-m-long sediment core (PY608E-PC) was taken from the southeastern part of Lake Pumoyum Co in August 2006. Because terrestrial plant residues are extremely rare in this core, we performed radiocarbon dating on the total organic carbon fraction. We also estimated the old carbon effect and radiocarbon reservoir age of the total organic carbon fraction. Using these estimates, we propose a new radiocarbon chronology for past climatic changes from ca. 12,500 to 700 cal BP. The linear sedimentation rate of the core was founded to be constant at 32.0 cm/kyr, indicating stable sedimentation conditions in Lake Pumoyum Co from the period of the Younger Dryas to the Holocene.

  2. Protective role of Hippopahe leaves against kidney damage in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides has diverse therapeutic applications in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Our earlier studies have shown that pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract rendered >90% survival in mice population. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of our herbal preparation from Hippophae leaf against radiation induced kidney damage. The study was conducted with Strain 'A' male mice weighing approximately 28 ±2 g. The mice were administered Hippophae leaf extract, 30 minutes prior to 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The weight of kidneys and histological changes in kidney tissues at the light microscopic level were examined at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results showed that no significant change was observed in kidney weight after 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The glomerular damage in the form of glomerular sclerosis and percentage of damaged glomeruli; tubular damage in form of tubular dilations; apoptosis, and interstitial hemorrhages in renal cortex was also observed after radiation treatment. The pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract countered most of the histological alterations induced by radiation. In comparison to radiation alone group, there was a significant decrease (p 60 cobalt gamma radiation induced damage. (author)

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage from Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Leakage during Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Da Hee; Kim, Min Gi; Lee, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Su hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, in order to comprehend the Fukushima accident, the sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the behavior of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) during ELAP using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The Fukushima accident was caused by tsunami resulted in Station Black Out (SBO) followed by the reactor core melt-down and release of radioactive materials. After the accident, the equipment and strategies for the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) were recommended strongly. In this analysis, sensitivity studies for the RCP seal failure of the OPR1000 type NPP were performed by using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Six cases with different leakage rate of RCP seal were studied for ELAP with operator action or not. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) Without the operator action, the core uncovery time is determined by the leakage rate of RCP seal. When the leakage rate per RCP seal are 5 gpm, 50 gpm, and 300 gpm respectively, the core uncovery time are 1.62 hr, 1.58 hr, and 1.29 hr respectively. Namely, If the leakage rate of RCP seal was much bigger, the uncover time of core would be shorter. (2) In case that the cooling by SG secondary side was performed using the TDAFP and SG ADV, the core uncovery time was significantly extended.

  4. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug

  5. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  6. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Katiane, E-mail: katianeroversi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Benvegnú, Dalila M., E-mail: dalilabenvegnu@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Roversi, Karine, E-mail: karineroversi-@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Trevizol, Fabíola, E-mail: fatrevizol@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Vey, Luciana T., E-mail: luciana.taschetto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Elias, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.elias@uffs.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Fracasso, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.fra@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  7. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Taichi; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Natsuko; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Ken; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.; Thompson, Larry H.; Helleday, Thomas; Asada, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- , FANCA -/- C -/- , FANCD2 -/- and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical γH2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- and FANCA -/- C -/- cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2 -/- cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, γH2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: → We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). → DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. → This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. → We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  8. Assessment of fission product release from the reactor containment building during severe core damage accidents in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Evrard, J.M.; Generino, G.

    1984-07-01

    Fission product releases from the RCB associated with hypothetical core-melt accidents ABβ, S 2 CDβ and TLBβ in a PWR-900 MWe have been performed using French computer codes (in particular, the JERICHO Code for containment response analysis and AEROSOLS/B1 for aerosol behavior in the containment) related to thermalhydraulics and fission product behavior in the primary system and in the reactor containment building

  9. Assessment of core damage models in SCDAP/RELAP5 during OECD LOFT LP-FP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coryell, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored a program to apply the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to analysis of the transient and reflood phases of the OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. The principal objectives of the LP-FP-2 experiment were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during the early phases of a severe fuel damage scenario and to examine the phenomena controlling fission product transport in a vapor/aerosol environment. Calculations with the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, developed at the INEL with NRC support, have been performed to (1) examine the phenomena controlling the progression of both transient and reflood phases of the experiment, (2) enhance our understanding of the phenomena occurring during reflood and add credence to the postulated phenomenological sequence, (3) assess the ability of SCDAP/RELAP5 to examine severe fuel damage issues and phenomena, and (4) identify code strengths and deficiencies with the intent of prioritizing code improvements. Results indicate that the code is able to analyze the early phases of severe fuel damage reasonably well, with potential deficiencies in modelling interaction between molten control rod material and intact fuel

  10. Integrated TRAC/MELPROG analysis of core damage from a severe feedwater transient in the Oconee-1 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, R.J.; Boyack, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A postulated complete loss-of-feedwater event in the Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor has been analyzed. With an initial version of the lonked TRAC and MELPROG codes, we have modeled the loss-of-feedwater event from initiation to the time of complete disruption of the core, which was calculated to occur by 6800 s. The highest structure temperatures otuside the vessel are on the flow path from the vessel to the pressurizer relief valve. Temperatures in excess of 1200 K could result in failure and depressurization of the primary system before vessel failure

  11. The influence of selenium status on body composition, oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fatimah Binti; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Bin Jan; Sirajudeen, K N S; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal B Md; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress in diabetes through its biological function of selenoproteins and the antioxidant enzyme. A case-control study was carried out to determine the association of plasma selenium with oxidative stress and body composition status presented in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patient and healthy control. This study involved 82 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 82 healthy controls. Plasma selenium status was determined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Body Mass Index, total body fat and visceral fat was assessed for body composition using Body Composition Analyzer (TANITA). Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity were determined for oxidative stress biomarker status. In age, gender and BMI adjustment, no significant difference of plasma selenium level between T2DM and healthy controls was observed. There was as a significant difference of Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity between T2DM patients and healthy controls with tail DNA% 20.62 [95% CI: 19.71,21.49] (T2DM), 17.67 [95% CI: 16.87,18.56] (control); log tail moment 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (T2DM), 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (control); total antioxidant capacity 0.56 [95% CI: 0.54,0.58] (T2DM), 0.60 [95% CI: 0.57,0.62] (control). Waist circumference, BMI, visceral fat, body fat and oxidative DNA damage in the T2DM group were significantly lower in the first plasma selenium tertile (38.65-80.90μg/L) compared to the second (80.91-98.20μg/L) and the third selenium tertiles (98.21-158.20μg/L). A similar trend, but not statistically significant, was observed in the control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Making the CARE Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment as the Core of a Total Mobile Long Term Care Support System in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Gong, Dongwei; Yang, Bo; Chen, Hua; Tu, Ming-Hsiang; Zhang, Chaonan; Li, Huan; Liang, Naiwen; Jiang, Liping; Chang, Polun

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive Geriatric Assessments (CGAs) have been recommended to be used for better monitoring the health status of elder residents and providing quality care. This study reported how our nurses perceived the usability of CGA component of a mobile integrated-care long term care support system developed in China. We used the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE), developed in the US, as the core CGA component of our Android-based support system, in which apps were designed for all key stakeholders for delivering quality long term care. A convenience sample of 18 subjects from local long term care facilities in Shanghai, China were invited to assess the CGA assessment component in terms of Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile based on real field trial assessment. All (100%) were satisfied with the mobile CGA component. 88.9% perceived the system was easy to learn and use. 99.4% showed their willingness to use for their work. We concluded it is technically feasible to implement a CGA-based mobile integrated care support system in China.

  13. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  14. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Pignotti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 μg range

  15. Preliminary Assessment of the Possible BWR Core/Vessel Damage States for Fukushima Daiichi Station Blackout Scenarios Using RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Innovative Systems Software and other members of the international SCDAP Development and Training Program started an assessment of the possible core/vessel damage states of the Fukushima Daiichi Units 1–3. The assessment included a brief review of relevant severe accident experiments and a series of detailed calculations using RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The calculations used a detailed RELAP/SCDAPSIM model of the Laguna Verde BWR vessel and related reactor cooling systems. The Laguna Verde models were provided by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, the Mexican nuclear regulatory authority. The initial assessment was originally presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency on March 21 to support their emergency response team and later to our Japanese members to support their Fukushima Daiichi specific analysis and model development.

  16. The contribution to site core damage frequency from independent occurrences of initiators in two or more units: How low is it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Stutzke estimated the site risk by summing the contribution from common cause initiators and the contribution from single-unit initiators. He considered some kinds of multi-unit accident sequences caused by single-unit initiators. However, the contribution from independent occurrences of initiators in two or more units at a site was not taken into account. The purpose of this study is to estimate the contribution to site core damage frequency (CDF) from simultaneous occurrences of independent initiators in two or more units at the same site. Some assumptions and methods used in this analysis are firstly described, and the results and conclusions of the analysis are described. In this study, the contribution to site core damage frequency (CDF) from simultaneous occurrences of independent initiators in two or more units at the same site was estimated. A Korean six-unit site was selected as the reference site and the at-power internal events Level 1 PSA model for an OPR1000 unit at the reference site was used as the base model, and was modified to deal with some major dependencies between units at the site. Specifically, the availability of the AAC D/G, dependencies between offsite power recovery actions in different unis, and inter-unit CCF modeling for risk-significant components such as diesel generators were taken into account. As a result, the sum of dual-unit CDF due to independent occurrences of initiators in two units at the reference site was estimated to be sufficiently low to be neglected.

  17. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Taichi [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kondo, Natsuko [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, Ibaraki Prefectual University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-mati, Inasiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus-Copernicus-University in Torun, ul. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Thompson, Larry H. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, L452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Helleday, Thomas [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Off Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Asada, Hideo [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  18. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%

  20. Effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony on joint damage in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Wei, W; Zheng, Y-Q; Jia, X-Y

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony (TGP), an effective compound of Chinese traditional herbal medicine (CTM), on collagen -induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with chicken type II collagen in Freund's complete adjuvant. TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered to rats from day 14 to 28 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling, polyarthritis index, and histological examination. Activities of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were determined and the ultrastructure of synoviocytes was observed. The proliferation and the production of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were detected. The administration of TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions and histological changes in CIA model. The ultrastructure of synoviocytes from CIA rats was changed, and the level of IL-1 and TNF alpha produced by macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLS) from CIA rats was elevated. TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) inhibited above changes significantly. The MLS supernatants of CIA rats induced more cell proliferation and more production of VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in FLS of CIA than those supernatants from CIA rats treated with TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days). These results indicate that TGP exerts a suppressive effect on joint destruction in rat CIA. The therapeutic effect of TGP could be associated with its ability to ameliorate the secretion and metabolism of synoviocytes and to inhibit the abnormal proliferation and VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 production by FLS.

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internally induced flooding events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandini, V.; Staple, B.; Kirk, H.; Whitehead, D.; Forester, J.

    1994-07-01

    An estimate of the contribution of internal flooding to the mean core damage frequency at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station was calculated for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Pursuant to this objective, flood zones and sources were identified and flood volumes were calculated. Equipment necessary for the maintenance of plant safety was identified and its vulnerability to flooding was determined. Event trees and fault trees were modified or developed as required, and PRA quantification was performed using the IRRAS code. The mean core damage frequency estimate for GGNS during POS 5 was found to be 2.3 E-8 per year

  2. Neutron Fluence, Dosimetry and Damage Response Determination in In-Core/Ex-Core Components of the VENUS CEN/SCK LWR Using 3-D Monte Carlo Simulations: NEA's VENUS-3 Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J. Manuel; Marian, Jaime; Sanz, Jesus Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Validating state-of-the-art methods used to predict fluence exposure to reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) has become an important issue in identifying the sources of uncertainty in the estimated RPV fluence for pressurized water reactors. This is a very important aspect in evaluating irradiation damage leading to the hardening and embrittlement of such structural components. One of the major benchmark experiments carried out to test three-dimensional methodologies is the VENUS-3 Benchmark Experiment in which three-dimensional Monte Carlo and S n codes have proved more efficient than synthesis methods. At the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM) at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, a detailed full three-dimensional model of the Venus Critical Facility has been developed making use of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP4B. The problem geometry and source modeling are described, and results, including calculated versus experimental (C/E) ratios as well as additional studies, are presented. Evidence was found that the great majority of C/E values fell within the 10% tolerance and most within 5%. Tolerance limits are discussed on the basis of evaluated data library and fission spectra sensitivity, where a value ranging between 10 to 15% should be accepted. Also, a calculation of the atomic displacement rate has been carried out in various locations throughout the reactor, finding that values of 0.0001 displacements per atom in external components such as the core barrel are representative of this type of reactor during a 30-yr time span

  3. No post-no core approach to restore severely damaged posterior teeth: An up to 10-year retrospective study of documented endocrown cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleflamme, Marcia M; Geerts, Sabine O; Louwette, Marie M; Grenade, Charlotte F; Vanheusden, Alain J; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (1) retrospectively evaluate documented cases of ceramic and composite endocrowns performed using immediate dentin sealing (IDS); (2) correlate failures with clinical parameters such as tooth preparation characteristics and occlusal parameters. 99 documented cases of endocrowns were evaluated after a mean observation period of 44.7±34.6months. A classification of restorations was established in function of the level of damage of residual tooth tissues after preparation, from 1 to 3. Evaluation was performed according to FDI criteria and endodontic outcomes were analyzed. Occlusal risk factors were examined and fractographic analysis was performed in case of fracture. 48.4% of patients were shown to present occlusal risk factors. 75.8% of restorations were Class 3 endocrowns. 56.6% were performed on molars, 41.4% on premolars and 2.0% on canines. 84.8% were performed in lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic and 12.1% in Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network (PICN) material. The survival and success rates of endocrowns were 99.0% and 89.9% respectively, while the 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimated survival and success rates were 98.8% and 54.9% respectively. Ten failures were detected: periodontal disease (n=3), endocrown debonding (n=2), minor chipping (n=2), caries recurrence (n=2) and major fractures (n=1). Due to the reduced amount of failures, no statistical correlation could be established with clinical parameters. Endocrowns were shown to constitute a reliable approach to restore severely damaged molars and premolars, even in the presence of extensive coronal tissue loss or occlusal risk factors, such as bruxism or unfavorable occlusal relationships. Practitioners should consider the endocrown instead of the post and core approach to restore severely damaged non-vital posterior teeth. This minimally invasive solution reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and is easily performed. The use of IDS procedure and lithium

