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Sample records for total committed effective

  1. Total rewards and its effects on organisational commitment in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin M. Mabaso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Retaining staff with special endeavours within higher education institutions has become a top priority and crucial for any organisational productivity and competiveness. Attracting and retaining talent has remained a critical and complex issue for human capital management in organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of total rewards on organisational commitment measured by Total Rewards Scale and Organisational Commitment Questionnaire. Motivation for the study: There is paucity in research on the impact of total rewards on organisational commitment. Commitment of academic staff is significant as higher education institutions are influential in the development of a country. Research design, approach and method: This study employed the quantitative research method using a survey design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect survey data. A sample of 279 academic staff, which was the total population of participants, was selected for this study. Main findings: Results show a positive and significant correlation between elements of total rewards (performance management, 0.387; recognition, 0.335; talent development and career opportunities, 0.328; compensation, 0.231; benefits, 0.213; work–life balance, 0.024 and organisational commitment. A variance of 52.3% of total rewards explained organisational commitment. Performance management, compensation, benefits, recognition, talent development and career opportunities significantly predicted organisational commitment. However, work–life balance indicated a negative effect on organisational commitment. Practical managerial implications: Findings of the study has implications to managers because they have to encourage and promote total rewards in order to enforce talent retention within higher education institutions for the benefit of both institutions and employees. Contribution: The results are important to managers

  2. BPX commitment to total remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.; Burgess, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), to be located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the next major experimental machine in the US Fusion Program. It will be fueled with deuterium-tritium (D-T) that, when burned, will generate high-energy neutrons. This will activate the various materials used in construction of the machine, which will result in high levels of gamma radiation. Any subsequent maintenance activities on the machine or in the test cell area must be performed remotely. The initial criteria for BPX assumed that failure of toroidal field (TF) coil or poloidal field (PF) coil was an unlikely event. Therefore, no provisions were made for remote replacement. Expected failures were limited to the plasma-facing components and the external auxiliary equipment such as heating systems and diagnostics. Recent coil failures experienced at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the Joint European Torus (JET), JT-60, and Tore Supra caused the BPX project staff to reconsider the need for remote replacement. A study was undertaken to investigate how the project would be affected if the capability to recover from a coil failure were required. Potential effects including configuration changes to the machine and facility, project cost, and project operation were considered. The study revealed that it is indeed feasible to design BPX for remote recovery from any coil failure. However, for this to be accomplished effectively, it is imperative to incorporate the necessary remote maintenance features of the components to be remotely replaced into the original design along with all of the other functional features. The remote maintenance capability cannot be retrofitted after the design is complete or the equipment is built. This paper discusses the impacts of the coil remote replacement study and the subsequent changes to the design. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Committed effective dose from thoron daughters inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mankind's interest in natural radiation exposure levels has increased over the past fifty years and it is now recognized that the most significant contributors to human irradiation by natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn). Despite the thoron short half-life of 55 s, effective dose from inhalation of thoron an its progeny ( 212 Pb and 212 Bi) must be considered, owing to the high thorium background in countries like Brazil, China and India, for example. The indoor committed effective dose was assessed by air sampling at the thorium purification plant and the nuclear materials storage site of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 21 glass fiber filter samples was analyzed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry in order to obtain the 212 Pb and 212 Bi activities. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) varied from 0.3 Bq/m 3 to 6.8 Bq/m 3 for the storage site air samples and from 9.9 Bq/m 3 to 249.8 Bq/m 3 for the thorium purification plant air samples. As retention studies indicate a biological half-life of a few hours inhaled thoron progeny in the human lungs, the main fraction of the potential alpha energy (PAEC) deposited is absorbed in the lungs, meaning negligible to the effective dose the contribution of the dose in other times. The committed effective dose due thoron progeny was performed by compartimental analysis following the ICRP 66 lung compartimental model and ICRP 67 lead compartimental model. The values obtained varied from 0.03 mSv/a to 0.67 mSv/a for the storage site air samples and from 0.12 mSv/a to 6.00 mSv/a for the thorium purification plant air samples. (author)

  4. Measuring performance improvement: total organizational commitment or clinical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aleece; Jones, Paul; Neuhauser, Duncan; Aron, David C

    2004-01-01

    Resources for hospitals are limited when they are faced with multiple publicly reported performance measures as tools to assess quality. The leadership in these organizations may choose to focus on 1 or 2 of these outcomes. An alternative approach is that the leadership may commit resources or create conditions that result in improved quality over a broad range of measures. We used aggregated data on mortality, length of stay, and obstetrical outcomes from Greater Cleveland Health Quality Choice data to test these theories. We used Pearson correlation analysis to determine of outcomes were correlated with one another. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to determine if an association existed between outcome and time and outcome and hospital. All of the outcomes across all hospitals demonstrate a trend of overall improvement. Both the Pearson and ANOVA result support the hypothesis for the organization-wide approach to quality improvement. Hospital that make improvements in one clinical area trend to make improvements in others. Hospitals that produce improvements in limited clinical or administrative areas may not have completely adopted CQI into their culture or may not have yet realized the benefits of their organizational commitments, but use some of the concepts to improve quality outcomes.

  5. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Suhaiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study re...

  6. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.

  7. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  8. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  9. Motivated reconstruction: The effect of brand commitment on false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicole Votolato; Rajagopal, Priyali

    2018-06-01

    Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews. Further, these differences across brand commitment are attenuated when respondents are primed with an accuracy motivation, suggesting that the biasing effects of commitment are likely because of the motivation to defend the committed brand. Finally, we find that differences in false memories subsequently lead to differences in intentions to spread word-of-mouth (e.g., recommend the product to friends), suggesting that the consequences of false product experience memories can be significant for marketers and consumers. Our findings contribute to the literatures in false memory and marketing by documenting a motivated bias in false memories because of brand commitment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, H; Huybrechts, P; Raper, S C B; Loutre, M-F; Goosse, H; Fichefet, T

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

  11. Effect of practical application of intimate relationship skills program in marital commitment of couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Chitsazzadeh Alaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the increasing rate of divorce and betrayals, the marital commitment has been concerned in marriage and family studies. The research aimed to evaluate the effect of Practical Application of Intimate Relationship Skills (PAIRS program in marital commitment of couples. The method was quasi-experimental and the design was pretest-posttest with a control group. The convenience sampling method was employed to choose 16 couples whose marital commitment score was below the mean in Isfahan, Iran. These couples were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (N=8 in each group. Data gathering was carried out using Adams and Jones dimensions of commitment inventory (DCI that was filled out by the members of both groups in the pretest stage. Then, the experimental group received the PAIRS training program in thirteen 90-minute sessions. 35 percent of the total variance belongs to the group membership due to the effectiveness of this educational program. This educational program attempts to make couples aware of themselves and their spouses, enhance, intimacy and empathy and develop effective relationship skills and problem-solving skills. The results demonstrated that the PAIRS program showed a positive effect on marital commitment. Hence, the PAIRS program can be employed to prevent divorce by increasing marital commitment in couples.

  12. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  13. 85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for 85 Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether 85 Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person

  14. 85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

  15. The effects of organizational commitment and structural empowerment on patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between patient safety culture and two attitudinal constructs: affective organizational commitment and structural empowerment. In doing so, the main and interaction effects of the two constructs on the perception of patient safety culture were assessed using a cohort of physicians. Design/methodology/approach Affective commitment was measured with the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, whereas structural empowerment was assessed with the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II. The abbreviated versions of these surveys were administered to a cohort of 71 post-doctoral medical residents. For the data analysis, hierarchical regression analyses were performed for the main and interaction effects of affective commitment and structural empowerment on the perception of patient safety culture. Findings A total of 63 surveys were analyzed. The results revealed that both affective commitment and structural empowerment were positively related to patient safety culture. A potential interaction effect of the two attitudinal constructs on patient safety culture was tested but no such effect was detected. Research limitations/implications This study suggests that there are potential benefits of promoting affective commitment and structural empowerment for patient safety culture in health care organizations. By identifying the positive associations between the two constructs and patient safety culture, this study provides additional empirical support for Kanter's theoretical tenet that structural and organizational support together helps to shape the perceptions of patient safety culture. Originality/value Despite the wide recognition of employee empowerment and commitment in organizational research, there has still been a paucity of empirical studies specifically assessing their effects on patient safety culture in health care organizations. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first

  16. The effect of nursing internship program on burnout and professional commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz-Alkaya, Sultan; Yaman-Sözbir, Şengül; Bayrak-Kahraman, Burcu

    2018-05-26

    Professional commitment is defined as a belief in and acceptance of the values of the profession which is chosen, effort to actualize these values, desire to improve him/herself. Nurses' professional and organizational commitment are influenced by factors such as job stress, job satisfaction and burnout. This study was conducted to determine the effect of nursing internship program on professional commitment and burnout of senior nursing students. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest and posttest without control group design was used. Students who were attending nursing internship program and agreed to participate were included in the study. Sample consisted of 101 students. Data were collected with a questionnaire, the burnout measure short version and nursing professional commitment scale. After the nursing internship, 77.2% were pleased to study nursing, 83.2% were pleased to be a senior student, 55.4% did not have any intention to change their profession, 81.2% wanted to work as nurses, and 82.2% were planning career advancement in nursing of the students, 34.7% and 43.6% were found to experience burnout, before and after the nursing internship, respectively (p nursing professional commitment scale were compared, a significant difference was found between mean scores on the total score and "maintaining membership" subscale (p nursing internship, burnout and professional commitment levels of the students increased. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of parental divorce on marital commitment and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2008-10-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Teacher Commitment and Its Effects on Student Achievement in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Insim

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…

  19. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  20. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, V.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , to the public exposure. (authors)

  1. Commitment Elements Reframed (Antecedents & Consequences) for Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra L.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify theories of commitment in the workplace to develop a framework that helps the field create higher levels of commitment, productivity, and satisfaction. The paper is organized into five main sections: the method, commitment in the workplace, mapping workplace commitment, and the implications for HRD and…

  2. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  3. Job and career influences on the career commitment of health care executives: the mediating effect of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtle, Robert; Chen, Duan-Rung; Liu, Caroline; Fahey, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    While there is considerable evidence supporting the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, the relationship between the antecedents of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and career commitment are not clearly understood. This study seeks to clarify whether these antecedents have an effect independent of job satisfaction on career commitment or whether these antecedents are mediated by job satisfaction. In total, 2,799 questionnaires were mailed out to members of the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE). The responses received were 643 (22.9 percent) and after eliminating retirees or students, a sample of 456 respondents currently employed in the health care industry was obtained. Path analysis was conducted to test the hypothetical relationships between work situation, career experiences and career commitment. It was found that job satisfaction mediated the influences of job tenure and career pattern on career commitment. Job satisfaction partially mediated the influences of perceived job security and one's satisfaction with career on career commitment. Both of these measures had a direct influence on career commitment. Career experience such as sector change was also positively associated with career commitment. While the research offers some insights into the factors affecting the career commitment of health care executives, the sample was limited to respondents who were members of the American College of Healthcare Executives, and thus may not represent the views of all managers in the health care sector. To retain high-valued health care workers it is important that an organization has a work environment that enhances their commitment to their occupation as well as their careers. This study clarifies the influence of job satisfaction on the career commitment of health care managers during a very dynamic period.

  4. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  5. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleta, Mariusz; Toczylowski, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

  6. A Meta-Analysis: Exploring the Effects of Gender on Organisational Commitment of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgiç, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the…

  7. The Effect of Gender on Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta Analytic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on the organizational commitment of teachers. In this respect, the levels of organizational commitment were also investigated with organizational commitment. Fifteen master and doctorate theses done between 2005-2009 were analyzed using meta analysis. At the end of the research study,…

  8. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238 U ( 226 Ra), 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 40 K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg −1 . The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg −1 for 238 U ( 226 Ra), 0.16 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 18 Bq kg −1 for 40 K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg −1 , 0.16 Bq kg −1 and 23 Bq kg −1 . Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226 Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228 Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40 K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values. - Highlights: ► Activity concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides were assessed for shellfish. ► 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K intake via shellfish showed several times higher than world averages. ► Committed effective doses due to the ingestions of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K are the first report in Malaysia. ► Estimated committed effective dose also showed higher values than the world average

  9. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 372 responses were used in the final analysis. The scale items were adapted from the existing literature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the model. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture significantly exerts positive influence on Service Recovery Performance of frontline employees. The findings from the study imply that there are several antecedents to Service Recovery Performance. Team Culture, Workplace Commitment, and Employee Commitment can influence Job Satisfaction which in turn will affect Service Recovery Performance resulting in customer satisfaction and retention.

  10. Effectance, committed effective dose equivalent and annual limits on intake: what are the changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Stather, J.W.; Phipps, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the concept of effectance, compares committed effectance with the old committed effective dose equivalent and goes on to discuss changes in the annual limits on intakes and the maximum organ doses which would result from an intake of an ALI (Annual Limit of Intake). It is shown that committed effectance is usually, but not always, higher than committed effective dose equivalent. ALIS are usually well below those resulting from the ICRP Publication 30 scheme. However, if the ALI were based only on a limit on effectance it would imply a high dose to specific organs for certain nuclides. In order to control maximum organ doses an explicit limit could be introduced. However, this would destroy some of the attractive features of the new scheme. An alternative would be a slight modification to some of the weighting factors. (author)

  11. Spreading the "good news" of total quality management: faith, conversion, and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S T; Bopp, K D; Anderson, K G

    1993-01-01

    In many ways the spread of total quality management (TQM) across this country can be compared to a religious conversion. Both cases are characterized by a philosophical shift with far-reaching changes in responsibilities and incentives for the people involved. This article bridges the disciplines of theology and health services management by elaborating a metaphor in which TQM is compared to various aspects of the Judeo-Christian faiths, such as the role of laws and standards; the importance of miracles, prophets, and evangelists; and the practical applications of living out the faith.

  12. The use of total quality management and commitment at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamric, J.P.; Talbot, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Field Office, Richland (RL) recently has begun restructuring its management system to serve new customers and regulators in the joint effort of completing the new mission of the Hanford Site: environmental restoration and remediation. To do this, the RL reviewed its previous approaches, examined its new goals, and hired consultants to help design and implement a new management approach. The result is a plan to use the Total Quality Management approach, which encourages teamwork and supports the values and requirements of the Hanford Site. (author)

  13. attributes like attitude and commitment for effective extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ian

    therefore have a good working relationship with them. They must have ... Professional commitment is a fundamental professional quality of an ..... Personal life experience. ... They have empathy and a real desire to help rural families to attain a ...

  14. The Effects of Level of Training on Employee Perceived Empowerment, Commitment and Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backeberg, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of level of training on employees' perceived psychological empowerment, commitment, and resultant job performance within the hospitality industry...

  15. The Effects of Secondary School Administrators' Servant Leadership Behaviors on Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Fatma; Gül, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of secondary school administrators' servant leadership behavior on teachers' organizational commitment. This research was designed based on the relational screening model. The population of the study consists of 753 secondary school teachers. 438 teachers from the total population participated…

  16. Estimation of committed effective dose due to tritium in ground water in some places of Maharashtra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.J.; Bhade, S.P.D.; Kolekar, R.V.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study Tritium concentration in well and bore well water samples were analyzed for the samples collected from the villages of Pune, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri. The activity concentration ranged from 0.55 - 3.66 Bq L -1 . The associated age-dependant dose from water ingestion in the study area was estimated. The effective committed dose recorded for different age classes is negligible compared to World Health Organization and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency dose guidelines. The Minimum Detectable Activity achieved was 1.5 Bq L -1 for a total counting time of 500 minutes. (author)

  17. The effect of occupational meaningfulness on occupational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Ivtzan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research lacks a scholarly consensus on how to define and validly measure ‘meaningful work’ (e.g., Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010. The following correlational study highlights the value of investigating meaningfulness in the context of occupational commitment. The study hypothesizes that occupational commitment is positively correlated with occupational meaningfulness, where meaningfulness is defined as the extent to which people’s occupations contribute to personal meaning in life. One-hundred and fifty-six full-time office based UK workers completed an online questionnaire including 18 questions measuring levels of occupational commitment (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993, in addition to six novel items measuring occupational meaningfulness. The results supported the hypothesis and also showed that the affective sub-type of occupational commitment had the highest correlation with occupational meaningfulness. Such results exhibit the importance of finding meaning at work, as well as the relevance of this to one’s level of commitment to his or her job. This paper argues that individuals should consider OM before choosing to take a specific role, whereas organizations ought to consider the OM of their potential candidates before recruiting them into a role. Possible directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  18. THE EFFECT OF WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY DIMENSIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT WITH PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Haryokusumo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to test the effect of workplace spirituality dimensions (inner life, meaningful work, and condition for community on organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative and also to test the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. 130 questionnaires were collected from six organizations in Yogyakarta.The result of this research shows the workplace spirituality dimensions have positive effect on affective commitment. Testing of moderation effect shows perceived organizational support does not moderate the positive effect of workplace spirituality dimensions on components of organizational commitment. Based on this research, condition for community has the biggest effect on affective commitment, while inner life has biggest effect on normative and continuance commitment. Implication for management theory and practice are discussed.

  19. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tianan Yang; Yina Guo; Mingxu Ma; Yaxin Li; Huilin Tian; Jianwei Deng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment o...

  20. The Mediating Effect of Organizational Justice Between Power Sources and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Pahrudin; Noor; Kasmir

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of organizational justice in the relationship between energy sources and organizational commitment. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesis on a sample of 160 Indonesian workers in a state enterprise. The results show that energy sources are positively associated with organizational commitment and that organizational fairness is positively related to organizational commitment. The power source, in turn, has a positive effect on or...

  1. The effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment. Background: There is substantial research on the effects of work alienation on passive job performance, such as organizational commitment.

  2. The Mediation of Performance in the Relationship of Organizational Commitment to University Faculty's Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lizhen; Zhang, Deshan

    2014-01-01

    To provide more insights into inconsistent findings on the relationship of organizational commitment to effectiveness, this study conducted a questionnaire survey among 188 academics in Beijing. Analysis of survey responses suggested that organizational commitment presented significant relationships to performance and effectiveness. These…

  3. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  4. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  5. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  6. The Effects of Organizational Training on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cagri; Culha, Osman

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the impact of organizational training on employee commitment focusing on employees' emotional and affective responses towards their organization. Organizational training is conceptualized within a multidimensional framework consisting of motivation for training, access to training, benefits from training and…

  7. Effects of role stress on nurses' turnover intentions: The mediating effects of organizational commitment and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Sook; Han, Jeong-Won; An, Young-Suk; Lim, So-Hee

    2015-10-01

    This paper was designed to extend the extant research regarding factors related to nurses' turnover intentions. This survey-based study was based on a path analysis designed to verify a hypothesized causal model involving nurses' role stress, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and burnout. This study distributed 500 questionnaires to nurses in general hospitals with more than 500 beds located in Seoul, Korea, during 16-30 April 2012. Role conflict, an underlying factor in role stress, had no significant effect on role stress, but the results showed that role ambiguity reduced organizational commitment. On the other hand, role conflict and role ambiguity increased the level of burnout. Organizational commitment reduced turnover intentions, and burnout increased turnover intentions. Role conflict and role ambiguity had no direct effect on turnover intentions, but they had indirect effects on organizational commitment and burnout. To reduce nurses' turnover rate, this study recommends developing plans to improve their organizational commitment because it mediates role stress and turnover intention. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. The Moderator Effect of Commitment on the Relations between Satisfaction and Motivation in Special Employment Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Conesa, Francisco J.; Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between satisfaction, commitment and motivation among employees with mild intellectual disabilities. The present research analyses the moderated effect of commitment on the relation between satisfaction of employees with intellectual disabilities and their motivation. Method: Employees with legally…

  9. Exploring the Effects of Empowerment, Innovation, Professionalism, Conflict, and Participation on Teacher Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliman, Stephanie Layne

    2012-01-01

    Improved understanding of teacher retention depends on systematic research on working conditions, teachers' perceptions of their work environments, and the effect of condition-of-work variables on organizational commitment. The examination of organizational commitment in K-12 teachers is a construct with implications for long-term relationships in…

  10. Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Mediating Effects of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Geert; Tuytens, Melissa; Hulpia, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between principals' leadership and teachers' organizational commitment, mediated by distributed leadership. Data were collected from 1,495 teachers in 46 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of principals' leadership on teachers' organizational commitment is…

  11. Effects of Parental Divorce on Marital Commitment and Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that, compared to offspring of non-divorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes towards marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that, when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their ...

  12. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  13. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment in Ghods Hospital in Arak City, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmari Nejad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Internal marketing is one of the applied instruments for managers to plan human force. This study aimed to investigate the effect of internal marketing on organizational commitment in a remedial center. Materials and Methods: This study has an applied purpose and its nature is causal-survey. Statistical population consisted of 450 working employees in Ghods hospital in Arak city. Out of these, 207 samples were selected by available random cluster sampling. Data were gathered by standard questionnaires and the reliability of them validated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Data analysis was performed by linear regression by using SPSS 19 software. Results: The findings of this study showed that internal marketing had an effect on organizational commitment and the value of it was 0.2. Also, reward affected on organizational commitment which was equal to 0.13. The effect of communication on organizational commitment was positive and the value of it was 0.16. Development had an effect on organizational commitment which was equal to 0.16. In addition, safe workplace had an effect on organizational commitment and the value of it was 0.12. Also, the effect of job recruitment and appointment was positive which was equal to 0.11. Conclusion: According to the results, it is essential to pay attention to necessary requirements and conditions for providing an appropriate bed to expand internal marketing and employees’ participation to develop organizational commitment.

  14. Valuing Employees with Disabilities: A Chain Effect of Pro-Disability Climate on Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.

  15. The effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjee, Chandra Rekha; Hartzer, Yolanda F.; Uys, Ilse L.

    2006-01-01

    This article arises from a research project investigating the effects of occupational stress and organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers on rendering quality service. One of the main aims of this project was to determine the extent to which perceived organizational support influenced commitment of radiographers to the organization, to reduce turnover intent and quality of service rendered. A descriptive correlation study design, based on questionnaires completed by 119 radiographers from 11 organizations, revealed that organizational commitment was moderate towards a tendency of poor. A positive relationship was found between various antecedents of perceived organizational support and organizational commitment (mainly affective and normative), indicating that perceived organizational support positively influenced radiographers' organizational commitment. There is a clear indication of turnover intent, which in turn has a negative impact on rendering quality service. In conclusion, to reduce turnover intent, and improve quality of service rendered, management needs to play an important role in creating a positive working environment for radiographers to perform their tasks

  16. Investigating the effect of work life quality and social capital on the organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Reza Esmeili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the work life quality and social capital on the organizational commitment. The primary objective of this research is to identify the effect of the quality of Work Life and social capital on the organizational commitment. The study has accomplished among 240 out of 900 employees of tax affairs organization in Lorestan province. To achieve our goal, nine hypotheses were examined. There are three questionnaires including the quality of work life, social capital, and the organizational commitment. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that there was a meaningful relationship between the variables of the quality of work life with social capital and organizational commitment; namely affective, continuous, normative. In addition, there is a meaningful relationship between the variable social capital with organizational commitment including affective, continuous, and normative.

  17. Pengaruh Framing Effect Sebagai Determinan Escalation of Commitment Dalam Keputusan Investasi: Dampak Dari Working Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Muhammad Nur; Surya, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The prior of research have shown that the framing effect is one of determinant in explaining decisions to escalate commitment to failing projects. However , have not considered whether experience moderates the framing effect on escalation of commitment. This study reports the results of an experiment in which the effect of decision frame of investment performance with negative feedback informatian on judgment to continue project of experienced subjects is compared to inexperienced subjects. F...

  18. Mug shot exposure prior to lineup identification: interference, transference, and commitment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, J E; Lindsay, R C; Hammond, R; Dupuis, P

    2001-12-01

    The effects of viewing mug shots on subsequent identification performance are as yet unclear. Two experiments used a live staged-crime paradigm to determine if interpolated eyewitness exposure to mug shots caused interference, unconscious transference, or commitment effects influencing subsequent lineup accuracy. Experiment 1 (N = 104) tested interference effects. Similar correct decision rates were obtained for the mug shot and no mug shot groups from both perpetrator-present and absent lineups. Experiment 2 (N = 132) tested for commitment and transference effects. Results showed that the commitment group made significantly more incorrect identifications than either the control or the transference group, which had similar false-identification rates. Commitment effects present a serious threat to identification accuracy from lineups following mug shot searches.

  19. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.I.A.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Berkmortel, H. van den; Kramers, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis.

  20. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Guo, Yina; Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-08-29

    Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05). Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = -0.27; p < 0.001). Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001) but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = -0.40; p < 0.001) but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001). This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  1. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05. Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = −0.27; p < 0.001. Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001 but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  2. The effects of academic mentoring perceptions of research assistants on their organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiftçi Nusret

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentoring can be expressed as a supportive relationship in which an experienced person transfers his or her expertise and knowledge to someone else. Universities are one of the most appropriate environments that this process, the samples of which can be seen in many sectors, is experienced. Academicianship is one of the professions in which the mentoring process is the most intense and most-needed. This study was aimed to investigate how research assistants perceive the academic mentor and mentee relationship, how these perceptions are related to the desired working behaviour, performance, and organizational effectiveness, and how these relationships affect “organizational commitment,” which has an increasing importance. Thus, both a sample based on the academic mentoring process was obtained and the academic mentoring process, as a factor affecting the organizational commitment, was studied. As a result of the research, it was found that there was a positive relationship between perceived mentoring and organizational commitment, affective commitment from subcategories of commitment. The relationship between normative commitment and organizational commitment were also found to be positive and meaningful. However, no relationship between perceived mentoring and continuance was found, and the established regression model did not make sense either.

  3. The Mediating Effect of Organizational Commitment on the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Mohamed Ali Shurbagi; Ibrahim Bin Zahari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of organizational commitment as a mediating variable on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture to answer the following questions: Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture in oil and gas industry in Libya? Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in oil and gas industry in Libya? Is there any relationship between organizational cultur...

  4. Participative Leadership and the Organizational Commitment of Civil Servants in China: The Mediating Effects of Trust in Supervisor

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Qing; Newman, Alexander; Schwarz, Gary; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether participative leadership engenders organizational commitment among Chinese civil servants, and analyzes the mechanisms by which it transmits its effects. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling revealed that there was a significant relationship between supervisor-level participative leadership and the affective and normative commitment of subordinates, but no relationship with continuance commitment. Affective trust was identified as th...

  5. Advance market commitments for vaccines against neglected diseases: estimating costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Glennerster, Rachel; Kremer, Michael R; Lee, Jean; Levine, Ruth; Weizsäcker, Georg; Williams, Heidi

    2007-05-01

    The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized for an eligible product, up to a certain number of individuals immunized. For additional purchases, the price would eventually drop to close to marginal cost. If no suitable product were developed, no payments would be made. We estimate the offer size which would make revenues similar to the revenues realized from investments in typical existing commercial pharmaceutical products, as well as the degree to which various model contracts and assumptions would affect the cost-effectiveness of such a commitment. We make adjustments for lower marketing costs under an advance market commitment and the risk that a developer may have to share the market with subsequent developers. We also show how this second risk could be reduced, and money saved, by introducing a superiority clause to a commitment. Under conservative assumptions, we document that a commitment comparable in value to sales earned by the average of a sample of recently launched commercial products (adjusted for lower marketing costs) would be a highly cost-effective way to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Sensitivity analyses suggest most characteristics of a hypothetical vaccine would have little effect on the cost-effectiveness, but that the duration of protection conferred by a vaccine strongly affects potential cost-effectiveness. Readers can conduct their own sensitivity analyses employing a web-based spreadsheet tool. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  7. The relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in high-performance organisations. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness. Motivation for the study: The increased eliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing eam effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: A non-probabilityand multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 chools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team. Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness.

  8. The relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in high-performance organisations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness.Motivation for the study: The increased eliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing eam effectiveness.Research design, approach and method: A non-probabilityand multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 chools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team.Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness.

  9. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-01-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of 60 Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with χ 2 tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5 ± 0.4 and 1469 ± 17 Bq.kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 μSv.y -1 and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y -1 , for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and 7 Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  10. Moderating effects of nurses' organizational support on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether job satisfaction enhances organizational commitment among nursing personnel while exploring whether organizational support perception has a moderating effect on the relationship between their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 400 nurses; 386 valid questionnaires were collected, with a valid response rate of 96.5%. According to the research findings, nurses' job satisfaction has a positive and significant influence on organizational commitment. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' organizational support perception on the relationship between their job satisfaction and organizational commitment was stronger for high organizational support perception than it was for low organizational support perception. This study suggests that organizational support perception will develop a sense of belonging, and this will help improve nurses' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This kind of relationship is rarely discussed in the research literature, and it can be applied for human resources management of nursing staff. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Affective Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior: Linear and Non-linear Moderating Effects of Organizational Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a meta-analytical approach for testing moderating effects, the current study investigated organizational tenure as a moderator in the relation between affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We observed that, across 40 studies (N = 11,416 respondents), the effect size for the relation between…

  12. THE ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT MEDIATION ON THE EFFECT OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT AND JOB SATISFACTION TO TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma N.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze and find out the role of organizational commitment mediation on the effect of person-organization fit and job satisfaction to the turnover intention of marketing funding employees. The research method used was quantitative. The type of this research was causal associative by using purposive sampling method in the sample determination. Respondents are 96 employees of Marketing Funding at Bank Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. The data analysis technique used was Partial Least Square analysis. The research result showed that person-organization fit has no significant effect on turnover intention, job satisfaction has no significant effect on turnover intention, person-organization fit has significant effect on the organizational commitment, job satisfaction has significant effect on organizational commitment, organizational commitment has significant effect on turnover intention, organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship between person-organization fit on turnover intention, and organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship between job satisfaction on turnover intention.

  13. Creating the Total Quality Effective School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

  14. The effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Partono Prasetio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The service quality is always the main factor for organization which focuses on the customer satisfaction to enhance their business and their performance. In order to have the great quality, they depend on their human resources. They need human resources who perform well. The employee who shows strong Organizational Citizenship Behavior believed can be performs better. That is why it is important for the organization to create employee with the strong OCB. OCB influenced by various factors. Job satisfaction and organization commitment are two important factors among them, which can predict the OCB. Organization should maintain the level of their employee’s satisfaction and commitment in order to develop the strong OCB. The research analyzed the effect of the job satisfaction and organization commitment on OCB at the PLN Distribution Office for Wet Java and Banten. Research conducted towards 100 participants using the multiple regression and descriptive analysis method. Through the analysis we found that job satisfaction and organization commitment has significance relation toward OCB (0.516. This finding is in line with previous research which promotes positive relation between these variables, eventhough only a mild percentage (0.266.The organization should place detail attention when applying the treatment. We suggest that the both job satisfaction and organization commitment should apply simultaneously in order to get better result. Further research needed to identify others factor which might be important to enhance the OCB. 

  15. Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta-Analysis Study for the Effect of Gender and Marital Status in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çogaltay, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes the influence of Turkish teacher's gender and marital status on their perception of organizational commitment. In total, 30 independent research studies conducted across the country are investigated to analyze the relations between gender and organizational commitment, i.e., a sample group of 11,724 participants. In…

  16. The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees' commitment to a change: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, David M; Fedor, Donald B; Caldwell, Steven; Liu, Yi

    2008-03-01

    The effects of transformational leadership on the outcomes of specific change initiatives are not well understood. Conversely, organizational change studies have examined leader behaviors during specific change implementations yet have failed to link these to broader leadership theories. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between transformational and change leadership and followers' commitment to a particular change initiative as a function of the personal impact of the changes. Transformational leadership was found to be more strongly related to followers' change commitment than change-specific leadership practices, especially when the change had significant personal impact. For leaders who were not viewed as transformational, good change-management practices were found to be associated with higher levels of change commitment. Copyright 2008 APA

  17. The Moderating Effect of Procedural Justice on the Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard in Improving Managerial Performance through Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study extends prior studies on the effectiveness of theBalanced Scorecard (BSC to improve managerial performancedone by Lau and Mosser (2008 and Lau and Sholihin (2005.Specifically, the study empirically tests the moderating effects ofprocedural justice on the relationship between the financial andnonfinancial dimensions of BSC and managerial performance. Italso tests the impact of organizational commitment on performance.Based on survey data from 76 respondents, the results indicate thatperceived procedural justice in the use financial and nonfinancialdimensions of the BSC is associated with managers’ organizationalcommitment. It further finds that organizational commitment ispositively related to performance. The study extends the literatureby providing empirical evidence about the moderating effect ofprocedural justice on the relationship between the financial andnonfinancial dimensions of BSC and organizational commitment. Keywords: balanced scorecard; organizational commitment; financial measures;managerial performance; moderating effect; nonfinancial measures;procedural justice

  18. EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTION OF WORK OPPORTUNITIES TO TURNOVER INTENTION WITH ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES: THE CASE OF HOTELS IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of job satisfaction and perceptions of job opportunities to the turnover intention and organizational commitment as an intervening variable. This study used the Theory of Reasoned Action, Two Factor Theory, Theory of Necessity, Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Motivation and Hope as the basis of this study. These studies use survey methods to collect data from selected samples. The chosen samples were managers who were placed at the middle management in 4-5 stars hospitality field institutions. There were 129 respondents total taken in this research. Nevertheless research trip to 5-star hotels do not provide research permit due to not accepting study from any party, therefore samples were taken from 4-star hotel in East Java for 71 respondents. This study uses Partial Least Square (PLS in test data. Research result indicates that the job satisfaction has a positive influence on turnover intention, the perception of employment opportunities positive effect on turnover intention and positive effect on job satisfaction organizational commitment. But the perception of employment opportunities negatively affect organizational commitment, organizational commitment negatively affect turnover intention, not able to mediate organizational commitment to job satisfaction and turnover intention organizational commitment are not able to mediate the perception of job opportunities to turnover intention.

  19. Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sisodia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to examine the effect of job autonomy upon organizational commitment of employees at different hierarchical level. A study was made on randomly selected 100 male employees who work in different organizations in Agra, who were administered Organizational Commitment Scale (by Allen & Meyer, 1990 and Job Autonomy Scale (by Das, Arora, & Singhal, 2000. On the basis of median of the job autonomy scores, the sample was divided into two groups (1 high job autonomy group and (2 low job autonomy group and on the basis of hierarchical level, the employees were divided into two groups (1 50 high hierarchical level employees’ including managers, etc. and (2 50 low hierarchical level employees, e.g. clerical staff, etc. The 2x2 factorial design was formed for this purpose and four groups of employees were formed (1 high hierarchy, high autonomy group (2 high hierarchy, low autonomy group(3 low hierarchy, high autonomy group and (4 low hierarchy, low autonomy group. A two-way analysis of variance was employed to compare the level of organizational commitment of each of the four groups. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees with high and low job autonomy (F = 4.670, p < .05. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees of high hierarchical group and those of low hierarchical group (F = 40.691, p < .01 and significant interaction effect found between job autonomy and hierarchical level upon organizational commitment of employees (F = 6.114, p < .05.

  20. Effect of Couple Therapy Based on the Choice Theory on Social Commitment of Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abbasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Commitment to spouse, marriage, and family is one of the most important factors ensuring the continuity of marriage and strength of family bonds that has attracted considerable attention in the contemporary family and marriage studies. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of couple therapy based on the choice theory on the social commitment of couples. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design and a control group that was performed among volunteer couples visiting Isfahan Counseling and Psychology Centers in Isfahan, Iran, during 2015. The subjects consisted of 32 incompatible couples who were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental (16 couples and control (16 couples groups. Then, the experimental group received nine sessions of group couple therapy during three months on family life skills based on choice theory. It is worth mentioning that the dependent variable was the social commitment of couples evaluated by the dimensions of commitment inventory of Adams and Jones (1997. The collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance in SPSS, version 20. Results: At the post-test stage, couple therapy based on choice theory significantly enhanced social commitment in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, couple therapy based on the choice theory is an effective strategy in promoting commitment and loyalty to spouse, marriage, and family and can decrease and prevent family-related problems and threats such as divorce and marital infidelity.

  1. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy on Depression and Body Image in Women with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Gholamhoseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: From the perspective of psychology, obesity can lead to the negative attitude, stress and the increasing the risks of psychological disorders. From the viewpoint of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, psychological disorders are due to the fusion of psychological and cognitive inflexibility. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment group therapy on improving the depression and body image among female with obesity.Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through pre-posttest with the intervention and the control groups. The target population of this research was total obese women depression symptoms and negative body image who referred to nutrition and sports clubs in East of Tehran in 2014. 30 obese women with depression symptoms and negative body image were selected through purposeful sampling and randomly divided in the intervention and the control groups. The intervention group participated in acceptance and commitment group therapy sessions include once a week for two months (a total of 8 sessions.The control group received no intervention. All participants were evaluated in the first and last meeting by the Beck Depression Inventory and body image questionnaires. To analyze the data descriptive parameters such as frequency and standard deviation and statistical tests such as t-test for comparison two independent groups were used.Results: The results showed a significant reduction in depression scores (P<0.01 and a significant increase in body image scores (P=0.001 in patients of the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: The study showed that acceptance and commitment group therapy in women with obesity lead to the reduction in depression and increase the desirable perception of body image, therefore, the use of this therapeutic approach is recommended in women with obesity. 

  2. The barrier effect of conflict with superiors in the relationship between employee empowerment and organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.

    The author proposes the idea that conflict with superiors has a barrier effect in the positive relationship between employee empowerment and organizational commitment. Superiors with higher authority rankings set and pursue organizational goals and values to which employees with lower authority

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose B Appendix B to Part 191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  4. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van den Berkmortel, Hanneke; Kramers, Kees

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Susanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

  6. Personality and organizational citizenship behavior in Indonesia: The mediating effect of affective commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purba, D.E.; Oostrom, J.K.; Van der Molen, H.T.; Born, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the mediating effect of affective commitment on the relationship between personality and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a non-Western culture. We attempt to increase understanding of how personality and work attitudes affect OCB in a culture where

  7. The Effects of Servant Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teachers' school commitment. The research data were collected from 563 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were measured with a servent organizational leadership assessment scale, and the teachers'…

  8. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment: Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shueh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: After reviewing previous research, this study found that few school or educational studies have simultaneously explored both internal marketing and organizational commitment, and of those that have, only direct effects were examined. This study clarifies the relationship between school organization's internal marketing and teachers'…

  9. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  10. Effect of Distributive Justice on The Relationship between The Forms of Benefit Program and Job Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the moderating effect of distributive justice in the relationship between the forms of benefits program and job commitment. A survey research method was used to gather 150 usable questionnaires from employees who have worked in Malaysian federal government linked companies in Sarawak (MFGLS. The outcomes of testing moderating model using a hierarchical regression analysis showed two major findings: (1 distributive justice had not increased the effect of physical and safety benefits (i.e., health care, insurance, loan and claim on job commitment, and (2 distributive justice had increased the effect of self-satisfaction benefits (i.e., promotion opportunity and training on job commitment. This result confirms that distributive justice does act as a partial moderating variable in the benefit program models of the organizational sector sample. In addition, the implications of this study to benefit system theory and practice, methodological and conceptual limitations, and directions for future research are also discussed. Keywords: Forms of Benefits Program, Distributive Justice and Job Commitment

  11. The Effect of Perceiving a Calling on Pakistani Nurses' Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Job Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Bilal; Shahjehan, Asad; Cheema, Sadia; Javed, Farheen

    2018-03-01

    People differ considerably in the way in which they express and experience their nursing careers. The positive effects associated with having a calling may differ substantially based on individuals' abilities to live out their callings. In a working world where many individuals have little to no choice in their type of employment and thus are unable to live out a calling even if they have one, the current study examined how perceiving a calling and living a calling interacted to predict organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job stress with career commitment mediating the effect of the interactions on the three outcome variables. The purpose of the study is to investigate the mediating effect of career commitment between the relationships of calling and (a) nurses' attitudes (organizational commitment), (b) behaviors (organizational citizenship behavior), and (c) subjective experiences regarding work (job stress). Using a descriptive exploratory design, data were collected from 332 registered nurses working in Pakistani hospitals. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used for data analysis. Living a calling moderated the effect of calling on career commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job stress, and career commitment fully mediated the effect of calling on organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job stress. Increasing the understanding of calling, living a calling, and career commitment may increase nurses' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior and decrease job stress. The study provided evidence to help nursing managers and health policy makers integrate knowledge and skills related to calling into career interventions and help nurses discover their calling.

  12. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  13. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  14. The mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment of nurses: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleryüz, Güldal; Güney, Semra; Aydin, Eren Miski; Aşan, Oznur

    2008-11-01

    The effect of emotional intelligence and its dimensions on job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses has been investigated in this study. This paper examines the relations among emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses and the mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment. A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore the relations between emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Teaching hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Questionnaires were distributed by Nursing Services Administration to 550 nurses working at different departments of the hospital and 267 questionnaires were analyzed. A 45-item questionnaire which consists of emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment parts was carried out to investigate the relations among these variables. Some basic socio-demographic questions were included. Emotional intelligence was significantly and positively related to job satisfaction (r=0.236,pemotion (ROE)"(r=0.228,pemotion (UOE)"(r=0.155,pemotional intelligence. "Others's emotional appraisal" did not have any relations with job satisfaction or organisational commitment and "self-emotional appraisal (SEA)" was found to be a suppressor. It was found that job satisfaction is a mediator between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment. The other finding of the study was that "SEA" and "UOE" have direct effects on organisational commitment whereas job satisfaction is a mediator between "regulation of emotion" and organisational commitment.

  15. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Past Satisfaction and Commitment on the Future Intention to Internationalize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Barakat, Livia; Mitchell, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    literature, the degree to which a firm was committed to internationalization has a negative influence on the positive relationship between satisfaction and intent. Design/methodology/approach: – All Brazilian firms that have entered foreign markets via FDI were surveyed to measure the firm’s: intent...... Paulo Stock Exchange) and private limited companies (Ltda.). The authors conducted a hierarchical moderated regression analysis to test the moderating effect of commitment to internationalization on the relationship between international satisfaction and intent to internationalize. Findings...... enough data points to test more hypotheses such as the effects of firm size, number of countries the firm is in, and age of the firm. Future studies should attempt to expand the work done here by examining these effects. Another limitation of this study is that it is based on solely one country; Brazil...

  17. The effects of perceived managerial support on organizational commitment: An example of professional football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan ADİLOĞULLARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the support from managers that the professional footballers perceive in their commitment to their teams. Material and Methods: In this study, 641 professional football players were randomly participated from the professional football leagues organized by Turkish Football Federation in the season of 2015-2016. Data were collected by administrating the “Perceived Managerial Support Questionnaire” developed by Giray and Sahin (2012 and the “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” which developed by Meyer and Allen (1997 and adapted to Turkish language by Wasti (2000 that has three subscales and 18 items. The data obtained in the study were evaluated by the Mann Withney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the regression analyses as well as the percent-frequency analyses via SPSS programme. Results: Results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the level of organizational commitment and managerial support of professional football players that they perceive from their managers. In relation to perceived managerial support of football players, there was a significant difference between the groups according to league category and educational status of football players who participated in the present study. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the level of organizational commitment among the groups according to football players’ age, level of league, educational status and duration of professional football career. Conclusion: According to results of this study that the professional football players’ commitment of their teams is predicted by the perceived managerial support from their managers is considered as an important conclusion. In this premise, results of the present study shed light on our understanding of the organizational management in football to be aware of football player’s expectations from their managers and provide such awareness in

  18. The effects of work alienation on organisational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Lars G; Den Dulk, Laura

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of work alienation on organisational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment. There is substantial research on the effects of work alienation on passive job performance, such as organisational commitment. However, studies analysing work alienation on active performance, such as work effort, and outside work, such as work-to-family enrichment, are scarce. Two dimensions of work alienation are considered: powerlessness and meaninglessness. Hypotheses are tested using surveys collected among a national sample of midwives in the Netherlands (respondents: 790, response rate 61%). the findings indicate that work alienation (powerlessness and meaninglessness) influence organisational commitment, work effort and--to a lesser extent--work-to-family enrichment. High work meaninglessness, in particular, has negative effects on these outcomes. When people feel that they have no influence in their work (hence, when they feel 'powerless') and especially when the feel that their work is not worthwhile (when they feel 'meaningless') this has substantial negative effects. Managers should increase the meaningfulness that people attach to their work, thereby maintaining a high-quality workforce. Possible strategies include: (1) improving person-job fit, (2) developing high-quality relationships, (3) better communicating the results people help to deliver. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. EFFECT OF QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM ON AUDIT QUALITY WITH PROFESSIONAL COMMITMENTS AS A MODERATION VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to test the effect of every element of Quality Control System (QCS that is leadership responsibilities for quality on audit, relevant ethical requirements, acceptance and continuance of client relationships and certain engagements, assignment of engagement team, engagement performance, monitoring, and documentation on audit quality as well as to test whether the professional commitment moderate effect of every element of QCS on audit quality. The population was the staff auditors working in public accounting firms domiciled in Jakarta City, especially Central Jakarta area with the drawing of 84 respondents. The statistical method used was SEM PLS with the help of SmartPLS application. The results of this study indicate that from seven elements of QCS, only relevant ethical requirements that affect on audit quality. Furthermore, the study also found that professional commitment cannot moderate the relationship between the seven elements of QCS on audit quality.

  20. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECT OF BRAND CREDIBILITY, BRAND COMMITMENT AND LOYALTY INTENTIONS ON BRAND EQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Veeva Mathew; Sam Thomas; Joseph I Injodey

    2012-01-01

    Brand equity has been and will be an area of interest for marketing managers. All marketing efforts are directed toward the development ofbrand equity. Therefore efforts are taken among the researchers, to understand the concept of brand equity as deep as possible.This paper attempts to understand the interrelationships among key formative indicators of brand equity, using beliefattitude- intention hierarchy of effects. The formative indicators include brand credibility, brand commitment, and...

  1. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abednego Feehi Okoe; Henry Boateng; Tiniwah Deborah Mensah

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A tot...

  2. The effects of psychological contract violation on employees' commitment to organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Yuhong

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between the perceived psychological contract violation and employee’s commitment to organizational change in business merger situation. Through the research, it shows that perceived psychological contract violation will significantly reduce the employees’ affective commitment to organizational change; increase continuance commitment to organizational change, but will not significantly affect the normative commitment to organizational change. Also, the e...

  3. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders ⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and between hotels. Findings underscored the importance of managerial support for employee work–family balance, the relevance of senior managers’ own work–family circumstances in relation to employees’ work outcomes, and the existence of possible contagion effects of leaders in relation to work–family climate. PMID:19412351

  4. Effect of media presentations on willingness to commit to organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Inbal; Kogut, Tehila; Pinchas, Meir; Slovic, Paul

    2017-05-16

    We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an "opt-out" policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective recipient (whose life was saved by the donation) increased the participants' willingness to commit to organ donation themselves, donate the organs of a deceased relative, or support a transition to an "opt-out" policy. Conversely, identifying the deceased donor tended to induce thoughts of death rather than about saving lives, resulting in fewer participants willing to donate organs or support measures that facilitated organ donation. A study of online news revealed that identification of the donor is significantly more common than identification of the recipient in the coverage of organ donation cases-with possibly adverse effects on the incidence of organ donations.

  5. Natural Radioactivity in Biota From Balok River and Its Associated Committed Effective Dose to Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Wo, Y.; Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Mohamad Noh Sawon; Khairul Nizam Razali; Dainee Nor Fardzilla Ahmad Tugi

    2016-01-01

    Several types of biota samples such as fishes, crabs and snails were collected from the Balok river which located close to the Gebeng industrial site that situated Lynas rare earth processing plant. Local communities were worried that operational of Lynas plant could introduce some radioactive contaminants into the adjacent river and endanger the aquatic animals and people. The activity concentration of radionuclides in these biota samples were determined using HPGe Gamma spectrometry system and found to be low and insignificant. They were ranged from MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) to 2.88 Bq/ kg, MDA to 6.75 Bq/ kg, MDA to 7.98 Bq/ kg, MDA to 4.43 Bq/ kg and MDA to 32.50 Bq/ kg, for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The MDA values for these radionuclides were varies and quiet high due to the limited sample size available. Using the computer code ERICA tool, it was found that the radiation risk of these radionuclides to the aquatic lives to be less than 1 μGy/ h and was below than the probability selected and therefore the potential radiation risk to human being should also be low. By using the dose conversion factors given in the AELB (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulation 2010, assuming an adult consumed one kilogram of these contaminated biota, he would expected to receive a total committed effective dose per unit intake between 2.2 - 23.7 μSv depending on the consumed species. However, this value was far below the annual dose limit of 1,000 μSv for general public as stipulated under Act 304. (author)

  6. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaël, Dupré

    2014-04-01

    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, L.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Manjon-Collado, G.; Colmenero-Sujo, L.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Cano-Jimenez, A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, A.; Davila-Rangel, I.; Quirino-Torres, L.; Herrera-Peraza, E. F.

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222 Rn, 226 Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from -1 . Generally, radium activity concentration was -1 , with some exceptions; in spring water of San Diego de Alcala, in contrast, the value reached ∼5.3 Bq l -1 . Radon activity concentration obtained throughout the state was from 1.0 to 39.8 Bq l -1 . A linear correlation between uranium and radon dissolved in groundwater of individual wells was observed near Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 μSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality. (authors)

  8. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of 226 Ra and 90 Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious

  9. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Razi Psychiatric Center Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heydari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Considering the key role of human resources as the main operator of organisations, the present research aimed to determine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety and depression of Razi Psychiatric Center staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research follows a quasi-experimental type with pre-test, post-test plans, and control group. Accordingly, 30 people were selected through volunteered sampling among Razi Psychiatric Center staff. Then, they were randomly placed into two groups of 15 (experimental and control and evaluated using research tools. Research tools consisted of Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories whose reliability and validity have been confirmed in several studies. Research data were analysed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The statistical analysis confirmed the difference in the components of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, which had received acceptance and commitment therapy compared to the group that had not received any therapy in this regard (control group (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Acceptance and commitment therapy reduces anxiety and depression.

  10. Neighbourhood Poverty, Work Commitment and Unemployment in Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study into the Moderating Effect of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We studied how personality moderates the effect of neighbourhood disadvantage on work commitment and unemployment in early adulthood. Using a personality typology of resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers, we hypothesised that the association between neighbourhood poverty and both work commitment and unemployment would be stronger for overcontrollers and undercontrollers than for resilients. We used longitudinal data (N = 249) to test whether the length of exposure to neighbourhood poverty between age 16 and 21 predicts work commitment and unemployment at age 25. In line with our hypothesis, the findings showed that longer exposure was related to weaker work commitment among undercontrollers and overcontrollers and to higher unemployment among undercontrollers. Resilients' work commitment and unemployment were not predicted by neighbourhood poverty.

  11. THE EFFECT OF TASK COMMITMENT ON THE WORK DISCIPLINE OF THE PRINCIPALS OF MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH IN DELI SERDANG REGENCY INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifa'i

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to answer the problem of the influence of task commitment on work disciplin to headmaster of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah in Deli Serdang. The population of this research is Islamic Elementary School Principal in Deli Serdang regency as many as 156 people with a total sample of 113 people taken to consult with Krejcle –Morgan Table. The research instrument used was a set of questionnare with Likert scale. The research data were processed and analyzed with path analysis. This Path analysis begins with the test requirements include the analysis of normality test, linearity test and significance of regression. The result of analysis showed that there is direct effect of task commitment on work discipline with path coefficient 0.086 to the head master of madrasah ibtidaiyah in Deli Serdang Regency. The implication of this research result explains that the improvement of work discipline of Islamic Elementary School Principal in Deli Serdang regency can be done by guaranteeing conducive organization climate, supportive management, effective communication channel and value system that support the fulfillment of creativity and work autonomy besides work environment that fosters mutual respects, helps and trusts in carrying out its duties.

  12. THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL TRAINING, INTEGRITY, COMPETENCY AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF QUALITY AUDIT IN THE AUDIT BOARD OF REPUBLIC INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Sunyoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates about the influence of functional training, integrity, competence and organizational commitment to quality audit. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of functional training, integrity, competence and organizational commitment to quality audit, in The Audit Board of Republic Indonesia, Jakarta in 2017. The research used survey method quantitative approach with path analysis technique. Methods of survey research using quantitative approach path analysis techniques. The data were collected from 100 auditors as a sample. The sample was selected by simple random sampling from 130 Auditor as population. The results showed there is the significant direct effect functional of training on quality audit; integrity on quality audit; competency on quality audit; organizational commitment on quality audit; functional training, Integrity, and Competence significant direct effect on organizational commitment; functional training and Integrity significant direct effect on the competence; direct effect on the integrity of functional training is significant.

  13. [Effects of nurses' social capital on turnover intention: focused on the mediating effects organizational commitment and organizational cynicism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwon; Woo, Heeyoung; Ju, Eunsil; Lim, Sohee; Han, Sangsook

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the casual relationship between nurses' social capital and turnover intention and to verify the goodness of fit between a hypothetical model and actual data in order to suggest the best model. This survey was conducted with 315 nurses working in general hospitals in Seoul. Data were collected from December 1 to December 30, 2011, and analyzed using SPSS Windows 18.0 and AMOS 16.0. Nurses' social capital was found to have a direct effect on reducting organization cynicism and increasing organizational commitment. Nurses' organizational cynicism and organizational commitment were found to have a direct effect on turnover intention, but social capital did not have a direct effect on turnover intention. However, social capital had a partial and indirect effect on turnover intention through mediating organizational cynicism and organizational commitment. Results of this study indicate that nurse managers should put increased effort in reducing nurses' organizational cynicism and improving their organizational commitment, two contrary parameters. At the same time managers need to develop plans to establish social capital more efficiently so that nurses have lower turnover intention.

  14. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND A RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    CENGİZ DEMİR; UMUT CAN ÖZTÜRK

    2013-01-01

    Organizational culture is the all values that shared by the whole of the organization. Organizational commitment is employees’ strength of bond for the organization which they work for. There should be shared values for mentioned about commitment. If those values are adopted by a large number of people and if they are strong, the level of commitment will increase. The main purpose of this study is to determine  the impact of organizational culture on commitment and the relationship. This stud...

  15. Estimates of effective equivalent dose commitments for Slovene population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanduc, M.; Jovanowic, O.; Kuhar, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the estimates of effective equivalent dose commitments for the two groups of Slovene population, 5 years old children and adults. Doses were calculated on the basis of the ICRP 30 methodology, first from the measurements of the concentrations of the radionuclides in air, water and food samples and then compared with the results of the measurements of radionuclides in composite samples of the prepared food, taken in the kindergarten nearby. Results show that there is certain degree of conservatism hidden in the calculation of the doses on the basis of measurements of the activity concentration in the elements of the biosphere and is estimated to be roughly 50%. (author)

  16. Evaluation for committed effective dose due to dietary foods by the intake for Japanese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kashiwara, Yoko; Morimoto, Takao; Sato, Kaneaki

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity levels in 137 foods commonly consumed daily in Japan were evaluated to determine the committed effective dose in the Japanese adults. The levels of radioactivity for 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu were ND-5.2 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-0.18 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-3.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-45 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-120 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-9.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-19 Bq/kg fresh weight and ND-0.010 Bq/kg fresh weight, respectively. The committed effective dose was estimated to be 0.80 mSv from the intake of the foods. The effective dose was greater than the world mean value for adults of 0.12 mSv by natural radioactive elements in the uranium and thorium series from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 because of the large contribution from 210 Po in seafood. (author)

  17. THE EFFECT OF EMPOWERMENT, EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARDS PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENTAL-EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL-MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Zeny Merry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study the influence of empowerment, employee engagement, and organizational commitment on a performance of the financial management staffs at Riau Islands Provincial Government. Quantitative approach used in this research with survey method. The samples of this research were 230 staffs selected randomly. The data were obtained by distributing questionnaire and analyzed by using path analysis. The results of research shows that: (1 empowerment, employee engagement and organizational commitment had a positive direct effect on employee performance; (2 empowerment and employee engagement had a positive direct effect on organizational commitment; (3 empowerment have a positive direct effect on employee engagement. The research findings recommend to improve employee performance by improving empowerment, employee engagement and organizational commitment of the financial management staff at Riau Island Provincial Government

  18. The effects of perceived organisational support and span of control on the organisational commitment of novice leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; Dahinten, V Susan; MacPhee, Maura

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the main and interaction effects of perceived organisational support, span of control and leadership rank on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. As nurse leaders' organisational commitment is eroded at times of healthcare restructuring, it is important to study factors associated with organisational commitment. Cross-sectional data from 69 novice nurse leaders, collected via mailed surveys at two time points, were analysed using hierarchical regression. The findings supported our hypotheses about the positive effect of perceived organisational support, the positive effect of leadership rank and the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. In addition, perceived organisational support was shown to moderate the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment at time 2. Organisational strategies aimed at supporting nurse leaders, and attention to span of control, are required to enhance the organisational commitment of novice nurse leaders. Nurse leaders with a wide span of control, in particular those with little leadership experience, need to adopt leadership strategies that maximise their effectiveness, such as organising smaller work groups or teams within their wide span of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Influence of Nurse Managers' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Focused on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Han Gyo; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship of nurse managers' authentic leadership, with nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The participants in this study were 273 registered nurses working in five University hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The measurements included the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Korea-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regression techniques with the SPSS 18.0 program. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test. There were significant correlations among authentic leadership, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Empowerment showed perfect mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. It had partial mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. In this study, nurse managers' authentic leadership had significant influences on nurses organizational commitment and job satisfaction via empowerment. Therefore, to enhance nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, it is necessary to build effective strategies to enhance nurse manager's authentic leadership and to develop empowering education programs for nurses.

  20. Organizational culture and organizational commitment: Serbian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the impact of certain dimensions of organizational culture (Future Orientation, Power Distance, Human Orientation and Performance Orientation on organizational commitment in companies in Serbia. Through a survey, responses were obtained from a total of N = 400 middle managers from 129 companies. The results show a statistically significant correlation between the observed dimensions of organizational culture and organizational commitment dimensions. Also, there is a statistically significant predictive effect of certain dimensions of organizational culture on the dimensions of organizational commitment. The biggest influences on the dimensions of organizational commitment have dimensions Future Orientation - FO and Performance Orientation - PO. On the other hand, under the most affected dimension of organizational culture is the dimension of organizational commitment Organizational identification - OCM1.

  1. Fuzzy Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juels, Ari

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce fuzzy commitment, one of the earliest and simplest constructions geared toward cryptography over noisy data. The chapter also explores applications of fuzzy commitment to two problems in data security: (1) secure management of biometrics, with a focus on iriscodes, and (2) use of knowledge-based authentication (i.e., personal questions) for password recovery.

  2. The public committed effective dose caused by consumption of foods and foodstuffs in Ninh Thuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Nhu Sieu; Truong Y; Nguyen Van Phuc; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Dinh Tung

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data set about radionuclides concentration in foods and foodstuffs obtained from the implementation of the National Projects on “Investigation on radionuclides and toxic elements concentration in the main kinds of foods and foodstuffs of Vietnam” and “Assessment of Marine Environmental Radioactivity Status for two selected sites of Nuclear Power Plant in the near future at Ninh Thuan Province”, a calculation software of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), the public committed effective doses (for adult only) caused by consumption of main foods & foodstuffs in the studied experimental region were estimated. In general, the committed effective doses for adult public caused by the daily intake of radionuclides of U, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu are: 7.9x10 -5 , 4.1x10 -6 , 1.1x10 -2 , 1.7x10 -1 , 1.4x10 -3 , 1.2x10 -1 , 2.32x10 -4 , 1.9x10 -4 , 2.7x10 -9 (mSv/year), respectively, and the contribution of U, Th series, 40 K and artificial radionuclides are 61.3%, 38.6% and 0.1%, respectively. (author)

  3. An analysis of the direct and mediated effects of employee commitment and supply chain integration on organisational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alfalla-Luque, Rafaela; Marín García, Juan Antonio; Medina-Lopez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interrelationships among the different dimensions of supply chain integration. Specifically, it examines the relationship between employee commitment and supply chain integration dimensions to explain several performance measures, such as flexibility, delivery, quality, inventory and customer satisfaction. Very little research has been conducted onto this topic, since employee commitment is rarely included as an antecedent of the effect of supply chain integration on...

  4. Effects of Sexual Harassment on Job Satisfaction, Retention, Cohesion, Commitment and Unit Effectiveness: The Case of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    quid pro quo ). Examples of questions that were used in previous studies to measure crude/offensive behavior, as well as, other forms of sexual ...includes, but is not limited to, harassment in which submission is made a condition of employment (or quid pro quo ). Global or organizational...Effects of Sexual Harassment on Job Satisfaction, Retention, Cohesion, Commitment and Unit Effectiveness: The Case of the Air Force Dr. Brenda

  5. Structural Model of the Effect of Psychological Capital on Success with Due to the Mediating Role of Commitment and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golparvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was administered with the aim of investigating structural model of the effect of psychological capital on career success with due to the mediating role of satisfaction and commitment among employees of Telecom Company. Research statistical population was male and female employees of Telecom in Isfahan city, who among them two hundred and eighty five persons were selected using convenience sampling. Research instruments were Nguyen et al. Psychological Capital questionnaire, Nabi Job Success (career success Questionnaire, Spector Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and Speier and Venkatesh Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling revealed thatin aseriesof sequential relationships, there is a significant effect from psychological capital also on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and there is a significant effect also from job satisfaction and organizational commitment on job success (career success. The results also showed that psychological capital impact on career success was indirectly through job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Overall, the results of this study showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were mediating variables in the relationship between psychological capital and career success.