  4. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Expert judgment elicitation. Part 1: Expert panel results. Part 2: Project staff results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T A; Cramond, W R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S C [University of Hawii at Hilo (United States); Unwin, S D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative modeling techniques have limitations as to the resolution of important issues in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Not all issues can be resolved via the existing set of methods such as fault trees, event trees, statistical analyses, data collection, and computer simulation. Therefore, an expert judgment process was developed to address issues perceived as important to risk in the NUREG-1150 analysis but which could not be resolved with existing techniques. This process was applied to several issues that could significantly affect the internal event core damage frequencies of the PRAs performed on six light water reactors. Detailed descriptions of these issues and the results of the expert judgment elicitation are reported here, as well as an explanation of the methodology used and the procedure followed in performing the overall elicitation task. The process is time-consuming and expensive. However, the results are very useful, and represent an improvement over the draft NUREG-1150 analysis in the areas of expert selection, elicitation training, issue selection and presentation, elicitation of judgment and aggregation of results. The results are presented in two parts. Part documents the expert panel elicitations, where the most important issues were presented to a panel of experts convened from throughout the nuclear power risk assessment community. Part 2 documents the process by which the project staff performed expert judgment on other important issues, using the project staff as panel members. (author)

  5. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  6. Lead isotopic signatures in Antarctic marine sediment cores: A comparison between 1 M HCl partial extraction and HF total digestion pre-treatments for discerning anthropogenic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.T.; Snape, I.; Palmer, A.S.; Seen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive analytical techniques are typically required when dealing with samples from Antarctica as even low concentrations of contaminants can have detrimental environmental effects. Magnetic Sector ICP-MS is an ideal technique for environmental assessment as it offers high sensitivity, multi-element capability and the opportunity to determine isotope ratios. Here we consider the Pb isotope record of five marine sediment cores collected from three sites in the Windmill Islands area of East Antarctica: Brown Bay adjacent to the current Australian station Casey, Wilkes near the abandoned US/Australian Station and McGrady Cove lying midway between the two. Two sediment pre-treatment approaches were considered, namely partial extraction with 1 M HCl and total dissolution involving HF. Lead isotope ratio measurements made following sediment partial extraction provided a more sensitive indication of Pb contamination than either Pb concentrations alone (irrespective of sample pre-treatment method) or isotope ratios made after HF digestion, offering greater opportunity for discrimination between impacted and natural/geogenic samples and sites. Over 90% of the easily extractable Pb from sediments near Casey was anthropogenic in origin, consisting of Pb from major Australian deposits. At Wilkes impact from discarded batteries with a unique isotopic signature was found to be a key source of Pb contamination to the marine environment with ∼ 70-80% of Pb being anthropogenic in origin. The country and source of origin of these batteries remain unknown. Little evidence was found suggesting contamination at Wilkes by Pb originating from the major US source, Missouri. No definitive assessment could be made regarding Pb impact at McGrady Cove as the collected sediment core was of insufficient depth. Although Pb isotope ratio signatures may indicate anthropogenic input, spatial concentration gradients at nearby Brown Bay suggest contamination at McGrady Cove is unlikely. We

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative in vivo model to determine oral uptake, nanotoxicity, and efficacy of melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules on paraquat damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Souto, Caroline; Brucker, Natália; Barth, Anelise; Jornada, Denise S; Fagundez, Daiandra; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Eifler-Lima, Vera L; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an alternative in vivo model that is being successfully used to assess the pharmacological and toxic effects of drugs. The exponential growth of nanotechnology requires the use of alternative in vivo models to assess the toxic effects of theses nanomaterials. The use of polymeric nanocapsules has shown promising results for drug delivery. Moreover, these formulations have not been used in cases of intoxication, such as in treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Thus, the use of drugs with properties improved by nanotechnology is a promising approach to overcome the toxic effects of PQ. This research aimed to evaluate the absorption of rhodamine B-labeled melatonin (Mel)-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) by C. elegans, the application of this model in nanotoxicology, and the protection of Mel-LNC against PQ damage. The formulations were prepared by self-assembly and characterized by particle sizing, zeta potential, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. The results demonstrated that the formulations had narrow size distributions. Rhodamine B-labeled Mel-LNC were orally absorbed and distributed in the worms. The toxicity assessment of LNC showed a lethal dose 50% near the highest dose tested, indicating low toxicity of the nanocapsules. Moreover, pretreatment with Mel-LNC significantly increased the survival rate, reduced the reactive oxygen species, and maintained the development in C. elegans exposed to PQ compared to those worms that were either untreated or pretreated with free Mel. These results demonstrated for the first time the uptake and distribution of Mel-LNC by a nematode, and indicate that while LNC is not toxic, Mel-LNC prevents the effects of PQ poisoning. Thus, C. elegans may be an interesting alternative model to test the nanocapsules toxicity and efficacy.

  8. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  9. Protein-stabilized fluorescent nanocrystals consisting of a gold core and a silver shell for detecting the total amount of cysteine and homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Rijun; Wang, Yanfeng; Sun, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the total amount of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (hCys), [Cys plus hCys], by exploiting the effect of Cys and hCys on the photoluminescence of human serum albumin-stabilized gold-core silver-shell nanocrystals (NCs). If Cys (or hCys) are added to these NCs, Cys (or hCys) will be adsorbed on the surface due to ligand exchange with human serum albumin, and this results in the quenching of the luminescence of the NCs. The addition of mixtures of Cys and hCys in different molar ratios also induces a decrease in luminescence whose intensity is linearly related to the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in the range from 0.1 – 5.0 μM, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9953 and a detection limit of 15 nM. The method is highly selective and sensitive over other α-amino acids, water-soluble thiols, and biomolecules. It has been successfully applied to the determination of the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in spiked solutions of biomolecules and in real biological samples (author)

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fire events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report, Volume 3, presents the details of the analysis of core damage frequency due to fire during shutdown Plant Operational State 5 at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Insights from previous fire analyses (Peach Bottom, Surry, LaSalle) were used to the greatest extent possible in this analysis. The fire analysis was fully integrated utilizing the same event trees and fault trees that were used in the internal events analysis. In assessing shutdown risk due to fire at Grand Gulf, a detailed screening was performed which included the following elements: (a) Computer-aided vital area analysis; (b) Plant inspections; (c) Credit for automatic fire protection systems; (d) Recovery of random failures; (e) Detailed fire propagation modeling. This screening process revealed that all plant areas had a negligible (<1.0E-8 per year) contribution to fire-induced core damage frequency

  11. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor (PSA level 1) due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid by major pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  12. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  13. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10 -7 /year

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1) and the other at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf). Both the Brookhaven and Sandia projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults--so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Surry Unit 1. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human error rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Surry have been adopted here, so that the results of the two studies can be as comparable as possible. Both the Brookhaven study and this study examine only two shutdown plant operating states (POSs) during refueling outages at Surry, called POS 6 and POS 10, which represent mid-loop operation before and after refueling, respectively. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POSs 6 and 10. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency of earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 6 and POS 10 is found to be low in absolute terms, less than 10 -6 /year

  15. [Public health, damage containment and the prevention of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections: a review of the core concepts and their implementation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Lucília de Almeida; Bastos, Francisco Inacio

    2011-12-01

    This article assesses the historical context and the conceptual frame of setting up damage containment programs in the field of public health, with special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. The survey seeks to assess the relevance of such programs in the ongoing efforts to curb the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, especially AIDS and hepatitis C. Findings from both the Brazilian and the international literature demonstrate that practical damage containment initiatives tend to be more effective when integrated with other public health measures based on common goals. Damage containment initiatives, aligned with the basic principles of public health do not limit themselves to a priori models or health care per se. They encompass a variety of pragmatic measures based on public policies and should be in line with the demands of the communities since the moment of their inception and implemented in the context of full partnership with such communities.

  16. Coolability of severely degraded CANDU cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Blahnik, C.; Rogers, J.T.; Snell, V.G.; Mijhawan, S.

    1995-07-01

    Analytical and experimental studies have shown that the separately cooled moderator in a CANDU reactor provides an effective heat sink in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by total failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The moderator heat sink prevents fuel melting and maintains the integrity of the fuel channels, therefore terminating this severe accident short of severe core damage. Nevertheless, there is a probability, however low, that the moderator heat sink could fail in such an accident. The pioneering work of Rogers (1984) for such a severe accident using simplified models showed that the fuel channels would fail and a bed of dry, solid debris would be formed at the bottom of the calandria which would heat up and eventually melt. However, the molten pool of core material would be retained in the calandria vessel, cooled by the independently cooled shield-tank water, and would eventually re solidify. Thus, the calandria vessel would act inherently as a core-catcher as long as the shield tank integrity is maintained. The present paper reviews subsequent work on the damage to a CANDU core under severe accident conditions and describes an empirically based mechanistic model of this process. It is shown that, for such severe accident sequences in a CANDU reactor, the end state following core disassembly consists of a porous bed of dry solid, coarse debris, irrespective of the initiating event and the core disassembly process. (author). 48 refs., 3 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Coolability of severely degraded CANDU cores. Revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Blahnik, C.; Rogers, J.T.; Snell, V.G.; Nijhawan, S.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies have shown that the separately cooled moderator in a CANDU reactor provides an effective heat sink in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by total failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The moderator heat sink prevents fuel melting and maintains the integrity of the fuel channels, therefore terminating this severe accident short of severe core damage. Nevertheless, there is a probability, however low, that the moderator heat sink could fail in such an accident. The pioneering work of Rogers (1984) for such a severe accident using simplified models showed that the fuel channels would fail and a bed of dry, solid debris would be formed at the bottom of the calandria which would heat up and eventually melt. However, the molten pool of core material would be retained in the calandria vessel, cooled by the independently cooled shield-tank water, and would eventually resolidify. Thus, the calandria vessel would act inherently as a 'core-catcher' as long as the shield tank integrity is maintained. The present paper reviews subsequent work on the damage to a CANDU core under severe accident conditions and describes an empirically based mechanistic model of this process. It is shown that, for such severe accident sequences in a CANDU reactor, the end state following core disassembly consists of a porous bed of dry solid, coarse debris, irrespective of the initiating event and the core disassembly process. (author)

  18. Using NJOY99 and MCNP4B2 to Estimate the Radiation Damage Displacements per Atom per Second in Steel Within the Boiling Water Reactor Core Shroud and Vessel Wall from Reactor-Grade Mixed-Oxide/Uranium Oxide Fuel for the Nuclear Power Plant at Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    The government of Mexico has expressed interest in utilizing the Laguna Verde boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant for the disposition of reprocessed spent uranium oxide (UOX) fuel in the form of reactor-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. MOX fuel would replace spent UOX fuel as a fraction in the core from 18 to 30% depending on the fuel loading cycle. MOX fuel is expected to increase the neutron fluence, flux, fuel centerline temperature, reactor core pressure, and yield higher energy neutrons.There is concern that a core with a fraction of MOX fuel (i.e., increased 239 Pu wt%) would increase the radiation damage displacements per atom per second (dpa-s -1 ) in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall as compared to only conventional, enriched UOX fuel in the core. The evaluation of radiation damage within the core shroud and vessel wall is a concern because of the potentially adverse affect to personnel and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor.The primary uniqueness of this paper is the computation of radiation damage (dpa-s -1 ) using NJOY99-processed cross sections for steel within the core shroud and vessel wall. Specifically, the unique radiation damage results are several orders of magnitude greater than results of previous works. In addition, the conclusion of this paper was that the addition of the maximum fraction of one-third MOX fuel to the LV1 BWR core did significantly increase the radiation damage in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall such that without mitigation of radiation damage by periodic thermal annealing or reduction in operating parameters such as neutron fluence, core temperature, and pressure, it posed a potentially adverse affect to the personnel and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor

  19. Comparison of core-shell and totally porous ultra high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on their selectivity towards alfuzosin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2014-06-13

    This paper focuses on the application of a column classification system based on the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven for the characterization of physicochemical properties of core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases, followed by the verification of the reliability of the obtained column classification in pharmaceutical practice. In the study, 7 stationary phases produced in core-shell technology and 18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns were chromatographically tested, and ranking lists were built on the FKUL-values calculated against two selected reference columns. In the column performance test, an analysis of alfuzosin in the presence of related substances was carried out using the brands of the stationary phases with the highest ranking positions. Next, a system suitability test as described by the European Pharmacopoeia monograph was performed. Moreover, a study was also performed to achieve a purposeful shortening of the analysis time of the compounds of interest using the selected stationary phases. Finally, it was checked whether methods using core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns can be an interesting alternative to the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of alfuzosin in pharmaceutical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  1. New concept of damage evaluation method for core internal materials considering radiation induced stress relaxation (1). Experiments and modeling of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yukio; Kondo, Keietsu; Okubo, Nariaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In order to build the new concept of material damage evaluation method, synergistic effect of radiation and residual stress on material degradation was estimated experimentally, and the effect of radiation induced stress relaxation on retardation of material degradation was observed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 7--12). Volume 2, Part 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specific shutdown accidents would be useful

  4. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fires during mid-loop operations. Volume 3, Part 1, Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musicki, Z.; Chu, T.L.; Yang, J.; Ho, V.; Hou, Y.M.; Lin, J.; Siu, N.