  6. Effects of core self-evaluations on the job burnout of nurses: the mediator of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xianmin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Chen, Wuying

    2014-01-01

    To explore the impact of Core self-evaluations on job burnout of nurses, and especially to test and verify the mediator role of organizational commitment between the two variables. Random cluster sampling was used to pick up participants sample, which consisted of 445 nurses of a hospital in Shanghai. Core self-evaluations questionnaire, job burnout scale and organizational commitment scale were administrated to the study participants. There are significant relationships between Core self-evaluations and dimensions of job burnout and organizational commitment. There is a significant mediation effect of organizational commitment between Core self-evaluations and job burnout. To enhance nurses' Core self-evaluations can reduce the incidence of job burnout.

  7. Job Satisfaction of Nurses and Its Moderating Effects on the Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Tzu; Chang, Ching-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Because nurses deliver care to patients on behalf of hospitals, hospitals should enhance the spontaneous organizational citizenship behaviors of front-line nurses to increase patient satisfaction and, hence, to increase the competitiveness of the hospital. However, a major gap in the literature is the lack of evidence-based studies of the correlations among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors in nursing personnel. Therefore, this study performed a cross-sectional survey of nurses in 1 large hospital in Taiwan; out of 400 questionnaires distributed, 386 valid questionnaires were collected, which was a valid response rate of 96.50%. The survey results revealed that organizational commitment has a significant positive effect on organizational citizenship behaviors (γ11 = 0.57, p organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors (Δχ2 = 26.397, p organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors.

  8. The "July effect" in total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Allison J; Bohl, Daniel D; Frank, Rachel M; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-03-01

    New medical doctors enter their residency fields in July, a time in the hospital in which patient morbidity and mortality rates are perceived to be higher. It remains controversial whether a "July effect" exists in different areas of medicine and surgery, including in orthopedic surgery. The purpose of this study is to test for the July effect in patients undergoing primary total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Patients who underwent primary TSA from 2005-2012 were identified using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Cases were categorized as involving residents or fellows and as occurring during the first academic quarter. Rates of composite and any adverse event outcomes were compared between patient groups using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1591 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these cases, 711 (44.7%) had resident or fellow involvement and 390 (24.5%) were performed in the first academic quarter. There were few demographic and comorbidity differences between cases with and without residents or fellows or between cases performed during the first quarter and during the rest of the year. Overall, the rate of serious adverse events was 1.6% and the rate of any adverse events was 6.5%. Using one of the largest cohorts of primary TSA patients, this study could not provide evidence for a July effect. In the context of the recent growth in the volume of TSA procedures, these findings provide important reassurance to patients that it is safe to schedule their elective procedures at training institutions during the first part of the academic year. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of total pressure on graphite oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Hoot, C.G.

    1983-04-01

    Graphite corrosion in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is calculated using two key assumptions: (1) the kinetic, catalysis, and transport characteristics of graphite determined by bench-scale tests apply to large components at reactor conditions and (2) the effects of high pressure and turbulent flow are predictable. To better understand the differences between laboratory tests and reactor conditions, a high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed and used to perform tests at reactor temperature, pressure, and flow conditions. The HPTL is intended to determine the functional dependence of oxidation rate and characteristics on total pressure and gas velocity and to compare the oxidation results with calculations using models and codes developed for the reactor

  10. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lang; Guo, Mao-Juan; Gao, Qing; Yang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Lin; Pang, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Xi-Juan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Probiotics supplements provide a new nonpharmacological alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The impact of probiotics on the reduction of total cholesterol (TC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to showcase the most updated and comprehensive evaluation of the studies. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database dating from January 2007 to January 2017. The curative effects of probiotics on the reduction of TC were assessed using mean difference (MD), as well as their 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan software (version 5.3) was used to carry out this meta-analysis. Results: Thirty-two RCTs including 1971 patients met the inclusion criteria. Results of this analysis showed that compared with the control group serum TC was significantly reduced in probiotics group [MD = −13.27, 95% CI (−16.74 to 9.80), P  6 weeks: [MD = −22.18, 95% CI (−28.73, −15.63), P probiotics forms and intervention duration might have a significant impact on the results. However, strains and doses of probiotics had no significant influence on curative effects. Conclusion: Available evidence indicates that probiotics supplements can significantly reduce serum TC. Furthermore, higher baseline TC, longer intervention time, and probiotics in capsules form might contribute to a better curative effect. PMID:29384846

  11. The impact of workplace spirituality dimensions on organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses with the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipour, Farahnaz; Mohd Amin, Salmiah

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality dimensions and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among nurses through the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment. Nurses' OCB has been considered recently to improve the quality of services to patients and subsequently, their performance. As an influential attitude, affective organisational commitment has been recognized to influence OCB, and ultimately, organisational performance. Meanwhile, workplace spirituality is introduced as a new organisational behaviour concept to increase affective commitment influencing employees' OCB. The cross-sectional study and the respective data were collected with a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaires were distributed to 305 nurses employed in four public and general Iranian hospitals. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson coefficient, simple regression, multiple regression and path analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that workplace spirituality dimensions including meaningful work, a sense of community and an alignment with organisational values have a significant positive relationship with OCB. Moreover, affective organisational commitment mediated the impact of workplace spirituality on OCB. The concept of workplace spirituality through its dimensions predicts nurses' OCB, and affective organisational commitment partially mediated the relationship between workplace spirituality and OCB. Nurses' managers should consider the potentially positive influence of workplace spirituality on OCB and affective commitment among their nurses. With any plan to increase workplace spirituality, the respective managers can improve nurses' performance and would be of considerable importance in the healthcare system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Organizational Commitment of Principals: The Effects of Job Autonomy, Empowerment, and Distributive Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been a topic of extensive interest in the organizational behavior literature since the 1950's. It has been associated with workforce stability, decreased absenteeism, organizational citizenship behaviors, and decreased turnover. This study focuses on the relationships between organizational commitment and…

  13. Perception of the Effect of Leadership Styles on Organizational Commitment at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if a relationship exists between the perceived leadership style of supervisors and the organizational commitment level of the subordinate employees within Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). Additionally, the study examined whether a difference exists in the organizational commitment levels of TCU…

  14. Promoting multifoci citizenship behavior: Time-lagged effects of procedural justice, trust, and commitment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grohmann, A.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    To explain why procedural justice leads to organisational citizenship behavior (OCB), both commitment and trust have been studied—but never concurrently. Moreover, as employees aim their behaviors toward distinct targets in the workplace, citizenship behaviors as well as commitment and trust should

  15. The Effects of Employee Commitment in Transnational Higher Education: The Case of International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Annabi, Carrie Amani

    2017-01-01

    Higher education is a labor intensive activity and strong organizational performance depends upon employee commitment. This study analyses antecedents and consequences of employee commitment in universities that are involved in transnational higher education, with a focus on identifying differences between the employees at home and foreign branch…

  16. Rationalizers or realists? The effects of transgressors' just world beliefs within committed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strelan, P.; van Prooijen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    We test the interpersonal consequences of transgressors' BJW-others and BJW-self within the context of committed (or non-committed) relationships. Across two studies, one utilizing a recall paradigm allowing an insight into the real and varied experiences of transgressors (N= 221), the other a

  17. Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes and Organizational Commitment: The Effects of Perceived Supervisor Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak-Otluoglu, K. Ovgu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the traditional sentiment that protean and boundaryless career attitudes indicate a decline in organizational commitment, little empirical evidence is available. The present study examined the relation of protean and boundaryless career attitudes to organizational commitment and whether the perceived supervisor support moderated these…

  18. The Effect of Organizatonal Learning on Organizational Commitment in Accommodation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenidoğan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was done with the purpose of identifying the relationship between two conceptual structures which were organizational learning and organizational commitment. Main hypothesis was identified as “There is a positive correlation between employees’ organizational learning inclination and organizational commitment.” In order to identify the relation between two conceptual structures, Likert type scale was used by using the literature. Stated likert type scales were applied for 279 people including managers’ and employees’ and statistical analysis on gathered datas from 260 questionnaires was done. In the research, both the correlation between organizational learning and sub-dimensions of organizational commitment which classified as emotional, normative, continuance commitment and the correlation between employees’ age, level of education, position and working period variables and organizational commitment were examined. Regression analysis was used in order to identify the correlation between organizational learning and organizational commitment which was the main hypothesis. Other hypotheses were tested by one way analysis of variance. It was found that that there was a positive correlation between organizational learning and organizational commitment. Result of the analysis indicates that in order to increase organizational learning inclination of managers and employees for developing their organizational commitment, applications for organizational learning should be given importance in companies.

  19. The Role of Training in Building Employee Commitment: The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocen, Edward; Francis, Kasekende; Angundaru, Gladies

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of training in building employee commitment and the task of job satisfaction in the association between training and employee commitment in the banking sector in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used correlation, regression and MedGraph to investigate the hypotheses.…

  20. Boundary management of employees’ non-work lives: effects on South African workers’ commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory John Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ lives are holistic, and are comprised of many roles, resulting in complex interactions between their work and non-work lives. Broadly speaking, organisational responses to this could include ignoring employees’ non-work lives (separation, active involvement (integration, or creating flexibility and tolerance, thereby enabling employees to manage conflict (respect. This study investigates whether such response types impact differently on employee commitment. The findings suggest that a separation response decreases affective commitment, moderated by greater non-work involvement or role conflict. A respect response increases affective commitment, moderated by high non-work involvement, role conflict, ‘hindrance’ coping or lower career commitment. Continuance and normative commitment were not affected. These findings suggest that managers might take a role in employees’ non-work lives by creating flexibility and tolerance at work. However, managers should probably avoid implementing paternalistic approaches that attempt active involvement.

  1. Immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, V.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1981-01-01

    Contrary to the immunosuppression by means of wholebody irradiation which is known for a long while but connected with considerable side effects and risks, the total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a new possibility of immunosuppression the tolerance of which by man is known by virtue of long-standing experiences with the treatment of malignant lymphatic system diseases. In connexion with organ transplantations, TLI might possibly soon be important for the radiotherapeutist. In the experimentation on animals, the unspecific immunosuppression induced by TLI causes a prolonged survival time of allogeneic skin and organ grafts in certain mammals. Furthermore, a formation of blood chimeras combined with specific, permanent tolerance of organ grafts from the bone marrow donor can be caused by bone marrow transplantation after TLI. First experiences with man have been made. In the German literature, TLI has not been mentioned yet. In the present study, a summary is given on the Anglo-Saxon literature, and the first own experiments with regard to the problem of irradiation dose and transplantation interval are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged

  3. The Effects of Values, Work Centrality, and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from Turkish SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucanok, Basak; Karabati, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are voluntary contributions of employees not explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and are ultimately critical for sustaining organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1988). The current study aims to investigate the effects of values, work centrality, and organizational commitment on…

  4. The effect of the organizational socialization on organizational commitment and turnover intention with regard to moderate effect of career aspirations intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifehdust

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of the Organizational socialization, on Organizational commitment and turnover intention with regard to moderate effect of career aspirations intention. Data were collected via a questionnaire from employees of east branches of social security organization of Tehran. Path analysis of data from 155 respondents was used to test 5 hypotheses. The results show organizational socialization has positive effect on organizational commitment, but negative effect on turnover intention moreover organizational commitment and career aspiration intention have positive effect on turnover intention. Further research should examine the different dimensions of macro-environmental condition on turnover intention.

  5. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  6. Effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior of support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripapun Leephaijaroen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. The research method of this study was a mixed method combining quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative research method, data were collected from 144 support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand and the hypotheses were tested using the stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. For the qualitative research method, in-depth interviews with 11 support staff were used to explain the quantitative findings. The findings revealed that the components of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments which significantly affected OCB were agreeable personality, continuance commitment, conscientious personality, affective commitment, and emotionally-stable personality. In examining intensively each dimension of the OCB as a dependent variable, the results showed the following: 1 agreeable personality, affective commitment, conscientious personality, and normative commitment had positive significant effects on altruistic behavior; 2 conscientious personality, agreeable personality, and continuance commitment had positive significant effects on conscientious behavior; 3 affective commitment and agreeable personality had positive significant effects on sportsmanship behavior; 4 emotionally stable personality and continuance commitment had positive significant effects on courteous behavior; and 5 continuance commitment, agreeable personality, conscientious personality, and emotionally-stable personality had positive significant effects on civic virtue behavior.

  7. The effects of HRM practices and antecedents on organizational commitment among university employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, S.G.A.; Eisinga, R.N.; Teelken, J.C.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines which factors affect organizational commitment among Dutch university employees in two faculties with different academic identities (separatist versus hegemonist, Stiles, 2004 Stiles, D. 2004. Narcissus Revisited: The Values of Management Academics and their Role in Business

  8. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND A RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CENGİZ DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is the all values that shared by the whole of the organization. Organizational commitment is employees’ strength of bond for the organization which they work for. There should be shared values for mentioned about commitment. If those values are adopted by a large number of people and if they are strong, the level of commitment will increase. The main purpose of this study is to determine  the impact of organizational culture on commitment and the relationship. This study composed of two main parts. The first part consists of theoretical framework which explains organizational culture and commitment’s relationship. The second part is devoted to empirical analysis. Survey study was made in this part which held on 189 employees in the province of İzmir.

  9. The effects of HRM practices and antecedents on organizational commitment among university employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, S.G.A.; Eisinga, R.N.; Teelken, J.C.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines which factors affect organizational commitment among Dutch university employees in two faculties with different academic identities (separatist versus hegemonist, Stiles, 2004). The analyses of Web survey data reveal that in the separatist faculty decentralization, compensation,

  10. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. A multilevel cross-cultural examination of role overload and organizational commitment: investigating the interactive effects of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Considering the influential nature of context, the current investigation examined whether the relationship between role overload and organizational commitment was affected by various contextual factors. Drawing on the occupational stress literature, structural empowerment and cooperative climate were examined as factors that would mitigate the negative effects of role overload on organizational commitment. In addition, national culture was examined to determine whether empowerment and cooperative climate had consistent moderating effects across cultures. The relationships among these variables were examined using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 6,264 employees working at a multinational organization in 337 different work locations across 18 countries. Results suggested that the negative effect of role overload on organizational commitment did not vary as a function of culture in the current sample, but empowerment and cooperative climate had a moderating influence on this relationship. Furthermore, a 3-way interaction was observed between the cultural variable of power distance, empowerment, and role overload in predicting organizational commitment, suggesting that factors that serve to mitigate the negative effects of role overload in one culture may be ineffectual in another. This 3-way interaction was observed regardless of whether Hofstede's (2001) cultural value indices were used or the cultural practice scores from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project (R. J. House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004).

  12. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders ⋆

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and b...

  13. The Effects of Autonomy Gap in Personnel Policy, Principal Leadership and Teachers' Self-Efficacy on Their Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Diya; Devos, Geert; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    School autonomy in personnel policy is important to effective personnel management. With increased autonomy in personnel policy, principals could wield their leadership to improve teachers' organizational commitment. However, little is known about whether the given autonomy in personnel policy meets principals' expectation and whether and how the…

  14. The Effects of Social Identification and Organizational Identification on Student Commitment, Achievement and Satisfaction in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Kratochvil, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of social and organizational identifications on student commitment, achievement and satisfaction in higher education. The sample comprised 437 students enrolled in an undergraduate or postgraduate programme in business or management. A model was developed and tested using structural…

  15. Linking Work-Family Conflict to Career Commitment: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Mentoring among Nigerian Civil Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurame, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Little research attention has been given to the linkage between work-family conflict and career commitment. Likewise, although, theoretical arguments about the moderator effects of mentoring on the relationship between work-family conflict and career attitudes have been made in the literature, no research has investigated this assumption. This…

  16. Motivating safety belt use at a community hospital: an effective integration of incentive and commitment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, J G; Geller, E S

    1988-06-01

    An effective hospital-based safety-belt program incorporated several advantages over prior attempts to increase safety belt use, including (a) the use of indigenous staff as program sponsors, coordinators, and delivery agents; (b) a yearlong program evaluation; and (c) a combination of extrinsic incentives and intrinsic commitment. To be eligible for a weekly $5, employees met the following contingencies: (a) signed a pledge card; (b) displayed the signed pledge card in their vehicle; and (c) wore a safety belt. Overall, belt use increased from a 2-week baseline mean of 15.6% to 34.7% during the 6-month intervention, and decreased to 25.6% at withdrawal. For the pledge card signers (n = 188) and the nonsigners (n = 533), belt use increased from baseline means of 29.4% and 11.8% to intervention use rates of 75.1 and 17.7%, respectively. Withdrawal and 4-month follow-up use rates were 56.0% and 44.9% for the Pledge group, and 17.2% and 22.1% for the Nonpledge group.

  17. Unit commitment solution using agglomerative and divisive cluster algorithm : an effective new methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N.M.; Reddy, K.R. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Science, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Thermal power plants consist of several generating units with different generating capacities, fuel cost per MWH generated, minimum up/down times, and start-up or shut-down costs. The Unit Commitment (UC) problem in power systems involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules of thermal generating units to meet forecasted load over a future short term for a period of one to seven days. This paper presented a new approach for the most complex UC problem using agglomerative and divisive hierarchical clustering. Euclidean costs, which are a measure of differences in fuel cost and start-up costs of any two units, were first calculated. Then, depending on the value of Euclidean costs, similar type of units were placed in a cluster. The proposed methodology has 2 individual algorithms. An agglomerative cluster algorithm is used while the load is increasing, and a divisive cluster algorithm is used when the load is decreasing. A search was conducted for an optimal solution for a minimal number of clusters and cluster data points. A standard ten-unit thermal unit power system was used to test and evaluate the performance of the method for a period of 24 hours. The new approach proved to be quite effective and satisfactory. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-Hsin

    2007-12-01

    As nurses typically represent the largest percentage of employees at medical centers, their role in medical care is exceptionally important and becoming more so over time. The quality and functions of nurses impact greatly on medical care quality. The concept of internal marketing, with origins in the field of market research, argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Such a marketing concept challenges traditional marketing methods, which focus on serving external customers only. The main objective of internal marketing is to help internal customers (employees) gain greater job satisfaction, which should promote job performance and facilitate the organization accomplishing its ultimate business objectives. A question in the medical service industry is whether internal marketing can similarly increase the job satisfaction of nurses and enhance their commitment to the organization. This study aimed to explore the relational model of nurse perceptions related to internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment by choosing nurses from two medical centers in Southern Taiwan as research subjects. Of 450 questionnaire distributed, 300 valid questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. After conducting statistical analysis and estimation using structural equation modeling, findings included: (1) job satisfaction has positive effects on organizational commitment; (2) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on job satisfaction; and (3) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on organizational commitment.

  19. The effects of ownership, staffing level and organisational justice on nurse commitment, involvement, and satisfaction: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2011-12-01

    Elderly care systems have undergone a lot of changes in many European countries, including Finland. Most notably, the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Previous studies suggest that employee well-being and the quality of care might differ according to the ownership type. The present study examined whether the ownership type and the staffing level were associated with organisational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. In addition, we examined the potential moderating effect of organisational justice on these associations. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 1047 Finnish female staff members aged 18-69 years working in sheltered housing or nursing homes (units n=179). The relationships were studied with analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for the effects of age and case-mix. Organisational commitment and job satisfaction levels were low in for-profit sheltered homes when justice levels were low, but when justice levels were high, for-profit sheltered homes did not differ from other ownership types. Similarly, organisational justice acted as a buffer against low commitment resulting from low staffing levels. Staffing levels were lowest in public sheltered homes and highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes. The results show that organisational justice can act as a buffer against low organisational commitment that results from low staffing levels and working in for-profit sheltered homes. Increasing justice in regard to the management, outcomes, and procedures in the organisation would thus be important. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of structural empowerment and organizational commitment on Chinese nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Yanhui; Chen, Yan; Pan, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the level of structural empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Chinese nurses; and (2) to investigate the relationships among the three variables. A high turnover rate was identified in Chinese staff nurses, and it was highly correlated with lower job satisfaction. Structural empowerment and organizational commitment have been positively related to job satisfaction in western countries. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and multiple step-wise regression to test the hypothesized model. Moderate levels of the three variables were found in this study. Both empowerment and commitment were found to be significantly associated with job satisfaction (r=0.722, r=0.693, pcommitment were significant predictors of job satisfaction. Support for an expanded model of Kanter's structural empowerment was achieved in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Huddling Programme: effects on empowerment, organisational commitment and ego-resilience in clinical nurses - a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sook Bin; Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Se Young; Heo, Myoung Lyun

    2016-05-01

    To identify effects of the huddling programme as a strategy for retention of clinical nurses. In Korea, new nurses leave hospitals more than experienced nurses for many reasons. Hospitals with a high nurse turnover require larger budgets and longer periods of time to train large numbers of newly recruited nurses until they can perform as well as those who have left. Furthermore, the remaining nurses have an additional workload associated with both the shortage of manpower and the need to train the incoming nurses. This means that reducing nurse turnover intention requires preventive measures that promote empowerment and organisational commitment among nurses in Korea. Randomised controlled trial. This research used a pretest-post-test experimental-group-control-group design to investigate the effect of the huddling programme. The participants were 49 clinical nurses working at two general hospitals with more than 500 beds that are located in D city and S city of Korea. The experimental group participated in the huddling programme that comprised a full-day retreat and after-work social networking services during January and February 2013. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess empowerment, organisational commitment and ego-resilience. The data were analysed by descriptive analysis using the t-test. The mean scores for normative commitment and impact of empowerment were higher in the experimental group, but ego-resilience did not differ significantly between the two groups. The huddling program positively increased nurses' perception of organisational commitment and empowerment who participated in huddling programme. The huddling programme could be a useful strategy for improving the retention of clinical nurses. This study is both significant and relevant to nursing science and practice given that it demonstrated the effectiveness of an empowerment programme in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing actual turnover rates of clinical nurses.

  2. A survey of the effect of organizational culture on organizational commitment based on Allen and Meyer model (Case study: High school teachers of Bandpey region)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Firuzjaeyan; Mojtaba Firuzjaeyan; Behdad Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of organizational culture on organizational commitment of teachers. in this study Organizational commitment is based on Allen and Meyer: affective, continuance and normative commitment. The studied organizational culture is based on Denison four-dimension theory. Adaptability, Mission, Involvement and Consistency. Due to a few empirical studies in this region, the data were collected among 156 teachers of Bandpay region. The data were collecte...

  3. Effect of Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Effectiveness with the Moderating Role of Strategic Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kafayat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this era of highly competitive business environment every organization strives to be successful, and for that an organization pays great emphasis on organizational justice and job satisfaction of its employees in order to be effective and successful. This study investigates the impacts of organizational justice and Job Satisfaction on organizational effectiveness with moderating variable of strategic commitment. The organizational justice is subdivided into three types: Distributive Justice, Procedural justice, Interactional justice while job satisfaction is also divided into three dimensions as well: Working Condition, Job security and Autonomy. This study is an effort to contribute in the body of knowledge and helpful for organizations to improve their effectiveness. The data for this study is collected from Telecommunication sector of Pakistan via questionnaire.

  4. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Improving Body Image of Female Students with Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Patients with bulimia nervosa may have impaired mental image of their body and fear of weight gain. The aim of current research is study the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving body image of female students with bulimia nervosa.   Methods: The design of current study is as quasi-experiment research with pre-test and post-test with control group . Statistical population consists all 12-16 years old female students with bulimia nervosa of Ardabil city in the 2013-13 academic years. In order to select the sample, at first 400 students were selected by multi stage cluster sampling method. Then between the students with bulimia nervosa, 40 subjects were selected randomly and were put in two experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment based training. Thecontrol group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.   Results: The results show that acceptance and commitment therapy improved body image and reduced the symptoms of bulimia nervosa subjects of experimental group in comparison with the control group in the post-test (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results indicated that acceptance and commitment therapy by therapeutic strategies, improved body image of female students with bulimia nervosa. Thus, interventions based on this approach in schools for students lead to decreasing the psychological problems

  5. The Effects of Tight Budgetary Control on Managerial Bahaviour in the Swedish Public Sector : Emphasizing Motivation, Commitment, Satisfaction and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hemsing, Malte; Baker, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis study is about the effects of tight budgetary control on managerial behaviour in the Swedish public sector. Managerial behaviour represents the four variables; motivation, organizational commitment, stress, and satisfaction. As previous research mostly investigated the effects of tight budgetary control on organizational performance in the private sector, this study can be seen as one of the first that focus on managerial behaviour and is based on the public sector. For the data c...

  6. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, Rifaat K.; Sam, A.K.; Osman, O.I.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; LaRosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing 210 Po and 137 Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 210 Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po

  7. Assessment of committed effective dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K; Sam, A. K; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing ''2''1''0Po and ''1''3''7Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 2 ''1''0Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7- 5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weigh, which were several times lower than those of ''2''1''0Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for ''1'''3''7Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For ''2''1''0Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81and 4.14 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish ). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of ''1''3''7Cs is negligible compared to ''2''1''0Po.(Author)

  8. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  9. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassona, Rifaat K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@yahoo.com; Sam, A.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); Osman, O.I. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); LaRosa, J. [Formerly at IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of {sup 210}Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for {sup 137}Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of {sup 137}Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.

  10. Effects of Management Communication, Opportunity for Learning, and Work Schedule Flexibility on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Butts, Marcus M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    In the current career climate characterized by change and turbulence, employees may demonstrate limited organizational commitment to their employers. Rousseau (1998) suggests that two key ways to elicit loyalty from employees today are to reinforce perceptions of organizational membership and demonstrate organizational care and support for…

  11. Work-Family Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: Multilevel Contagion Effects of Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using…

  12. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  13. The Effect of Image Compatibility and Escalation of Commitment on Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris K. Turino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at empirically examining the extent to which Image Theory, initially developed as a theoretical basis for selecting a strategy or a decision, can be a theoretical basis for predicting a decision performance in two opposite frames: positive and negative. Image compatibility are employed to operationalize such a theory and the decision under study is progress decision represented by escalation of commitment. Thus, this study also empirically examines the connection between image compatibility and escalation of commitment as well as escalation of commitment as a mediator of the relationship between image compatibility and decision performance. The research context is Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX that suffered from crisis in the past year (negative frame yet has been recovered recently (positive frame. The respondents are 229 individual investors in IDX. They are involved in day-to-day decision making (progress decision making with regard to their investment portofolio. The results of this study show that high image compatibility tends to lead to better decision performance in both frames. However, image compatibility may only positively affect the escalation of commitment in positive frame

  14. Long-Term Effects of Brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Patricia; Hayes, Steven C.; Gallop, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A previous report explored the impact of a brief (four session) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) intervention as compared with treatment as usual (TAU) on rehospitalization over 4 months in a sample of 80 inpatients with psychosis. The present study extended the follow-up period to 1 year and used a more sophisticated survival analysis to…

  15. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  16. Effect of professional self-concept on burnout among community health nurses in Chengdu, China: the mediator role of organisational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Lin; Tian, Lang; Diao, Yongshu; Hu, Xiuying

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations among professional self-concept, organisational commitment and burnout, and to analyse the mediating role of organisational commitment on the relationship between professional self-concept and burnout among community health nurses in Chengdu, China. Previous studies have focused on work environmental variables that contributed to burnout in nurses. However, no study has explored the mediating effect of organisational commitment on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout in community health nurses. A cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted at 36 community health centres in Chengdu, China with 485 nurses sampled using a two-stage sampling method. The measures used in our study included Nurses' Self-concept Questionnaire, Organisational Commitment Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results of structural equation model techniques indicated that, in the direct approach, positive professional self-concept resulted in increased organisational commitment and reduced burnout. Higher organisational commitment resulted in less burnout. In the indirect approach, organisational commitment performed as a partial mediator on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout. Positive perception of professional self-concept can result in reduced burnout via enhancing organisational commitment. It is crucial for nursing administrators to develop effective intervention strategies such as skills escalator training and assertive training, and establishing a supportive working environment to enhance nurses' professional self-concept and organisational commitment, and decrease burnout. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  18. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  19. Structural Model of the Effect of Psychological Capital on Success with Due to the Mediating Role of Commitment and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    M Golparvar; Z Mirzaie

    2016-01-01

    This research was administered with the aim of investigating structural model of the effect of psychological capital on career success with due to the mediating role of satisfaction and commitment among employees of Telecom Company. Research statistical population was male and female employees of Telecom in Isfahan city, who among them two hundred and eighty five persons were selected using convenience sampling. Research instruments were Nguyen et al. Psychological Capital questionnaire, Nabi...

  20. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Molavi; Niloufar Mikaeili; Neda Rahimi; Saeid Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students i...

  1. The Effect of Image Compatibility and Escalation of Commitment on Decision Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harris K. Turino; Budi W. Soetjipto

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at empirically examining the extent to which Image Theory, initially developed as a theoretical basis for selecting a strategy or a decision, can be a theoretical basis for predicting a decision performance in two opposite frames: positive and negative. Image compatibility are employed to operationalize such a theory and the decision under study is progress decision represented by escalation of commitment. Thus, this study also empirically examines the connection between imag...

  2. The effectiveness of training acceptance / commitment and training emotion regulation on high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, Mohammad; Abbasi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas; Ahadi, Batoul

    2013-09-01

    Now a days the utilization of Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation Strategy as a comprehensive treatment plan has been discussed in both the prevention and the control of destructive and risky behaviors. Treatment based on Acceptance/Commitment and Emotion Regulation was effective in both the improvement and the control of high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment, and Emotional Regulation training in high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. This research was experimental, with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical universe of this study included all sixth-grade male students in Ardabil city in the academic year of 2012-2013 (A.H.). The subjects of this study involved 800 sixth-grade elementary students in Ardabil province, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling. From among them, 60 students with dyscalculia were selected using random sampling method after the initial diagnosis by structured clinical interview and the Keymath Mathematic test. Twenty pupil were selected for either the experimental or the control group. To collect data, the questionnaires of "Keymath Mathematic test" and High-risk Behavior" were used. The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that "Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation" treatment trainings were effective in reducing high-risk behaviors, in a manner that they led to a reduction in negative emotions, self-destructive and impulsive behaviors of students with math disorder (dyscalculia). It can be concluded that teaching these skills to the students has been influential in enhancing awareness level and change or positive attitude creation in the subjects. Therefore, it is essential to design and implement interventions based on "prevention caused by the peer group, in collaboration with the parents either at the school or at home among the family members".