    1994-07-01

    During l989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than fun power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in ' the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few. procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1992-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  8. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  9. Evidence for three types of x-ray damage repair in yeast and sensitivity of totally repair deficient strains to sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, J.C.; Schild, D.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of yeast that confer sensitivity to x-rays are known to fall into two epistasis groups, called here the RAD51 and RAD18 groups, which are each thought to control a different type of x-ray repair. They examine here the role of genes in a third repair pathways in x-ray repair. RAD1 and RAD3 are known to be important in the repair of pyrimidine dimers after uv-irradiation. They find that these genes can also play an important role in x-ray repair, but that this role is only exposed when both the other pathways of x-ray repair are blocked. Double mutants blocked in the RAD51 and RAD18 pathways are significantly less x-ray sensitive than triple mutants blocked in these pathways but also mutant in either the RAD1 or RAD3 genes. In a related experiment, they tested the importance of DNA repair in nature by determining the sensitivity to natural unfiltered sunlight of a strain lacking all known DNA repair pathways. They constructed a quadruple mutant strain containing RAD1-1, RAD18-2, RAD51-1 and PHR1-1. The latter mutation blocks the cell's ability to photoreactivate uv damage. They found that this strain was so sensitive to sunlight that less than three seconds' exposure would cause an average of one lethal hit per cell, and survival was less than 2% after ten seconds' exposure. Wild type yeast at sea level showed no killing after thirty minutes. the quadruple mutant is approximately one thousand times more sensitive to sunlight than the related wild type

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis

  12. Mechanism of the protective effects of the combined treatment with rhynchophylla total alkaloids and sinapine thiocyanate against a prothrombotic state caused by vascular endothelial cell inflammatory damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlun; Zhang, Xinya; Yang, Wenqing; Li, Chao; Chu, Yanjun; Jiang, Haiqiang; Shen, Zhenzhen

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and the underlying mechanism of the combined treatment of rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) and sinapine thiocyanate for protection against a prothrombotic state (PTS) associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory injury of vascular endothelial cells (VECs). A TNF-α-induced VEC inflammatory injury model was established, and cell morphology of VECs was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression of coagulation-related factors, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), protease-activation receptors (PAR-1) and protein kinase C (PKC-α) in VECs. Combined treatment with RTA and sinapine thiocyanate was demonstrated to reduce, to a varying extent, the mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB, TGF-β1, TF, PAR-1, PKC-α and PAI-1. Furthermore, combined treatment with RTA and sinapine thiocyanate was able to downregulate the expression of coagulation-related factors in injured VECs, thereby inhibiting the PTS induced by vascular endothelial injury. The underlying mechanism is partially associated with the TF-mediated activation of the thrombin-receptor signaling pathway that suppresses coagulation during inflammation and balances fibrinolysis in order to inhibit fibrin generation and deposition.

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  17. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  18. Efeito da casca da berinjela (Solanum melongena) sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicerídeos, colesterol total e frações lipídicas, em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) hiperlipidêmicos ( The effect of the eggplant core on blood lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherem, A.D.R.; Tramonte, V.L.C.G.; Fett, R.; Dokkum, W. van

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the eggplant core on the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total- LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, in male guinea pigs, randomly assigned into five groups: 1 (N) - normolipidic diet AIN-93G, 2 (NB) - normolipidic diet, supplemented with eggplant core, halfway of the

  19. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Ploggr, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI-2) core examination is divided into four stages: (1) before removing the head; (2) before removing the plenum; (3) during defueling; and (4) offsite examinations. Core examinations recommended during the first three stages are primarily devoted to documenting the post-accident condition of the core. The detailed analysis of core damage structures will be performed during offsite examinations at government and commercial hot cell facilities. The primary objectives of these examinations are to enhance the understanding of the degraded core accident sequence, to develop the technical bases for reactor regulations, and to improve LWR design and operation

  20. Analysis of core melt accident in Fukushima Daiichi-Unit 1 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a profound understanding of the serious situation in Unit 1 and Unit 2/3 reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereafter abbreviated as 1F1 and 1F2/3, respectively), which was directly caused by tsunami due to a huge earthquake on 11 March 2011, analyses of severe core damage are performed. In the present report, the analysis method and 1F1 analysis are described. The analysis is essentially based on the total energy balance in the core. In the analysis, the total energy vs. temperature curve is developed for each reactor, which is based on the estimated core materials inventory and material property data. Temperature and melt fraction are estimated by comparing the total energy curve with the total stored energy in the core material. The heat source is the decay heat of fission products and actinides together with reaction heat from the zirconium steam reaction. (author)

  1. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Baleani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61 and metal-on-metal (N = 87 bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  2. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  3. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  4. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  5. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  6. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  8. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  9. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  10. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  11. Testing of the fuel element - radiation damage of the construction materials of the fuel element and reactor core; Ispitivanje gorivnog elementa - radijaciono ostecenje konstrukcionih materijala gorivnog elementa i jezgra reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    This report covers the following: review of present radiation damage testing of stainless steels and zircaloy-2 used in heavy water reactors; plan of experiments for irradiation of of these materials.

  12. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  13. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  14. Validation of the mortality prediction equation for damage control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , preoperative lowest pH and lowest core body temperature to derive an equation for the purpose of predicting mortality in damage control surgery. It was shown to reliably predict death despite damage control surgery. The equation derivation ...

  15. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  16. Core status computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate power distribution, flow rate and the like in the reactor core with high accuracy in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Total flow rate signals, traverse incore probe (TIP) signals as the neutron detector signals, thermal power signals and pressure signals are inputted into a process computer, where the power distribution and the flow rate distribution in the reactor core are calculated. A function generator connected to the process computer calculates the absolute flow rate passing through optional fuel assemblies using, as variables, flow rate signals from the introduction part for fuel assembly flow rate signals, data signals from the introduction part for the geometrical configuration data at the flow rate measuring site of fuel assemblies, total flow rate signals for the reactor core and the signals from the process computer. Numerical values thus obtained are given to the process computer as correction signals to perform correction for the experimental data. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, K.

    1997-01-01

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  18. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  19. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  20. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  1. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  2. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  3. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  4. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  5. Activity release from the damaged spent VVER-fuel during long-term wet storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slonszki, E.; Hozer, Z. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Pinter, T.; Baracska Varju, I. [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, Paks (Hungary)

    2010-07-01

    An ex-core fuel damage incident took place at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary on the 10{sup th} April 2003. After this event the damaged fuel assemblies were stored under water for four years. During wet storage a continuous activity release was observed. The evaluation of the measured activity concentration showed that the UO{sub 2} mass released from the fuel into the coolant was {approx} 1.8% of the total fuel mass. Furthermore this paper contains the calculation methods and the calculated activity release of the main analysed isotopes. (orig.)

  6. Activity release from the damaged spent VVER-fuel during long-term wet storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slonszki, E.; Hozer, Z.; Pinter, T.; Baracska Varju, I.

    2010-01-01

    An ex-core fuel damage incident took place at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary on the 10 th April 2003. After this event the damaged fuel assemblies were stored under water for four years. During wet storage a continuous activity release was observed. The evaluation of the measured activity concentration showed that the UO 2 mass released from the fuel into the coolant was ∼ 1.8% of the total fuel mass. Furthermore this paper contains the calculation methods and the calculated activity release of the main analysed isotopes. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Internal events appendices K to M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Yakle, J.; Walsh, B.; Darby, J.; Whitehead, D.; Staple, B.; Brown, T.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probabilistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 (approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143. The report contains the following appendices: K - HEP Locator Files; L - Supporting Information for the Plant Damage State Analysis; M - Summary of Results from the Coarse Screening Analysis - Phase 1A

  8. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  9. Core baffle for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Berringer, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns the design of the core of a LWR with a large number of fuel assemblies formed by fuel rods and kept in position by spacer grids. According to the invention, at the level of the spacer grids match plates are mounted with openings so the flow of coolant directed upwards will not be obstructed and a parallel bypass will be obtained in the space between the core barrel and the baffle plates. In case of an accident, this configuration reduces or avoids damage from overpressure reactions. (HP) [de

  10. Support tube of in-core instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzumura, Takeshi; Saito, Shozo; Yasuda, Tetsuo; Shirosaki, Kiyotaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit satisfactory output measurement by preventing the bending of a in-core instrument tube within a reactor due to vibrations by means of a spring and thereby preventing mechanical damage of an adjacent fuel channel box. Structure: At a corner of a channel box of a fuel assembly, a in-core instrument tube is arranged along a channel box and has its surface provided with a plurality of removable leaf springs arranged in the direction of axis of the in-core instrument tube and each having an arcular tip. Thus, when the in-core instrument tube is inserted into the reactor, the arcular tip portions of the leaf springs are brought into plane contact with the corner of the channel box so that the in-core instrument tube is elastically supported on the channel box. Thus, there is no possibility of causing damage to the adjacent fuel channel box. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Comparative study of radiation damage accumulation in Cu and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caturla, M.J.; Soneda, N.; Alonso, E.; Wirth, B.D.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Perlado, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Bcc and fcc metals exhibit significant differences in behavior when exposed to neutron or heavy ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that damage in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) is visible in copper irradiated to very low doses, but that no damage is visible in iron irradiated to the same total dose. In order to understand and quantify this difference in behavior, we have simulated damage production and accumulation in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. We use 20 keV primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) at a homologous temperature of 0.25 of the melting point. The primary damage state was calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) with empirical, embedded-atom interatomic potentials. Damage accumulation was modeled using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm to follow the evolution of all defects produced in the cascades. The diffusivities and binding energies of defects are input data for this simulation and were either extracted from experiments, the literature, or calculated using MD. MD simulations reveal that vacancy clusters are produced within the cascade core in the case of copper. In iron, most of the vacancies do not cluster during cooling of the cascade core and are available for diffusion. In addition, self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are produced in copper cascades but those observed in iron are smaller in number and size. The combined MD/kMC simulations reveal that the visible cluster densities obtained as a function of dose are at least one order of magnitude lower in Fe than in Cu. We compare the results with experimental measurements of cluster density and find excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments when small interstitial clusters are considered to be mobile as suggested by recent MD simulations

  12. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  13. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  14. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  15. Analysis of emergency operating procedures effectiveness for core damage prevention using computer code RELAP for nuclear power plants with VVER-1000/B-320 in reference to primary to secondary circuit leak with external power loss and BRU-A stuck open failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelski, L.; Sheveliov, D. V.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents analysis of development emergency operating procedures effectiveness for possible accident on nuclear power plant with WWER-1000 reactor type. Accident initiating event is the primary to secondary circuit leak caused by steam generator primary cover lift-up. In according to conservative assumptions the following additional failures were considered: dump valve BRU-A stuck open failure; loss of external power. The results of this work are represented as a comparative analysis of two possible ways of accident evolution: according to functioning automatic safety systems responses; according to accident management based on development emergency operating procedures with operator intervention. Developed emergency operating procedures assure the following significant goals to mitigate accident sequences: optimal use of ECCS water inventory; severe core damage prevention; mitigation of environment radioactive contamination. (authors)

  16. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  17. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  18. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  19. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  20. Materials behaviour in PWRs core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbu, A.; Massoud, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Like in any industrial facility, the materials of PWR reactors are submitted to mechanical, thermal or chemical stresses during particularly long durations of operation: 40 years, and even 60 years. Materials closer to the nuclear fuel are submitted to intense bombardment of particles (mainly neutrons) coming from the nuclear reactions inside the core. In such conditions, the damages can be numerous and various: irradiation aging, thermal aging, friction wear, generalized corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The understanding of the materials behaviour inside the cores of reactors in operation is a major concern for the nuclear industry and its long term forecast is a necessity. This article describes the main ways of materials degradation without and under irradiation, with the means used to foresee their behaviour using physics-based models. Content: 1 - structures, components and materials: structure materials, nuclear materials; 2 - main ways of degradation without irradiation: thermal aging, stress corrosion, wear; 3 - main ways of degradation under irradiation: microscopic damaging - point defects, dimensional alterations, evolution of mechanical characteristics under irradiation, irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), synergies; 4 - forecast of materials evolution under irradiation using physics-based models: primary damage - fast dynamics, primary damage annealing - slow kinetics microstructural evolution, impact of microstructural changes on the macroscopic behaviour, insight on modeling methods; 5 - materials change characterization techniques: microscopic techniques - direct defects observation, nuclear techniques using a particle beam, global measurements, mechanical characterizations; 6 - perspectives. (J.S.)

  1. Studies on WWER core diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunin, G.L.; Mitin, V.I.; Bulavin, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The reliability and safety of nuclear power plants have decisive meaning under the situation that nuclear power generation steadily increases, and among various measures aiming at ensuring the reliability and safety in the operation of nuclear power plants, the countermeasures for protecting reactor core, main process equipment and high pressure circuits from damage have the important role, and the monitoring of condition and the organization of forecast, which are carried out continuously or periodically during the operation of nuclear power stations using the diagnostic expert system specially developed for the purpose, are included in them. Such monitoring enables the early detection of mechanical damage, increase of vibration, defects caused during operation and so on in reactor cores and primary and secondary circuits, and the continuous watching of defect developments. Also boiling in a core is detected, the place of abnormality occurrence is identified, and the intensity and characteristics of boiling are determined, thus the occurrence of dangerous condition is prevented. The developments of an in-core monitoring system and noise diagnostic systems are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Optimized core loading sequence for Ukraine WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, M.; Shah, H.