  3. Evaluation for committed effective dose due to dietary foods by the intake for Japanese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Explained are the internal exposure (IE) in Japanese adults due to the ordinary intake of food and the committed effective dose (CED) derived from it, which can be the basic reference data for estimating CED at emergency like the recent Fukushima Disaster. IE lasts as long as radioactive substances exist in the body and its health risk is assessed throughout the lifetime, 50 years in adult and in children until their age of 70 years, by CED based on consideration of the physical and biological halftimes of radionuclides involved. CED (mSv) is calculated by an equation given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Pub. 72, using radioactivity level (Bq/kg), intake (kg/y) and age-dependent dose coefficient (mSv/Bq). Japan MEXT in its homepage (http://www.kankyo-hoshano.go.jp/) publishes the states of environmental radioactivity levels including those of daily Japanese food. The food survey of yearly changes of radioactivity level (Bq/man/day) indicates that, when compared with the level in 2009, it is two times higher in 1970s due to old in-atmospheric nuclear experiments, and is decreased gradually with a temporary peak around 1986 by Chernobyl accident. Studies on certain natural and artificial radioisotopes in 240 kinds of current food in 1989-2005 reveal that Po-210 level in fishes and shellfishes is particularly higher than others like St-90, Cs-137, Rd-226, Pb-210 and so on. CED in adults is calculated from yearly intake of foods (kg/y), their radioactivity (Bq/y) and the coefficient above, to be 0.80 mSv, and 0.98 mSv when the contribution of K-40 is taken in calculation. The proportion of the contribution in the latter estimated CED accounts for 74% (0.73 mSv) by Po-210 and for 18% (0.18 mSv) by K-40, which is conceivably derived from intake of more seafood by Japanese than other people in the world (average 0.070 and 0.17 mSv, respectively). (T.T.)

  4. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Based Training on the Maladaptive Schemas of Female Students with Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Recently, a lot of discussions have been done about the third wave of behavioral and cognitive approaches, particularly in areas with eating disorders. The aim of current research is the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment based training on the maladaptive schemas of female students with bulimia nervosa. Materials & Methods: The design of current study is as quasi-experiment research with pre-test and post-test with control group. Statistical population consist of all high school female students of Arak city in the 2013-14 academic years. Samples were selected at first by multi stage cluster sampling method and after completing young schema questionnaire short form and Diagnostic Interview, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N=20 per group. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment based training and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results show that there exist significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group. This difference is significant at the level of 0.01. Therefore it seems that acceptance and commitment based training decreased maladaptive schemas of students with bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: The results of current research explain the importance of acceptance and commitment therapy in decreasing maladaptive schema of female students with bulimia nervosa. Thus, interventions based on this approach in schools for students lead to decreasing the psychological problems

  5. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Molavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students in Ardabil city, 2013-2014 academic years. Using a multiple-stage cluster sampling method, a representative sample consists of 400 students was selected for the study. Then, among the students those with social phobia (based on the cut-off point, 34 participants were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 17 people (one experimental group and one control group . The participants in experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy for 10 sessions of 90 minutes. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety, depression and social phobia questionnaires were administered to the two groups before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA were used for data analysis.   Results: The results of data analysis showed that treatment based on acceptance and commitment therapy reduces anxiety, depression and social phobia of students in the experimental group compared with the control group (p<0.001 .   Conclusion: The present study showed that acceptance and commitment therapy for students with social phobia can be used as a psychological intervention along with other intervention mechanisms.

  6. The Effects of Employee’s Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Organizational Trust on Organizational Commitment: A Research on a Public Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan CANDAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to present the senses of employees about organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational commitment; and also to research the effects of organizational justice and organizational trust perceptions on organizational commitment. In this context, 260 questionnaires that obtained from registry and cadastre employees and determined appropriate for study is analyzed. Analyses are done by using SPSS 16.0 program and the consequences are consistent with national and international literature. Hypothesizes within the research are tested with correlation and regression analyses. According the consequences, distributional justice perception effects three sub-dimension of organizational commitment (affective, continuity, and normative positively, transactional justice perception has positive effects on only affective commitment and continuity commitment; procedural justice perception has no effect on sub-dimensions of organizational commitment. The other findings are perceptions of trust on manager and trust on organization that are two sub-dimensions of organizational trust; has positive effects on all dimensions of organizational commitment

  7. Organizational justice, trust, and identification and their effects on organizational commitment in hospital nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yueh; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Tzu; Kung, Jung-Yuan; Weng, Hui-Ching; Lin, Yu-Tz; Lee, Shu-I

    2015-09-07

    It is of importance and urgency for hospitals to retain excellent nursing staff in order to improve patient satisfaction and hospital performance. However, it was found that simply increasing the salary is not the best method to resolve the problem of lacking nursing staff; it is necessary to focus on the impact of non-monetary factors. The delicate relationship between organizational justice, organizational trust, organizational identification, and organizational commitment requires investigation and clarification from more studies if application in nursing practice is to be expected. Therefore, this study was to investigate how the organizational justice perception could affect nurses' organizational trust and organizational identification, and whether the organizational trust and organizational identification could encourage nurses to willingly remain in their jobs and commit themselves to the hospitals. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed in 2013 to a convenience sample of 400 registered nurses in one teaching hospital in Taiwan: 392 were retrieved. Of these, 386 questionnaires were valid, which was a 96.5% response rate. The SPSS 17.0 and Amos 17.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for data analysis. The organizational justice perceived by nurses significantly and positively affects their organizational trust (γ₁₁ = 0.49) and organizational identification (γ₂₁ = 0.58). Organizational trust (β₃₁ = 0.62) and organizational identification (β₃₂ = 0.53) significantly and positively affect organizational commitment. Hospital managers can enhance the service concepts and attitudes of frontline nursing personnel by maximizing organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational identification. Nursing personnel would then be motivated to provide feedback to the attention and care provided by hospital management by demonstrating substantial improvements in

  8. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  9. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  10. The effect of Organizational Commitment and Job Pressure to Job Performance through the Job Satisfaction in Employees Directorate transformation Technology Communication and Information Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Winarja, Waluya; Sodikin, Akhmad; Widodo, Djoko Setyo

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of organizational commitment and the Job Pressure of the Job Performance partially determine the effect of organizational commitment the performance of employees through job satisfaction variables and determine the effect of work stress on job performance through job satisfaction. The study was conducted on the employees of the Directorate of transport and communications and information technology. The sampling technique using saturated samples involvin...

  11. Estimation of committed effective dose from radioactive caesium contained in kindergarten supply of food during one year after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Miho; Hayashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of contributing to an understanding about the situation of radioactive contamination of kindergarten lunch, contents of radioactive caesium and 40 K in lunch supplied by the attached kindergarten of Seitoku University was calculated by using the data on radioactive contamination of foodstuffs published by the Japanese Government. The average value of daily intake of radioactive caesium was estimated at lower than 1Bq and that of 40 K was 8.6Bq. Total amount of radioactive caesium in the lunch for one year was about 100Bq and that of 40 K was 1100Bq, resulting in a committed effective dose from radioactive caesium at about 1μSv. (author)

  12. Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Popham, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Life course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpretation in terms of total, direct and indirect effects and highlight the causal assumptions required for conclusions as to the most effective timing of interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Effect of the accuracy of price forecasting on profit in a Price Based Unit Commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van Den Bosch, Pieterjan; D'haeseleer, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses and quantifies the so-called loss of profit (i.e., the sub-optimality of profit) that can be expected in a Price Based Unit Commitment (PBUC), when incorrect price forecasts are used. For this purpose, a PBUC model has been developed and utilized, using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). Simulations are used to determine the relationship between the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of a certain price forecast and the loss of profit, for four different types of power plants. A Combined Cycle (CC) power plant and a pumped storage unit show highest sensitivity to incorrect forecasts. A price forecast with a MAPE of 15%, on average, yields 13.8% and 12.1% profit loss, respectively. A classic thermal power plant (coal fired) and cascade hydro unit are less affected by incorrect forecasts, with only 2.4% and 2.0% profit loss, respectively, at the same price forecast MAPE. This paper further demonstrates that if price forecasts show an average bias (upward or downward), using the MAPE as measure of the price forecast might not be sufficient to quantify profit loss properly. Profit loss in this case has been determined as a function of both shift and MAPE of the price forecast. (author)

  15. Effects of Homophobic versus Nonhomophobic Victimization on School Commitment and the Moderating Effect of Teacher Attitudes in Brazilian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…

  16. Effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on the acceptance of pain and psychological inflexibility among women with chronic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayeste Gharaee-Ardakani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tension headaches and migraines are the most common types of headaches that severely decline the daily functioning of patients. It seems that drug therapy is not useful by itself for most of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on the acceptance of pain and psychological inflexibility among women with chronic headache. It was a quasi experimental study using pretest- posttest with control group. The study population included women aged 20 to 40 who were suffering from chronic headaches and referred to a pain clinic in Tehran. In the study, 30 patients were selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (each group 15 members. Acceptance and Commitment therapy was implemented for eight one and a hours half sessions, once a week. Data collection tool in this study consisted of the questionnaire of pain acceptance and psychological flexibility. The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference in the variables of pain acceptance and psychological inflexibility between the experimental and control groups after the intervention .The results emphasized on the importance of this intervention in psychosomatic diseases to provide new horizons to clinical interventions.

  17. Effective Form of Reproducing the Total Financial Potential of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portna Oksana V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of scientific principles of reproducing the total financial potential of the country and its effective form is an urgent problem both in theoretical and practical aspects of the study, the solution of which is intended to ensure the active mobilization and effective use of the total financial potential of Ukraine, and as a result — its expanded reproduction as well, which would contribute to realization of the internal capacities for stabilization of the national economy. The purpose of the article is disclosing the essence of the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country, analyzing the results of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine. It has been proved that the basis for the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country is the volume and flow of resources, which are associated with the «real» economy, affect the dynamics of GDP and define it, i.e. resource and process forms of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine (which precede the effective one. The analysis of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine has shown that in the analyzed period there was an increase in the financial possibilities of the country, but steady dynamics of reduction of the total financial potential was observed. If we consider the amount of resources involved in production, creating a net value added and GDP, it occurs on a restricted basis. Growth of the total financial potential of Ukraine is connected only with extensive quantitative factors rather than intensive qualitative changes.

  18. Renoprotective Effects of Total Glucosides from Paeony against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Total Alkaloids from Semen Strychni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen Strychni have been shown to have therapeutic effect in improving blood circulation, relieving rheumatic pain, and treating cancer. However, Semen Strychni could cause severe nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate whether treatment with total glucosides from paeony (TGP has renoprotective effect against nephrotoxicity induced by total alkaloids from Semen Strychni (TAS. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined and histopathological changes were also examined to evaluate renal injury. Moreover, a HPLC-MS method was developed and validated to investigate the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats plasma after oral administration of TAS and pretreatment with TGP. Results demonstrated that the levels of BUN and Cr were significantly increased (p<0.05 in TAS group, together with tubule epithelium cloudy swelling, degeneration, and glomerular atrophy in rats’ kidneys. The TAS-induced kidney damage was alleviated after pretreatment with TGP. Besides, Tmax of strychnine and brucine were increased and T1/2 of strychnine and brucine were decreased after pretreatment with TGP. The toxicokinetics study showed that pretreatment with TGP could attenuate the absorption of strychnine and brucine, as well as accelerate their elimination. These results suggest that TGP possesses renoprotective effects.

  19. Decision of special monitoring time to minimize the difference of the committed effective dose evaluated from the different AMAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Lee, T. Y.; Jang, S. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) per measured unit of activity in the bioassay compartments at any time (t) after an acute intake by the inhalation of a radionuclide with a different particle size (AMAD) were calculated and compared. As a result, the relative difference between the CEDs evaluated from the different AMAD is affected by the radionuclide, bioassay compartment, and the time (t) after intake. Therefore a special monitoring time to exclude or reduce the effect of AMAD was decided and presented in the evaluation for the CEDs following an acute intake by the inhalation of a radionuclide. If special monitoring is performed during this presented special time after intake, the relative difference of the evaluated CEDs resulted from AMAD can be excluded or reduced

  20. Investigating the effect of training on employees' commitment: An empirical study of a discount house in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade Oluwatosin Samuel; Ayinla Kayode Nurudeen

    2014-01-01

    There has been a turn around and the take up of training as one of the key factors in improving company competitiveness. Evidence derived from research showed that there is now a broad agreement amongst commentators that skills training improve employees' commitment to the organisation. Training from a company's perspective adds to human capital and also a means of securing workplace commitment. The theoretical proposition therefore is that training will get employees more committed to the or...

  1. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  2. Simulation experiment on total ionization dose effects of linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Zhang Yong; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan

    2004-01-01

    We carry out the ionization radiation experiment of linear CCDs operated in unbiased, biased, biased and driven mode respectively by Co-60 γ source with our self-designed test system, and offline test the Dark signal and Saturation voltage and SNR varied with total dose for TCD132D, and get some valuable results. On the basis of above work, we set forth a primary experiment approaches to simulate the total dose radiation effects of charge coupled devices. (authors)

  3. The effect of government internal auditors moral reasoning and situational pressure on the tendency to commit fraud when auditing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of government internal auditors moral levels and situational pressures on the tendency to commit fraud when conducting audit. Based on the hypothesis, despite the situational pressures, the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud at the time of auditing. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will com-mit fraud at the time of auditing when there is situational pressure. To test the hypothesis, a 22 factorial experiment is conducted involving 68 students of STAR-BPKP of Jenderal Soedirman University. The results indicate that the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud in the time of auditing despite some situational pressures. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will commit fraud at the time of auditing either there is a situational pressure or not. The implications of this study are to streng-then the supervisory system for the internal auditors at the time of auditing, to provide protection for whistle- blowers who report the presence of fraud committed by auditors, and to be consistent in giving reward to professional auditors and pu-nishment to auditors who are convicted of fraud at the time of auditing.

  4. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  5. Total, Direct, and Indirect Effects in Logit Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    It has long been believed that the decomposition of the total effect of one variable on another into direct and indirect effects, while feasible in linear models, is not possible in non-linear probability models such as the logit and probit. In this paper we present a new and simple method...... average partial effects, as defined by Wooldridge (2002). We present the method graphically and illustrate it using the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988...

  6. Alkaline earth metabolism: a model useful in calculating organ burdens, excretion rates and committed effective dose equivalent conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Myers, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Two mathematical models of alkaline earth metabolism in man have been developed from the postulates given in ICRP Publication 20. Both models have recycling between the organs and blood included explicitly, and the first one retains the power function used by the ICRP for diminution in mineral bone from being available for resorption by blood. In the second model, this diminution is represented by secondary compartments in mineral bone. Both models give good agreement with the retention functions developed in ICRP Publication 20. The second one has been incorporated into a larger model which includes the lung and G.I. tract. This overall model has been used to calculate organ burdens excretion rates, and committed effective dose equivalent factors for the more important radioisotopes of the alkaline earth elements for inhalation and ingestion exposures. (author)

  7. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal from brackish aquaculture wastewater using effective microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, K. A.; Mohd, S. Y.; Sarah, R. S.; Mohd, H. Z.; Rasyidah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of dominant food based industry in the world with 8.3% annual growth rate and its development had led to adverse effect on the environment. High nutrient production in form of nitrogenous compound and phosphorus contributed to environmental deterioration such as eutrophication and toxicity to the industry. Usage of Effective Microorganism (EM), one of the biological approaches to remove Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in aquaculture pond was proposed. Samples were obtained from the Sea Bass intensive brackish aquaculture wastewater (AW) from fish farm at Juru, Penang and the parameters used to measure the removal of nitrogenous compounds include, pH, EM dosage, shaking, contact time and optimum variable conditions. From the study, for effective contact time, day 6 is the optimum contact time for both TN and TP with 99.74% and 62.78% removal respectively while in terms of optimum pH, the highest TN removal was at pH 7 with 66.89 %. The optimum dosage of EM is 1.5 ml with ratio 1:166 for 81.5 % TN removal was also found appropriate during the experiment. At varied optimum conditions of EM, the removal efficiency of TN and TP were 81.53% and 38.94% respectively while the removal mechanism of TN was highly dependent on the decomposition rate of specific bacteria such as Nitrobacter bacteria, Yeast and Bacillus Subtilis sp. The study has established the efficacy of EM's ability to treat excessive nutrient of TN and TP from AW.

  8. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  9. Nursing Assistants' Job Commitment: Effect of Nursing Home Organizational Factors and Impact on Resident Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E.; Weinberg, Dana Beth; Leutz, Walter; Dossa, Almas; Pfefferle, Susan G.; Zincavage, Rebekah M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are more committed to nursing home jobs when they perceive their jobs as enhanced (greater autonomy, use of knowledge, teamwork), and (b) whether CNA job commitment affects resident satisfaction. Design and Methods: A qualitative exploration of…

  10. The Mediator Effect of Career Development between Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment: The Example of Sport Communication Technology Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…

  11. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL MORALITY AND INTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PROPENSITY TO COMMIT FRAUD: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.

  12. Inhibitory effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the protective effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook (IPTS) against cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Benhnken Design (BBD) was carried out to optimize the extraction of IPTS. Thereafter, H9c2 cell model prepared by hydrogen ...

  13. Effect of hemodialysis on total antioxidant status of chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal failure is accompanied by oxidative stress, which is caused by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense. Aim: To assess the effect of hemodialysis (by cellulose membrane dialyzer) on plasma total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of patients in chronic ...

  14. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  15. Anti-arthritic effect of total anthraquinone from Polygonum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the anti-arthritic effect of total anthraquinone from Polygonum cuspidatum (TAPC) on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats, and to investigate the underlying mechanism(s). Methods: CIA rats were prepared and treated orally with TAPC at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, for 24 days.

  16. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone column over Alipore (22.52°N, 88.33°E), India ... insolation obtained from Solar Geophysical Data Book and El-ñ index collected from National Climatic Data Center, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA.

  17. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  18. Work engagement, organizational commitment, self efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive ... effective training, counseling, effective communication and leadership skills.

  19. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  20. Engaging Élitism: The Mediating Effect of Work Engagement on Affective Commitment and Quit Intentions in Two Australian University Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Justine L.; Morris, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Some universities rely on their élitism as one mechanism to attract and retain talented faculty. This paper examines two groups of élite and non-élite universities and the mediating effect that work engagement has on affective commitment and intention to quit. Findings indicate partial support for the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

  1. The Effect of Dimensions of Transformational, Transactional, and Non-Leadership on the Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Teachers in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that transformational and transactional leadership is positively related to the effectiveness of the leader, the subordinate's effort, job satisfaction, and the subordinate's organizational commitment. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of transformational, transactional, and non-leadership on job satisfaction and…

  2. THE MODERATING EFFECT OF STRENGTH OF MANUFACTURER’S BRANDS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RETAILER’S RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT: A THEORETICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mapkhot Goaill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies emphasized the importance of retailer's satisfaction and commitment to manufacturer/supplier. These studies investigated the relationship between them as an overall relationship. However, there is a dearth of studies that investigated the dimensions of retailer's satisfaction on commitment, and analyzed the mysterious relationship via strength of manufacturer's brands as a moderating effect. Therefore, this study is an attempt to provide a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between dimensions of retailer's satisfaction and commitment, and tries to explain the in-depth meaning of this relationship through the moderating effect of manufacturer's brand strength in the context of social exchange theory. Additionally, hypotheses on the association between the constructs are presented as a basis for further study.

  3. THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION, MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TO THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PROCUREMENT EXPERTS IN THE INDONESIAN HOUSE OF REPRESETATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahera Mega Utama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research has to study the effect of job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment on performance or the board of expert staff members of parliament, The research was conducted in Jakarta, and The data had been analyzed using path analysis. The population of this research was 91 person of expert staffs in the Parliament. The questionnaires of this research had been testing on the 40 expert staff. Therefore by simple randomly. The research finding more as follows: 1. There was a positive direct effect of job satisfaction on expert staffs performance, 2, there was a positive direct effect of motivation on a performance of expert staff 3. There was a positive direct effect of organizational commitment of expert staff. 4. There was a positive direct effect of organizational commitment on performance, 5. There was a positive direct effect of job satisfaction on the motivation of expert staff and 6. There was a positive direct effect job satisfaction on organizational commitment

  4. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Teachers' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have conducted a number of studies in order to demonstrate the effects of leadership styles on school outcomes. In these research studies, particularly, the full range of leadership styles have been used. The impact of transformational leadership, transactional leadership and laissez faire stated in this model on job satisfaction and…

  5. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  6. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  7. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N

    2009-01-01

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es

  8. The study of knowledge management capability and organizational effectiveness in Taiwanese public utility: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Huei-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies on the significance of knowledge management (KM) in the business world have been performed in recent years. Public sector KM is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that few authors specialize in the field and there are several obstacles to developing a cohesive body of literature. In order to examine their effect of the knowledge management capability [which consists of knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC)] and organizational effectiveness (OE), this study conducted structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses with 302 questionnaires of Taipei Water Department staffs in Taiwan. In exploring the model developed in this study, the findings show that there exists a significant relationship between KPC and OE, while KIC and OE are insignificant. These results are different from earlier findings in the literature. Furthermore, this research proposed organizational commitment (OC) as the mediator role. The findings suggest that only OC has significant mediating effects between KPC and OE, whereas this is not the case for KIC and OE. It is noteworthy that the above findings inspired managers, in addition to construct the knowledge infrastructure more than focus on social media tools on the Internet, which engage knowledge workers in "peer-to-peer" knowledge sharing across organizational and company boundaries. The results are likely to help organizations (particularly public utilities) sharpen their knowledge management strategies. Academic and practical implications were drawn based on the findings.

  9. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  10. THE EFFECT OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND JOB STRESS ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AT CUSTOMS TRAINING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dwi Lindawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze the impact of leadership style and work environment to employee’s job satisfaction with organizational culture as moderating variable at balai kesehatan penerbangan Jakarta. the research used quantitative method. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling-partial least square. 84 public services were used as samples, but 78 samples were given questionnaire back. The research revealed that: a leadership style has impact on work environment (0,549; b leadership style influences significantly to organizational culture (0,454; c work environment does not have impact on organizational culture (0,161; d organizational culture has strong relation to job satisfaction (0,840; e leadership style has not effect on job satisfaction (0,038; f work environment has not influence on job satisfaction (0,037; g through organizational culture, leadership style has significant effect on job satisfaction (0,660; and h through organizational culture, work environment has not significant effect on job satisfaction (0,129.

  11. Quality Improvement with Trustee Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Seymour, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management is a comprehensive system for developing organizationwide participation in planning for and implementing continuous improvement in critical processes. In colleges, trustees can be central to the success of the method through their commitment and the development of supportive policy and procedures. (MSE)

  12. The Role of Job Involvement as a Mediator in Employees’ Moral Values - Organizational Commitment Relationship: Bosnian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Sait Dinc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the joint effects of employees' moral values and job involvement on their organizational commitment. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey of private educational institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and a total of 100 valid responses were received. It was found that although both moral values and job involvement could enhance organizational commitment, once the effects of job involvement are accounted for, the direct effects of moral values on organizational commitment diminish to almost non-existent. This result provides strong evidence that the influence of employees’ moral values on organizational commitment is mediated by job involvement.

  13. Career Commitment in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Diane L.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures descriptive survey used to measure career commitment and its relationship to turnover and work performance in 320 newly employed registered nurses at one hospital found that career commitment is not a stable phenomenon. The direct association between career commitment and turnover and with job performance is weak.…

  14. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  15. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunghi, T.; Kaniewski, J.; Bussières, F.; Houlmann, R.; Tomamichel, M.; Wehner, S.D.C.; Zbinden, H

    2015-01-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and

  16. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure "to cure and not to care", did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost containment are not successful; rather, a bottom

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mesenchymal stromal cells: effects on self-renewal, commitment and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Adriana; Caldarelli, Ilaria; Bencivenga, Debora; Stampone, Emanuela; Perrotta, Silverio; Oliva, Adriana; Ragione, Fulvio Della

    2017-01-01

    The hope of selectively targeting cancer cells by therapy and eradicating definitively malignancies is based on the identification of pathways or metabolisms that clearly distinguish “normal” from “transformed” phenotypes. Some tyrosine kinase activities, specifically unregulated and potently activated in malignant cells, might represent important targets of therapy. Consequently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) might be thought as the “vanguard” of molecularly targeted therapy for human neoplasias. Imatinib and the successive generations of inhibitors of Bcr-Abl1 kinase, represent the major successful examples of TKI use in cancer treatment. Other tyrosine kinases have been selected as targets of therapy, but the efficacy of their inhibition, although evident, is less definite. Two major negative effects exist in this therapeutic strategy and are linked to the specificity of the drugs and to the role of the targeted kinase in non-malignant cells. In this review, we will discuss the data available on the TKIs effects on the metabolism and functions of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs are widely distributed in human tissues and play key physiological roles; nevertheless, they might be responsible for important pathologies. At present, bone marrow (BM) MSCs have been studied in greater detail, for both embryological origins and functions. The available data are evocative of an unexpected degree of complexity and heterogeneity of BM-MSCs. It is conceivable that this grade of intricacy occurs also in MSCs of other organs. Therefore, in perspective, the negative effects of TKIs on MSCs might represent a critical problem in long-term cancer therapies based on such inhibitors. PMID:27750212

  18. An empirical study on measuring the effect of layoff on job satisfaction and employee commitment: A case study of detergent producer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Tajzadeh-Namin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary actions in many organizations is to reduce the number of workers in an attempt to restructure business activities. However, layoff could have negative consequences since many employees may decide to leave since they lose their tolerance. The layoff must be accompanied with some supportive plans to reduce stress among the remaining workers and increase their commitment for long-term work. The present study of this paper considers the effects of layoff on job satisfaction and commitment among the remaining employees of a detergent producer unit. The results indicate that a good supportive program including wage increase, family support, health care plans, etc. could significantly improve employee long-term commitments and it leads to job satisfaction.

  19. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menditto E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enrica Menditto,1 Valentina Orlando,1 Silvia Coretti,2 Daria Putignano,1 Denise Fiorentino,1 Matteo Ruggeri2 1CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, 2Postgraduate School of Health Economics and Management (ALTEMS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, School of Economics, Rome, Italy Background: Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods: Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€.The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results: In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend

  20. A study on the effect of organizational climate on organizational commitment: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Saeidipou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building strong commitment among organizational employees plays an important role in reducing delays and displacement. It can also increase employee efficiency, employees' mental freshness and manifesting both organizational admirable targets and personal goals. The purpose of this study is to detect and to forecast the impact of organizational climate on level of organizational commitment among staff education in city of Kermanshah located in west part Iran. The survey designs questionnaires and collects necessary information using a descriptive survey. The statistical population includes all 921 employees who were either enrolled in administration level or work as teacher in all areas of city of Kermanshah. The study selects 300 individuals from the statistical population randomly. The proposed model of this paper uses factor analysis to determine the most important factors influencing organizational commitment and Cronbach alpha is used to validate the results. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the components of role and paying enough attention to goals, the variable organizational climate, and the whole variable dimensions of organizational commitment. The other observation is that there was a weak relationship with some components of social commitment, and there was not any significant relationship with other aspects. Results of multivariate regression analysis shows that there was a high correlation between organizational climate and social commitment (t-student=6.208.

  1. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  2. The Role of Parent-Country Nationals in Reducing the Adverse Effect of Perceived Value Inconsistency on the Commitment of Foreign Subsidiary Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Rabbiosi, Larissa; Stahl, Guenter K.

    2013-01-01

    Use of the parent country nationals as work group leaders is an important tool for creating alignment within the MNC network. We argue that the parent country expatriates have a key role in mitigating the adverse effects of perceived values’ inconsistency on affective commitment of employees...

  3. The Effects of the Working on the Work Framework, an Action Plan for Teachers, on Student Engagement, Teacher Commitment, and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, Laurie Christenberry

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the implementation of the Working on the Work (WOW) framework in an elementary school in Northwest Georgia. The researcher examined the effectiveness of the WOW framework on teacher commitment, teacher training, student engagement, and student achievement. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative research methods to…

  4. The Mediating Effects of Basic Psychological Needs at Work on the Relationship between the Dimensions of the Learning Organization and Organizational Commitment in Registered Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bonni Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mediating effects of the Basic Psychological Needs at Work, comprised of competence, autonomy and relatedness, on the relationship between the Dimensions of the Learning Organization and affective and normative organizational commitment in the United States nursing population. The study incorporated…

  5. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL CYNISM ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel OKÇU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was done with the aim of determining the effects of physical education and sport teachers’ perceptions about the organizational cynism on their organizational commıtment . The research was performed with a relational screening model. The scope of the research consisted of 162 physical education and sport teachers working at the secondary and high schools in the city center and the district centers of Siirt. To find out the teachers’ organizational cynism levels within the rese arch, the organizational cynism scale developed by Sağır and Oğuz (2012 and to find out their organizational commıtment levels, the organizational commıtment scale developed by Balay (2000 were used. As a result of the study, it was clear that had depen dency for their schools in the internalization dimension at most (at better levels, the identification based dimension followed this (at medium level and the adaptation dimension became at the lowest level (I slightly agree. It is determined that the ph ysical education and sport teachers at medium levels experienced the organizational cyni s m . A negative relation was found between the internalization sub - dimension of organizational commıtment and the factors reducing organizational cynism performance, th e alienation sub - dimension from working institution and the sub - dimension of negative attributes to the school at the low level, a positive relation was also found between the internalization sub - dimension of organizational commıtment and the participation sub - dimension in practices of working institution at the medium level. No significant relation was observed between the identification sub - dimension of organizational commıtment and the factors reducing organizational cynism performance, and there was a negative relation between the identification sub - dimension of organizational commıtment and the alienation sub - dimension from working institution at the medium level, a negative

  7. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  9. The Effects of Perceptions of Organizational Structure on Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment Among Indian Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G; Qureshi, Hanif; Klahm, Charles; Smith, Brad; Frank, James

    2017-12-01

    Successful police organizations rely on involved, satisfied, and committed workers. The concepts of job involvement (i.e., connection with the job), job satisfaction (i.e., affective feeling toward the job), and organizational commitment (i.e., bond with the employing organization) have been shown to significantly affect intentions and behaviors of employees. The current study used multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis on survey results from a sample of 827 Indian police officers to explore how perceptions of work environment factors affect officers' job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Organizational support, formalization (i.e., level of codified written rules and guidelines), promotional opportunities, institutional communication (i.e., salient work information is transmitted), and input into decision-making (i.e., having a voice in the process) significantly influenced the job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of Indian police officers. Specifically, in the multivariate analysis, perceptions of formalization and instrumental communication had a positive relationship with job involvement; perceptions of organizational support, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive associations with job satisfaction; and perceptions of organizational support, formalization, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive relationships with organizational commitment.