    2015-01-01

    Fuel Assemblies (WFAs) experienced mechanical damage of the grids during loading at both South Ukraine 2 (SU2) and South Ukraine 3 (SU3). The grids were damaged due to high lateral loads exceeding their strength limit. The high lateral loads were caused by a combination of distortion and stiffness of the mixed core fuel assemblies and significant fuel assembly-to-fuel assembly interaction combined with the core loading sequence being used. To prevent damage of the WFA grids during core loading, Westinghouse has developed a loading sequence technique and loading aides (smooth sided dummies and top nozzle loading guides) designed to minimize fuel assembly-to-fuel assembly interaction while maximizing the potential for successful loading (i.e., no fuel assembly damage and minimized loading time). The loading sequence technique accounts for cycle-specific core loading patterns and is based on previous Westinghouse WWER core loading experience and fundamental principles. The loading aids are developed to “open-up” the target core location or to provide guidance into a target core location. The Westinghouse optimized core loading sequence and smooth sided dummies were utilized during the successful loading of SU3 Cycle 25 mixed core in March 2015, with no instances of fuel assembly damage and yet still provided considerable time savings relative to the 2012 and 2013 SU3 reload campaigns. (authors)

  3. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  4. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  5. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J.; Odar, F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (a) to remove energy from the core, (b) to stabilize the core or (c) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel

  6. Method for orienting a borehole core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, W.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for longitudinally orienting a borehold core with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drill string which drilled said borehold core in such a manner that the original longitudinal attitude of said borehold core within the earth may be determined. At least a portion of said borehold core is partialy demagnetized in steps to thereby at least partially remove in steps the artificial remanent magnetism imparted to said borehole core by said drill string. The artifical remanent magnetism is oriented substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of said drill string. The direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core is measured at desired intervals during the partial demagnetizing procedure. An artificial remanent magnetism vector is established which extends from the final measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehole core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure towards the initial measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure. The borehold core is oriented in such a manner that said artificial remanent magnetism vector points at least substantially downwardly towards the bottom of said borehold core for a borehold in the northern hemisphere and points at least substantailly upwardly towards the top of said borehole core for a borehole in the southern hemisphere

  7. Nuclear reactor core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to provide a fast reactor core assembly design for use with a fluid coolant such as liquid sodium or carbon monoxide incorporating a method of increasing the percentage of coolant flow though the blanket elements relative to the total coolant flow through the blanket and fuel elements during shutdown conditions without using moving parts. It is claimed that deterioration due to reactor radiation or temperature conditions is avoided and ready modification or replacement is possible. (U.K.)

  8. Effect of fluid-to-structure heat transfer on the structural damage potential to a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, S.J.; Abramson, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    Deterministic calculations simulating a hypothetical accident in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor that leads to a hydrodynamic disassembly of the core have been carried out to estimate the system's damage potential due to the vapor-pressure-driven expansion of molten core material and its dependency on the heat transfer to the remaining structure. These calculations ignored the effect on the work potential of sodium left in the core during the disassembly. Results indicate that steel cladding in the upper axial blankets and fission gas plenum acts as a thermodynamic energy sink that could reduce the total thermodynamic work energy by between one and two orders of magnitude, provided little or no sodium is present in the core at the time of interaction. These results have been found to be insensitive to the rate of heat transferred from the molten fuel to the molten steel that comprises the molten core material

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Program (FATIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    FATIG computes fatigue damage/fatigue life using the stress rms (root mean square) value, the total number of cycles, and S-N curve parameters. The damage is computed by the following methods: (a) traditional method using Miner s rule with stress cycles determined from a Rayleigh distribution up to 3*sigma; and (b) classical fatigue damage formula involving the Gamma function, which is derived from the integral version of Miner's rule. The integration is carried out over all stress amplitudes. This software solves the problem of probabilistic fatigue damage using the integral form of the Palmgren-Miner rule. The software computes fatigue life using an approach involving all stress amplitudes, up to N*sigma, as specified by the user. It can be used in the design of structural components subjected to random dynamic loading, or by any stress analyst with minimal training for fatigue life estimates of structural components.

  10. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  11. Multi-scale fracture damage associated with underground chemical explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, E. M.; Sussman, A. J.; Wilson, J. E.; Townsend, M. J.; Prothro, L. B.; Gang, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding rock damage induced by explosions is critical for a number of applications including the monitoring and verification of underground nuclear explosions, mine safety issues, and modeling fluid flow through fractured rock. We use core observations, televiewer logs, and thin section observations to investigate fracture damage associated with two successive underground chemical explosions (SPE2 and SPE3) in granitic rock at both the mesoscale and microscale. We compare the frequency and orientations of core-scale fractures, and the frequency of microfractures, between a pre-experiment core and three post-experiment cores. Natural fault zones and explosion-induced fractures in the vicinity of the explosive source are readily apparent in recovered core and in thin sections. Damage from faults and explosions is not always apparent in fracture frequency plots from televiewer logs, although orientation data from these logs suggests explosion-induced fracturing may not align with the pre-existing fracture sets. Core-scale observations indicate the extent of explosion-induced damage is 10.0 m after SPE2 and 6.8 m after SPE3, despite both a similar size and location for both explosions. At the microscale, damage is observed to a range distance of 10.2 ± 0.9 m after SPE2, and 16.6 ± 0.9 and 11.2 ± 0.6 in two different cores collected after SPE3. Additional explosion-induced damage, interpreted to be the result of spalling, is readily apparent near the surface, but only in the microfracture data. This depth extent and intensity of damage in the near-surface region also increased after an additional explosion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating structural damage at multiple scales for a more complete characterization of the damage, and particularly shows the importance of microscale observations for identifying spallation-induced damage.

  12. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  13. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored

  14. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  15. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  16. ROSA full-core and DNBR capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibcus, H.P.M.; Verhagen, F.C.M.; Wakker, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The latest developments of the ROSA (Reloading Optimization by Simulated Annealing) code system with an emphasis on the first full-core version and the minimum DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) as a new optimization parameter are presented. Designing the core loading pattern of nuclear power plants is becoming a more and more complex task. This task becomes even more complicated if asymmetries in the core loading pattern arise, for instance due to damaged fuel assemblies. For over almost 2 decades ROSA, NRG's (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group) loading pattern optimization code system for PWRs, has proven to be a valuable tool to reactor operators in accomplishing this task. To improve the use of ROSA for designing asymmetric loading patterns, NRG has developed a full-core version of ROSA besides the original quarter-core version which requires rotational symmetry in the computational domain. The extension of ROSA with DNBR as an optimization parameter is part of ROSA's continuous development. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  18. PBF severe fuel damage program: results and comparison to analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.E.; Buescher, B.J.; Gruen, G.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; McCardell, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage research program in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to investigate fuel rod and core response, and fission product and hydrogen release and transport under degraded core cooling accident conditions. This paper presents a description of Phase I of the PBF Severe Fuel Damage Program, discusses the results of the first experiment, and compares those results with analysis performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code

  19. Degraded core studies at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Howe, T.M.; Miller, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    During 1980, planning of prototypical severe fuel damage tests to be conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to investigate fuel behavior in severe accidents up to temperatures of 2400 0 K was initiated. This first series of tests is designated Phase I. Also, a code development effort was initiated to provide a reliable predictive tool for core behavior during severe accidents. During 1981, an assessment of capabilities and preliminary planning were begun for an in-pile experimental program to investigate the behavior of larger arrays of previously irradiated fuel rods at temperatures through UO 2 melting. This latter series of tests is designated Phase II

  20. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  1. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  2. Iodine behaviour in PWR accidents leading to severe core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.; Devillers, C.; Fermandjian, J.; Manesse, D.

    1982-09-01

    This paper deals with the iodine partition coefficient between the water at the bottom of the reactor building and the atmosphere above it. Molecular iodine is considered as a potential contributor to the airborne activity inside the reactor building. The concentration of molecular iodine in the containment atmosphere will depend, on one hand, upon mechanisms which generate that species and, on the other hand, upon the kinetics of chemical reactions which consume that species. Experiments have therefore been performed on the two following items: - molecular iodine formation through ν radiation from cesium iodide aerosols (droplets) in the reactor containment building, for doses ranging between 1.2 and 8 MRad (12 and 80 kSv), with solutions of various pH's and at different temperatures, - rate of hypoiodous acid disproportionation into iodate and iodide influencing further behavior of molecular iodine

  3. Modeling of reflood of severely damaged reactor core

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrata, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Les événements récents au Japon sur les centrales nucléaires de Fukushima ont montré que des accidents conduisant à la fusion du cœur peuvent survenir bine plus souvent qu’on ne l’avait supposé et que leur impact sur l’environnement et la vie publique est considérable. Pour les réacteurs actuels, un des moyens principaux pour stopper la progression de l’accident est de tenter de refroidir le plus rapidement possible les matériaux en utiliser une injection d’eau de secours. Suivant l’instant d...

  4. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants in order to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants

  5. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  6. Development of Structural Core Components for Breeder Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2013-01-01

    Core structural materials: • The desire is to have only fuel in the core, structural material form 25% of the total core: – To support and to retain the fuel in position; – Provide necessary ducts to make coolant flow through & transfer/remove heat. • For 500 MWe FBR with Oxide fuel (Peak Linear Power 450 W/cm), total fuel pins required in the core are of the order 39277 pins (both inner & outer core Fuel SA); • Considering 217 pins/Fuel SA there are 181 Fuel SA wrapper tubes • These structural materials see hostile core with max temperature and neutron flux

  7. [Core muscle chains activation during core exercises determined by EMG-a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Riesen, Jan; Taeymans, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Good core muscles strength is essential for daily life and sports activities. However, the mechanism how core muscles may be effectively triggered by exercises is not yet precisely described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate of activation as measured by electromyography of the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscle chains during core (trunk) muscle exercises. A total of 16 studies were included. Exercises with a vertical starting position, such as the deadlift or squat activated significantly more core muscles than exercises in the horizontal initial position.

  8. Damage Control Technology - A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The Canadian Navy has identified the reduction of the total operating cost ( TOC ) of new ships as a priority. The major contributors to the TOC of a...Corporation, California, USA AC-CAS Group Co. Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand Apollo Fire Detectors, Hempshire, England, UK Compania Panamena de Sistemas ...National Defence DRDC Defence Research and Development Canada TOC Total Operating Cost BDCS Battle Damage Control System DC-ARM Damage Control

  9. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  10. In-core Instrument Subcritical Verification (INCISV) - Core Design Verification Method - 358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prible, M.C.; Heibel, M.D.; Conner, S.L.; Sebastiani, P.J.; Kistler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    According to the standard on reload startup physics testing, ANSI/ANS 19.6.1, a plant must verify that the constructed core behaves sufficiently close to the designed core to confirm that the various safety analyses bound the actual behavior of the plant. A large portion of this verification must occur before the reactor operates at power. The INCISV Core Design Verification Method uses the unique characteristics of a Westinghouse Electric Company fixed in-core self powered detector design to perform core design verification after a core reload before power operation. A Vanadium self powered detector that spans the length of the active fuel region is capable of confirming the required core characteristics prior to power ascension; reactivity balance, shutdown margin, temperature coefficient and power distribution. Using a detector element that spans the length of the active fuel region inside the core provides a signal of total integrated flux. Measuring the integrated flux distributions and changes at various rodded conditions and plant temperatures, and comparing them to predicted flux levels, validates all core necessary core design characteristics. INCISV eliminates the dependence on various corrections and assumptions between the ex-core detectors and the core for traditional physics testing programs. This program also eliminates the need for special rod maneuvers which are infrequently performed by plant operators during typical core design verification testing and allows for safer startup activities. (authors)

  11. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  12. Changes in nuclear protein acetylation in u.v.-damaged human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, B.; Smerdon, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The levels of nuclear protein acetylation in u.v.-irradiated human fibroblasts have been investigated. Initially, we measured the levels of acetylation in total acid-soluble nuclear proteins and observed two distinct differences between the irradiated and unirradiated (control) cells. Immediately after irradiation, there is a 'wave' of protein hyperacetylation that lasts for 2-6 h, followed by a hypoacetylation phase, lasting for many hours, and the total level of acetylation does not return to that of control cells until 24-72 h after u.v. damage. Both the magnitude and duration of each phase is dependent on the dose of u.v. light used. The wave of hyperacetylation is more pronounced at low u.v. doses, while the wave of hypoacetylation is more pronounced at higher u.v. doses. Furthermore, the duration of each phase is prolonged when cells are exposed to 2 mM hydroxyurea, an agent which retards the rate of excision repair at u.v.-damaged sites. Examinations of the acetylation levels of the individual nuclear proteins indicated that acetylation of the core histones follows the same pattern observed for the total acid-soluble protein fractions. Furthermore, these were the only major proteins in the total acid-soluble fraction observed to undergo the early, rapid hyperacetylation immediately following u.v. damage. These results raise the possibility that a causal relationship exists between nuclear protein acetylation and nucleotide excision repair of DNA in human cells. (author)

  13. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie. (auteur)

  14. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  15. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  17. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  18. Damage correlation in theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Odette, G.R.; Simons, R.L.; Mansur, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    Common to all reactor development work is the problem of differences between the irradiation environments used for materials testing and those typical of service conditions. Efforts are being made to develop damage models that incorporate irradiation parameters such as type and energy of radiation, flux, and exposure. Models relating radiation damage production and microstructural evolution to changes in mechanical properties are primitive. Nevertheless, they suggest that the inability to account quantitatively for differences in test and service neutron spectra leads to overly conservative design of out-of-core components. Direct experimental corroboration is difficult because of the low neutron fluxes associated with the desired soft spectra. Further development of mechanistic models and new approaches to model testing are needed. Models of the growth stage of swelling, on the other hand, are relatively advanced. These models are discussed briefly as an example of how damage models can be used to help guide and analyze irradiation experiments. Accelerated damage studies using charged particles are expected to continue. Current empirical correlations of damage rates can be given a firmer theoretical basis as analysis of experiments and modeling of damage continue to improve. Damage correlation methodology practices in reactor design must necessarily follow different rules from that practiced in materials research and development. Nevertheless, decreasing the gap between them is a laudable objective with potentially significant economic impact

  19. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  20. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  1. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  2. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  3. Changes in nuclear protein acetylation in u. v. -damaged human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, B.; Smerdon, M.J.

    1986-07-01

    We have investigated the levels of nuclear protein acetylation in u.v.-irradiated human fibroblasts. We measured the levels of acetylation in total acid-soluble nuclear proteins and observed two distinct differences between the irradiated and unirradiated (control) cells. Immediately after irradiation, there is a wave of protein hyperacetylation (i.e. a total acetylation level greater than that of unirradiated cells) that lasts for 2-6 h depending on the experimental conditions. This hyperacetylation phase is then followed by a hypoacetylation phase, lasting for many hours, and the total level of acetylation does not return to that of control cells until 24-72 h after u.v. damage. Both the magnitude and duration of each phase is dependent on the dose of u.v. light used. The wave of hyperacetylation is more pronounced at low u.v. doses (i.e. less than 5 J/m2), while the wave of hypoacetylation is more pronounced at higher u.v. doses (greater than or equal to 8 J/m2). Furthermore, the duration of each phase is prolonged when cells are exposed to 2 mM hydroxyurea. Examination of the acetylation levels of the individual nuclear proteins indicated that acetylation of the core histones follows the same pattern observed for the total acid-soluble protein fractions. Furthermore, these were the only major proteins in the total acid-soluble fraction observed to undergo the early, rapid hyperacetylation immediately following u.v. damage. Acetylation of histone H1 was negligible in both damaged and control cells, while three prominent non-histone proteins were acetylated only after long labeling times (greater than 4 h) in each case, gradually becoming hyperacetylated in the u.v.-damaged cells. These results raise the possibility that a causal relationship exists between nuclear protein acetylation and nucleotide excision repair of DNA in human cells.

  4. Phosphate, carbonate and organic matter distribution in sediment cores off Bombay-Saurashtra coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Rao, Ch.M.

    relationship. The total phosphorus value is high in the core from the slope, almost uniform in the cores from the outer shelf and a core from the nearby basin, but poor in a core (no. 3) considered to be from a 'closed basin' within the shelf. The total...

  5. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  6. Aspects of unconventional cores for large sodium cooled power reactors; evaluation of a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefhaber, E.

    1978-10-01

    The report gives an overview of a literature study on the application of unconventional cores for sodium cooled fast reactors. Different types of unconventional cores (heterogeneous cores, pancake cores, moderated cores and others) are compared with conventional cores, which are characterized by a cylindrical geometry with two or three fissile zones surrounded by an axial and a radial blanket. The main parameters of interest in this comparison are the neutronic parameters sodium void and Doppler effect, the breeding properties and the steel damage. Consequences for the core safety and the overall plant design are also mentioned

  7. Reactor core of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)

  8. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie

  9. A concise synthesis of the cortistatin core

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Mingji; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a concise and convergent route to the core matrix of the cortistatin steroidal alkaloids. The salient features of the synthesis are the Snieckus cascade methodology and the Masamune alkylative dearomatization. This chemistry lends itself to a total synthesis of the cortistatins and to the development of a SAR program based on diverted total synthesis.

  10. Deep ice coring at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fujii

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep ice coring was carried out at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica in 1995 and 1996 following a pilot borehole drilled and cased with FRP pipes in 1993,and reached 2503.52m in December 1996. Total numbers of ice coring runs below the pilot borehole and chip collection were 1369 and 837 respectively. The mean coring depths per run and per day were 1.75m and 8.21m respectively. We report the outline of the coring operation, the system, coring method, and troubles encountered during the coring work.

  11. Determination of PWR core water level using ex-core detectors signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Alvaro; Abarca, Agustin; Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo

    2013-01-01

    The core water level provides relevant neutronic and thermalhydraulic information of the reactor such as power, k eff and cooling ability; in fact, core water level monitoring could be used to predict LOCA and cooling reduction which may deal with core damage. Although different detection equipment is used to monitor several parameters such as the power, core water level monitoring is not an evident task. However, ex-core detectors can measure the fast neutrons leaking the core and several studies demonstrate the existence of a relationship between fast neutron leakage and core water level due to the shielding effect of the water. In addition, new ex-core detectors are being developed, such as silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors, monitoring the neutron flux with higher accuracy and in higher temperatures conditions. Therefore, a methodology to determine this relationship has been developed based on a Monte Carlo calculation using MCNP code and applying variance reduction with adjoint functions based on the adjoint flux obtained with the discrete ordinates code TORT. (author)

  12. Studies on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hee Yong; Sohn, Young Sook

    1998-04-01

    We studied on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage in animal system. To this end we studied following areas of research (1) mechanisms involved in bone marrow damage after total body irradiation, (2) extraction of components that are useful in protecting hematopoietic system from radiation damage, (3) cell therapy approach in restoring the damaged tissue, (4) development of radioprotective chemical reagent, and (5) epidemiological study on the population that had been exposed to radiation.

  13. Studies on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hee Yong; Sohn, Young Sook

    1998-04-01

    We studied on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage in animal system. To this end we studied following areas of research 1) mechanisms involved in bone marrow damage after total body irradiation, 2) extraction of components that are useful in protecting hematopoietic system from radiation damage, 3) cell therapy approach in restoring the damaged tissue, 4) development of radioprotective chemical reagent, and 5) epidemiological study on the population that had been exposed to radiation

  14. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  15. Economic measurement of environment damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  16. Analysis of Ricefield Land Damage in Denpasar City, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyarto, R.; Wiyanti; Dibia, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Soil as a natural resource, living area, environmental media, and factors of production including biomass production that supports human life and other living beings must be preserved, on the other hand, uncontrolled biomass production activities can cause soil damage, ultimately can threaten the survival of humans and other living things. Therefore, in order to control soil damage, first must inventories the soil condition data and its damage which then visualised in soil damage potential and soil damage status. The activities of the study are the preparation of a map of the initial soil conditions and the delineation of potentially land degradation distribution. Mapping results are used as work maps for verification on the field to take soil samples and create soil damage status. In general, Denpasar City have soil damage potential at very low, low until medium rate. Soil damage status in Denpasar City generally is low damage of bulk volume, total porosity, soil permeability and electrolyte conductivity which beyond limitation thresholds.

  17. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  18. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  19. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

  20. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  1. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  2. Review of Repair Materials for Fire-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, MZA Mohd; Abu Bakar, BH; Nazri, FM; Ahmad, MM; Muhamad, K.

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures perform well during fire and may be repaired after the fire incident because their low heat conductivity prevents the loss or degradation of mechanical strength of the concrete core and internal reinforcing steel. When an RC structure is heated to more than 500 °C, mechanical properties such as compressive strength, stiffness, and tensile strength start to degrade and deformations occur. Although the fire-exposed RC structure shows no visible damage, its residual strength decreases compared with that in the pre-fire state. Upon thorough assessment, the fire-damaged RC structure can be repaired or strengthened, instead of subjecting to partial or total demolition followed by reconstruction. The structure can be repaired using several materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymer, glass fiber-reinforced polymer, normal strength concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete, ferrocement, epoxy resin mortar, and high-performance concrete. Selecting an appropriate repair material that must be compatible with the substrate or base material is a vital step to ensure successful repair. This paper reviews existing repair materials and factors affecting their performance. Of the materials considered, ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) exhibits huge potential for repairing fire-damaged RC structures but lack of information available. Hence, further studies must be performed to assess the potential of UHPFRC in rehabilitating fire-damaged RC structures.

  3. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  4. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  5. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  6. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  7. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  8. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored

  9. Subharmonic excitation in an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of subharmonic resonance in a series of blocks with clearance between blocks and with springs on the outer most ends is the subject of this paper. This represents an HTGR core response to an earthquake input. An analytical model of the cross section of this type of core is a series of blocks arranged horizontally between outer walls. Each block represents many graphite hexagonal core elements acting in unison as a single mass. The blocks are of unequal size to model the true mass distribution through the core. Core element elasticity and damping characteristics are modeled with linear spring and viscous damping units affixed to each block. The walls and base represent the core barell or core element containment structure. For forced response calculations, these boundaries are given prescribed motions. The clearance between each block could be the same or different with the total clearance duplicating that of the entire core. Spring packs installed between the first and last block and the boundaries model the boundary elasticity. The system non-linearity is due to the severe discontinuity in the interblock elastic forces when adjacent blocks collide. A computer program using a numerical integration scheme was developed to solve for the response of the system to arbitrary inputs

  10. JOYO MK-II core characteristics database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

    2003-04-01

    The 'JOYO' MK-II core characteristics database was compiled and published in 1998. Comments and requests from many users led to the creation of a revised edition. The revisions include changes to the MAGI calculation code system to use the 70 group JFS-3-J3.2 constant set processed from the JENDL-3.2 library. Total control rod worth, reactor kinetic parameters and the MK-II core performance test results were included per user's requests. The core characteristics obtained from the 32 nd to 35 th operational cycles, which were conducted in the MK-III transition core, were newly added in this revised version. The MK-II core management data and core characteristics data were recorded to CD-ROM for user convenience. The Configuration Data' include the core arrangement and refueling record for each operational cycle. The 'Subassembly Library Data' include the atomic number density, neutron fluence, burn-up, integral power of 362 driver fuel subassemblies and 69 irradiation test subassemblies. The 'Output Data' contain the calculated neutron flux, gamma flux, power density, linear heat rate, coolant and fuel temperature distribution of all the fuel subassemblies at the beginning and end of each operational cycle. The 'Core Characteristics Data' include the measured excess reactivity, control rod worth calibration curve, and reactivity coefficients of temperature, power and burn-up. (author)

  11. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  12. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  13. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  14. Internal core tightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Snyder, H.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An internal core tightener is disclosed which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a ''fixed'' outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change. 5 claims, 12 drawing figures

  15. Thermal interaction of core melt debris with the TMI-2 baffle, core-former, and lower head structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Tolman, E.L.

    1987-09-01

    Recent inspection of the TMI-2 core-former baffle walls (vertical), former plates (horizontal), and lower plenum has been conducted to assess potential damage to these structures. Video observations show evidence of localized melt failure of the baffle walls, whereas fiberoptics data indicate the presence of resolidified debris on the former plates. Lower plenum inspection also confirms the presence of 20 tons or more of core debris in the lower plenum. These data indicate massive core melt relocation and the potential for melt attack on vessel structural components. This report presents analyses aimed at developing an understanding of melt relocation behavior and damage progression to TMI-2 vessel components. Thermal analysis indicates melt-through of the baffle plates, but maintenance of structural integrity of the former plates and lower head. Differences in the damage of these structures is attributed largely to differences in contact time with melt debris and pressure of water. 29 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of core bypass flow phenomena in a prismatic VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Johnson, Richard; Schultz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The core bypass flow in a prismatic very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is an important design consideration and can have considerable impact on the condition of reactor core internals including fuels. The interstitial gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The occurrence of hot spots in the core and lower plenum and hot streaking in the lower plenum (regions of very hot gas flow) are affected by bypass flow. In the present study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations of a typical prismatic VHTR are conducted to better understand bypass flow phenomena and establish an evaluation method for the reactor core using the commercial CFD code FLUENT. Parametric calculations changing several factors in a one-twelfth sector of a fuel column are performed. The simulations show the impact of each factor on bypass flow and the resulting flow and temperature distributions in the prismatic core. Factors include inter-column gap-width, turbulence model, axial heat generation profile and geometry change from irradiation-induced shrinkage in the graphite block region. It is shown that bypass flow provides a significant cooling effect on the prismatic block and that the maximum fuel and coolant channel outlet temperatures increase with an increase in gap-width, especially when a peak radial factor is applied to the total heat generation rate. Also, the presence of bypass flow causes a large lateral temperature gradient in the block and also dramatically increases the variation in coolant channel outlet temperatures for a given block that may have repercussions on the structural integrity of the graphite, the neutronics and the potential for hot streaking and hot spots occurring in the lower plenum.

  17. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  18. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  19. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  20. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  1. ROSA full-core and DNBR capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibcus, H.P.M.; Verhagen, F.C.M.; Wakker, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latest developments of the ROSA (Reloading Optimization by Simulated Annealing) code system with an emphasis on the first full-core version and the minimum DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) as a new optimization parameter. Designing the core loading pattern of nuclear power plants is becoming a more and more complex task. This task becomes even more complicated if asymmetries in the core loading pattern arise, for instance due to damaged fuel assemblies. For over almost two decades ROSA, NRG's (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group) loading pattern optimization code system for PWRs, has proven to be a valuable tool to reactor operators in accomplishing this task. To improve the use of ROSA for designing asymmetric loading patterns, NRG has developed a full-core version of ROSA besides the original quarter-core version which requires rotational symmetry in the computational domain. The extension of ROSA with DNBR as an optimization parameter is part of ROSA's continuous development. (orig.)

  2. Core shroud corner joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  3. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  4. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-01-01

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown

  5. Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G; Henry, Christopher S; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D

    2017-11-01

    The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G.; Henry, Christopher S.; Bruner, Steven D.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects.

  7. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  8. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  9. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  10. Radiation damage in barium fluoride detector materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levey, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Woody, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To develop radiation hard detectors, particularly for high energy physics studies, radiation damage is being studied in BaF 2 , both undoped and doped with La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd and Tm. Some dopants reduce radiation damage. In La doped BaF 2 they reduce the unwanted long lifetime luminescence which interferes with the short-lived fluorescence used to detect particles. Radiation induced coloring is being studied with facilities for making optical measurements before, during and after irradiation with 60 C0 gamma rays. Doses of 10 6 rad, or less, create only ionization induced charge transfer effects since lattice atom displacement damage is negligible at these doses. All crystals studied exhibit color center formation, between approximately 200 and 800 nm, during irradiation and color center decay after irradiation. Thus only measurements made during irradiation show the total absorption present in a radiation field. Both undoped and La doped BaF 2 develop damage at minimum detectable levels in the UV---which is important for particle detectors. For particle detector applications these studies must be extended to high dose irradiations with particles energetic enough to cause lattice atom displacement damage. In principle, the reduction in damage provided by dopants could apply to other applications requiring radiation damage resistant materials

  11. Pollutant plume delineation from tree core sampling using standardized ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bogaert, Patrick; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech...... Republic. Preliminary analyses revealed strongly and positively skewed distributions for the tree core dataset, with an intra-tree variability accounting for more than 80% of the total variability, while the spatial analyses based on variograms indicated no obvious spatial pattern for CE concentration...... groundwater and tree core measurements. Nonetheless, tree core sampling and analysis proved to be a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative method and a useful tool....