  10. Effect of early release of tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, K.; Raza, H.; Umer, M.; Hafiz, K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether tourniquet release intraoperatively is better than postoperative release in reducing overall blood loss, duration of surgery, duration of tourniquet, length of hospital stay, wound related complications and transfusion requirement. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2004 to June 2007. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patient files were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups. Group-A consisted of 65 patients with early deflation of tourniquet and group-B comprised of 65 patients with the release of tourniquet after applying compressive dressing. Total blood loss (determined by Gross method) and other study variables were noted as per objective and computed. Results: There were 22 males and 108 females with comparable BMI. All had undergone posterior stabilized cemented total knee replacement. Calculated blood loss was 1.208 L and 1.108 L in group-A and B respectively (p = 0.27). Significant increase in duration of surgery was noted in group-A patients. Four patients in group-B showed complication related to wound with 3 being minor and 1 requiring additional operation room visit. Mean length of hospital stay was 9 days. Transfusion frequency was higher in group-B despite comparable postoperative haemoglobin values. Conclusion: Intraoperative tourniquet release does not reduce overall blood loss with no effect in conserving blood after total knee replacement, however, this group had relatively shorter hospital stay. (author)

  11. An Investigation of the Effects of Workrelated - Stress and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizen ship Behavior: A Research on Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Erdilek Karabay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing competition conditions and the acceleration of lobalization, organizations’ new management approach now support mployees in the direction of attaining the objectives of the organization to have more effective behaviors. However, employees in the business world are under the constant influence of factors that will affect their current working conditions negatively. In this context, job stress continues to influence today's organizational structure significantly. In this context, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in the literature emerges as the most coveted concept in the business world. The employees that have organizational commitment and organizational citizen ship behavior may lead to the creation of more efficient work environment . In this study, the relationship between organizational commitment , job stress, and organizational citizenship behavior is investigated in banking sector. As a result , it has been fo und that, bank employees' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior affect courtesy, altruism, civic virtue , onscientiousness and sportsmenship, positively. On the other hand, bank employees’ organizational citizenship behavior with work stress has a negative effect on courtesy and consciousness.

  12. Employee self-enhancement motives and job performance behaviors: investigating the moderating effects of employee role ambiguity and managerial perceptions of employee commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seokhwa; Takeuchi, Riki; Liu, Wei

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the effects of employee self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors (organizational citizenship behaviors and task performance) and the value of these behaviors to them. The authors propose that employees display job performance behaviors in part to enhance their self-image, especially when their role is not clearly defined. They further argue that the effects of these behaviors on managerial reward recommendation decisions should be stronger when managers believe the employees to be more committed. The results from a sample of 84 working students indicate that role ambiguity moderated the effects of self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors and that managerial perceptions of an employee's commitment moderated the effects of those organizational citizenship behaviors that are aimed at other individuals on managers' reward allocation decisions. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Effects of total fat intake on bodyweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Visser, Marianne E; Nguyen, Kim A; Durao, Solange; Schoonees, Anel

    2018-02-15

    As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017). No language and publication status limits were applied. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing and unpublished studies (5 June 2017). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children aged 24 months to 18 years, with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease, randomised to a lower fat (30% or less of total energy (TE)) versus usual or moderate-fat diet (greater than 30%TE), without the intention to reduce weight, and assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We included prospective analytical cohort studies in these children if they related baseline total fat intake to weight or body fatness at least 12 months later. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion with other authors. We extracted data on participants, interventions or exposures, controls and outcomes, and trial or cohort quality characteristics, as well as data on potential effect modifiers, and assessed risk of bias for all included studies. We extracted outcome data using the following time point ranges, when available: RCTs: baseline to six months, six to 12 months, one to two years, two to five years and more than five years; cohort studies: baseline to one year, one to two years, two to five years, five to 10 years and more than 10 years. We planned to perform random-effects meta-analyses with relevant subgrouping, and sensitivity and funnel plot

  14. The effect of intellectual capital on organizational commitment: A case study of the ministry of economic affairs and finance of Kermanshah province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad Zeinoddini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of intellectual capital on organizational commitment of the staff of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance of Kermanshah province, Iran. The statistical population of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance of Kermanshah was 140 people. Using Morgan Table, a sample of 103 personnel was randomly selected from the population. For gathering data, two researcher-made questionnaires of intellectual capital and organizational commitment were used. The validity of the questionnaires was proved by the favorable opinion of the advisor of the research, and the reliability of the questionnaires was tested using Cronbach’s alpha (α. The estimated values of alpha for the questionnaires of intellectual capital and organizational commitment were 0.969 and 0.935, respectively which clearly demonstrated the reliability of the questionnaires. Also the data were analyzed using statistical software of SPSS 15.0 and LISREL. The results of the study demonstrated that there was a significant and positive relationship between intellectual capital and its components (i.e., human capital, structural capital, and customer capital and organizational commitment.

  15. Organizational Citizenship Behavior at Catholic Institutions of Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Commitment, Interpersonal- and System-Level Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Justin Ashby

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of OCB, trust, and commitment among faculty and staff within Catholic IHEs. Faculty and staff from two Catholic IHEs were the focus of the study. Twenty-five schools were randomly selected from the 50 largest Catholic IHEs by undergraduate enrollment, identified from the 2012…

  16. The Effect of Nurse-Physician Collaboration on Job Satisfaction, Team Commitment, and Turnover Intention in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; D'Aloja, Ernesto; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-10-01

    Voluntary turnover in nursing can lead to nursing shortages that affect both individuals and the entire hospital unit. We investigated the relationship between group- and individual-level variables by examining the association of nurses' job satisfaction and team commitment at the individual level, and nurse-physician collaboration at the group level, with individuals' intention to leave the unit at the individual level. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,024 nurses on 72 units in 3 Italian hospitals. At the individual level, affective commitment partially mediated the relationship between job satisfaction and nursing turnover intention. Moreover, a cross-level interaction was found. Nurses with high levels of job satisfaction showed high levels of identification with their team, and this relationship was stronger when the group perception of nurse-physician collaboration was high. Results suggested that managerial strategies to promote nurse-physician collaboration may be important to increase nurses' affective commitment to the team. At the individual level, job satisfaction and team affective commitment are important factors for retaining staff, and at the group level, good work collaboration with physicians is instrumental in developing nurses' affective identification with the team. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effect of School Bureaucracy on the Relationship between Principals' Leadership Practices and Teacher Commitment in Malaysia Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Teoh Hong; Kannan, Sathiamoorthy; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research paper was to ascertain the relationship between principal leadership practices and teacher commitment. The study was conducted using quantitative survey questionnaire to 384 secondary school teachers, ranging from band 1 to band 6 in Malaysia using multi stage stratified cluster random sampling. This study was using…

  18. Learning Organization Perceptions in Elementary Education in Terms of Teachers and the Effect of Learning Organization on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mustafa; Ucar, Ibrahim Halil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to determine to what degree the learning organization predicted organizational commitment according to primary school teachers' perceptions. Descriptive survey model was used in this study and 429 teachers were chosen among 2387 teachers who worked in primary schools in Van in 2010-2011 education years and were included…

  19. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta; Kubilius, Raimondas; Urbonienė, Aušra

    2015-03-01

    As a member of a pharmacy organization, a pharmacist is not only bound to fulfill his/her professional obligations but is also affected by different personal and organizational factors that may influence his/her behavior and, consequently, the quality of the services he/she provides to patients. The main purpose of the research was to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among several organizational variables, and to investigate whether any of these variables affects the service of provision of medication information at community pharmacies. During the survey, pharmacists working at community pharmacies in Lithuania were asked to express their opinions on the community pharmacies at which they worked and to reflect on their actions when providing information on medicines to their patients. The statistical data were analyzed by applying a structural equation modeling technique to test the hypothesized model of the relationships among the variables of Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Provision of Medication Information. The final model revealed that Organizational Commitment had a positive direct effect on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.27) and a negative direct effect (standardized estimate = -0.66) on Turnover Intention. Organizational Commitment mediated the indirect effects of Perceived Organizational Support on Turnover Intention (standardized estimate = -0.48) and on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.20). Pharmacists' Turnover Intention had no significant effect on Provision of Medication Information. Community pharmacies may be viewed as encouraging, to some extent, the service of provision of medication information. Pharmacists who felt higher levels of support from their organizations also expressed, to a certain extent, higher commitment to their organizations by providing more consistent medication information to patients. However, the

  20. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    2008-08-01

    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  1. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  2. Efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar de persona que ha intentado suicidarse The effectiveness in the functionality of families with a who has tried to commit suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo González Montañéz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Para Friedemann toda familia se conforma para funcionar adecuadamente en las dimensiones que la autora ha identificado en su teoría, existiendo momentos críticos cuando uno de sus miembros intenta suicidarse. Objetivos: determinar y analizar la efectividad del funcionamiento familiar con la persona que ha intentado suicidar. Metodología: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con muestreo por conveniencia, con la utilización la ficha sociodemográfica de convivencia familiar y la Escala de Evaluación de la Efectividad de la Funcionalidad Familiar. En total fueron 23 familias donde una persona ha intentado suicidarse. Resultados: La efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar fue baja en el 60,9% de las familias, debido a que presentaron dificultades en su estabilidad y crecimiento familiar. Conclusiones: Las familias se resisten a modificar sus patrones y costumbres y tienen dificultades en la comunicación asertiva. Salud UIS 2011; 43(1: 33-37Introduction: For Friedemann a family is made up with the purpose of performing adequately in the dimensions that the author has identified in her theory, but some critical problems appears when one of the members of that family tries to commit suicide. Objectives: To determine and analyze the way the individuals family works. Methodology: A transversal descriptive study was designed using a convenient sampling of the individuals family's convenience social demographic form and the Evaluation Scale for the Effectiveness of the Family's Function. Twenty three families had a person who had tried suicide. Results: The effectiveness of the family's function was low in a 60.9% of the families because some difficulties appeared when trying to establish their stability and growth. Conclusions: The families refused to modify their patterns and customs and showed difficulties in their assertive communication. Salud UIS 2011; 43(1: 33-37.

  3. Near total parathyroidectomy is effective therapy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Lindel Krige; Weber, Collin; Sharma, Jyotirmay

    2014-07-01

    Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3°HPT) is defined as persistent hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. Near total parathyroidectomy (NTPTX) is the current standard for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify outcomes of NTPTX. A retrospective review was conducted of surgeries performed between 1994 and 2013. NTPTX resulted in resolution of 96.9 per cent of patients' hypercalcemia at a median follow-up of three years (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 8). However, 3.1 per cent of patients remained hypercalcemic with a mean calcium of 10.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL. A total of 78.4 per cent of patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels below 250 pg/mL at a median follow-up of two years (IQR, 2 to 8). The remaining 21.6 per cent had a median PTH of 535 (IQR, 345 to 857). PTH levels dropped from a median of 745 (IQR, 285.75 to 1594.25) pg/mL to 97 (IQR, 60 to 285) pg/mL one month post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). The most frequent complication was transient hypocalcemia in 27.1 per cent of patients, but no patients became permanently hypocalcemic. In the 1-month postoperative period, only one patient had a cardiac complication, and there was 0 per cent all-cause mortality. Glomerular filtration rate fell from 57.9 ± 28.3 mL/min pre-NTPTX to 53.2 ± 27.5 mL/min at 1-year post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). NTPTX effectively treats hypercalcemia in 3°HPT. However, PTH remains elevated (greater than 250) in 21.6 per cent of patients.

  4. The impact of quality of work life on job embeddedness and affective commitment and their co-effect on turnover intention of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, XiaoWen; Sun, Tao; Cao, QiuRu; Li, Ce; Duan, XiaoJian; Fan, LiHua; Liu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    To verify with empirical evidence the hypothesised relation and the effect of quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment on turnover intention of clinical nurses in China. High turnover of the nursing workforce in healthcare organisations is a difficult and recurring problem in China as well as in many other countries in the world. It leads to great waste of resources and increases management cost. Developing and retaining the nursing workforce, which is a major challenge faced by human resources practitioners in hospitals and public health agencies, also becomes a subject of interest for management studies. Most of the literature about voluntary turnover focused on such traditional measures as job satisfaction and job alternatives in the past. The introduction of such new concepts as quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment, which views the issue from a much broader and comprehensive spectrum, made a great breakthrough in the turnover study. In this study, we selected quality of work life, job embeddedness and affective commitment - three of the most important factors in employer-employee relations - and analysed the interaction between each one of them, as well as their co-effect on turnover intention of Chinese nurses. Cross-sectional survey and structural equation modelling were applied in studying the self-report questionnaires distributed to 1000 nurses employed in five large-scale government-owned hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Our study confirmed the hypothesised positive relation of quality of work life with job embeddedness and affective commitment and the hypothesised negative relation of quality of work life with turnover intention, that is, high quality of work life perceived by the nurses enhances their job embeddedness and affective commitment and thus reduces their intention to leave the job. The effect of quality of work life is positive on job embeddedness and affection commitment

  5. Effects of total dose of ionizing radiation on integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marcilei A.G.; Cirne, K.H.; Gimenez, S.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Added, N.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Medina, N.H.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lima, J.A. de; Seixas Junior, L.E.; Melo, W. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Paulo Archer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The study of ionizing radiation effects on materials used in electronic devices is of great relevance for the progress of global technological development and, particularly, it is a necessity in some strategic areas in Brazil. Electronic circuits are strongly influenced by radiation and the need for IC's featuring radiation hardness is largely growing to meet the stringent environment in space electronics. On the other hand, aerospace agencies are encouraging both scientific community and semiconductors industry to develop hardened-by-design components using standard manufacturing processes to achieve maximum performance, while significantly reducing costs. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for changes in devices exposed to ionizing radiation several kinds of radiation should then be considered, among them alpha particles, protons, gamma and X-rays. Radiation effects on the integrated circuits are usually divided into two categories: total ionizing dose (TID), a cumulative dose that shifts the threshold voltage and increases transistor's off-state current; single events effects (SEE), a transient effect which can deposit charge directly into the device and disturb the properties of electronic circuits. TID is one of the most common effects and may generate degradation in some parameters of the CMOS electronic devices, such as the threshold voltage oscillation, increase of the sub-threshold slope and increase of the off-state current. The effects of ionizing radiation are the creation of electron-hole pairs in the oxide layer changing operation mode parameters of the electronic device. Indirectly, there will be also changes in the device due to the formation of secondary electrons from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the material, since the charge carriers can be trapped both in the oxide layer and in the interface with the oxide. In this work we have investigated the behavior of MOSFET devices fabricated with

  6. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  7. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-02-18

    To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement "gold standard" among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life.

  8. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    OpenAIRE

    Hee-sung Bae; Myung-shin Ha

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on ...

  9. Effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior of support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Siripapun Leephaijaroen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The research method of this study was a mixed method combining quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative research method, data were collected from 144 support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand and the hypotheses were tested using the stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. For t...

  10. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher

  11. THE EFFECT OF EMPOWERMENT, EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARDS PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENTAL-EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL-MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Merry, Liz Zeny; Syarief, Faroman

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research is to study the influence of empowerment, employee engagement, and organizational commitment on performance of the financial management staffs at Riau Islands Provincial Government. Quantitative approach used in this research with survey method. The samples of this research were 230 staffs selected randomly. The data were obtained by distributing questionnaire and analyzed by using path analysis. The results of research shows that: (1) empowerment, employee eng...

  12. Differential effect of UV irradiation on induction of intragenic and intergenic recombination during commitment to meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, I.; Nakai, S.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the induction of intragenic and intergenic recombinations during meiosis in a wild-type diploid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under non-irradiated normal conditions, production of both intragenic and intergenic recombinants greatly increased in the cells with commitment to meiosis. The susceptibility of cells to the induction ob both the spontaneous intra- and intergenic recombinations in meiotic cells was similar. However, under condition of UV irradiation, there were striking differences between intra- and intergenic recombinations. Susceptibility to induction of intragenic recombination by UV irradiation was not enhanced at meiosis compared with mitosis, and was not altered through commitment to meiotic processes. In contrast, however, susceptibility to the induction of intergenic recombination by UV irradiation was enhanced markedly during commitment to meiosis compared with mitosis. Genetic analysis suggested that the enhanced susceptibility to recombination during meiosis is specifically concerned with reciprocal-type recombination (crossing-over) but not non-reciprocal-type recombination (gene conversion). Hence it is concluded that the meiotic that the meiotic process appears to be intimately concerned with the mechanism(s) of induction of recombination, especially reciprocal-type recombination. (orig.)

  13. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  14. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.

  15. Commitment Without Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298

  16. Bağlılık Boyutlarının Tükenmişlik Boyutları Üzerindeki Etkisinin İncelenmesi(An Analysis about The Effects of Commitment Dimensions on The Burnout Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema POLATCI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of commitment dimensions - affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment- on the burnout dimensions - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment. Within this aim a model was developed which handle the dimensions of organizational commitment and burnout. The sample of this study consists of 192 health personnel working in a private hospital. According to the results increase in affective and normative commitment cause decrease in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, also increase in personal accomplishment. On the other hand increase in continuance commitment causes increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, also decrease in personal accomplishment.

  17. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problems and Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2015-07-12

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well.

  18. Understanding the Links between Work Commitment Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Rick D.; Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hausdorf, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    In a study of 852 nurses, work involvement (value of work in their lives) affected organizational and occupational commitment through its effect on job involvement. Job involvement indirectly affected intention to leave the organization or occupation. Work and job involvement and orgnanizational and occupational commitment were determined to be…

  19. Effect of total lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Deutsch, Harel

    2012-10-01

    Original article : To study effect of lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis. There has been a growing interest in total disc replacement (TDR) for back pain with the rising concern of adjacent segment degeneration. Lumbar fusion surgery has been shown to lead to decrease in lumbar lordosis, which may account for postfusion pain resulting in less acceptable clinical outcome after successful fusion. TDR has recently emerged as an alternative treatment for back pain. There have been very few studies reporting lumbar sagittal outcome after TDR. Retrospective study of radiographic data of 17 patients who underwent TDR for single level degenerative disc disease at the author's institution was carried out. Study included measurement of preoperative and postoperative segmental and global lumbar lordosis and angle of lordosis. Patients age varied from 19 to 54 (mean, 35) years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. TDR was performed at L4-5 level in 3 patients and L5-S1 level in 14 patients. The average values for segmental lordosis, global lordosis, and angle of lordosis at the operated level before and after surgery were 17.3, 49.7, and 8.6 degrees and 21.6, 54, and 9.5 degrees, respectively. There was a trend toward significant (P=0.02) and near significant (P=0.057) increase in segmental and global lordosis, respectively after TDR. Although prosthesis increased angle of lordosis at the level implanted in majority of the patients, the difference in preoperative and postoperative angle of lordosis was not significant (P=0.438). In addition, there was no correlation between the angle of implant of chosen and postoperative angle of lordosis at the operated level. The effect of TDR on sagittal balance appears favorable with an increase in global and segmental lumbar lordosis after single level TDR for degenerative disc disease. The degree of postoperative angle of lordosis was not affected by the angle of implant chosen at the operated level and varied

  20. Effect Of Accounting Lecturer Lecturer Commitment To The Development Of Professional Accounting Empirical Study Lecturer Accounting Faculty Of Economics University Of Muhammadiyah Tangerang 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endraria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the study in which the researcher is interested in conducting research by taking the title The Effect of Commitment Against Lecturer - Lecturer in Accounting Accounting Profession Development Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013 . This research was conducted at the Faculty of Economics University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang is located at Independence Pioneer Road I No.33 Cikokol Tangerang City. The experiment was conducted at the research site easily accessible for the author. The method used in this research is descriptive quantitative methods which aim to describe the descriptive method of data distribution of each variable.There are significant accounting lecturers commitment to the development of the accounting profession Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013 this is evidenced by the results of hypothesis testing that has been done obtained tcount ttable value 5.7193 and with a significance level of 5 and df n - 2 40-2 38 is equal to 1.686 with the statement concluded that t count t table. Thus Ha Ho accepted and rejected. The conclusion was that there are significant accounting lecturers commitment to the development of the accounting profession Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013. As for advice to be conveyed in this study is the government as a regulator should be able to evaluate the development of the accounting profession especially in Indonesia with the influence of commitment accounting lecturers are expected to improve and develop the accounting profession especially in the Faculty of Economics University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang.

  1. Yöneticilerin Örgütsel Bağlılıkları ve Demografik Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişkileri İncelemeye Yönelik Bir Alan Çalışması(Examinining the Relations Between Demographic Factors and Managers’ Organizational Commitment: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem ONAY ÖZKAYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has two purposes, first, to examine the effects of demographic factors on organizational commitment and second, testing differences between employees’ cities and sectoral variables on organizational commitment types. A survey which defines organizational commitment types applied on 160 employees, at 8 organizations, in Manisa and Izmir. Choosen demographic factors are : Age, sex, education, marital status, total length of service, present length of service at same position. 5 hypothesis developed to test relationship between organizational commitment types and demographic factors. Results show that demographic factors are very effective on organizational commitment. This research may be an addition to organizational commitment literature.

  2. Effects of different components of Mao Dongqing's total flavonoids and total saponins on transient ischemic attack (TIA) model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming-San; Peng, Meng-Fan; Ma, Rui-Juan; Bai, Ming; Liu, Bao-Song

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the different components of the total flavonoids and total saponins from Mao Dongqing's active site on the rats of TIA model, determine the optimal reactive components ratio of Mao Dongqing on the rats of TIA. Methods: TIA rat model was induced by tail vein injection of tert butyl alcohol, the blank group was injected with the same amount of physiological saline, then behavioral score wasevaluated. Determination the level of glutamic acid in serum, the activity of Na+-K+-ATP enzyme, CA ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in Brain tissue, observe the changes of hippocampus in brain tissue, the comprehensive weight method was used to evaluate the efficacy of each component finally. Results: The contents of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing can significantly improve the pathological changes of brain tissue in rats, improve the activity of Na + -K + -ATP enzyme, Ca ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in the brain of rats, and reduce the level of glutamic acid in serum. The most significant of the contents was the ratio of 10:6. The different proportions of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing all has a better effect on the rats with TIA, and the ratio of 10:6 is the best active component for preventing and controlling TIA.

  3. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

  4. Determination of committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th and 222Rn from the application of various Moroccan black soap (Saboun Beldi) samples by members of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Outeqablit, K.

    2010-01-01

    238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured inside various Moroccan black soap samples widely used by the Moroccan population in traditional baths (Hammams) by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors. The measured 238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations, respectively, ranged from (3.7±0.2) to (11.7±0.7) mBq kg -1 , (0.11±0.01) to (0.32±0.02) mBq kg -1 , (3.8±0.2) to (11.6±0.6) Bq kg -1 and (0.10±0.01) to (0.31±0.02) Bq kg -1 for the Moroccan black soap samples studied. The influence of pollution on the concentrations of these radionuclides inside the considered Moroccan black soap was investigated. A new dosimetric model for evaluating annual committed effective doses due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn to the skin of different age groups of the Moroccan populations from the application of the black soap samples studied was developed. The maximum total committed effective dose to the skin due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn from the application of unpolluted black soap samples 20 min per week by the Moroccan populations was found to be equal to (0.88±0.05) μSv y -1 cm -2 . (authors)

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction and antihyperlipidemic effect of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of total flavonoids from corn silk and the hypolipidemia in animal models were studied. Influence of solvent concentration, microwave power, extraction time and dose of solvent were investigated and then, the orthogonal experiments were performed. Animal models of ...

  6. Wear prediction on total ankle replacement effect of design parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md; Harun, Muhamad Noor; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.

  7. Validating Teacher Commitment Scale Using a Malaysian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mee Thien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to validate an integrative Teacher Commitment scale using rigorous scale validation procedures. An adapted questionnaire with 17 items was administered to 600 primary school teachers in Penang, Malaysia. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with SPSS 19.0 and AMOS 19.0, respectively. The results support Teacher Commitment as a multidimensional construct with its four underlying dimensions: Commitment to Student, Commitment to Teaching, Commitment to School, and Commitment to Profession. A validated Teacher Commitment scale with 13 items measured can be proposed to be used as an evaluative tool to assess the level to which teachers are committed to their students’ learning, teaching, school, and profession. The Teacher Commitment scale would also facilitate the identifications of factors that influence teachers’ quality of work life and school effectiveness. The practical implications, school cultural influence, and methodological limitations are discussed.

  8. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Physics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799 022, India. ... the fact that the electro-dynamic effect of geomagnetic storms around EIA region is more effective than ... causes range of error in GPS communication.

  9. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junwei; Wu, Guangdong

    2018-02-15

    Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility.

  10. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility. PMID:29462860

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility.

  12. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  13. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Commitment on Word of Mouth of Wall€™s Ice Cream in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda Pandowo; Kindangen, Citra Pingkan

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage products and the followed improvement in industry are familiar for common people in every part of this world. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and brand commitment on word of mouth. To achieve the objectives, the research method used is causal research by using multiple regression analysis as the analytical tool. The population of this research is the consumers in Manado who ever taste wall€™s Ice cream with sample...

  14. Work Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Self Efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive attitude in records ... counseling, effective communication and leadership skills. This study therefore ...... self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and ...

  15. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  16. Single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianshe; Cai Nan; Liu Jiaxin; Wu Qinzhi; Wang Jia

    2012-01-01

    In this work, single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and 252 Cf source were studied. The single event burnout and single event gate rupture (SEB/SEGR) effects were investigated, and the relationship between drain-source breakdown voltage and ionizing dose was obtained. The results showed that the VDMOSFET devices were sensitive to SEB and SEGR, and measures to improve their resistance to SEB and SEGR should be considered seriously for their space applications. The drain-source breakdown voltage was sensitive to total ionizing dose effects as the threshold voltage. In assessing the devices' resistance to the total ionizing dose effects, both the threshold voltage and the drain-source breakdown voltage should be taken into account. (authors)

  17. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  18. Sağlık Kuruluşlarında Örgütsel Adalet Algılarının Örgütsel Bağlılığa Etkisi = The Effect of Organizational Justice Perceptions on Organizational Commitment in the Healthcare Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz IŞIK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment in the healthcare sector. The data was collected through a survey that was administrated to 423 health employees in five hospitals in Sakarya. The data was collected with a Perception of Fair Interpersonal Treatment Scale and Organizational Commitment Scale. According to results, normative commitment sub dimensions of organizational commitment were effected by organizational justice sub dimensions (the relations with supervisors and the relations with employees. Organizational justice dimensions contributed 12% of the variance for affective commitment and contributed 11% of the variance for normative commitment.

  19. The Impact of Ethical Climate on Emotional Organizational Commitment: A Survey in the Accommodation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Gül

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is crucial in the service-oriented hospitality industry. A service-oriented firm may achieve high quality service standards and customer satisfaction by employing qualified occupations. Employing qualified staff requires motivation and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, having a positive working ethical climate in the firm is crucial for profitability and productivity. Thus, hospitality businesses can achieve industrial competitiveness. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of the ethical climate on the emotional organizational commitment in the accommodation enterprises. The study addresses ethical climate scale developed by Victor and Cullen (1993 and emotional organizational commitment sub-scale developed by Meyer and Allen (1991. The survey data were obtained from a total of 340 participants who employ at six different 5-star hotels operating in Antalya. The first part of the questionnaire covers questions that determine the relationship between employees' organizational ethical climate perceptions and emotional organizational commitment. In the second part, there are questions asked to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants. The ongoing analyzes will be tested by structural equation modelling. Research result will be show positive relationships between positive ethical climate and emotional organizational commitment in accommodation enterprises. In addition, the study examines whether the emotional organizational commitment levels of employees differ or not according to sex, marital status, age, income level, education, study period and departments.

  20. Radiosynoviorhesis after total knee replacement: effective therapy of ''polythylene disease''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.; Moedder-Reese, R.

    2001-01-01

    Radiosynoviorthesis is an adequate therapy to remove the effects of polyethylene wear: β-emission reduces growth of the foreign body granulomas and means an overkill for bacterias in penetration depth. This is a report about experience with 107 patients. (orig.) [de

  1. Kinetic description of the total photoabsorption cross section: correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Filho, L.G.; Nemes, M.C.

    1986-02-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of correlation effects in describing the nuclear photoabsorption cross section leads to a Breit-Wigner type curve with energy dependent width. It is also shown that a very slow energy dependence is enough to reproduce the data up to ∼ 139 MeV. (Author) [pt

  2. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...

  3. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  4. Employee organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Života

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research on organizational commitment as a type of attitudes that show the identification level of employees with their organizations and their willingness to leave them. The research has been conducted with intention to determine the level of organizational commitment on the territory of Novi Sad, as well as to question whether there is a difference between certain categories of examinees for each commitment base. The research comprised 237 examinees employed in organizations on the territory of Novi Sad. Status of independent variables have gained: gender, years of working experience, educational level, working experience in one or more organizations and estimation of level of personal potentials utility. The questionnaire used is taken from the Greenberg and Baron's 'Behaviour in Organizations', p. 170, done according to set of questions by Meyer and Allen, in 1991. The data have been worked on by calculating arithmetic mean, and by application of Pearson Chi-square test. The results have shown that there is a below average level of organizational (AS=2.88, with the most intensive continual (AS=3.23, and the least intensive normative organizational dedication (AS=2.41. The gender of examinees does not represent relevant source of differences in the levels of each type of three mentioned commitment. Years of working experience and level of educational attainment represent a significant source of differences for continual (YWE: Pearson Chi-square = 30,38; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 7,381; df = 2; p = .05 and normative (YWE: Pearson Chi- square = 20,67; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 10,79; df = 2; p = .00 base of commitment. Work in one or more organizations has shown as a significant source of differences in the level of continual commitment (Pearson Chi-square = 7, 59; df = 2; p = .05. The level of affective commitment is statistically significantly related only to the estimation

  5. From controlled to committed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  6. The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.