  12. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    A heterogeneous gas core nuclear reactor is disclosed comprising a core barrel provided interiorly with an array of moderator-containing tubes and being otherwise filled with a fissile and/or fertile gaseous fuel medium. The fuel medium may be flowed through the chamber and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a fluid which is flowed through the tubes and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a solid which may be cooled by a fluid flowing within the tubes and through an external heat extraction circuit. The core barrel is surrounded by moderator/coolant material. Fissionable blanket material may be disposed inwardly or outwardly of the core barrel

  13. iPSC Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) Core was created in 2011 to accelerate stem cell research in the NHLBI by providing investigators consultation, technical...

  14. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  15. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  16. Restraint system for core elements of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, a core element bundle formed of a plurality of side-by-side arranged core elements is surrounded by restraining elements that exert a radially inwardly directly restraining force generating friction forces between the core elements in a restraining plane that is transverse to the core element axes. The adjoining core elements are in rolling contact with one another in the restraining plane by virtue of rolling-type bearing elements supported in the core elements. (Official Gazette)

  17. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  18. Benefits of invasion prevention: Effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying economic damages caused by invasive species is crucial for cost-benefit analyses of biosecurity measures. Most studies focus on short-term damage estimates, but evaluating exclusion or prevention measures requires estimates of total anticipated damages from the time of establishment onward. The magnitude of such damages critically depends on the timing of...

  19. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  20. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  1. ESFR core optimization and uncertainty studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Vezzoni, B.; Zhang, D.; Marchetti, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Chen, X.-N.; Buiron, L.; Krepel, J.; Sun, K.; Mikityuk, K.; Polidoro, F.; Rochman, D.; Koning, A.J.; DaCruz, D.F.; Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Sunderland, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the European Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) project supported by EURATOM in 2008-2012, a concept for a large 3600 MWth sodium-cooled fast reactor design was investigated. In particular, reference core designs with oxide and carbide fuel were optimized to improve their safety parameters. Uncertainties in these parameters were evaluated for the oxide option. Core modifications were performed first to reduce the sodium void reactivity effect. Introduction of a large sodium plenum with an absorber layer above the core and a lower axial fertile blanket improve the total sodium void effect appreciably, bringing it close to zero for a core with fresh fuel, in line with results obtained worldwide, while not influencing substantially other core physics parameters. Therefore an optimized configuration, CONF2, with a sodium plenum and a lower blanket was established first and used as a basis for further studies in view of deterioration of safety parameters during reactor operation. Further options to study were an inner fertile blanket, introduction of moderator pins, a smaller core height, special designs for pins, such as 'empty' pins, and subassemblies. These special designs were proposed to facilitate melted fuel relocation in order to avoid core re-criticality under severe accident conditions. In the paper further CONF2 modifications are compared in terms of safety and fuel balance. They may bring further improvements in safety, but their accurate assessment requires additional studies, including transient analyses. Uncertainty studies were performed by employing a so-called Total Monte-Carlo method, for which a large number of nuclear data files is produced for single isotopes and then used in Monte-Carlo calculations. The uncertainties for the criticality, sodium void and Doppler effects, effective delayed neutron fraction due to uncertainties in basic nuclear data were assessed for an ESFR core. They prove applicability of the available nuclear data for ESFR

  2. Refractory metal component technology for in-core sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.

    1986-02-01

    Within recent years, an increasing concern over reactor safety has prompted tests that characterize reactor core environments during transient conditions. Such tests include the Loss-of-Fluid-Tests (Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL)), Severe Fuel Damage Tests (INEL), Core Debris Rubble Tests (Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)), and similar tests performed by foreign nations. The in-core sensors for these tests require refractory metal components to be compatible with electrical insulator materials as well as materials comprising highly corrosive service mediums. This paper presents the refractory metal technology utilized to provide basic sensor designs in the above mentioned reactor tests

  3. In-core flow rate distribution measurement test of the JOYO irradiation core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Kazunori; Suzuki, Soju

    1996-01-01

    A flow rate distribution measurement test was carried out for the JOYO irradiation core (the MK-II core) after the 29th duty cycle operation. The main object of the test is to confirm the proper flow rate distribution at the final phase of the MK-II core. The each flow rate at the outlet of subassemblies was measured by the permanent magnetic flowmeter inserted avail of fuel exchange hole in the rotating plug. This is third test in the MK-II core, after 10 years absence from the final test (1985). Total of 550 subassemblies were exchanged and accumulated reactor operation time reached up to 38,000 hours from the previous test. As a conclusion, it confirmed that the flow rate distribution has been kept suitable in the final phase of the MK-II core. (author)

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  7. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  8. Drilling history core hole DC-6 Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Core hole DC-6 was completed in May 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-6. Core hole DC-6 is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site at the old Hanford town site. The Hanford Site coordinates for DC-6 are North 54,127.17 feet and West 17,721.00 feet. The surface elevation is approximately 402 feet above sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-6 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing. The total depth of core hole DC-6 was 4336 feet. Core recovery was 98.4% of the total footage cored

  9. Calculation of ex-core detector responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, R. de; Haedens, M. [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Baenst, H. de [Electrabel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work carried out by Tractebel Engineering, is to develop and validate a method for predicting the ex-core detector responses in the NPPs operated by Electrabel. Practical applications are: prediction of ex-core calibration coefficients for startup power ascension, replacement of xenon transients by theoretical predictions, and analysis of a Rod Drop Accident. The neutron diffusion program PANTHER calculates node-integrated fission sources which are combined with nodal importance representing the contribution of a neutron born in that node to the ex-core response. These importance are computed with the Monte Carlo program MCBEND in adjoint mode, with a model of the whole core at full power. Other core conditions are treated using sensitivities of the ex-core responses to water densities, computed with forward Monte Carlo. The Scaling Factors (SF), or ratios of the measured currents to the calculated response, have been established on a total of 550 in-core flux maps taken in four NPPs. The method has been applied to 15 startup transients, using the average SF obtained from previous cycles, and to 28 xenon transients, using the SF obtained from the in-core map immediately preceding the transient. The values of power (P) and axial offset (AOi) reconstructed with the theoretical calibration agree well with the measured values. The ex-core responses calculated during a rod drop transient have been successfully compared with available measurements, and with theoretical data obtained by alternative methods. In conclusion, the method is adequate for the practical applications previously listed. (authors)

  10. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  11. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  12. Toxicity of sediment cores collected from the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, USA, to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Smorong, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to support a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration project associated with the Ashtabula River in Ohio. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemistry and toxicity of 50 sediment samples obtained from five cores collected from the Ashtabula River (10 samples/core, with each 10-cm-diameter core collected to a total depth of about 150 cm). Effects of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) measured in the sediment samples were evaluated by measuring whole-sediment chemistry and whole-sediment toxicity in the sediment samples (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], organochlorine pesticides, and metals). Effects on the amphipod Hyalella azteca at the end of a 28-day sediment toxicity test were determined by comparing survival or length of amphipods in individual sediment samples in the cores to the range of responses of amphipods exposed to selected reference sediments that were also collected from the cores. Mean survival or length of amphipods was below the lower limit of the reference envelope in 56% of the sediment samples. Concentrations of total PCBs alone in some samples or concentrations of total PAHs alone in other samples were likely high enough to have caused the reduced survival or length of amphipods (i.e., concentrations of PAHs or PCBs exceeded mechanistically based and empirically based sediment quality guidelines). While elevated concentrations of ammonia in pore water may have contributed to the reduced length of amphipods, it is unlikely that the reduced length was caused solely by elevated ammonia (i.e., concentrations of ammonia were not significantly correlated with the concentrations of PCBs or PAHs and concentrations of ammonia were elevated both in the reference sediments and in the test sediments). Results of this study show that PAHs, PCBs, and ammonia are the primary COPCs that are likely causing or substantially contributing to the toxicity to

  13. Severe fuel damage investigations of KFK/PNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the objectives, the program planning, the status and the further procedure of the investigations of KfK/PNS on severe core damage. The investigations were started in 1981 and will be finished in 1985/86. (orig.) [de

  14. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  15. Report on damaged FLIP TRIGA fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltz, Donald E.; Randall, John D.; Schumacher, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Damaged FLIP elements were discovered, positioned adjacent to the transient rod. It then became apparent that this was not the failure of a defective, element but a heretofore unknown operating or design problem. The damaged elements are described as having bulges in the cladding and unevenly spaced dark rings along the fuelled portion of the element. Possible causes are investigated, including: defective fuel elements, incorrectly calculated power distributions in the core and in the elements, water leakage into the void follower of the transient rod, and improper safety limit for FLIP fuel. Based on measurements and calculations that have been experimentally verified it is concluded that the safety limit was not exceeded or even closely approached. It is also concluded that the problem is due entirely due to some phenomena occurring during pulsing, and that the steady state history of the fuel is not a factor

  16. PBF Severe Fuel-Damage Program: results and comparison to analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Buescher, B.J.; Hobbins, R.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Gruen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel-damage research program in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to investigate fuel-rod and core response, and fission-product and hydrogen release and transport under degraded-core-cooling accident conditions. This paper presents a description of Phase I of the PBF Severe Fuel Damage Program, discusses the results of the first experiment, and compares those results with analysis performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code

  17. Core design aspects of SNR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, U.K.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes in its first part the main characteristics of the core of the SNR 2 fast breeder reactor which is being planned within the European collaboration on fast breeder reactors. In the second part some core design aspects are discussed. The fuel element management with an inwards shuffling after each cycle is illustrated which offers advantages with respect to linear rating, steel damage and average discharge burnup. For this management, the full three-dimensional power and burnup history has been calculated and some typical results are presented. The shutdown requirements and the capabilities of the two shutdown systems of SNR 2 are discussed. The necessity for a reliable surveillance of the power distribution is demonstrated by the pronounced power tilts in case of the unintentional withdrawal of an absorber rod. Finally, a short review of the main nuclear design methods and their validation with help of the evaluation of experiments in zero power facilities and power reactors is given

  18. The PWR cores management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Rippert, D.; Johner, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the meeting of the 25 january 2000, organized by the SFEN, scientists and plant operators in the domain of the PWR debated on the PWR cores management. The five first papers propose general and economic information on the PWR and also the fast neutron reactors chains in the electric power market: statistics on the electric power industry, nuclear plant unit management, the ITER project and the future of the thermonuclear fusion, the treasurer's and chairman's reports. A second part offers more technical papers concerning the PWR cores management: performance and optimization, in service load planning, the cores management in the other countries, impacts on the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  19. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  20. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  1. LMFBR core design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, J.C.; Yoh, K.C.; Suk, S.D.; Soh, D.S.; Kim, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    The design parameters of a commercial-scale fast breeder reactor which is currently under construction by regeneration of these data is preliminary analyzed. The analysis of nuclear and thermal characteristics as well as safety features of this reactor is emphasized. And the evaluation of the initial core mentioned in the system description is carried out in the areas of its kinetics and control system, and, at the same time, the flow distribution of sodium and temperature distribution of the initial FBR core system are calculated. (KAERI INIS Section)

  2. Nuclear core catchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A receptacle is described for taking the molten fragments of a nuclear reactor during a reactor core fusion accident. The receptacle is placed under the reactor. It includes at least one receptacle for the reactor core fragments, with a dome shaped part to distribute the molten fragments and at least one outside layer of alumina bricks around the dome. The characteristic of this receptacle is that the outer layer of bricks contains neutron poison rods which pass through the bricks and protrude in relation to them [fr

  3. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  4. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  5. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  6. Power Burst Facility severe-fuel-damage test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCardell, R.K.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has initiated a severe fuel damage research program to investigate fuel rod and core response, and fission product and hydrogen release and transport during degraded core cooling accidents. This paper presents a discussion of the expected benefits of the PBF severe fuel damage tests to the nuclear industry, a description of the first five planned experiments, the results of pretest analysis performed to predict the fuel bundle heatup for the first two experiments, and a discussion of Phase II severe fuel damage experiments. Modifications to the fission product detection system envisioned for the later experiments are also described

  7. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  8. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  9. Black bear damage to northwestern conifers in California: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth O. Fulgham; Dennis Hosack

    2017-01-01

    A total of 789 black bear damaged trees were investigate over a multi-year period on 14 different study sites chosen on lands of four participating timber companies. The sites ranged from 30 to 50 years of age. Four different conifer species were found to have black bear damage: coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), Douglas-fir (...

  10. LMFR core thermohydraulics: Status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    One of the fundamental steps for a successful reactor core thermohydraulic design is the capability to predict, reliably and accurately, the temperature distribution in the core assemblies. A detailed knowledge of the assembly and fuel pin thermohydraulic behaviour in the steady state and transient conditions is an indispensable prerequisite to safe and stable operation of the reactor. Considerable experimental and theoretical studies on various aspects of LMFR core thermohydraulics are necessary to acquire such knowledge. During the last decade, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor core thermohydraulic design and operation in several countries with fast reactor programmes (notably in France, the Russian Federation, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States of America). Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation of reactor cores at a high burnup. During the last years, some additional countries such as China, India and the Republic of Korea have launched new fast reactor programmes. International exchange of information and experience on LMFR development including core thermohydraulic design is becoming of increasing importance to these countries. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Technical Committee on 'Methods and Codes for Calculations of Thermohydraulic Parameters for Fuel, Absorber Pins and Assemblies of LMFR's with Traditional and Burner Cores'. This meeting, attended by participants from seven countries, brought together a group of international experts to review and discuss the thermohydraulic advances and design approaches providing a reliable, safe and robust reactor core, as well as to exchange the experience accumulated in different countries of using the codes for thermohydraulic calculations and to discuss the issues requiring further research and development. A total of thirty technical papers presented covered theoretical and computational issues as well as experiments under

  11. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  12. The Uncommon Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will…

  13. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  14. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  15. Reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Sato, Kanemitsu.

    1992-01-01

    Taking notice on the fact that Fe based alloys and Ni based alloys are corrosion resistant in a special atmosphere of a nuclear reactor, Fe or Ni based alloys are applied to reactor core structural components such as fuel cladding tubes, fuel channels, spacers, etc. On the other hand, the neutron absorption cross section of zirconium is 0.18 barn while that of iron is 2.52 barn and that of nickel is 4.6 barn, which amounts to 14 to 25 times compared with that of zirconium. Accordingly, if the reactor core structural components are constituted by the Fe or Ni based alloys, neutron economy is lowered. Since it is desirable that neutrons contribute to uranium fission with least absorption to the reactor core structural components, the reactor core structural components are constituted with the Fe or Ni based alloys of good corrosion resistance only at a portion in contact with reactor water, that is, at a surface portion, while the main body is constituted with zircalloy in the present invention. Accordingly, corrosion resistnace can be kept while keeping small neutron absorption cross section. (T.M.)

  16. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  17. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  18. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  19. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  20. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  2. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M. [Cleansorb Limited, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moses, V. [King`s College, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  3. [Damage control in field surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Manukovskiĭ, V A; Badalov, V I; Severin, V V; Golovko, K P; Denisenko, V V

    2011-09-01

    Damage control surgery (DCS) is an important option in the store of war surgery and surgery of trauma. The main purpose of our investigation was to specify the percentage of the injured who need DCS. We performed retrospective study of the patients in the combat operations in Chechnya (1994-2002) and in peacetime (2005-2010). Total lethality in group with the standard surgical approach was 62.3%. It was significantly higher than the lethality in group of patients who underwent DCS - 50.0% (p < 0.05). Thus, the experience of DCS in War Surgery Department confirms that DCS is perspective tendency in treatment of patients with severe and extremely severe trauma, and allows decreasing lethality in 12.3%.

  4. CORE annual report 2006; CORE Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A

    2007-04-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed.

  5. Contribution to the microchemistry of smoke damage by fluoride. The migration of fluorides in plant tissue. 2. The visible damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P

    1953-01-01

    In continuation of former investigations, a theory of damage caused by fluorine compounds on green plants was developed. It is possible to differentiate between acute and chronic damages by use of microanalytical estimation of total fluorine and inorganic and organic fluorine compounds in the plants.

  6. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  7. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  8. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  9. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  10. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  11. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  12. The First Total Synthesis of Dragmacidin D

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Neil K.; Sarpong, Richmond; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the biologically significant bis-indole alkaloid dragmacidin D (5) has been achieved. Thermal and electronic modulation provides the key for a series of palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions that furnished the core structure of the complex guanidine- and aminoimidazole-containing dragmacidins. Following this crucial sequence, a succession of meticulously controlled final events was developed leading to the completion of the natural product.

  13. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Santella, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (author)

  14. Neutron induced radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  15. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F P; Santella, R M

    1988-09-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

  16. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  17. SIFAIL: a subprogram to calculate cladding deformation and damage for fast reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.R.; Dutt, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    SIFAIL is a series of subroutines used in conjunction with the thermal performance models of SIEX to assist in the evaluation of mechanical performance of mixed uranium plutonium oxide fuel pins. Cladding deformations due to swelling and creep are calculated. These have been compared to post-irradiation data from fuel pin tests in EBR-II. Several fuel pin cladding failure criteria (cumulative damage, total strain, and thermal creep strain) are evaluated to provide the fuel pin designer with a basis to select design parameters. SIFAIL allows the user many property options for cladding material. Code input is limited to geometric and environmental parameters, with a consistent set of material properties provided by the code. The simplified, yet adequate, thin wall stress--strain calculations provide a reliable estimate of fuel pin mechanical performance, while requiring a small amount of core storage and computer running time

  18. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  19. Cavitation damage of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Marinin, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of ceramic material damage under the effect of cavitation field on their surface, formed in water under the face of exponential concentrator, connected with ultrasonic generator UZY-3-0.4. Amplitude of vibrations of concentrator face (30+-2)x10 -6 m, frequency-21 kHz. It was established that ceramics resistance to cavitation effect correlated with the product of critical of stress intensity factor and material hardness

  20. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  1. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  2. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  3. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  4. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  5. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  6. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  7. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  9. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  10. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Experimental evaluation on the damages of different drilling modes to tight sandstone reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The damages of different drilling modes to reservoirs are different in types and degrees. In this paper, the geologic characteristics and types of such damages were analyzed. Then, based on the relationship between reservoir pressure and bottom hole flowing pressure corresponding to different drilling modes, the experimental procedures on reservoir damages in three drilling modes (e.g. gas drilling, liquid-based underbalanced drilling and overbalanced drilling were designed. Finally, damage simulation experiments were conducted on the tight sandstone reservoir cores of the Jurassic Ahe Fm in the Tarim Basin and Triassic Xujiahe Fm in the central Sichuan Basin. It is shown that the underbalanced drilling is beneficial to reservoir protection because of its less damage on reservoir permeability, but it is, to some extent, sensitive to the stress and the empirical formula of stress sensitivity coefficient is obtained; and that the overbalanced drilling has more reservoir damages due to the invasion of solid and liquid phases. After the water saturation of cores rises to the irreducible water saturation, the decline of gas logging permeability speeds up and the damage degree of water lock increases. It is concluded that the laboratory experiment results of reservoir damage are accordant with the reservoir damage characteristics in actual drilling conditions. Therefore, this method reflects accurately the reservoir damage characteristics and can be used as a new experimental evaluation method on reservoir damage in different drilling modes.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  13. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  16. Schumpeter's core works revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    This paper organises Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology,the evolutionaryeconomic duology,and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionaryeconomics,the paper summarises resolved problems a...... and points at remaining challenges. Its analyses are based on distinctions between microevolution and macroevolution, between economic evolution and socioeconomic coevolution, and between Schumpeter’s three major evolutionary models (called Mark I, Mark II and Mark III)....

  17. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. [Damage control in trauma patients with hemodynamic instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorben; Doll, Dietrich; Kliebe, Frank; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Kühne, Christian

    2010-10-01

    The term "Damage-control" is borrowed from naval terminology. It means the initial control of a damaged ship. Because of the lethal triad in multiple injured patients the classical concept of definitive surgically therapy in the acute phase of the injury has a high rate of complications such as exsanguination, sepsis, heart failure and multiple organ failure. The core idea of the damage control concept was to minimize the additional trauma by surgical operations in these critical patients in the first phase. This means temporary control of a hemorrhage and measures for stopping abdominal contamination. After 24 - 48 hours in the intensive care unit and correction of physiological disturbances further interventions are performed for definitively treatment of the injuries. Summarized, the damage control strategy comprises an abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and a return to the operating room for the definitive operation after hemodynamic stabilisation of the patient. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Damage assessment of compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2010-01-01

    with an implanted circular face/core debond. Compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels and panels with an implanted circular face/core debond with three different types of foam core materials (PVC H130, PVC H250 and PMI 51-IG). The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were...

  1. Transliterating transmission of genome damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovinska, L.; Sanova, S.; Misurova, E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the influence of gamma radiation (3 Gy) on slowly proliferating liver tissue of male rats and their progeny considering to induction and duration of latent damage. The irradiation caused latent cytogenetic damage in the liver in irradiated males of the F 0 generation manifesting itself during induced proliferation of hepatocytes (after partial hepatectomy) by reduced proliferating activity, a higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations and higher proportion of cells with apoptotic DNA fragments. In the progeny of irradiated males (F 1 and F 2 generation), the latent genome damage manifested itself during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy by similar, but less pronounced changes compared with irradiated males of the parental generation. This finding indicates the transfer of the part of radiation-induced genome damage from parents to their progeny. Irradiation of F 1 and F 2 progeny of irradiated males (their total radiation load was 3+3 Gy, 3+0+3 Gy respectively) caused less changes as irradiation of progeny of non-irradiated control males (their total radiation load was 0+3 Gy, 0+0+3 Gy respectively). (authors)

  2. Core reset system design for linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed power system based Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) is being developed at BARC to get an electron beam of 200keV, 5kA, 50ns, 10-100 Hz. Amorphous core is the heart of these accelerators. It serves various functions in different subsystems viz. pulse power modulator, pulse transformer, magnetic switches and induction cavities. One of the factors that make the magnetic components compact is utilization of the total flux swing available in the core. In the present system, magnetic switches, pulse transformers, and induction cavity are designed to avail the full flux swing available in the core. For achieving this objective, flux density in the core has to be kept at the reverse saturation, before the main pulse is applied. The electrical circuit which makes it possible is called the core reset system. In this paper the details of core reset system designed for LIA-200 are described. (author)

  3. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  4. A study on reactor core failure thresholds to safety operation of LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo, Haga; Hiroshi, Endo; Tomoko, Ishizu; Yoshihisa, Shindo

    2006-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (JNES) has been developing the methodology and computer codes for applying level-1 PSA to LMFBR. Many of our efforts have been directed to the judging conditions of reactor core damage and the time allowed to initiate the accident management. Several candidates of the reactor core failure threshold were examined to a typical proto-type LMFBR with MOX fuel based on the plant thermal-hydraulic analyses to the actual progressions leading to the core damage. The results of the present study showed that the judging condition of coolant-boundary integrity failure, 750 degree-C of the boundary temperature, is enough as the threshold of core damage to PLOHS (protected loss-of-heat sink). High-temperature fuel cladding creep failure will not take place before the coolant-boundary reaches the judging temperature and sodium boiling will not occur due to the system pressure rise. In cases of ATWS (anticipated transient without scrum) the accident progression is so fast and the reactor core damage will be inevitable even a realistic negative reactivity insertion due to the temperature rise is considered. Only in the case of ULOHS (unprotected loss-of-heat sink) a relatively long time of 11 min will be allowed till the shut-down of the reactor before the core damage. (authors)

  5. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  6. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Robert Douglass ;Alexander

    2004-01-01

    .... Such concepts raise important questions in terms of their impact on collateral damage. In a broader context, western warfare in general places a continuously growing emphasis on issues of collateral damage...

  7. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  8. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  9. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm × 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  10. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  11. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  12. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  13. On-line core monitoring with CORE MASTER / PRESTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Borresen, S.; Ovrum, S.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced calculational tools are instrumental in improving reactor plant capacity factors and fuel utilization. The computer code package CORE MASTER is an integrated system designed to achieve this objective. The system covers all main activities in the area of in-core fuel management for boiling water reactors; design, operation support, and on-line core monitoring. CORE MASTER operates on a common data base, which defines the reactor and documents the operating history of the core and of all fuel bundles ever used

  14. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  15. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  16. Severe fuel damage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1987-10-01

    After the descriptions of the generation of a Severe Fuel Damage Accident in a LWR the hypothetical course of such an accident is explained. Then the most significant projects are described. At each project the experimental facility, the most important results and the concluding models and codes are discussed. The selection of the projects is concentrated on the German Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS), tests performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and smaller projects in France and Great Britain. 25 refs., 26 figs. (Author)

  17. Tokamak ARC damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  18. An investigation of the damaged zone created by perforating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucknell, J.K.; Behrmann, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on underbalance perforation flow experiments performed on reservoir and outcrop sandstones to investigate the perforation damaged zone. Cores from several different formations were perforated under reservoir conditions. After perforating, the cores were examined using CAT scans (Computer Aided tomography), thin sections and mercury porosimetry. In conjunction with these measurements, permeabilities in the damaged zone were measured using a minipermeameter and radial flow permeameter or were estimated from pore size distribution. The density and porosity of the damaged zone (at least for saturated rocks) is essentially the same as that in the undamaged rock. The damaged zone is not compacted, contrary to suggestions made in earlier work. However, the creation of this zone involves the destruction of large pores. The volume lost from these pores is replaced by microfractures created when rock grains are fractured by penetration of the shaped charge jet. This reduction in the average pore size causes a reduction in the permeability with the damaged zone. Although direct measurement of this permeability was made difficult by naturally occurring permeability variations, unambiguous measurements were obtained

  19. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  20. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  1. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  2. Core TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We

  3. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  4. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  5. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  6. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  7. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  8. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  9. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  10. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  11. Automated Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-01-01

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process

  12. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  13. Reload core safety verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, M.; Minarcin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief look at the process of reload core safety evaluation and verification in Slovak Republic. It gives an overview of experimental verification of selected nuclear parameters in the course of physics testing during reactor start-up. The comparison of IAEA recommendations and testing procedures at Slovak and European nuclear power plants of similar design is included. An introduction of two level criteria for evaluation of tests represents an effort to formulate the relation between safety evaluation and measured values (Authors)

  14. RB reactor benchmark cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1998-01-01

    A selected set of the RB reactor benchmark cores is presented in this paper. The first results of validation of the well-known Monte Carlo MCNP TM code and adjoining neutron cross section libraries are given. They confirm the idea for the proposal of the new U-D 2 O criticality benchmark system and support the intention to include this system in the next edition of the recent OECD/NEA Project: International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Experiment, in near future. (author)

  15. Controlled fabrication of multi-core alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqbal, Md Danish; Gundabala, Venkat