  7. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  8. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  9. Enhancing Recruitment Using Teleconference and Commitment Contract (ERUTECC): study protocol for a randomised, stepped-wedge cluster trial within the EFFECTS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Erik; Isaksson, Eva; Wester, Per; Laska, Ann-Charlotte; Näsman, Per

    2018-01-08

    Many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) fail to meet their recruitment goals in time. Trialists are advised to include study recruitment strategies within their trials. EFFECTS is a Swedish, academic-led RCT of fluoxetine for stroke recovery. The trial's primary objective is to investigate whether 20 mg fluoxetine daily compared with placebo for 6 months after an acute stroke improves the patient's functional outcome. The first patient was included on 20 October 2014 and, as of 31 August 2017, EFFECTS has included 810 of planned 1500 individuals. EFFECTS currently has 32 active centres. The primary objective of the ERUTECC (Enhancing Recruitment Using Teleconference and Commitment Contract) study is to investigate whether a structured teleconference re-visit with the study personnel at the centres, accompanied by a commitment contract, can enhance recruitment by 20% at 60 days post intervention, compared with 60 days pre-intervention, in an ongoing RCT. ERUTECC is a randomised, stepped-wedge cluster trial embedded in EFFECTS. The plan is to start ERUTECC with a running-in period of September 2017. The first intervention is due in October 2017, and the study will continue for 12 months. We are planning to intervene at all active centres in EFFECTS, except the five top recruiting centres (n = 27). The rationale for not intervening at the top recruiting centres is that we believe they have reached their full potential and the intervention would be too weak for them. The hypothesis of this study is that a structured teleconference re-visit with the study personnel at the centres, accompanied by a commitment contract, can enhance recruitment by 20% 60 days post intervention, compared to 60 days pre-intervention, in an ongoing RCT. EFFECTS is a large, pragmatic RCT of stroke in Sweden. Results from the embedded ERUTECC study could probably be generalised to high-income Western countries, and is relevant to trial management and could improve trial management in the

  10. Cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel in myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation: a European model based on the CLARITY and COMMIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jenny; Lindgren, Peter; Spiesser, Julie; Parry, David; Jönsson, Bengt

    2007-06-01

    Several health economic studies have shown that the use of clopidogrel is cost-effective to prevent ischemic events in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina. This study was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel in short- and long-term treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with the use of data from 2 trials in Sweden, Germany, and France: CLARITY (Clopidogrel as Adjunctive Reperfusion Therapy) and COMMIT (Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial). A combined decision tree and Markov model was constructed. Because existing evidence indicates similar long-term outcomes after STEMI and NSTEMI, data from the long-term NSTEMI CURE trial (Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events) were combined with 1-month data from CLARITY and COMMIT to model the effect of treatment up to 1 year. The risks of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in an untreated population and long-term survival after all events were derived from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death register. The model was run separately for the 2 STEMI trials. A payer perspective was chosen for the comparative analysis, focusing on direct medical costs. Costs were derived from published sources and were converted to 2005 euros. Effectiveness was measured as the number of life-years gained (LYG) from clopidogrel treatment. In a patient cohort with the same characteristics and event rates as in the CLARITY population, treatment with clopidogrel for up to 1 year resulted in 0.144 LYG. In Sweden and France, this strategy was dominant with estimated cost savings of euro 111 and euro 367, respectively. In Germany, clopidogrel treatment had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of euro 92/LYG. Data from the COMMIT study showed that clopidogrel treatment resulted in 0.194 LYG at an incremental cost of euro 538 in Sweden, euro 798 in Germany, and euro 545 in France. The corresponding

  11. The Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Man Smokers' Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Mohammadreza; Omidi, Abdollah; Sehat, Mojtaba; Sepehrmanesh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Besides physical problems, cigarette smoking is associated with a high prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. One of the reasons behind high post-cessation smoking lapse and relapse rates is inattentiveness to these symptoms during the process of cessation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on male smokers' comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms and smoking cessation. This two-group pre-test-post-test randomized controlled trial was done on a random sample of seventy male smokers. Participants were randomly and evenly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Patients in these groups received either acceptance or commitment therapy or routine psychological counseling services include cognitive behavior therapy, respectively. Study data were collected through a demographic questionnaire, the Structural Clinical Interview (SCI) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Micro Smokerlyzer carbon monoxide monitor. The SPSS software was employed to analyze the data. After the intervention, depression and anxiety scores and smoking cessation rate in the intervention group were respectively lower and higher than the control group (P < 0.050). ACT can significantly improve comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms and smoking cessation rate. Thus, it can be used to simultaneously manage depression, anxiety, and cigarette smoking.

  12. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  13. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT and total flavonoids (VTF from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG- plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced immunological liver injury (ILI in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO, and malondialdehyde (MDA content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2 in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  14. Unocal's Asian commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    US concern over the Burmese military government's record on human rights abuses is hampering the activities of Unocal, a US company, which is attempting to build a gas pipeline along the Burmese coast, in partnership with the French company Total. Unocal argues that economic engagement, not unilateral sanctions are the best way to effect political change and is keen to progress further ventures with which it aims to promote social and economic development in Burma. (UK)

  15. Career commitment and job performance of Jordanian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Career commitment and job performance are complex phenomena that have received little attention in nursing research. A survey was used to assess nurses' career commitment and job performance, and the relationship between the two concepts. Predictors of nurses' career commitment and job performance were also studied. A convenience sample of 640 Jordanian registered nurses was recruited from 24 teaching, governmental, and private hospitals. Nurses "agreed" on the majority of statements about career commitment, and they reported performing "well" their jobs. Using total scores, nurses were equal in their career commitment but they were different in their job performance; the highest mean was scored for nurses in private hospitals. Using the individual items of subscales, nurses were willing to be involved, on their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship (r = .457). Nurses' job performance, gender, and marital status were the best predictors of nurses' career commitment: they explained 21.8% of variance of nurses' career commitment. Nurses' career commitment, time commitment, marital status, and years of experience in nursing were the best predictors of nurses' job performance: they explained 25.6% of variance of nurses' job performance. The lowest reported means of nurses' job performance require managerial interventions.

  16. Positive psychological wellbeing is required for online self-help Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain to be effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester R. Trompetter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (ineffective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT was (ineffective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n=82, or one of two control conditions (web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n=79 and waiting list (WL; n=77 were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to twelve weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at three-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life six months later. These results

  17. Comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the ICRP 30 and ICRP 60 models for a repeated incorporation by inhalation of I-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno P, A.L.; Cortes C, A.; Alonso V, G.; Serrano P, F.

    2005-01-01

    Presently work, a comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the models of the ICRP 30 and those of the ICRP 60 for the analysis of internal dose due to repeated incorporation of I-125 is shown. The estimations of incorporated activity are obtained starting from the proportionate data for an exercise of inter comparison, with which it should be determined the internal dose later on. For to estimate the initial activity incorporated by repeated dose was assumed that this it was given through of multiple individual incorporations which happened in the middle points of the monitoring periods. The results using the models of the ICRP 30 and of the ICRP 60 are compared and the causes of the differences are analyzed. (Author)

  18. Natural 3H radioactivity analysis in groundwater and estimation of committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the assessment of natural tritium radioactivity in groundwater, being used for domestic and irrigation purposes in Varahi and Markandeya river basins. The study also intended to assess human health risk by estimating committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in the study area, taking into consideration the obtained tritium activity concentrations and annual water consumption. Tritium concentration of groundwater samples from the Varahi and Markandeya river basins were determined by liquid scintillation counting and the results laid in the range of 1.95 ± 0.25 to 11.35 ± 0.44 TU and 1.49 ± 0.75 to 9.17 ± 1.13 TU in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, respectively. Majority of the samples from Varahi (46.67%) and Markandeya (62.5%) river basins belong to modern water category aged between 5 and 10 years, while the remaining 53.33% and 37.5% of the samples from Varahi and Markandeya river basins respectively belong to sub-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river in flowing/sea water intrusion. The effective committed dose for general public consumption considering the highest concentration value of 0.02 μSv year -1 , which is very negligible compared to EPA (0.04 mSv year -1 ), WHO (0.1 mSv year -1 ), ICRP (1.0 mSv year -1 ) and UNSCEAR (2.4 mSv year -1 ) recommended dose limits, should not mean any additional health risk for the population living nearby. (author)

  19. Estimation of Radionuclide Concentrations and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose due to Ingestion for the Population in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Tran Thi; Bat, Luu Tam; Nhan, Dang Duc; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Cam, Bui Duy; Hung, Luu Viet

    2018-02-16

    Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg -1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg -1  dw (rice) to (4.0 ± 1.6) Bq kg -1  dw (marine bivalves). The concentrations of other nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0.02 Bq kg -1  dw to (1.1 ± 0.3) Bq kg -1  dw. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu in the food were minor compared to that of the natural radionuclides. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 mSv a -1 with an average of 0.32 mSv a -1 , out of which rice, leafy vegetable, and tofu contributed up to 16.2%, 24.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide. This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure.

  20. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  1. Commitment and Switching Intentions: Customers and Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Werneck Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between a customer’s brand switching intentions and his commitment to a brand. Based on a literature review, constructs related to customer brand commitment were identified (affective and continuance commitment, trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness and their roles in the formation of brand switching intentions hypothesized. Through a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 201 smartphone users was collected to test the proposed relationships. Data analysis was carried out via structural equations modeling, with direct effects of trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness upon the different kinds of commitment being verified. Furthermore, both types of brand commitment (affective and continuance were found to negatively impact a customer’s intention to switch brands. Regarding enterprise customer strategies, the research findings suggest that, if firms are able to track customer brand commitment, they could use such knowledge to develop better relationship strategies, minimizing customer defection and further developing customer value to the company.

  2. Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyggen, Christer

    2012-07-01

      This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment.   We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period.   The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway.   A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel.   Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs.   The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P Norway the use of cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Technique of calculating the total effectiveness of capital investments and basic funds in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamis, L V

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the method of calculating and using the indicators for total effectiveness of capital investments of the gas industry. Fundamentals of the calculations assume modeling the effectiveness of reproduction of the basic production funds of the sector. An example is given of calculating the long-term coefficient for total effectiveness.

  4. The relationship between organizational commitment components and organizational citizenship behavior in nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Amin Bandar Cham Khaleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment has been considered as the most important concept in organizational behavior dimensions and human resources management. In all of the organizations, organizational commitment exerts a positive effect on the staff members’ performance. Therefore, the organizations are in need of committed and responsible workforce. The current study has dealt with the survey of the extent the organizational commitment components relate to the organizational citizenship behavior among the nursing staff in Al-Zahra (May God give her best of regards hospital in 2015. The current study is a descriptive-correlation research and it is an applied research from the objective point of view. The study population includes Al-Zahra (May God give her best of regards nursing hospital staff in 2015 and they were selected based on an availability method and the total study sample volume reaches to about 130 individuals. To collect the demographic characteristics information there was made use of Allen-Mayer organizational commitment questionnaire and Podsakoff’s organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire was also applied. Data analysis was conducted through descriptive statistics includes frequency, mean and percentage and inferential statistics including Mann-Whitney, X2 and Pierson correlation coefficient by taking advantage of SPSS 20. The results of the present study indicated that there is no significant relationship between affective and normative commitment components and the employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. According to the relationship between organizational commitment and nursing staff organizational citizenship behavior staff members should be selected from among the committed and responsible individuals in order for the organizational objectives and goals to be advanced and the managers should set the ground for the staff progress and sublimation.

  5. Measuring Student Growth within a Merit-Pay Evaluation System: Perceived Effects on Music Teacher Motivation Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, music teachers from a large school district were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical conditions reflecting different methods for measuring student growth under a merit pay compensation system. In Scenario A, half of a teacher's effectiveness rating was based on student standardized test scores in reading,…

  6. U.S. Coast Guard Officer Performance Management System: An Analysis of Current Commitment Levels and Potential Effectiveness Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    knowledge of current PA technology . Aditionally, inzernal change agents maj often find themselves without the support structure necessary to effect...Minmzberg [Ref. 13], MCall (Ref. 14], and Bennis [Ref. 15], to observe and characterize the nature of managerial work have been enlightering . These studies

  7. A Clinical Pilot Study of Individual and Group Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Their Parents: Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kanstrup

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric chronic pain is common and can result in substantial long-term disability. Previous studies on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT have shown promising results in improving functioning in affected children, but more research is still urgently needed. In the current clinical pilot study, we evaluated an ACT-based interdisciplinary outpatient intervention (14 sessions, including a parent support program (four sessions. Adolescents were referred to the clinic if they experienced disabling chronic pain. They were then randomized, along with their parents, to receive group (n = 12 or individual (n = 18 treatment. Adolescent pain interference, pain reactivity, depression, functional disability, pain intensity and psychological flexibility, along with parent anxiety, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. There were no significant differences in outcomes between individual and group treatment. Analyses illustrated significant (p < 0.01 improvements (medium to large effects in pain interference, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. Additionally, analyses showed significant (p < 0.01 improvements (large effects in parent pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. On all significant outcomes, clinically-significant changes were observed for 21%–63% of the adolescents across the different outcome measures and in 54%–76% of the parents. These results support previous findings and thus warrant the need for larger, randomized clinical trials evaluating the relative utility of individual and group treatment and the effects of parental interventions.

  8. The Effects of Perceived Over Qualification on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: A Study of AFIT Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    Economics 3: 434-463 (October 1985). Bowlus, Audra J. “Matching Workers and Jobs: Cyclical Fluctuations in Match Quality,” Journal of Labor ...Education Review, 21: 263-275 (2002). Clark, Andrew E. “What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data,” Labor Economics , 8: 223...242 (2001). Cohn, Elchanan and Shahina P. Khan. “The wage effect of overschooling revisited,” Labor Economics , 2: 67-76 (1995) Dooley, David

  9. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 ± 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 ± 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers

  10. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 {+-} 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 {+-} 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers.

  11. Work values and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, A

    1978-06-01

    Dubin, Champoux and Porter (1975) found a strong relationship between central life interests of workers and their commitment to the organization. This paper extends their findings by investigating the relationship between work values, defined as the Protestant Ethic of the worker, and commitment to the organization. A distinction is made between moral and calculative commitment, and it is shown that work values are related more to moral than calculative involvement.

  12. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.; El Samad, O.; Bou Khozam, R.; Lobinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of 210 Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while 210 Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to 210 Po and 210 Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. - Highlights: • Enrichment in 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant. • Significant human exposure associated with the ingestion of fish. • Estimation of potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb via fish consumption

  13. Effects of the Length of Stay on the Cost of Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ilda B; Martin, Brook I; Moschetti, Wayne E; Jevsevar, David S

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of total knee and hip arthroplasty has greatly increased in the past decade in the United States; these are among the most expensive procedures in patients with Medicare. Advances in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and care pathways decrease hospital length of stay. We examined how trends in hospital cost were altered by decreases in length of stay. Procedure, demographic, and economic data were collected on 6.4 million admissions for total knee arthroplasty and 2.8 million admissions for total hip arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013 using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Trends in mean hospital costs and their association with length of stay were estimated using inflation-adjusted, survey-weighted generalized linear regression models, controlling for patient demographic characteristics and comorbidity. From 2002 to 2013, the length of stay decreased from a mean time of 4.06 to 2.97 days for total knee arthroplasty and from 4.06 to 2.75 days for total hip arthroplasty. During the same time period, the mean hospital cost for total knee arthroplasty increased from $14,988 (95% confidence interval [CI], $14,927 to $15,049) in 2002 to $22,837 (95% CI, $22,765 to $22,910) in 2013 (an overall increase of $7,849 or 52.4%). The mean hospital cost for total hip arthroplasty increased from $15,792 (95% CI, $15,706 to $15,878) in 2002 to $23,650 (95% CI, $23,544 to $23,755) in 2013 (an increase of $7,858 or 49.8%). If length of stay were set at the 2002 mean, the growth in cost for total knee arthroplasty would have been 70.8% instead of 52.4% as observed, and the growth in cost for total hip arthroplasty would have been 67.4% instead of 49.8% as observed. Hospital costs for joint replacement increased from 2002 to 2013, but were attenuated by reducing inpatient length of stay. With demographic characteristics showing an upward trend in the utilization of joint arthroplasty, including a shift

  14. 24 CFR 232.510 - Commitment and commitment fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... of Fire Safety Equipment Fees and Charges § 232.510 Commitment and commitment fee. (a) Issuance of...

  15. Natural radioactivity in groundwater system and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwankwo, Levi I. [Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003 (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed within Ilorin, west of central Nigeria has been carried out. Twenty Eight (28) water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K concentrations. The specific activity values ranged from 0.02 to 7.4 Bq/l for {sup 226}Ra, 0.009 to 5.6 Bq/l for {sup 228}Ra, and 0.45 to 30.14 Bq/l for {sup 40}K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1 liter per day, were subsequently estimated to range from 0 to 0.8 mSv/y with an average of 0.36 mSv/y, 0 to 1.42 mSv/y with an average of 0.50 mSv/y, and 0 to 0.01 mSv/y with an average of 0.01 mSv/y for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K respectively. The results show that the mean annual effective dose values received as a result of the combined ingestion of the radionuclides from many individual wells in the study area exceed the norm of drinking water quality established by UNSCEAR/WHO. Efforts should therefore be made by policy makers to protect the populace from long-term health consequences. (authors)

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on total antioxidant capacity, total lipid concentration and shelf life of finger millet flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathika; Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K.B.; Patil, S.L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of gamma radiation on the shelf life, total antioxidant capacity and total lipid concentration of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) flour. Finger millet flour was procured from market. Flour samples of 50 g were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 1 year. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for moisture (2 ± 0.2%), total antioxidant capacity (0.12 ± 0.010 mg) and lipid concentration (15 ± 0.4 mg)

  17. Environmental Policy and Capital Movements: The Role of Government Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, Laura; Renström, Thomas I

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less capital moving abr...

  18. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  19. Employees’ Commitment to the Organization of a Public District Hospital: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyaggelia Tsolaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The employees' satisfaction from their job and their commitment to the organization appears to be one of the most determinants factors of organizational effectiveness.Aim: The aim of this study was the research of commitment to the organization of employees' working at Sparta General Hospital, as well as the correlation between job satisfaction and social, economic, demographic or other factors.Methodology: The research’s sample included 121 employees from all departments of a public district hospital. For research purposes, the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used. Data specially designed for the research’s purposes.Results: The largest sample’s proportion, declared moderate to very satisfy by their job at that Hospital. The particular job demands, exhausting timetables, stress and organizational weaknesses of the Greek Health System seem to have been key components of the problem. Also, for a large sample proportion, the job demands affect negatively the time and energy that Sparta General Hospital employees’ dedicate to themselves and to their families. Almost half of the participants replied that they are not at all satisfied with their payroll. Regarding the rates of emotional, standing and exemplary commitment, showed that gender, education level, marital status, age and total years of professional seniority correlated with the level of emotional commitment. To higher affective commitment is positively correlated with age of employees and years of service.Conclusions: The research of commitment to the organization can contribute substantially in improving the hospital’s and health system’s effectiveness, the increment of job’s satisfaction, the employees’ efficiency.

  20. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates price and quality competition in a market where consumers seek variety and habit formation. Variety seeking is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for product purchased on the previous occasion while habitual consumption may increase future marginal utility. We compare two competing strategies: price commitment and quality commitment. With a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that variety seeking intensifies while habitual consumption softens the competition. With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2. However, the habitual consumption brings the opposite effect. In addition, with quality commitment variety seeking leads to a lower profit and a higher consumer surplus, while habitual consumption leads to the opposite results. On the other side, with price commitment these behaviors have no effect on the consumer surplus, although they still lower down the firm profits. Finally, we also identify conditions under which one strategy outperforms the other.

  1. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGarcía-Carpintero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantics assumes two different notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989, on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originated in Stalnaker (1978, on which contexts are sets of propositions that are common ground. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility to account for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980 point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014 defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions, but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  2. Neural Based Tabu Search method for solving unit commitment problem with cooling-banking constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Asir Christober Gnanakkan Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve short-term unit commitment problem (UCP using Neural Based Tabu Search (NBTS with cooling and banking constraints. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for next H hours. A 7-unit utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 10, 26 and 34 units. Numerical results are shown to compare the superiority of the cost solutions obtained using the Tabu Search (TS method, Dynamic Programming (DP and Lagrangian Relaxation (LR methods in reaching proper unit commitment.

  3. Factors Predicting Faculty Commitment to the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy

    This paper examines the effect of faculty rank, satisfaction with salary, working conditions, institutional reputation, perceived influence on institutional policies, participation in meetings, and perceived governance on organizational commitment (at both the departmental and institutional level) using a representative sample of 4,925 faculty.…

  4. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  5. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  6. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  7. A study on the antitumour effect of total flavonoids from Pteris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir on growth of transplanted H22 tumour in mice. H22 tumour-bearing mice model was established; the experimental animals were divide/d into the model group, Pteris multifida Poir total flavonoids high-, low-dose ...

  8. Effect of weed control treatments on total leaf area of plantation black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Cook; Michael R. Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Determining total tree leaf area is necessary for describing tree carbon balance, growth efficiency, and other measures used in tree-level and stand-level physiological growth models. We examined the effects of vegetation control methods on the total leaf area of sapling-size plantation black walnut trees using allometric approaches. We found significant differences in...

  9. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  10. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  11. Effects of the L eadership Styles on the Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave: A Research on Turkish Prisons and Detention House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Güven Güres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to express the relationship between the leadership styles on the organizational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to leave of the first andsecond grade managers, admin officers, chief prison officers and prison officerswho work in different types of prison and detention centers in Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Antalya, Trabzon, İzmir and Antalya. To ensure the validity and reliability of the scales, surveys were conducted to 50 people from Erzurum closed prison and detention center. Results obtained from Erzurum were also subjected to verifiable tests. After the final approval of Ministry of Justice, all surveys have been conducted to 3.026 participants between 12.05.2014 –30.08. 2014. As a result of the research, it has been proved that the participants leadership perceptions have shown differences on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave as per their individual characteristics vary. It was also approved that the participants leadership perceptions have affects on their job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave. It was found that there is a meaningful relation between the organizational commitment and the job satisfaction of the participantslike as the relation between the organizational commitment and their intention to leave

  12. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent......We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... to our main definitions. Commitment schemes are an important cryptologic primitive. Their purpose is to commit one party to a certain value, while hiding this value from the other party until some later time. We present a statistically hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to many bits...

  13. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  14. Is etoricoxib effective in preventing heterotopic ossification after primary total hip arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnekreef, J.J.; Hoogervorst, P.; Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Heterotopic ossification is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to prevent heterotopic ossifications effectively, however gastrointestinal complaints are reported frequently. In this study, we investigated whether

  15. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  16. Effectiveness of autologous transfusion system in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schneider, Marco M

    2014-01-01

    Autologous transfusion has become a cost-efficient and useful option in the treatment of patients with high blood loss following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the effectiveness of autologous transfusion in total joint replacement remains controversial.

  17. The Effect of Organizational Culture, Leadership Style, and Functional Position on Organizational Commitment and Their Impact on the Performance of Internal Auditors in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at empirically examining the influence of the organizational culture, leadership style, and functional position of an auditor on organizational commitment and their impact on the performance of government internal auditors in Aceh, Indonesia. All 183 of the governmental internal auditors at the district level within the Province of Aceh, Indonesia, were investigated. Data, which are gathered by distributing questionnaires to the entire population, are then analysed by the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM technique.The study found that organizational culture, leadership style, and functional auditor have affected the performance of the governmental internal auditor either directly or indirectly through organizational commitment.Keywords: Organizational Culture, Leadership Style, Functional Auditor, Organizational Commitment, Internal Auditor Performance.

  18. Decomposition of the Total Effect in the Presence of Multiple Mediators and Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Valeri, Linda

    2018-06-01

    Mediation analysis allows decomposing a total effect into a direct effect of the exposure on the outcome and an indirect effect operating through a number of possible hypothesized pathways. Recent studies have provided formal definitions of direct and indirect effects when multiple mediators are of interest and have described parametric and semiparametric methods for their estimation. Investigating direct and indirect effects with multiple mediators, however, can be challenging in the presence of multiple exposure-mediator and mediator-mediator interactions. In this paper we derive a decomposition of the total effect that unifies mediation and interaction when multiple mediators are present. We illustrate the properties of the proposed framework in a secondary analysis of a pragmatic trial for the treatment of schizophrenia. The decomposition is employed to investigate the interplay of side effects and psychiatric symptoms in explaining the effect of antipsychotic medication on quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Our result offers a valuable tool to identify the proportions of total effect due to mediation and interaction when more than one mediator is present, providing the finest decomposition of the total effect that unifies multiple mediators and interactions.

  19. Predictors of career commitment and job performance of Jordanian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Few studies focused on nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. This research aimed at studying variables of nurses' career commitment and job performance, and assessing the relationship between the two concepts as well as their predictors. A survey was used to collect data from a convenient sample of 640 Registered Nurses employed in 24 hospitals. Nurses 'agreed' to be committed to their careers and they were performing their jobs 'well'. As a part of career commitment, nurses were willing to be involved, in their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The highest and lowest means of nurses' job performance were reported for the following aspects: leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, interpersonal relations/communications and professional development. Correlating of total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship between the two concepts. Stepwise regression models revealed that the explained variance in nurses' career commitment was 23.9% and that in nurses' job performance was 29.9%. Nurse managers should promote nursing as a career and they should develop and implement various strategies to increase nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. These strategies should focus on nurse retention, staff development and quality of care. Nurses' career commitment and job performance are inter-related complex concepts that require further studies to understand, promote and maintain these positive factors in work environments.

  20. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  1. The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Perceived Organizational Politics on Teacher Commitment: An Analysis of Public and Non-Public Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to comparatively explore and document similarities and differences in POS, POP, and teacher commitment within the two school settings (public and non-public) by analyzing the perceptions of teachers within secondary school settings within a mid-south state. Surveys were sent to teachers for completion. After…

  2. Goal setting in practice : the effects of personality and perceptions of the goal-setting process on job satisfaction and goal commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study was to investigate how individual perceptions by employees of a goal-setting program and personality traits influence job satisfaction and goal commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Using the German version of Locke and Latham’s goal-setting questionnaire, 97

  3. The Effect of Supportive Organizational Leadership, Organizational Socialization, and Satisfaction with Supervision on Turnover as Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowhorn, Greg L.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized a predictive, multivariate research design to test the relationship between three independent variables--supportive organizational leadership, organizational socialization, and satisfaction with supervision--and the dependent variable--turnover intent--as mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The…

  4. The Effect of Personal Values, Organizational Values, and Person-Organization Fit on Ethical Behaviors and Organizational Commitment Outcomes among Substance Abuse Counselors: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tammara Petrill

    2013-01-01

    Numerous research studies have concluded that values drive perceptions, responses to situations, judgments, interactions among people, and behaviors. In addition, studies have found that congruence or agreement between individual values and organizational values can increase job satisfaction and commitment. Minimal research has explored the…

  5. The effects of social capital and organizational commitment on the staff’s intellectual contribution in the central building of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Malek Makan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays human capital is the main asset in organizations. Thus, the employees’ intellectual involvement is a key factor in the success of organizations. Hence organizations should seek for factors that affect and boost the employees’ intellectual involvement. Therefore, the present research aimed at discovering the relationship between organizational commitment and social capital with intellectual involvement among employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: The study population consisted of staff employees at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A sample of 224 employees was selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using three questionnaires including social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: It was found that the level of social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement was at an average level. There was a significant relationship between intellectual involvement and degree (p<0.01 and marital status (p<0.05. Other demographic variables had no significant relationship with research variables. Moreover, all research variables and their dimensions had a significant relationship with each other (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that with improvement in each of the research variables, other variables will improve. For example, as a result of improvement in social capital or organization commitment, intellectual involvement will increase and the organization could use its competitive advantage

  6. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Kalend, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  7. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, J C; Kalend, A [Pittsburgh University School of Medicine (USA). Department of Radiation Oncology Pittsburg Cancer Institute (USA)

    1990-03-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  8. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the co...

  9. The effect of a total rewards strategy on school teachers’ retention

    OpenAIRE

    Boitomelo Makhuzeni; E. Nicolene Barkhuizen

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: South African schools are facing significant challenges to retain a talented pool of school teachers. A total rewards strategy could assist schools to reduce teacher turnover. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a total rewards strategy on the turnover intentions of school teachers in the North-West province. Motivation: The under supply of quality teachers has negative consequences for both school pupils and the larger community. Re...

  10. Effect of red and yellow ginger on growth performance and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the red and yellow ginger on performance, nutrient digestibility and total antioxidant capacity of broiler chickens. In a 2×2×2+1 factorial design, a total of two hundred and sixteen, three weeks old broiler chicken with initial weight of 430 g (± 0.1g SE) were assigned to ...

  11. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  12. When the test of mediation is more powerful than the test of the total effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P

    2015-06-01

    Although previous research has studied power in mediation models, the extent to which the inclusion of a mediator will increase power has not been investigated. To address this deficit, in a first study we compared the analytical power values of the mediated effect and the total effect in a single-mediator model, to identify the situations in which the inclusion of one mediator increased statistical power. The results from this first study indicated that including a mediator increased statistical power in small samples with large coefficients and in large samples with small coefficients, and when coefficients were nonzero and equal across models. Next, we identified conditions under which power was greater for the test of the total mediated effect than for the test of the total effect in the parallel two-mediator model. These results indicated that including two mediators increased power in small samples with large coefficients and in large samples with small coefficients, the same pattern of results that had been found in the first study. Finally, we assessed the analytical power for a sequential (three-path) two-mediator model and compared the power to detect the three-path mediated effect to the power to detect both the test of the total effect and the test of the mediated effect for the single-mediator model. The results indicated that the three-path mediated effect had more power than the mediated effect from the single-mediator model and the test of the total effect. Practical implications of these results for researchers are then discussed.

  13. The dimensionality of professional commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey J. Bagraim

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also ...

  14. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  15. Does Religious Commitment Matter in the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Purchase Intention on Halal Brand? Evidence from Consumers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dharma Tuah Putra NASUTION

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate a model of brand personality and the effect of a halal brand on purchase intentions, particularly, by highlighting of religious commitment mediated between brand personality, and purchase intentions on a Halal brand. This study uses a path analysis with the main concepts of brand personality, religious commitment, and purchase intentions. The sampling method used non-probability sampling. Data were collected from 120 respondents at several supermarkets in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Findings of the study indicated that brand personality does not have a significant and positive effect on the purchase intention of a Halal brand. However, the role of religious commitment is significant in mediating the relationship between brand personality and purchase intentions of a Halal brand. Finally, the results of this study also showed the total effects between brand personality, purchase intentions, and religious commitment. Dimensions of brand personality were not always relevant on the dimensions of a Halal brand.

  16. Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Murat KoC; Mustafa Fedai Cavus; Turgay Saracoglu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of human resource management (HRM) practices, job satisfaction and organizational commitment intentions of employees working in Turkish private organizations. A total of 200 employees participated in the study. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between HRM practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance appraisals) and job satisfaction and organizational commitment....

  17. The impact of nurses' spiritual health on their attitudes toward spiritual care, professional commitment, and caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chien; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Han, Chin-Yen; Hsiao, Ya-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The personal spiritual health of nurses may play an important role in improving their attitudes toward spiritual care and their professional commitment and caring capabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of nurses' personal spiritual health on their attitudes toward spiritual care, professional commitment, and caring. A total of 619 clinical nurses were included in this cross-sectional survey. The measurements included the spiritual health scale-short form, the spiritual care attitude scale, the nurses' professional commitment scale, and the caring behaviors scale. Structural equation modeling was used to establish associations between the main research variables. The hypothetical model provided a good fit with the data. Nurses' spiritual health had a positive effect on nurses' professional commitment and caring. Nurses' attitudes toward spiritual care could therefore mediate their personal spiritual health, professional commitment, and caring. The findings indicated that nurses' personal spiritual health is an important value and belief system and can influence their attitudes toward spiritual care, professional commitment, and caring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace empowerment and organizational commitment among nurses working at the Main University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahem, Samaa Z; Elhoseeny, Taghareed; Mahmoud, Rasha A

    2013-08-01

    High-quality patient care depends on a nursing workforce that is empowered to provide care according to professional nursing standards. Numerous studies have established positive relationships between empowerment and important nursing outcomes such as work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the relationships between structural and psychological empowerment and their effects on hospital nurses' organizational commitment at the Main University Hospital in Alexandria governorate. The total number of nurses who participated in the study was 150 nurses, and four interview questionnaires were used to measure the study variables. The mean score percentage was higher for overall psychological empowerment (68.75%) than for overall structural empowerment (46.25%). There was a significant direct intermediate correlation between nurses' perceptions of overall structural and psychological work empowerment and their overall organizational commitment. There was no significant relationship between structural and psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and sociodemographic characteristics of nurses except for the overall organizational commitment with age (r=0.260), overall structural empowerment in the working department (P=0.031), and overall organizational commitment with nursing experience (significance=0.025). Overall psychological empowerment achieved a higher mean score percentage compared with overall structural empowerment. Changing workplace structures is within the mandate of nurses' managers in their roles as advocates for and facilitators of high-quality care. The most significant opportunity for improvement is in the area of formal power, including flexibility, adaptability, creativity associated with discretionary decision-making, visibility, and centrality to organizational purpose and goals.

  19. An experimental study on total dose effects in SRAM-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Luo Yinhong; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Keying

    2009-01-01

    In order to study testing methods and find sensitive parameters in total dose effects on SRAM-based FPGA, XC2S100 chips were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and tested with two test circuit designs. By analyzing the experimental results, the test flow of configuration RAM and bock RAM was given, and the most sensitive parameter was obtained. The results will be a solid foundation for establishing test specification and evaluation methods of total dose effects on SRAM-based FPGAs. (authors)

  20. An examination of organizational and team commitment in a self-directed team environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James W; Scott, K Dow

    2000-06-01

    A model hypothesizing differential relationships among predictor variables and individual commitment to the organization and work team was tested. Data from 485 members of sewing teams supported the existence of differential relationships between predictors and organizational and team commitment. In particular, intersender conflict and satisfaction with coworkers were more strongly related to team commitment than to organizational commitment. Resource-related conflict and satisfaction with supervision were more strongly related to organizational commitment than to team commitment. Perceived task interdependence was strongly related to both commitment foci. Contrary to prediction, the relationships between perceived task interdependence and the 2 commitment foci were not significantly different. Relationships with antecedent variables help explain how differential levels of commitment to the 2 foci may be formed. Indirect effects of exogenous variables are reported.

  1. Total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxin; Hu Rongbin; Li Ruzhang; Chen Guangbing; Fu Dongbing; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Based on 0.18 μm MOS transistors, for the first time, the total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors are studied. The experimental results show that the total dose radiation magnifies the mismatch among identically designed MOS transistors. In our experiments, as the radiation total dose rises to 200 krad, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of NMOS transistors increase from 0.55% and 1.4% before radiation to 17.4% and 13.5% after radiation, respectively. PMOS transistors seem to be resistant to radiation damage. For all the range of radiation total dose, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of PMOS transistors keep under 0.5% and 2.72%, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  2. The Effect of Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment on Employees\\\\\\' Job Satisfaction and Performance in Hotel Industry of Mashhad by Using Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Derakhshide; Ali Kazemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Managers clearly understood that the most important factor in competitive advantage is organization's human resources. As a result, the attention to commitment and loyalty to the organization's human resources has increased. One of the major problems of organizations is employee's relocation, job loss, lack of interest and lack of pride in the organization, less motivation and ultimately leaving the organization. All of these have a high cost for the organization, including de...

  3. Commitment to Cooperation and Peer Punishment: Its Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have generally weighed the effect of peer punishment and pool punishment for sanctioning free riders separately. However, these sanctioning mechanisms often pose a puzzling tradeoff between efficiency and stability in detecting and punishing free riders. Here, we combine the key aspects of these qualitatively different mechanisms in terms of evolutionary game theory. Based on the dilemmatic donation game, we introduce a strategy of commitment to both cooperation and peer punishment. To make the commitment credible, we assume that those willing to commit have to make a certain deposit. The deposit will be refunded as long as the committers faithfully cooperate in the donation game and punish free riders and non-committers. It turns out that the deposit-based commitment offers both the efficiency of peer punishment and the stability of pool punishment and that the replicator dynamics lead to transitions of different systems: pool punishment to commitment to peer punishment.

  4. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  5. Nurses organizational commitment: the discriminating power of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2007-01-01

    The study of the organizational commitment has risen interest within the organization's researchers, who have been trying to understand the intensity and stability of the individual's dedication to the organization. The interest that this construct has raised is based on the idea of the existence of an association of the organizational commitment with variables considered important to the increase of the organizational effectiveness and productivity. The aim of this article is to describe organizational commitment, in its affective, normative, and continuance dimensions, from nurse practitioners, and to analyze the differences of that commitment regarding gender. Data were collected by questionnaire. The sample is constituted by nurse practitioners who develop their professional activity in 6 Portuguese hospitals. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviation, and independent samples t test. The sample consists of 1201 nurses. The organizational commitment of the studied nurses is, on average, 2.87+/-0.69 (in 5-point scale). When we make an analysis regarding gender, we verify that the organizational commitment is higher in women, being the difference statistically significant (t = -2.07; P commitment in male and female nurses, and it is higher in all dimensions in female nurses; however, the difference is only significant to the organizational and continuance commitment.

  6. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  7. Effect of compression therapy on knee swelling and pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stig; Jensen, Niels J. F.; Andersen, Ida Bøgh

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty may impair postoperative mobilisation and training, and as medical elastic compression stockings are well tolerated and effective to prevent oedema, haematoma and postoperative pain after venous surgery, we wanted to study whether this effect...... could be transferred to total knee arthroplasty surgery reducing postoperative swelling and pain and thereby facilitating mobilisation and improving patient-reported knee function. METHODS: In a randomised controlled study, 88 patients were randomised to use either a medical elastic compression stocking...... or no stocking from the first postoperative day and the following 4 weeks after total knee arthroplasty. Outcome measures were knee, calf and ankle swelling, knee flexion, pain and patient-reported knee function. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of the swelling had occurred before application of the stocking the day...

  8. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  9. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  10. The effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on eating behavior and diet delivered through face-to-face contact and a mobile app: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Muotka, Joona; Lindroos, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2018-02-27

    Internal motivation and good psychological capabilities are important factors in successful eating-related behavior change. Thus, we investigated whether general acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) affects reported eating behavior and diet quality and whether baseline perceived stress moderates the intervention effects. Secondary analysis of unblinded randomized controlled trial in three Finnish cities. Working-aged adults with psychological distress and overweight or obesity in three parallel groups: (1) ACT-based Face-to-face (n = 70; six group sessions led by a psychologist), (2) ACT-based Mobile (n = 78; one group session and mobile app), and (3) Control (n = 71; only the measurements). At baseline, the participants' (n = 219, 85% females) mean body mass index was 31.3 kg/m 2 (SD = 2.9), and mean age was 49.5 years (SD = 7.4). The measurements conducted before the 8-week intervention period (baseline), 10 weeks after the baseline (post-intervention), and 36 weeks after the baseline (follow-up) included clinical measurements, questionnaires of eating behavior (IES-1, TFEQ-R18, HTAS, ecSI 2.0, REBS), diet quality (IDQ), alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), perceived stress (PSS), and 48-h dietary recall. Hierarchical linear modeling (Wald test) was used to analyze the differences in changes between groups. Group x time interactions showed that the subcomponent of intuitive eating (IES-1), i.e., Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons, increased in both ACT-based groups (p = .019); the subcomponent of TFEQ-R18, i.e., Uncontrolled eating, decreased in the Face-to-face group (p = .020); the subcomponent of health and taste attitudes (HTAS), i.e., Using food as a reward, decreased in the Mobile group (p = .048); and both subcomponent of eating competence (ecSI 2.0), i.e., Food acceptance (p = .048), and two subcomponents of regulation of eating behavior (REBS), i.e., Integrated and Identified regulation (p

  11. The effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 ...

  12. ICT for Children of Immigrants: Indirect and Total Effects via Self-Efficacy on Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunha

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the direct, indirect, and total effects of information, communication, and technology (ICT) variables on math achievement for second-generation immigrant, first-generation immigrant, and nonimmigrant students. A path model was used to analyze U.S. nationally representative data from the Program for International Student…

  13. Effect of road side dust pollution on the growth and total chlorophyll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dust in Vitis vinifera L. on its pigmentation and growth was studied in 2012. Measurements were taken for plants in the Campus University of Balochistan, Quetta. A significant reduction in plant length, cover, number of leaves and total chlorophyll contents for V. vinifera L. was observed. The maximum reduction ...

  14. The effect of CoQ 10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 groups (p ...

  15. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  16. Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet pornography has many adverse effects, especially to the relationship commitment. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to weakening of the relationship of their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability and viewing habits were also considered in determining the relationship of watching online pornography and the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. The study used the descriptive-correlational design. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400.It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has an adverse effect on the relationship commitment of married Filipino couples. Furthermore, watching porn online weakened the relationship commitment that leads to an unstable relationship. This investigation found out that internet pornography consumption has a nominal negative effect on the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. It is proven on this study that internet pornography consumption can weaken the relationship commitment of married individuals thus, it promotes knowledge about numerous effect of it, negatively and even positively. This paper also contributes to pornography related researches on the country which can give further awareness about the said area.

  17. Effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on tolerant mice models under cerebral anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens can stimulate an endogenous protective mechanism by inducing the release of low levels of cytokines NO and NOS, which reduces the release of serum NSE, relieves the brain tissue ischemia-reperfusion injury, and further improves the protection effect of ischemic preconditioning on brain injury. The damage of brain tissue ischemia and reperfusion, and further improve the ischemia Protective effect of preconditioning on brain injury.

  18. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  19. An evolutionary programming based simulated annealing method for solving the unit commitment problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of EEE, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Mohan, M.R. [Department of EEE, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a new approach to solve the short-term unit commitment problem using an evolutionary programming based simulated annealing method. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. Evolutionary programming, which happens to be a global optimisation technique for solving unit commitment Problem, operates on a system, which is designed to encode each unit's operating schedule with regard to its minimum up/down time. In this, the unit commitment schedule is coded as a string of symbols. An initial population of parent solutions is generated at random. Here, each schedule is formed by committing all the units according to their initial status (''flat start''). Here the parents are obtained from a pre-defined set of solution's, i.e. each and every solution is adjusted to meet the requirements. Then, a random recommitment is carried out with respect to the unit's minimum down times. And SA improves the status. The best population is selected by evolutionary strategy. The Neyveli Thermal Power Station (NTPS) Unit-II in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different power systems consists of 10, 26, 34 generating units. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the Evolutionary Programming method and other conventional methods like Dynamic Programming, Lagrangian Relaxation and Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search in reaching proper unit commitment. (author)

  20. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  1. Chemical effect on total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.; Colak, S.; Bueyuekkasap, E.; Kuecuekoender, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed interpretation of data obtained from X-ray transmission measurements usually depends on the assumption that the contribution of each element is additive. This assumption yields the mixture rule for X-ray attenuation coefficients which is valid if molecular and chemical effects are negligible. Total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni in various their compounds was measured. Absorption corrections were carried on data for ligands in the compounds. It was found that V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni had different total mass attenuation coefficients in the different compounds. Results were compared with theoretical values of HUBBELL and SELTZER. (author)

  2. [Spectrum-effect Relationship Between Total Antioxidant Activity and HPLC Fingerprint of Arctium lappa Root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-juan; Jiang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    To explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity. The experiment was carried out with Gemini C18 110A (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using methanol-0.04% phosphoric acid as gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength of 320 nm. The total antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the absorbance of each sample after being reacted with ammonium molybdate reagent. The spectrum-effect relationship was investigated using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity were established, the similarity of fingerprint of all samples was above 0.9. Peaks 1, 6, 9, 12 and 14 were principle components of Arctium lappa root for the total antioxidant activity. This method contributes to the fast comprehensive evaluation of quality of Arctium lappa root.

  3. State commitment to public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, S.C.; Serie, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how New York's approach to developing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal facility demonstrates a commitment to responsibility for waste generated within its borders. There is a strong, legislated commitment to meeting federal milestones and starting from scratch to select a suitable site and disposal method. Equally strong is the state's commitment to meaningful public participation. A statewide program is underway, including public information and education and interactive techniques. The public participation program is fully integrated with the technical and policy activities of the New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission at all levels. The program is designed to progressively tailor techniques and coverage to the steps in site and method selection, and will focus most intensively on the communities where four sites are selected for full characterization

  4. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J

    2012-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We hypothe...... hypothesized that the adductor-canal-blockade may reduce morphine consumption (primary endpoint), improve pain relief, enhance early ambulation ability, and reduce side effects (secondary endpoints) after TKA compared with placebo.......Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...

  5. Antidepressant effects of total tertiary alkaloid fraction of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Mendonça-Netto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of total tertiary alkaloid fraction (TTAF of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler (Menispermaceae on two animal models of depression: a forced swim test and b reserpine test. Treatment of mice with TTAF (12.5 mg/kg reduced the total immobility time. It also reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia, demonstrating an antidepressant effect in both models. Additionally, TTAF treatment did not modify the ambulation and rearing evaluated in open field test in order to investigate if the immobility time reduction found in the forced swimming test was caused by locomotive activity stimulation. Since warifteine is one of the main alkaloids present in the TTAF of C. sympodialis, and it has inhibitory activity of the phosphodiesterase enzyme, it may be responsible by the antidepressant effect found in the fraction studied.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of positive contrast and nuclear arthrography in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, J.S.; Braunstein, E.M.; Capello, W.; Wellman, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have compared the cost effectiveness of contrast arthrography (CA) and nuclear arthrography (NA), in which In-111 chloride is injected with the contrast material, of total hip arthroplasties. Their series included 48 cases of surgically proved loose femoral components. The cost per true-positive result was obtained by taking the total cost of the examinations in surgically proved cases and dividing by the number of true-position cases. The cost of CA was $297 and the cost of NA was $335. For CA, the cost per true positive was $1,018, and for the NA the cost per true positive was $946. In spite of higher initial cost, NA is more cost effective than CA on a cost per true-positive case basis. NA is cost effective in evaluating hip arthroplasties in which there is suspicion of a loose femoral component

  7. Marketing service relationships: the role of commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Birgelen, van M.

    1998-01-01

    As with all relationships, it is commonly agreed on that partners in business must have a high degree of commitment towards their relationship. If commitment is lacking, the relationship will soon come to an end. Affective commitment, that is commitment based on attraction between partners, is to be

  8. Dynamic Commitment: Wargaming Projected Forces Against the QDR Defense Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Clarence

    1997-01-01

    .... The Dynamic Commitment Wargame Series informed participants regarding the expected future demand on forces, such that Services were better able to articulate the effect of the examined force options...

  9. Pledges of Commitment and Cooperation in Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Deer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual’s: (1 opportunity to commit to their partner; (2 the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3 the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduction of relatively large and equally split costs yields similar gains. In contrast, when costs to dissolve committed partnerships fall solely on the individual choosing to break up, pledges of commitment fail to improve cooperation and welfare.

  10. The total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep submicron CMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rongbin; Wang Yuxin; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Using 0.18 μm CMOS transistors, the total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep-submicron CMOS transistors are studied for the first time in mainland China. From the experimental results and the theoretic analysis, we realize that total dose radiation causes a lot of trapped positive charges in STI (shallow trench isolation) SiO 2 layers, which induces a current leakage passage, increasing the 1/f noise power of CMOS transistors. In addition, we design some radiation-hardness structures on the CMOS transistors and the experimental results show that, until the total dose achieves 750 krad, the 1/f noise power of the radiation-hardness CMOS transistors remains unchanged, which proves our conclusion. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is it safe and effective in preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Guven, Selcuk; Kilinc, Mehmet; Topbaş, Emrah; Piskin, Mesut; Arslan, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    After the introduction of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), many studies conducted in adult patients have confirmed its efficacy and safety. There are limited studies reporting that tubeless PNL can be safely applied in children, however. Furthermore, there are no reports that evaluate the use of totally tubeless PNL in children. The present study evaluates the results of totally tubeless PNL in preschool children. The data of children seen in our clinic who were considered suitable for totally tubeless PNL were analyzed. Of 16 children, 8 patients underwent totally tubeless PNL (group 1) and 8 standard PNL (group 2). The two groups of patients were compared with regard to length of hospitalization, analgesic requirements, transfusion rates, hemoglobin (Hb) decrease, and immediate, early, and late complications. The mean ages of the patients were 56.6 months (9-84 mos) and 56.0 months (5-84 mos), and the mean follow-up was 21.5 months (3-44 mos) and 43.4 months (36-54 mos) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Both groups were similar with regard to age, stone size, Hb change, and complications. Although operation duration, hospitalization period, and analgesic requirement were less in the totally tubeless PNL group, these differences were not statistically significant. The latest application of PNL, totally tubeless PNL, is also a safe and effective procedure in very small children if they are selected properly and if the surgeon has sufficient experience with the procedure. More studies with a higher number of participants are needed, however, to confirm that totally tubeless PNL increases the comfort of pediatric patients, decreases their hospitalization period, and is more economical.

  12. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of [ 14 C] CO 2 production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate

  13. Pledges of commitment and cooperation in partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan Deer; Ralph-C. Bayer

    2015-01-01

    We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual's: (1) opportunity to commit to their partner; (2) the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3) the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduct...

  14. Dimensionality of Organizational Commitment in Volunteer Workers: Chamber of Commerce Board Members and Role Fulfillment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, David D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Stephens, David B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the multi-dimensionality of organizational commitment of volunteer chamber of commerce board members using the Meyer and Allen (1997) scale. The effect of organizational commitment on desirable board member roles is also tested. Theory is developed by uniting past research in both organizational commitment and employee…

  15. Micro-fibers shape effects on gas exchange in Total Artificial Lung

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Flow and oxygen transport dynamics of a pulsatile flow past an array of square and circular cross section micro-fiber is numerically investigated in the present work. The study is motivated to optimize the design of an Total Artificial Lung (TAL) under clinical trials. Effects of three non-dimensional parameters: Reynolds number, non-dimensional amplitude of free stream velocity and Keulegan Carpenter number on oxygen transport and total drag (resistance) of both the fibers are studied. Range of parameters investigated corresponds to operating range of TAL. For most of the cases investigated, results show enhanced oxygen transport for square fiber but higher resistance when compare with the circular fiber case under almost all flow conditions. For both fibers, oxygen transfer rate are enhanced at higher Reynolds number, higher velocity amplitude and lower KC values. Overall drag is found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing amplitude and is not significantly effected by Keulegan Carpenter number. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Micro-fibers shape effects on gas exchange in Total Artificial Lung

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Guglani, Aditya; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Flow and oxygen transport dynamics of a pulsatile flow past an array of square and circular cross section micro-fiber is numerically investigated in the present work. The study is motivated to optimize the design of an Total Artificial Lung (TAL) under clinical trials. Effects of three non-dimensional parameters: Reynolds number, non-dimensional amplitude of free stream velocity and Keulegan Carpenter number on oxygen transport and total drag (resistance) of both the fibers are studied. Range of parameters investigated corresponds to operating range of TAL. For most of the cases investigated, results show enhanced oxygen transport for square fiber but higher resistance when compare with the circular fiber case under almost all flow conditions. For both fibers, oxygen transfer rate are enhanced at higher Reynolds number, higher velocity amplitude and lower KC values. Overall drag is found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing amplitude and is not significantly effected by Keulegan Carpenter number. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. The effect of geomagnetic storm on GPS derived total electron content (TEC) at Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the effect of geomagnetic storm on Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) at low latitude Varanasi (Geomagnetic lat 14 0 , 55' N, geomagnetic long 154 0 E) during the period of May 2007 to April 2008. During this period 2 storms were found, which were occurred on 20 November 2007 and 9 March 2008. In this study vertical total electron content (VTEC) of single Pseudorandom Noise (PRN) and average of VTEC of same PRN before 10 days of storm, which is called background TEC, were used to see the effect of these storms on the variation of TEC. From this study this is found that during the storm of March 2008 the TEC increases in main phase of storm while in the case of November 2007 storm, TEC decreases during the main phase of storm but increases in the recovery phase (next day) of storm.

  18. Measurements of the effective total and resonance absorption cross sections for zircaloy-2 and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A; Markovic, V [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1967-04-15

    Zirconium and zircaloy-2 alloy, as constructive materials, have found wide application in reactor technology, especially in heavy water systems for two reasons: a) low neutron absorption cross section, b) good mechanical properties. The thickness of the zirconium and zircaloy-2 for different applications varies from several tenths of a millimeter to about ten millimeters. Therefore, to calculate reactor systems it is desirable to know the effective neutron absorption cross section for the range of thicknesses mention above. The thermal neutron cross sections for these materials are low and no appreciable variation of the effective neutron cross section occurs even for the largest thicknesses. However, this is not true for effective resonance absorption. On the other hand, due to the lack of detailed knowledge of the zirconium resonances, calculations of the effective resonance integrals cannot be performed. Therefore it is necessary to measure the effective total and resonance absorption cross section for zirconium (author)

  19. Analyzing the Effect of Economic Variables on Total Tax Revenues in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Basirat; Fatemeh Aboodi; Abdulmajid Ahangari

    2014-01-01

    As the government’s source of revenue, taxes play a major role in the construction and economic development of a country. Accurate knowledge of factors affecting tax revenues provides the policymakers with a clear horizon for economic planning. This study mainly aimed to examine the effect of economic variables on total tax revenues between 1974 and 2011. Accordingly, the Auto regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model was used. Results indicated that exchange rate with 0.71398, import with 0.53...

  20. Test methods of total dose effects in very large scale integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; He Baoping; Yao Yujuan; Li Yonghong; Peng Honglun; Lin Dongsheng; Zhou Hui; Chen Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    A kind of test method of total dose effects (TDE) is presented for very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). The consumption current of devices is measured while function parameters of devices (or circuits) are measured. Then the relation between data errors and consumption current can be analyzed and mechanism of TDE in VLSI can be proposed. Experimental results of 60 Co γ TDEs are given for SRAMs, EEPROMs, FLASH ROMs and a kind of CPU

  1. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  2. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  3. When a Patient Commits Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karol A.

    1980-01-01

    Suicide is a tragic and upsetting event which sometimes occurs when a person is in some form of therapy. This paper advocates a process after a patient commits suicide which allows for a thorough and orderly working through of the event by involved treatment personnel. (Author)

  4. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  5. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  6. Parenting--Challenge and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Eleanore Braun

    1973-01-01

    This is a revised version of the National Council on Family Relations Presidential address delivered November 3, 1972, Portland Oregon. This address concerned the new constitution and reorganization of N.C.F.R. and a plea for reexamination of the membership's commitment to family issues. (JC)

  7. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  8. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  9. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  10. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  11. Immediate Supervisors’ Leadership Behaviour and Employees’ Organizational Commitment: Do Pay and Promotion Mediate the Nexus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Ampofo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mediating effect of motivational factors of pay and promotion on transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship in Unilever Ghana using a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional and analytical survey design study. The results of the study revealed significant positive relationship between transformational leadership style and affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. However, the results of the study revealed no significant mediation of pay in the relationship between transformational leadership style and affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Additionally, no significant mediation of promotion was found in the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment, transformational leadership and continuance commitment, and transformational leadership and normative commitment. Managers’ adoption of transformational leadership behavior as a key strategy to get employees committed to the organizations will be of great significance because motivational factors such as pay and promotion do not mediate the transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship. This is a maiden empirical research in Ghana where motivational factors are used as mediators in transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship.

  12. Organizational Commitment and Nurses' Characteristics as Predictors of Job Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammar, Kamila; Alamrani, Mashael; Alqahtani, Sara; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2016-01-01

    To predict nurses' job involvement on the basis of their organizational commitment and personal characteristics at a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected in 2015 from a convenience sample of 558 nurses working at a large tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional correlational design was used in this study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. All commitment scales had significant relationships. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the model predicted a sizeable proportion of variance in nurses' job involvement (p organizational commitment enhances job involvement, which may lead to more organizational stability and effectiveness.

  13. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  14. Oscillatory fluid flow induces the osteogenic lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells: The effect of shear stress magnitude, frequency, and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenschi, Elena; Labour, Marie-Noelle; Hoey, David A

    2017-04-11

    A potent regulator of bone anabolism is physical loading. However, it is currently unclear whether physical stimuli such as fluid shear within the marrow cavity is sufficient to directly drive the osteogenic lineage commitment of resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Therefore, the objective of the study is to employ a systematic analysis of oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) parameters predicted to occur in vivo on early MSC osteogenic responses and late stage lineage commitment. MSCs were exposed to OFF of 1Pa, 2Pa and 5Pa magnitudes at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz and 2Hz for 1h, 2h and 4h of stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that OFF elicits a positive osteogenic response in MSCs in a shear stress magnitude, frequency, and duration dependent manner that is gene specific. Based on the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers Cox2, Runx2 and Opn after short-term fluid flow stimulation, we identified that a regime of 2Pa shear magnitude and 2Hz frequency induces the most robust and reliable upregulation in osteogenic gene expression. Furthermore, long-term mechanical stimulation utilising this regime, elicits a significant increase in collagen and mineral deposition when compared to static control demonstrating that mechanical stimuli predicted within the marrow is sufficient to directly drive osteogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Total dose effects on ATLAS-SCT front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, M; Dubbs, T; Grillo, A A; Spencer, E; Seiden, A; Spieler, H; Gilchriese, M G D; Lozano, M

    2002-01-01

    Low dose rate effects (LDRE) in bipolar technologies complicate the hardness assurance testing for high energy physics applications. The damage produced in the ICs in the real experiment can be underestimated if fast irradiations are carried out, while experiments done at the real dose rate are usually unpractical due to the still high total doses involved. In this work the sensitivity to LDRE of two bipolar technologies proposed for the ATLAS-SCT experiment at CERN is evaluated, finding one of them free of those effects. (12 refs).

  16. Clinical benefit and cost effectiveness of total knee arthroplasty in the older patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krummenauer F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Furthermore, bearing demographic changes in Western Europe in mind, TKA-associated financial investment for health care insurers will increase notably and thereby catalyze discussions on ressource allocation to Orthopedic surgery. To derive a quantitative rationale for such discussions within Western Europe's health care systems, a prospective assessment of both the benefit of TKA from a patient's perspective as well as its cost effectiveness from a health care insurer's perspective was implemented. Methods A prospective cost effectiveness trial recruited a total of 65 patients (60% females, who underwent TKA in 2006; median age of patients was 66 years (interquartile range 61 - 74 years. Before and three months after surgery patients were interviewed by means of the EuroQol-5D and the WOMAC questionnaires to assess their individual benefit due to TKA and the subsequent inpatient rehabilitation. Both questionnaires' benefit estimates were transformed into the number of gained quality adjusted life years [QALYs]. Total direct cost estimates for the overall care were based on German DRG and rehabilitation cost rates [€]. The primary clinical endpoint of the investigation was the individual number of QALYs gained by TKA based on the WOMAC interview; the primary health economic endpoint was the marginal cost effectiveness ratio (MCER relating the costs to the associated gain in quality of life [€/QALY]. Results Total direct costs for the overall procedure were estimed 9549 € in median. The WOMAC based interview revealed an overall gain of 4.59 QALYs (interquartile range 2.39 - 6.21 QALYs, resulting in marginal costs of 1795 €/QALY (1488 - 3288 €/QALY. The corresponding EuroQol based estimates were 2.93 QALYs (1.75 - 5.59 QALYs and 3063 €/QALY (1613 - 5291 €/QALY. Logistic regression modelling identified the

  17. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  18. Effect of the patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia caused by total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L; An, R; Zhang, J; Sun, Y; Zhao, R; Liu, M

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia in laryngeal cancer patients after total laryngectomy. Sixty-five patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were randomly divided into three groups: a routine communication group, a patient communication group (that received the patient-to-patient communication model) and a physician communication group. Questionnaires were used to compare quality of life and swallowing problems among all patient groups. The main factors causing dysphagia in total laryngectomy patients were related to fear and mental health. The patient communication group had improved visual analogue scale scores at one week after starting to eat. Quality of life in swallowing disorders questionnaire scores were significantly higher in the patient communication and physician communication groups than in the routine communication group. In addition, swallowing problems were much more severe in patients educated to high school level and above than in others. The patient-to-patient communication model can be used to resolve swallowing problems caused by psychological factors in total laryngectomy patients.

  19. IMPACT OF COMMITMENT TO BUSINESS ETHICS TO NONFINANCIAL BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance. Data of commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance were collected from 100 participants through a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in 2015 in Croatian large and medium sized companies. The questionnaire for assessing commitment to business ethics contained nine different dimensions while the nonfinancial business performance contained three dimensions: client satisfaction, human resource management plus innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. Multiple regression methods were applied in the analysis. The empirical results of three multiple linear regression models show that certain dimension of commitment to business ethics had a positive influence on the nonfinancial performance of the companies. Motivation and rewarding policy for ethical behavior and responding to unethical behavior, as a dimension of commitment to business ethics, has distinctive effects on all three nonfinancial performance dimensions. It was also found that selecting suppliers based on the standards of ethics and compliance has a positive and strong influence on client satisfaction while using ethical criteria in the performance and efficiency evaluation of employees has a positive and significant influence on innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. This research leads to the conclusion that some dimensions of commitment to business ethics can be important predictors of nonfinancial business performance. Therefore, results of the research could be considered as valid motivation for further improvement of commitment to ethics in the business environment.

  20. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18)

  1. Relationship emotional intelligence and personality traits with organizational commitment among Iranian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taherinejad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, organizational commitment has been of interest to researchers as one of the organizational attitudes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence and personality traits with organizational commitment among Iranian nurses. A total of 280 nurses were selected by multistage random sampling. Study tools included emotional intelligence inventory, Neo personality inventory and organizational commitment inventory. Results showed the positive and significant relationship of emotional intelligence and its dimensions (self-expression, self-regard, independence, social responsibility, problem solving, stress tolerance, impulse control, and optimism with organizational commitment. Also, organizational commitment showed a positive and significant relationship with extroversion and conscientiousness. Moreover, components of self-expression, problem solving and stress tolerance in emotional intelligence are able to predict organizational commitment. Thus, these results indicate the importance of emotional intelligence and personality traits in organizational commitment.