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a robust microfluidic platform for controlled and complete on-chip generation of alginate microcapsules with single and double liquid cores. A combined Coflow and T-junction configuration implemented in a hybrid glass-PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) device is used for the generation of microcapsules with oil as liquid core. Frequency matching of oil-alginate double emulsion generation with that of aqueous Calcium chloride droplet generation allows for controlled merging of the two, resulting in reliable production of microcapsules. Confocal imaging of microcapsule cross-section reveals presence of intact liquid core. In the case of double core microcapsules, the two cores are well separated by alginate layer ensuring their long term stability. The current approach is expected to have advantages over existing techniques for liquid core microcapsule generation in terms of continuity of the process, control over core stability, and non-damage to cells when used for cell encapsulation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How cores grow by pebble accretion. I. Direct core growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, M. G.; Vazan, A.; Ormel, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Planet formation by pebble accretion is an alternative to planetesimal-driven core accretion. In this scenario, planets grow by the accretion of cm- to m-sized pebbles instead of km-sized planetesimals. One of the main differences with planetesimal-driven core accretion is the increased thermal ablation experienced by pebbles. This can provide early enrichment to the planet's envelope, which influences its subsequent evolution and changes the process of core growth. Aims: We aim to predict core masses and envelope compositions of planets that form by pebble accretion and compare mass deposition of pebbles to planetesimals. Specifically, we calculate the core mass where pebbles completely evaporate and are absorbed before reaching the core, which signifies the end of direct core growth. Methods: We model the early growth of a protoplanet by calculating the structure of its envelope, taking into account the fate of impacting pebbles or planetesimals. The region where high-Z material can exist in vapor form is determined by the temperature-dependent vapor pressure. We include enrichment effects by locally modifying the mean molecular weight of the envelope. Results: In the pebble case, three phases of core growth can be identified. In the first phase (Mcore mixes outwards, slowing core growth. In the third phase (Mcore > 0.5M⊕), the high-Z inner region expands outwards, absorbing an increasing fraction of the ablated material as vapor. Rainout ends before the core mass reaches 0.6 M⊕, terminating direct core growth. In the case of icy H2O pebbles, this happens before 0.1 M⊕. Conclusions: Our results indicate that pebble accretion can directly form rocky cores up to only 0.6 M⊕, and is unable to form similarly sized icy cores. Subsequent core growth can proceed indirectly when the planet cools, provided it is able to retain its high-Z material.

  17. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  18. Monitoring an electric cable core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Marris, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of, and apparatus for, continuously monitoring an advancing core having a continuous covering comprises directing X-ray radiation laterally towards the advancing covered core; continuously forming an X-ray image pattern of the advancing covered core and translating the image pattern into a visible image pattern; continuously transforming the visible pattern into a digital bit pattern; and processing the digital bit pattern using a microprocessor with interfacing electronics to provide an image profile of the advancing covered core and/or to provide analogue and/or digital signals indicative of the overall diameter and eccentricity of the covered core and of the thickness of the covering. (author)

  19. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  20. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Statistical core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB

  2. Nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Ishibashi, Yoko; Mochida, Takaaki; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1995-01-01

    A reactor core is radially divided into an inner region, an outer region and an outermost region. As a fuel, three kinds of fuels, namely, a high enrichment degree fuel at 3.4%, a middle enrichment degree fuel at 2.3% and a low enrichment degree at 1.1% of a fuel average enrichment degree of fission product are used. Each of the fuels is bisected to upper and lower portions at an axial center thereof. The difference of average enrichment degrees between upper and lower portions is 0.1% for the high enrichment degree fuel, 0.3% for the middle enrichment degree fuel and 0.2% for the low enrichment degree fuel. In addition, the composition of fuels in each of radial regions comprises 100% of the low enrichment degree fuels in the outermost region, 91% of the higher enrichment degree fuels and 9% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the outer region, and 34% of the high enrichment degree fuels and 30% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the inner region. With such a constitution, fuel economy can be improved while maintaining the thermal margin in an initially loaded reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (I.N.)

  3. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  4. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  5. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  6. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  7. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  8. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  9. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  10. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  11. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  12. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  13. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  14. Independent association of glucocorticoids with damage accrual in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Diane; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Raghunath, Sudha; Hoi, Alberta; Nikpour, Mandana; Morand, Eric F

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors associated with damage accrual in a prospective cohort of patients with SLE. Patients with SLE who attended the Lupus Clinic at Monash Health, Australia, between 2007 and 2013 were studied. Clinical variables included disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2K, SLEDAI-2K), time-adjusted mean SLEDAI, cumulative glucocorticoid dose and organ damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with damage accrual. A total of 162 patients were observed over a median (IQR) 3.6 (2.0-4.7) years. Seventy-five per cent (n=121) of patients received glucocorticoids. Damage accrual was significantly more frequent in glucocorticoid-exposed patients (42% vs 15%, p<0.01). Higher glucocorticoid exposure was independently associated with overall damage accrual after controlling for factors including ethnicity and disease activity and was significant at time-adjusted mean doses above 4.42 mg prednisolone/day; the OR of damage accrual in patients in the highest quartile of cumulative glucocorticoid exposure was over 10. Glucocorticoid exposure was independently associated with damage accrual in glucocorticoid-related and non-glucocorticoid related domains of the SDI. Glucocorticoid use is independently associated with the accrual of damage in SLE, including in non-glucocorticoid related domains.

  15. Report of the working group for nuclear damage compensation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Working Group for Nuclear Damage Compensation System was established within the Atomic Energy Commision of Japan on August 2, 1988. The Group has held five meetings to make a study on the revision of the reserve for nuclear damage compensation. The nuclear damage compensation system in Japan has been established under the Law Concerning Compensation for Nuclear Damages and the Law Concerning Contract for Compensation for Nuclear Damages. The former law requires the nuclear power plant operators to set up a reserve for damage compensation to ensure positive and quick payment of compensation in the event of an accident. The reserve is currently rely on liability insurance and a government compensation contract. The Working Group has concluded that the total reserve should be increased from the current yen10 bill. to yen30 bill. The amount of the reserve specified in the enforcement law for the Law Concerning Compensation for Nuclear Damages should also be increased accordingly. The Law Concerning compensation for Nuclear damage will also be applied to damage which occurs overseas as a result of an accident in Japan. (N.K.)

  16. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  17. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Cluster science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, J.-B.; Bonaldi, A.; Remazeilles, M.; Hagstotz, S.; Diego, J. M.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Luzzi, G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Grandis, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ferraro, S.; Tramonte, D.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Macìas-Pérez, J. F.; Achúcarro, A.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Basu, K.; Battye, R. A.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, M. G.; Challinor, A.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Petris, M.; De Zotti, G.; Di Valentino, E.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S. M.; Fernández-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Greenslade, J.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Roman, M.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Trappe, N.; Triqueneaux, S.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Väliviita, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Weller, J.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the cosmological constraints that can be achieved with a galaxy cluster survey with the future CORE space mission. Using realistic simulations of the millimeter sky, produced with the latest version of the Planck Sky Model, we characterize the CORE cluster catalogues as a function of the main mission performance parameters. We pay particular attention to telescope size, key to improved angular resolution, and discuss the comparison and the complementarity of CORE with ambitious future ground-based CMB experiments that could be deployed in the next decade. A possible CORE mission concept with a 150 cm diameter primary mirror can detect of the order of 50,000 clusters through the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE). The total yield increases (decreases) by 25% when increasing (decreasing) the mirror diameter by 30 cm. The 150 cm telescope configuration will detect the most massive clusters (>1014 Msolar) at redshift z>1.5 over the whole sky, although the exact number above this redshift is tied to the uncertain evolution of the cluster SZE flux-mass relation; assuming self-similar evolution, CORE will detect 0~ 50 clusters at redshift z>1.5. This changes to 800 (200) when increasing (decreasing) the mirror size by 30 cm. CORE will be able to measure individual cluster halo masses through lensing of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies with a 1-σ sensitivity of 4×1014 Msolar, for a 120 cm aperture telescope, and 1014 Msolar for a 180 cm one. From the ground, we estimate that, for example, a survey with about 150,000 detectors at the focus of 350 cm telescopes observing 65% of the sky would be shallower than CORE and detect about 11,000 clusters, while a survey with the same number of detectors observing 25% of sky with a 10 m telescope is expected to be deeper and to detect about 70,000 clusters. When combined with the latter, CORE would reach a limiting mass of M500 ~ 2‑3 × 1013 Msolar and detect 220,000 clusters (5 sigma detection limit

  18. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  19. Vasectomy and psychosexual damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P M

    1972-11-01

    The director of the Family Planning Project of the San Bernardino County (California) Health Department reviews the results of a questionnaire completed by 300 husbands and their wives 6 months to 1 year after vasectomy. The replies indicated psychosexual damage from vasectomy is virtually nonexistent. 100% of the males reported an enhanced or unchanged sense of masculinity. Vasectomy clinics have been conducted by the San Bernardino County Health Department since August 1970. More than 1000 vasectomies have been completed. Vasectomies are currently being performed at a rate of 12/week. Prevasectomy group counseling should inform couples of 1) the physiological mechanisms involved, 2) the situational nature of any psychologic changes, and 3) the probability of irreversibility of the procedure.

  20. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  1. Tactical Damage Control Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Miles, Ethan A; Cap, Andrew P; Strandenes, Geir; Kane, Shawn F

    2015-08-01

    Recently the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care changed the guidelines on fluid use in hemorrhagic shock. The current strategy for treating hemorrhagic shock is based on early use of components: Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBCs), Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio. We suggest that lack of components to mimic whole blood functionality favors the use of Fresh Whole Blood in managing hemorrhagic shock on the battlefield. We present a safe and practical approach for its use at the point of injury in the combat environment called Tactical Damage Control Resuscitation. We describe pre-deployment preparation, assessment of hemorrhagic shock, and collection and transfusion of fresh whole blood at the point of injury. By approaching shock with goal-directed therapy, it is possible to extend the period of survivability in combat casualties. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Total quality management in orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, A E

    1999-12-01

    Quality is the buzz word for the new Millennium. Patients demand it, and we must serve it. Yet one must identify it. Quality is not imaging or public relations; it is a business process. This short article presents quality as a balance of three critical notions: core clinical competence, perceived values that our patients seek and want, and the cost of quality. Customer satisfaction is a variable that must be identified for each practice. In my practice, patients perceive quality as communication and time, be it treatment or waiting time. Time is a value and cost that must be managed effectively. Total quality management is a business function; it involves diagnosis, design, implementation, and measurement of the process, the people, and the service. Kazien is a function that reduces value services, eliminates waste, and manages time and cost in the process. Total quality management is a total commitment for continuous improvement.

  3. The game damages on agricultural crops in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Novosel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between wildlife and humans have been reported from all over the world, but in Croatia the extent and intensity of the conflict is increasing. Agricultural damage by game is a major concern for both agricultural and wildlife agencies at the national level. In this study 4,695 cases of game damage over a 4-year period were analysed. Results indicated that the total amount of economic impact on agriculture from game damage was significant. The distribution of payments shows that a majority of payments have lower economic value with an average amount of single payment being 477.08 €. The annual number of payments was found to have a negative correlation coefficient (-0.469 to the total payment amount for damages. According to the number of payments (68% of the number of payments and the payment amount (60% of total payment amount, the crop most often damaged was maize. Analysis of the data found that there was a negative growth trend of payment frequency and total payment amount for grape vineyards. The correlation between yearly number of payments and yearly production was not calculated for any crop. The high seasonal nature of payments was a determent of seasonal regression using a dummy variable regression (r2=0.93. A comparison of the monthly number of payments and monthly amounts is depicted by a time series using a seasonal line. The impact of wild boar damage on agriculture crops, in total, leads to the conclusion that this game species is a major problem. The results showed a specific subset of game damage in Croatia and, as such, it can be extrapolated to provide insight into the damage caused by wild boar in other countries.

  4. Thawing of lithium in the SP-100 reactor core configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Malovrh, J.W.; REineking, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The General Electric SP-100 Liquid Metal Reactor is designed to be launched with the lithium coolant in the reactor and primary loops frozen. Initial startup of the system in space, after a satisfactory orbit is achieved, will be accomplished by slowly increasing the power in the reactor core and using the heat generated to melt the lithium, first in the reactor, and then progressively down the primary loops. This technique significantly facilitates ground handling, reduces vibrational loads during vehicle launch and minimized the shuttle bay heat load. The challenge is to thaw the coolant and startup the system within an acceptable time without structural damage. The test results clearly demonstrate that thawing of the lithium in the SP-100 reactor core can be done rapidly without structural damage and, thus, support the selected concept of SP-100 launch with frozen lithium and thaw/startup in space

  5. X-ray atomic scattering factors of low-Z ions with a core hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2007-01-01

    Short and intense x-ray pulses may be used for atomic-resolution diffraction imaging of single biological molecules. One of the dominant damage mechanisms is atomic ionization, resulting in a large fraction of atoms with core holes. We calculated the atomic scattering factor of atoms with atomic charge numbers between 3 and 10 in different ionization states with and without a core hole. Our results show that orbital occupation and the change of the orbitals upon core ionization (core relaxation) have a significant impact on the diffraction pattern

  6. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...

  7. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  8. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  9. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  10. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  11. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  12. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  13. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  14. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  15. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  16. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  18. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  19. The true 'core' splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerbach, J.

    1978-01-01

    Massive unemployment and the fear of a barred future put at present the unions and civil initiative to the apparent alternatives; securing work places or securing life and future. How the 'atomic fight' is fought and its result can have considerable consequences for our society. This volume presents a dialogue: Firstly the situation and environment must be understood giving rise to the controversial arguments. Reports, analyses and interviews are presented on this as basic structure for the future discussion. The quality and direction of the technical progress are dealt with in the core of the discussion. Is atomic technology acceptable. Who should decide and whom does it serve. What is progress going to look like anyway. (orig.) [de

  20. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)