  2. Effects and Mechanisms of Total Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. on Skin Wound in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Pang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM evolved through thousands of years of practice and was popular not only among the Chinese population, but also most countries in the world. Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. as a traditional treatment for wound healing in Li Nationality Medicine has a long history of nearly 2000 years. This study was to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. on skin excisional wound on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, reveal its chemical constitution, and postulate its action mechanism. The rats were divided into five groups and the model groups were treated with 30% glycerol, the positive control groups with Jing Wan Hong (JWH ointment, and three treatment groups with high dose (2.52 g·kg−1, medium dose (1.26 g·kg−1, and low dose (0.63 g·kg−1 of total flavonoids from B. balsamifera. During 10 consecutive days of treatment, the therapeutic effects of rates were evaluated. On day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 10 after treatment, skin samples were taken from all the rats for further study. Significant increases of granulation tissue, fibroblast, and capillary vessel proliferation were observed at day 7 in the high dose and positive control groups, compared with the model group, with the method of 4% paraformaldehyde for histopathological examination and immunofluorescence staining. To reveal the action mechanisms of total flavonoids on wound healing, the levels of CD68, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and hydroxyproline were measured at different days. Results showed that total flavonoids had significant effects on rat skin excisional wound healing compared with controls, especially high dose ones (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the total flavonoid extract was investigated phytochemically, and twenty-seven compounds were identified from the total flavonoid sample by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass

  3. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the contents of postoperative serum pain-promoting-related mediators, painsuppressing-related mediators and pain-related signal molecules were detected. Results: Serum CGRP, PS, Hist, 5-HT, AM and BK contents of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group, AEA, β-EP, RvE1, LXA4 and LXB4 contents were significantly higher than those of control group, and P2X2, P2X7, P2X3, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y 13, P2Y14, p38MAPK and PI3K contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement can increase the generation of pain-suppressing mediators, decrease the generation of pain-promoting mediators and achieve more exact analgesic effect.

  5. Clinical and cost effectiveness-related aspects of retransfusion in total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Bartłomiej; Dutka, Julian; Dutka, Lukasz; Maleta, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    An increasing demand for blood products forces the rationalisation of management and conservation of blood. The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of retransfusion of blood conservation and the cost-effectiveness of this procedure when employed in Total Hip Replacement and Total Knee Arthroplasty. This prospective cohort study involved two groups of patients. Group I comprised 50 patients who underwent blood retransfusion and in several cases had supplementary allogeneic transfusion. Group II, a control group, consisted of 50 patients who did not receive retransfusion. The retransfusion in Group I enabled the recovery of a mean amount of 364.5 ml (± 52.7) of blood in THR patients and 403.8 ml (± 110.7) in TKA patients. Demand for allogeneic blood transfusions in Group I versus Group II was 46% lower in THR patients and 42% lower in TKA patients. The blood recovered for retransfusion is biologically valuable with regard to cellular elements and plasma chemistries. In the costs evaluation, the total savings in Group I were 5,000 PLN. Retransfusion of recuperated blood from postoperative drainage tubing is a simple and safe method that provides clinical and cost-effectiveness advantages.

  6. Influence of burn-in on total-ionizing-dose effect of SRAM device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Yao Zhibin; Huang Shaoyan; He Baoping; Sheng Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Burn-in on the total-ionizing-dose (TID) effect of SRAM device was investigated. SRAM devices of three different feature sizes were selected and irradiated by "6"0Co source with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in. Some parameters for radiation effect of SRAM device such as upset data, were measured, and the influence on the TID effect of different feature size SRAM devices with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in was obtained. The influence of different temperature Burn-in on radiation resistant capability of SRAM device was studied for 0.25 μm SRAM device. The results show that the smaller the device feature size is, the better the radiation-resistant capability of SRAM device is and the weaker the influence of Burn-in is. And the higher Burn-in temperature is, the more serious the influence of Burn-in on the total-dose radiation effect is. (authors)

  7. Work-family conflict, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment among employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy J; Martin, Jennifer A; Buffardi, Louis C; Erdwins, Carol J

    2002-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW) on women's organizational commitment and examined both the direct and moderating effects of their perceived organizational support. Participants were 143 professional employed mothers with at least 1 preschool-age child. The study found that WIF was positively related to continuance organizational commitment but unrelated to affective commitment, and FIW was not related to either form of organizational commitment. Results also indicated that perceived organizational support exhibited a main effect on both types of commitment.

  8. [Research progress of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of total glucosides of peony in hepatoprotective effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Yan; Zhan, Shu-Yu; Huang, Xuan; Ding, Bao-Yue; Liu, Yu-Qian; Ruan, Yu-Er; Jiang, Ning-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), containing the effective components of paeoniflorin (Pae), albiflorin (Alb) and so on, are effective parts of Radix Paeoniae Alba. And it possesses extensive pharmacological actions, one of which is hepatoprotective effect. In recent years, abundant of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics research of TGP in hepatoprotective effects have been performed. However, the relative medicine of TGP in hepatoprotective effect has not been developed for clinical application. In order to provide reference for the development and rational clinical application of TGP, the research progresses of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TGP in hepatoprotective effect were summarized in this paper. Pharmacokinetics research has clarified the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of TGP in vivo, and liver injury disease can significantly influence its metabolic processes. Pharmacodynamics studies suggested that TGP can protect against acute liver injury, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), chronic liver fibrosis and liver cancer. However, the action mechanism and in vivo process about hepatoprotective effects of TGP have not been clearly revealed. How liver injury influences the metabolism of TGP and its integrated regulation through multiple targets need to be further studied. The combined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies should be performed in favour of medicine development and clinical application of TGP in hepatoprotective effects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. No Effect of Acupuncture as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients with Total Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom; Hautopp, Holger; Duus, Benn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is a low risk option in pain management following total knee replacement as an alternative to opioid analgesics. Therefore, the benefit of acupuncture as adjunct to an exercise program was investigated. Furthermore, the modifying effect of previous benefit from acupuncture...... was explored. Design: Three weeks postoperatively, eligible patients were randomized to acupuncture and exercises or exercises alone. Setting: An outpatient rehabilitation centre in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 172 patients were included. Methods: Main outcome was proportion...... of the course of treatment were assessed. Results: No additional benefit of acupuncture was found on any of the main outcomes. Between-group differences were non-significant in proportions of patients with a clinically important reduction of night pain (Relative Risk: 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0...

  10. Enhancement of Transistor-to-Transistor Variability Due to Total Dose Effects in 65-nm MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Gerardin, S; Cornale, D; Ding, L; Mattiazzo, S; Paccagnella, A; Faccio, F; Michelis, S

    2015-01-01

    We studied device-to-device variations as a function of total dose in MOSFETs, using specially designed test structures and procedures aimed at maximizing matching between transistors. Degradation in nMOSFETs is less severe than in pMOSFETs and does not show any clear increase in sample-to-sample variability due to the exposure. At doses smaller than 1 Mrad( SiO2) variability in pMOSFETs is also practically unaffected, whereas at very high doses-in excess of tens of Mrad( SiO2)-variability in the on-current is enhanced in a way not correlated to pre-rad variability. The phenomenon is likely due to the impact of random dopant fluctuations on total ionizing dose effects.

  11. Study on the estimation of probabilistic effective dose. Committed effective dose from intake of marine products using Oceanic General Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to utilize nuclear energy more efficiently. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl for Radioactivity in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection- diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was calculated about half of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. The probabilistic assessment gives realistic value for the dose assessment of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  12. The interplay between organizational commitment and personal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of employee’s commitment is capturing the attention of managers and researchers. Besides being one of the most effective alternatives for achieving the organizational goals, the importance of organizational commitment (OC lies in its ability to influence the efficiency and the wellbeing of members of an organization. The article examines the relationships between personal values and components of OC. Participants were selected from twelve Argentinean organizations. Subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, and two scales to measure individualism- collectivism (vertical and horizontal, and organizational commitment, respectively. All subjects were classified into eight subgroups, after dichotomizing by median each dimensions of values (HI: horizontal individualism; VI: vertical individualism; HC: horizontal collectivism, and HV: vertical collectivism. The four most representative subgroups (N= 162 were selected, that is, who exhibited high scores in one of the four dimensions and lows in the remaining three. In such subgroups were calculated analysis of variance, post-hoc comparison tests, and correlation analysis. The more significant findings can be summarized in the following items: a collectivists (HC or VC show a higher level of affective commitment, while individualists relate to their companies through normative or continuance commitment; b women and senior employees exhibit greater levels of affective and normative commitment; c managers, employees with higher academic degree, and employees of large companies, feel attached to their organizations through normative commitment; d continuance commitment seems to work differently than affective and normative commitment because it has no associations with any of the socio-demographic variables studied. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research. 

  13. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  14. Decreasing medical complications for total knee arthroplasty: Effect of Critical Pathways on Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Daniel H

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on critical pathway use have demonstrated decreased length of stay and cost without compromise in quality of care. However, pathway effectiveness is difficult to determine given methodological flaws, such as small or single center cohorts. We studied the effect of critical pathways on total knee replacement outcomes in a large population-based study. Methods We identified hospitals in four US states that performed total knee replacements. We sent a questionnaire to surgical administrators in these hospitals including items about critical pathway use and hospital characteristics potentially related to outcomes. Patient data were obtained from Medicare claims, including demographics, comorbidities, 90-day postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. The principal outcome measure was the risk of having one or more postoperative complications. Results Two hundred ninety five hospitals (73% responded to the questionnaire, with 201 reporting the use of critical pathways. 9,157 Medicare beneficiaries underwent TKR in these hospitals with a mean age of 74 years (± 5.8. After adjusting for both patient and hospital related variables, patients in hospitals with pathways were 32% less likely to have a postoperative complication compared to patients in hospitals without pathways (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92. Patients managed on a critical pathway had an average length of stay 0.5 days (95% CI 0.3-0.6 shorter than patients not managed on a pathway. Conclusion Medicare patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery in hospitals that used critical pathways had fewer postoperative complications than patients in hospitals without pathways, even after adjusting for patient and hospital related factors. This study has helped to establish that critical pathway use is associated with lower rates of postoperative mortality and complications following total knee replacement after adjusting for measured variables.

  15. Asymmetric forecasting and commitment policy in a robust control problem

    OpenAIRE

    Taro Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a piece of results regarding asymmetric forecasting and commitment monetary policy with a robust control algorithm. Previous studies provide no clarification of the connection between asymmetric preference and robust commitment policy. Three results emerge from general equilibrium modeling with asymmetric preference: (i) the condition for system stability implies an average inflation bias with respect to asymmetry (ii) the effect of asymmetry can be mitigated if policy mak...

  16. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE DENGAN METODE OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS DAN FUZZY FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ash Handling System merupakan suatu bagian dari pembangkit listrik tenaga uap dengan bahan bakar batu bara yang berfungsi untuk menyalurkan limbah pembuangan sisa hasil proses pembakaran batu bara pada boiler. Sisa pembakaran terbagi menjadi fly ash dan bottom ash. Untuk sisa pembakaran fly ash akan disalurkan menuju ke Electrostatic Precipitator untuk ditangkap  dengan metode corona dan ditransfer menuju penampungan fly ash dengan cara dimampatkan bersama udara dari kompresor yang melalui pipa-pipa dan tabung transporter. Sedangkan untuk sisa pembakaran bottom ash akan disalurkan dengan alat yang disebut SSC (Submerged Scraper Conveyor. Gangguan pada SSC dapat terjadi mulai dari belt putus, masalah pada penggerak, hingga masalah pada kelistrikan dan instrumennya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai OEE, mengetahui dampak gangguan belt sobek, mengetahui penyebab terjadinya belt conveyor sobek dan melakukan estimasi hasil perbaikan dari sisi biaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE dan Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata nilai OEE pada tahun 2015 sekitar 52,05%, masih di bawah standar nilai OEE sebesar 85%. Penyebab utamanya adalah adanya gangguan belt sobek karena gesekan belt dengan support return ketika belt conveyor mengalami jogging yang berdampak pada terganggunya penyaluran abu. Modifikasi dapat menghindari kerugian perusahaan sebesar Rp. 582.548.800,00.

  17. The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam

    2009-04-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.

  18. The effect of total noise on two-dimension OCDMA codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaimi, Layth A. Khalil Al; Badlishah Ahmed, R.; Yaakob, Naimah; Aljunid, Syed A.; Matem, Rima

    2017-11-01

    In this research, we evaluate the performance of total noise effect on two dimension (2-D) optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) performance systems using 2-D Modified Double Weight MDW under various link parameters. The impact of the multi-access interference (MAI) and other noise effect on the system performance. The 2-D MDW is compared mathematically with other codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and optimized the data rate and effective receive power. The performance and optimization of MDW code in OCDMA system are reported, the bit error rate (BER) can be significantly improved when the 2-D MDW code desired parameters are selected especially the cross correlation properties. It reduces the MAI in the system compensate BER and phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) in incoherent OCDMA The analysis permits a thorough understanding of PIIN, shot and thermal noises impact on 2-D MDW OCDMA system performance. PIIN is the main noise factor in the OCDMA network.

  19. Is There any Relationship between Narcissistic Personality and Organizational Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Cihangiroglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating whether there is a correlation between organizational commitment and narcissistic personalty traits. METHOD: In order to measure the GATA Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ narcissistic personality traits Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI scala was used. In order to measure students’ organizational commitment Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used. 229 questionnaire forms were distributed to the Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ students, and 220 (%96 of them were returned. Totally 220 students were evaluated. FINDINGS: When students’ narcissistic scores were evaluated out of 16, it was found out that the highest narcissistic personality score (8,98 was taken by second year students, the highest score for organizational commitment (3,70 was taken by first year students, “exploitativeness” which is one of the sub-levels of narcissisim was observed at the highest level with an average of 0,73 out 1 full score, “entitlement” sub level was observed at the lowest level (0,29, “affective commitment” one of the sub-levels of commitment, had the highest average (3,84, “normative commitment” had the second highest average (3,71 and finally “continuance commitment” was observed at the lowest level (3,55. Statistically, there is no significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and organizational commitment. However, there is a significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and continuity commitment. There is a significant and opposite relationship found between organizational commitment and continuity commitment with superiority. There is similar relationship found between exploitation and continuity commitment. CONCLUSION: With respect to these findings, it is suggested that “Health Technicians” candidates’, who will be one of the indispensable constituents of health services

  20. Importance of isovector effects in reproducing neutron total cross section differences in the W isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, F.S.; Anderson, J.D.; Bauer, R.W.; Grimes, S.M.; Finlay, R.W.; Abfalterer, W.P.; Bateman, F.B.; Haight, R.C.; Morgan, G.L.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Romain, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cross section differences among the isotopes 182,184,186 W have been measured as a part of a study of total cross sections in the 5-560 MeV energy range. These difference measurements show oscillations up to 150 mb between 5 and 100 MeV. Calculations with spherical and deformed phenomenological optical potentials employing standard radial and isospin dependences show much smaller oscillations than the experimental data. In a simple Ramsauer model, this discrepancy can be traced to a cancellation between radial and isospin effects. Understanding this problem requires a more detailed model that incorporates a realistic description of the neutron and proton density distributions. This has been done with the results of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the Gogny force, together with a microscopic folding model employing a modification of the Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux potential as an effective interaction. This treatment yields a satisfactory interpretation of the observed total cross section differences up to 200 MeV. The calculations have been extended above that energy with a folding model based on an empirical effective interaction

  1. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  2. Surgical and radiological effects upon the development of speech after total laryngectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The data presented examine the relationship between postlaryngectomy communication method, and the extent of total laryngectomy and the use of radiation therapy. The expectations of speech therapy providers were also examined. The author interviewed 60 laryngectomy patients who were six months to 3 1/2 years postsurgery. Surgeries were grouped into four categories and correlated with communication method. The relationship was statistically significant with the most apparent deterrent effect exhibited only for the most extreme surgical excisions. There was no relationship with the use of radiation therapy. In many cases speech therapy providers' expectations were not supported by the data

  3. Effect of imaginary part of an optical potential on reaction total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.; Dobromyslov, M.B.; Kim Yng Pkhung; Shilov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the imaginary part of optical potential on the total cross sections of reactions is explained. The complex rectangular well model is used, i.e. the real rectangular well at r 16 O + 27 Al reactions and the partial permeabilities are presented. It is demonstrated that the S-matrix has proved to be unitary. Oscillations of the partial permeabilities and cross-sections are observed for small potential values in the Wsub(o) imaginary part, which no longer occur at larger Wsub(o). This corresponds to the overlapping and nonoverlapping quasistationary levels in complex rectangular well

  4. Neutron reflection effect on total absorption detector method used in SWINPC neutron multiplication experiment for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Dongfeng; Ho Yukun; Yang Fujia

    2001-01-01

    The SWINPC integral experiment on neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium showed that there were marked discrepancies between experimental data and calculated values with the ENDF/B-VI data. The calculated values become higher than experimental ones as the sample thickness increases. Several works had been devoted to find problems existing in the experiment. This paper discusses the neutron reflection effect on the total absorption detector method which was used in the experiment to measure the neutron leakage from samples. One systematic correction is suggested to make the experimental values agree with the calculated ones with the ENDF/B-VI data within experimental errors. (author)

  5. Effect of TOC [total organic carbon] on a PWR secondary cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, J.Y.; Oung, J.C.; Wang, T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) during the wet layup of the steam generator was a problem in PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The results of surveys of TOC in PWR secondary cooling water systems had shown that the impurity of hydrazine and the bacteria were the main reasons that increase TOC. These do not have a corrosion effect on Inconel 600 and carbon steel when the secondary cooling water containing the TOC is below 200 ppb. But the anaerobic bacteria from the steam generator in wet layup will increase corrosion rate of carbon steel and crevice corrosion of Inconel 600. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

    2007-10-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Toledo, T.C.F; Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Toledo, T.C.F [Department of Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tcftoled@esalq.usp.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. [Department of Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Padua Dias, 11 Box 9, CEP 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, V. [Food Irradiation and Entomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Agriculture-CENA/USP, Av. Centenario 303, Caixa Postal 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Piedade, S.M.S. [Department of Mathematic Sciences, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: soniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2007-10-15

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  9. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  10. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  11. The dimensionality of professional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Bagraim

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993 is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also showed that South African actuaries are highly committed to their profession. Opsomming Hierdie artikel ondersoek die dimensionaliteit van professionele toewyding by ‘n steekproef van 240 Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse. Die data is verkry deur ‘n posvraelys aan lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Aktuariële Vereniging wat in die finansiële dienstesektor werksaam was. Statistiese ontledings wat uitgevoer is op die data dui aan dat die driekomponentmodel, aanvanklik voorgestel deur Meyer, Allen en Smith (1993, geskik is om professionele toewyding by Suid-Afrikaanse beroepslui te verstaan. Die ontleding dui verder aan dat Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse hoogs toegewyd is aan hulle professie.

  12. The effect of low-dose total body irradiation on tumor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Miyamoto, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is considered to bring about an immunosuppressive effect on an organism, on the basis of data obtained from sublethal doses of TBI. However, there are no data on how low-dose TBI affects an organism. Over the last five years, we have been studying the effects of low-dose TBI on normal or tumor-bearing mice and the immunological background of these effects. In experimental studies, an increase in the TD50 value (the number of cells required for a tumor incidence of 50 %) in mice exposed to 10 rad was recognized and showed a remarkable increase at 6 hours to 15 hours after irradiation. TBI of 10 rad also showed an enhancement effect on tumor cell killing when given 12 hours before local tumor irradiation. In order to clarify the mechanism of this kind of effect, some immunological studies were performed using several immunological procedures, and the results suggested that 10 rad of TBI caused increasing tumor immunity in irradiated mice. Clinical trials in some patients with advanced tumors are now being undertaken on the basis of these experimental data, and the effect of TBI on tumor control appears promising, although it is too early to draw conclusions. (author)

  13. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Director ownership, outside directors and commitment to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of director ownership and the proportion of outside directors on firms’ commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR. Using a sample of 453 Hong Kong listed companies for 2005, we find that there is a non-linear relationship between the level of director ownership and firms’ engagement in CSR behavior. Commitment to CSR first increases as the proportion of director ownership increases up to 50% and then decreases as that proportion of ownership grows higher. Further, the proportion of outside directors on the board exhibits a positive relationship with the level of CSR commitment. These results provide explanations for firms’ commitment to CSR from the corporate governance perspective.

  15. Antecedents of Corporate Environmental Commitments: The Role of Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar Jahanshahi, Asghar; Brem, Alexander

    2018-06-06

    The management of natural environments has become a fundamental issue for companies in recent years. A firm’s environmental commitment affects all levels of its operation. In this study, we investigated whether having an effective and constant relationship with customers over time (customer capital) makes a difference to firms with a high environmental commitment compared with less environmentally committed firms. We found support for our idea by using original survey data from 149 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Iran (2016⁻2017). Furthermore, we found that customer capital enhances environmental collaboration with customers which, in turn, has a positive impact on the firm’s environmental commitments. These findings provide empirical evidence for the important role of “getting closer to customers” as a way of enhancing corporate environmental responsibility in developing countries with weak institutional environments.

  16. Sport commitment and participation in masters swimmers: the influence of coach and teammates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Giampaolo; Bruton, Adam; Pietrantoni, Luca; Mellalieu, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how coach and teammates influence masters athletes' sport commitment, and the effect of functional and obligatory commitments on participation in masters swimming. The sample consisted of 523 masters swimmers (330 males and 193 females) aged between 22 and 83 years (M = 39.00, SD = 10.42). A bi-dimensional commitment scale was used to measure commitment dimensions and perceived influence from social agents. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of social agents on functional and obligatory commitments, and the predictive capabilities of the two types of commitment towards sport participation. Support provided by coach and teammates increased functional commitment, constraints from these social agents determined higher obligatory commitment, and coach constraints negatively impacted functional commitment. In addition, both commitment types predicted training participation, with functional commitment increasing participation in team training sessions, and obligatory commitment increasing the hours of individual training. The findings suggest that in order to increase participation in masters swimming teams and reduce non-supervised training, coach and teammates should exhibit a supportive attitude and avoid over expectation.

  17. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understanding the concept of job insecurity as represented by two core ... commitment as a unidimensional construct based on employees' emotional .... outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, organisational commitment, motivation.

  18. Antecedents and Consequences of Affective Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on

  19. Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowar, M.S.; Eldarawany, A.A.; Habeeb, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B 1 +G 1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 μg B 1 plus 22 μg G 1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

  20. Determinants of staff commitment to hip protectors in long-term care: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korall, Alexandra M B; Loughin, Thomas M; Feldman, Fabio; Cameron, Ian D; Leung, Pet Ming; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Godin, Judith; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2018-06-01

    If worn, certain models of hip protectors are highly effective at preventing hip fractures from falls in residents of long-term care, but modest acceptance and adherence have limited the effectiveness of hip protectors. Residents of long-term care are more likely to accept the initial offer of hip protectors and to adhere to recommendations concerning the use of hip protectors when staff are committed to supporting the application of hip protectors. Yet, we know very little about the nature of and factors associated with staff commitment to hip protectors in long-term care. To identify factors associated with staff commitment to hip protectors in long-term care. A cross-sectional survey. Thirteen long-term care homes (total beds = 1816) from a single regional health district in British Columbia, Canada. A convenience sample of 535 paid staff who worked most of their time (>50% of work hours) at a participating long-term care home, for at least one month, and for at least 8 h per week. We excluded six (1.1%) respondents who were unaware of hip protectors. Of the remaining 529 respondents, 90% were female and 55% were health care assistants. Respondents completed the Commitment to Hip Protectors Index to indicate their commitment to hip protectors. We used Bayesian Model Averaging logistic regression to model staff commitment as a function of personal variables, experiences with hip protectors, intraorganizational communication and influence, and organizational context. Staff commitment was negatively related to organizational tenure >20 years (posterior probability = 97%; logistic regression coefficient = -0.28; 95% confidence interval = -0.48, -0.08), and awareness of a padded hip fracture (100%; -0.57; -0.69, -0.44). Staff commitment was positively related to the existence of a champion of hip protectors within the home (100%; 0.24; 0.17, 0.31), perceived quality of intraorganizational communication (100%; 0.04; 0.02, 0.05), extent of mutual

  1. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  2. [Protective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids pretreatment on hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhao-qin; Zhao, Xiao-min; Gao, Yun-sheng

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) pretreatment on the voltage-gated sodium currents of the rat hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were divided into RTA pre-treated and non-pretreated groups. Patch clamp whole-cell recording was used to compare the voltage-gated sodium current amplitude and threshold with those before hypoxia. After acute hypoxia, sodium current amplitude was significantly decreased and its threshold was upside. RTA pretreatment could inhibit the reduction of sodium current amplitude. RTA pretreatment alleviates the acute hypoxia-induced change of sodium currents, which may be one of the mechanisms for protective effect of RTA on cells.

  3. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  4. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virachnee Lohachoompol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5∘C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20∘C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2±0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3±0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7±0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries.

  5. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzednicki, George

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L). Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5°C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20°C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2 ± 0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7 ± 0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries. PMID:15577185

  6. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant activity (TAA represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change in different phases of C. rubrum ontogenesis under the same photoperiodic treatment. Exposure to continuous irradiation caused an increase of TAA in both C. rubrum plants and collected matured seeds. Gibberellic acid stimulated stem elongation, but did not affect leaf development or the number of matured seeds per plant, regardless of photoperiodic treatment; it induced a decrease of TAA in C. rubrum plants regardless of photoperiodic treatment or the phase of development, while it had no effect on TAA of matured seeds.

  7. Effectiveness of Music Listening in Patients With Total Knee Replacement During CPM Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Su-Ru; Tseng, Yen-Ting; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of music listening on the anxiety, heart rate variability (HRV), and joint range of motion (ROM) of patients undergoing continuous passive motion (CPM) after total knee replacement surgery. An experimental design was used. Participants in the experimental group (n = 49) listened to music from 10 min before receiving CPM until the end of the session (25 min in total) on the first and second day following surgery, whereas participants in the control group (n = 42) did not listen to music but rested quietly in bed starting 10 min before and throughout CPM. Compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels (p CPM angles (p < .05) during treatment and increased active flexion ROM (p < .05) upon discharge. The low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) power ratio, normalized LF HRV, and normalized HF HRV of the two groups differed significantly, indicating that the patients in the experimental group had greater parasympathetic activity compared with those in the control group. Music listening can effectively reduce patient anxiety and enhance the ROM of their joints during postoperative rehabilitation. Health-care practitioners should consider including music listening as a routine practice for postoperative rehabilitation following orthopedic surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. 组织情绪规则影响情绪耗竭的作用机制%The Effects of Emotional Display Rules on Emotion Exhaustion:The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor and the Moderating Role of Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 王冰; 张芬芳

    2016-01-01

    In service industry, employees'emotion displaying exerts influence on customers'satisfaction, their own per-formance and exhaustion.How an employee express his or her emotion is not only motivated by his own true emotion but also is directed by emotion display rules of the organization.Two kinds of emotional rules, which are expressing positive emotion and inhibiting negative emotion, give burden to ones'emotional sources and cause effect on ones'e-motional exhaustion.Therefore, we hypothesized that expressing emotional displaying rules have positive relation with exhaustion.Emotional labor has direct relation with exhaustion and emotional display.We hypothesized that e-motional labor mediated the relation between inhibiting negative emotion rule and exhaustion, and the relation be-tween expressing positive emotion rule and exhaustion.Rule commitment predict positively whether one perform the rules or not.Only one performs emotional displaying rules of the organization, emotional displaying may have effect on emotion exhaustion.Therefore, rule commitment moderated the relation between emotional displaying rules and exhaustion, and the relation between emotional displaying rules and emotional labor. We established a model presenting the emotional labor's mediating role and rule commitment's moderating role above.Structural equation model was used to test the hypothesis.Consistent with predictions, the results showed that inhibiting negative emotion rules can positively predict emotion exhaustion, and surface labor can positively predict emotion exhaustion.Meanwhile, surface labor mediated the relation between inhibiting negative emotion rules and exhaustion.However, expressing positive emotion rules can not predict emotion exhaustion, and surface labor do not mediated the relation between expressing positive emotion and emotion exhaustion.Commitment to emotion rules can not predict emotion exhaustion.Meanwhile, commitment to emotion rules moderate the relation

  9. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  10. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lorenna; Magnusson, Marie; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Tomkins, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP) and methane (CH4) production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME) analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS), were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1) may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  11. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Machado

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP and methane (CH4 production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS, were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1 may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  12. Company, country, connections: counterfactual origins increase organizational commitment, patriotism, and social investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; King, Brayden G

    2010-10-01

    Four studies examined the relationship between counterfactual origins--thoughts about how the beginning of organizations, countries, and social connections might have turned out differently--and increased feelings of commitment to those institutions and connections. Study 1 found that counterfactually reflecting on the origins of one's country increases patriotism. Study 2 extended this finding to organizational commitment and examined the mediating role of poignancy. Study 3 found that counterfactual reflection boosts organizational commitment even beyond the effects of other commitment-enhancing appeals and that perceptions of fate mediate the positive effect of counterfactual origins on commitment. Finally, Study 4 temporally separated the counterfactual manipulation from a behavioral measure of commitment and found that counterfactual reflection predicted whether participants e-mailed social contacts 2 weeks later. The robust relationship between counterfactual origins and commitment was found across a wide range of companies and countries, with undergraduates and M.B.A. students, and for attitudes and behaviors.

  13. Career Commitment: Interplay of Core-Self-Evaluation and Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the joint influence of core self-evaluation (self efficacy, self-esteem, work locus of control and neuroticism) and reward system on carrer commitment of local government employees in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A total of 2,040 respondents were selected ...

  14. Delegation and Staff Commitment in the School of Finance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Delegation of Authority and Staff Commitment in the School of Finance and Banking in Kigali Rwanda. A cross-sectional survey design was used with the target sample size of 97 out of 130 parent population. The total number of questionnaires that were ...

  15. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are not...

  16. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  17. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm...

  18. Building commitment in a sports class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    The literature has traditionally considered commitment as an individual characteristic or condition of the individual. This means that one is inclined to think that it is those who have commitment who have the opportunity to become excellent performers within their sport. But what if commitment...

  19. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  20. Effects of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats was observed. The model group, nimodipine group, cerebral collateral group, and large, medium and small dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids were administered with corresponding drugs but sham operation group and model group were administered the same volume of 0.5%CMC, 1 times a day, continuous administration of 7 d. After 1 h at 7 d to medicine, left incision in the middle of the neck of rats after anesthesia, we can firstly expose and isolate the left common carotid artery (CCA, and then expose external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA. The common carotid artery and the external carotid artery are ligated. Then internal carotid artery with arterial clamp is temporarily clipped. Besides, cut the incision of 0.2 mm from 5 cm of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A thread Line bolt is inserted with more than 18–20 mm from bifurcation of CCA into the internal carotid artery until there is resistance. Then the entrance of the middle cerebral artery is blocked and internal carotid artery is ligated (the blank group only exposed the left blood vessel without Plugging wire. Finally it is gently pulled out the plug line after 2 h. Results: Compared with the model mice, Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids can significantly relieve the injury of brain in hippocampus and cortex nerve cells; experimental rat focal cerebral ischemia was to improve again perfusion model of nerve function defect score mortality; significantly reduce brain homogenate NOS activity and no content, MDA, IL-1, TNF-a, ICAM-1 content; increase in brain homogenate SOD and ATPase activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; and reduce the serum S-100β protein content. Each dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids has a better Improvement effect on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats.