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Sample records for total coliforms faecal

  1. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. a studyof faecal of faecal coliform die coliform die coliform die-off

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    COLIFORM DIE-OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE DRYING BED. OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ..... This method was used to measure evaporation from the bed because of .... thermometer with external sensor probe, model No. ST-9283A/B/C and a ...

  3. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  4. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  5. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  6. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  7. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5β(H)-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5α-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  8. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  9. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, J N; Tyrrel, S F

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal coliforms are analysed. Rainfall simulations at a rate of 70 mm h(-1) were conducted in a sandy loam soil packed into soil flumes (2.5m long x 1m wide) at a bulk density of 1400 kg m(-3), with and without cattle slurry manure applied on the surface. For each simulation, sediment and runoff rates were analysed and in those simulations with applied slurry, presumptive faecal coliform (PFC) concentrations in the runoff were evaluated. The application of slurry on the soil surface appeared to have a protective effect on the soils, reducing soil detachment by up to 70% but increasing runoff volume by up to 30%. This practice implies an important source of pollution for surface waters especially if rainfall takes place within a short period after application. The concentrations of micro-organisms (presumptive faecal coliforms (PFCs)) found in water runoff ranged from 1.9 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(6) PFC 100mL(-1), depending on the initial concentration in the slurry, and they were particularly high during the first phases of the rainfall event. The result indicates a strong relationship between the faecal coliforms transported by runoff and the organic matter in the sediment.

  10. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  11. A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without

  12. Presence of faecal coliforms and selected heavy metals in ice cubes from food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Meor Ahmad, Z; Abdul Wahab, R

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present cross sectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance. Faecal coliforms were detected in 11 (36.67%) of the samples, ranging between 1 CFU/100 mL to > 50 CFU/100 mL; two of the samples were grossly contaminated (>50 CFU/100 mL). Interestingly, while positive detection of lead was observed in 29 of the 30 ice cube samples (mean: 0.511±0.105 ppm; range: 0.489-0.674 ppm), copper, manganese and zinc were not detected. In addition, analysis on commercially bottled mineral water as well as in tap water samples did not detect such contaminations. Therefore, it appears that (1) contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes in food outlets in Malaysia may not be sporadic in pattern but rather prevalent and (2) the source of water used for manufacturing the ice cubes that contained significant amount of lead would suggest that (3) it was neither originated from the treated tap water supply nor bottled mineral water or (4) perhaps contaminated during manufacturing process. Further studies exploring the source of water used for manufacturing these ice cubes as well as the handling process among food operators deserve consideration.

  13. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  14. Optimisation of hydraulic performance to maximise faecal coliform removal in maturation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Nibis; Lloyd, Barry; Aldana, Gerardo

    2006-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of improving faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococcus (FS) removal efficiencies in tertiary maturation stages of a sewage treatment plant in Southern England, where climatic conditions are sub-optimal. The research used intensive field assessments (bacteriological, general quality and hydraulic) to identify the parameters that affect the bacteriological quality of the effluent from three parallel maturation ponds (North, Central and South) of similar geometry and dimensions. An engineering intervention was carried out to convert the South pond to three channels to increase the L/W ratio from 9:1 to 79:1. Hydraulic tracer studies in the South pond with Rhodamine WT showed that the dispersion number 'd' was reduced from 0.37 (dispersed flow) to 0.074 by this intervention under similar flow conditions (4.5l/s). Hydraulic retention time was thus increased by 5h, delay in jet flow short-circuiting was increased from 2.5 to 17.5h thus increasing the exposure times for all elements. As a result of the intervention FC removal increased substantially. Maximum channel-lagoon efficiency of 99.84% was obtained at 4.5l/s and 19 degrees C, when exposure to sunlight was 17 h in summer. It is concluded that the channel configuration produces a higher hydraulic efficiency than conventional maturation ponds. It is therefore recommended as a viable engineering solution which permits a low-cost upgrading of plant performance, requiring no additional land, and with minimal maintenance costs.

  15. Faecal coliform simulation on sewage discharge for an environmentally sustainable township in Medini Iskandar Johor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Lee, Elizabeth; Woo, Wing Thye; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-11-01

    The Medini Iskandar Development is a 2300-acre multi-purpose urban development comprising residential, commercial, educational, business and recreational areas. The developer applied to the Department of Environment (DOE) Johor in July 2008 for approval of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) report for the overall Medini development. A conditional approval of the EIA report was granted by the DOE subject to some conditions, one of which stipulated that sewage effluent from the centralized sewage treatment plant (STP) is not permitted to be discharged into Sungai Pendas. A suitable location for the discharge of sewage into the Selat Johor is to be identified, based on a hydraulic and water quality modelling investigation. This modelling investigation aims to assess the impact of the discharge of treated sewage effluent on the marine water quality and on aquatic life in the Selat Johor. The supplementary EIA report was submitted to the DOE. Approval was granted in December 2011 for the construction of the marine sewage outfall and its operations. This paper presents the sampling and simulation results for key hydraulic and environmental parameters suitable for sustaining acceptable faecal coliform criteria in Selat Johor. Simulation models used include WASP7 developed by USEPA and AQUASEA developed by Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers.

  16. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  17. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  18. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  19. 75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... will be discussed include the cost and benefit information of the proposed rule and the planned... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9177-6] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Public... Protection Agency (EPA) is hosting public information meetings on the proposed Revised Total Coliform Rule...

  20. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  1. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  2. KUALITAS MIKROBIOLOGI NASI JINGGO BERDASARKAN ANGKA LEMPENG TOTAL, COLIFORM TOTAL DAN KANDUNGAN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Payastiti Yunita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate quality of food products that do not meet standard quality may lead to food poisoning cases and become a concern in public health sector. Nasi Jinggo is a small amount of cooked rice with little bit fried tempe, shredded spicy chicken, traditional made chili sauce that is packed with banana leaves, and all the cooking process usually done traditionally. Nasi jinggo is sold at night by street vendor with price ranged from Rp. 1.500,- to Rp. 2.000,- per package. The study was a quantitative descriptive study with cross-sectional design that was aimed to identify the microbiology quality of nasi jinggo that were sold in Denpasar Selatan area. From 48 population of nasi jinggo street vendor, 23 vendor was taken as samples. The microbiology quality being assessed was Total Plate Count (TPC, Total Coliform with MPN method and Escherichia coli content with Eosin Methylene Blue Agar as medium. Laboratory analysis showed that only 21,7% sample that met TPC standard with average value of 2,3 x 107 CFU/gram sample, only 8,7% that met Total Coliform standard with average value of 1,4 x 105 MPN/100 gram sample and 52,2% sample that met E. coli content standard with average value is 2,6 x 102 MPN/100 gram sample. It is recommended to the government to do quality check towards nasi jinggo in a regular basis as well as to provide education and assistance to nasi jinggo street vendors in order to improve the microbiology quality of food product and ensure food safety to the consumer.

  3. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  4. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of... conferences during which the Agency will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders...

  5. 75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9135-8] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder... that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the proposed revisions. Today, EPA is...; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment and corrective action guidance related to the...

  6. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  7. Study of Slow Sand Filtration in Removing Total Coliforms and E.Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekha Yogafanny

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of SSF in removing bacteria (Total Coliforms and E. Coli in regard to grain size distribution and grain shape intermittently. Two methodological approaches used in this reasearch were literature review and laboratory work. Bacteria removal was analyzed considering two different filter media (Rhine sand-spherical shape and Lava sand-angular shape with three different grain size distributions. The best performance was attained by filter column F4 which consisted of Lava sand and had the configuration C2 (d10 = 0.07 mm; Cu = 4.2. This filter column achieved 4.7log-units removal of Total Coliforms and 5.0log-units removal of E. coli. The results show that a smaller grain size and an angular shape of sand grain lead to an increase in bacteria removal.

  8. Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloti Vanerli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

  9. Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Méndez-Reyes, Eligio; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-05-15

    Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A(1-2), B(1-2), C(1-2)). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the E. coli mean (63 E. coli/g). A weak correlation of 7.7% (r(2)=0.077, p=0.003) between median FC and E. coli MPN (most probable number) per sample was found. Of the 8 salad samples contaminated with DEPs, 2 were spinach salads

  10. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process in the Removal of Total Coliform and Hetrotrophic Bacteria from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Derayat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method for the treatment of water and wastewater. The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the removal efficiency of total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria from surface water using the process. For this purpose, water samples were taken from the drinking water intake at Suleiman-Shahsonghur Dam. The electrocoagulation process was carried out in a Plexiglas reactor in the batch mode with Al and Fe used electrodes. The experiment design was carried out using the Design Expert Software (Stat-Ease Inc., Ver. 6.0.6. After each run, the values of metals dissolved due to anode electrode dissolution were measured using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP and the results were analyzed using the RSM model. Results revealed maximum removal efficiencies of 100% and 89.1% for total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the Al electrode, respectively. Also, maximum removal efficiencies using the Fe electrode for the same pollutants were 100% and 76.1%. The measurements clearly indicate that the quantities of Al and Fe released in water were higher than the recommended values. While the electrocoagulation process showed to be effective in removing microbial agents from surface waters, the high concentrations of dissolved metals due to the dissolution of the anode electrode seem to remain a health problem that requires optimal conditions to be determined for acheiving standard concentrations of the dissolved metals.

  11. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  12. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  14. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this study the potential application of TiO 2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  15. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Luigi, E-mail: l.rizzo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In this study the potential application of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  16. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Technology and Cost US United States UV Ultraviolet Radiation WRF Water Research Foundation Table of Contents..., in soil, and on vegetation. Coliform bacteria may be transported to surface water by run-off or to... of this preamble for detailed discussions of the routine monitoring and repeat sampling requirements...

  17. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...... for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters....

  18. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan K.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark A.; McCarthy, David; Murphy, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May–July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs.

  19. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark; McCarthy, David T; Murphy, Heather M

    2018-07-15

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May-July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk Assessment of Total Coliform in X WTP’s Water Production Using Failure Mode And Effect Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Apriliani Amanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The greatest risk of drinking water supply is a failure to provide safe drinking water for communities. Based on IPA Kedunguling testing report on March 2016 noted that sample exceeding the quality standart of Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI No 492/2010 for the total coliform quality standart. The presence of total coliforms indicating water contamination by pathogen means the water is not safe to consume. The disinfection process has an importance rule in pathogen inactivation. Disinfectant performance is influenced by temperature, pH, turbidity, and the presence of organic materials. One way to control the quality of water produced by using a risk management approach Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods. The potential risks should be measured to determine causes of the problems and find the appropriate risk reduction. The risk assessment is using Risk Priority Number (RPN scale as a basis prioritization of remedial action on issues. Based on identification and risk analysis using FMEA known that the greatest risk of failure is the stipulation of chlorine dose and organic substances (category of high risk level; residual chlorine (category of moderate risk level; turbidity and pH (very low risk level category. Improvement proposal that can be done to reduce total coliforms presence in IPA Kedunguling is by increasing residual chlorine to 0.6 mg/l, set a daily chlorine level, controlling DBPs forming by lowering the concentration of organic precursor using granular activated carbon (GAC or aeration, by lowering the dose of disinfectant, set aside DBPs after the compound is formed using granular activated carbon (GAC, turbidity and pH monitoring, and regularly washing the filters

  1. Distribución y concentración de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli Y Enterococos en el agua y sedimento en el estero salado (tramos B, D, E Y G)

    OpenAIRE

    Baños Cruz, Luís Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos muestreos en marea roja, uno en Diciembre del 2009 y el otro en Enero del 2010, para determinar los microorganismos en el Estero Salado como indicadores de contaminación. El análisis incluyó parámetros fisicoquímicos como pH, salinidad, temperatura y oxígeno disuelto, y además la medición de las bacterias coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli y enterococos. Se obtuvieron altos niveles de contaminación bacteriana en el agua. La mayor contaminación está...

  2. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  3. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  4. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  6. Comparative study of methods for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    1978-12-01

    Violet red bile agar and Coli-Count Sampler (Millipore Corp.) procedures were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the standard most-probable-number method for monitoring relative coliform levels in oysters.

  7. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  8. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  9. Comparison of methods for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Nobel PJ; Strating S; Mooijman KA; Engels GB; Brouwer A; Kiwa; PWN; MGB

    2001-01-01

    The new European Drinking Water Directive (December 1998) defines a reference method for estimating the concentration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water. Laboratories may use other methods, but should demonstrate that results obtained are at least as reliable as those produced with

  10. Occurrence of faecal contamination in households along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Mena, K D; Mota, L C; Ortiz, M; Behravesh, C B; Gibbs, S G; Bristol, J R; Mayberry, L; Cardenas, V M

    2008-06-01

    The study aim was to determine the presence of total and faecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces, in tap water and on the hands of caregivers in households on both sides of the US-Mexico border. Samples were collected in 135 randomly selected households in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. Different surfaces throughout the kitchen and head of households' hands were sampled using sterile cotton swabs moistened in D/E neutralizing solution. Sponge/dishcloth and drinking water samples were also obtained. Total and faecal coliforms were enumerated on m-Endo LES and mFC respectively. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were enumerated in accordance with the Quanti-Tray method. Sponge/dishcloth samples were the most commonly contaminated kitchen sites, followed by countertops and cutting boards. We recovered faecal coliforms from 14% of the hands of child caregivers, and this indicator was moderately associated with self-reported failure to wash hands after using the toilet (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 0.9, 11.1). Hand washing should continue to be emphasized, and additional interventions should be directed to specific kitchen areas, such as sponges/dishcloths, tables/countertops and cutting boards. There is a need for additional interventions regarding kitchen sanitation.

  11. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

    2015-02-01

    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+) and Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3

  12. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Tariq M.; Buazzi, Mahmoud M.; Jamil, Ahmad Y.

    2007-01-01

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 10 3 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x10 3 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  13. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria are indicators of very recent human faecal pollution in streams and groundwater habitats in urban tropical lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria (SFB) proved to be an excellent indicator of very recent human faecal pollution (hours to days) in the investigated tropical stream and groundwater habitats. SFB were recovered from human faeces and sources potentially contaminated with human excreta. SFB were undetectable in animal faeces and environmental samples not contaminated with human faeces. Microcosm studies demonstrated a rapid die-off rate in groundwater (T90 value 0.6 days) and stream water (T90 value 0.9–1.7 days). Discrimination sensitivity analysis, including E. coli, faecal coliforms, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens spores, revealed high ability of SFB to distinguish differing levels of faecal pollution especially for streams although high background levels of interfering bacteria can complicate its recovery on the used medium. Due to its faster die-off, as compared to many waterborne pathogens, SFB cannot replace microbiological standard parameters for routine water quality monitoring but it is highly recommendable as a specific and complementary tool when human faecal pollution has to be localized or verified. Because of its exclusive faecal origin and human specificity it seems also worthwhile to include SFB in future risk evaluation studies at tropical water resources in order to evaluate under which situations risks of infection may be indicated. PMID:20375476

  14. Level of Faecal Coliform Contamination of Drinking Water Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... ... of Drinking Water Sources and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Settings of North Gondar ... of Environmental & Occupational. Health & Safety, Gondar, Ethiopia. 2University of Gondar .... technicians. All sampling bottles ...

  15. Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; Roelfsema, E; Westermann, C M; Dansen, O; Jacobs, M; Lee, J-Y; Spronck, E A; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2018-03-07

    Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided

  16. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  17. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  18. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  19. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  20. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  2. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  3. ALTERNATIVE MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FAECAL POLLUTION: CURRENT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Tyagi, A. K. Chopra, A. A. Kazmi, Arvind Kumar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coliform bacteria are used as indicators of fecal contamination and hence, the possible presence of disease causing organisms. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential and limitations of these indicator organisms before realistically implementing guidelines and regulations to safeguard our water resources and public health. This review addresses the limitations of current faecal indicator microorganisms and proposed significant alternative microbial indicators of water and wastewater quality. The relevant literature brings out four such significant microbial water pollution indicators and the study of these indicators will reveal the total spectrum of water borne pathogens. As E.coli and enterococci indicates the presence of bacterial pathogens, Coliphages indicate the presence of enteric viruses, and Clostridium perfringens, an obligate anaerobe, indicates presence of parasitic protozoan and enteric viruses. Therefore, monitoring a suite of indicator organisms in reclaimed effluent is more likely to be predictive of the presence of certain pathogens in order to protect public health, as no single indicator is most highly predictive of membership in the presence or absence category for pathogens.

  4. Risk factors with the occurrence of parasites and coliform in vegetables from an agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the occurrence of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs in vegetables from an agroindustry in the city of Ibiúna - SP, Brazil. A questionnaire with 17 questions was applied to 24 producers to carry out a diagnosis of the risk factors and their posterior association or not with total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs. The questions addressed mainly the production system, fertilizer used, source of the water used for irrigation, sanitization of the vegetables, and form of transport. For the investigation of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs, the samples were processed at the microbiology and parasitology laboratory of the Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Roque Campus. The results revealed that total coliforms were found in 100% of the investigated samples and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 95.83% of the samples. There was a significant statistical association for the risk factor use of reservoir water, where there was release of wastewater and absence of sanitization of the vegetables at the moment of harvest in relation to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Intestinal parasite eggs were found in 33.33% of the samples.

  5. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  6. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000, 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  7. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  8. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  9. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  10. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  11. A Study of Faecal Coliform Die-Off in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This trend could be as a result of the organisms being in their exponential phase with adequate nutrients and growth conditions at 60mm depth, which later experienced decrease in available nutrients, oxygen and unfavorable growth conditions such as unfavorable temperatures, reduced ...

  12. Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk / Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Helena Walter de Santana

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determination of total conforms and E. coli in water based in specific enzymatic reactions of these microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate its utilization in milk. Ninety-five samples of pasteurized milk were collected from the markets in Londrina city, Parana and analyzed by the Most Probable Number (NMP enumeration using the Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGBL and ColiSure™. There was a correlation of 0.80 betwee-n the mediums when the incubation time was 43 hours for total conforms. The low down occurrence of E. coffin the analyzed samples made impossible to comparate the performance of methods for this microorganism. Compfementary analysis showed a greater sensibility and especifity of the ColiSure™ in comparation with the BGBL. The CofiSure™ can be indicated as a substitute for the traditional method, with the advantage to be faster and easier.Na indústria láctea a detecção de microrganismos do grupo coliformes é utilizada como indicativo da higiene na produção do leite e de contaminação pós-pasteurizaçüo. Os métodos tradicionais para a enumeração de coliformes totais e fecais são trabalhosos, com tempo de incubação longo, de até 96 horas. Métodos rápidos para a detecção destes microrganismos têm sido desenvolvidos na área de microbiologia de alimentos. O ColiSure™ é um método rápido, que fornece resultados simultaneamente para a presença ou a ausência de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em

  13. Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Ellen; Brenten, Thomas; Dobenecker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( r 2  0·86; P  losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.

  14. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  15. PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OF FAECAL IMPACTION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.MrsOdebode

    bowel above the rectum) leading to serious discomfort. This accumulation can also lead to generalized abdominal distention. Faecal impaction is more common in elderly people with limited ability to move (Saddler, 2005). Among the causes are medications like antacids, which have aluminium as an ingredient; calcium ...

  16. Faecal incontinence in myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, J; Rogers, J; Swash, M

    1998-01-01

    Two siblings with myotonic dystrophy presented for treatment of faecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of this functional disorder is described with the results of anorectal manometry, EMG, and biopsy of smooth and striated muscle of the anorectal sphincters. Both medical and surgical management of the incontinence was unsatisfactory in the long term. Involvement of gastrointestinal musculature is a characteristic feature the disease.



  17. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... contractions, total time with cyclic rectal contractions, the number of aborally and orally propagating contractions, the number of anal sampling reflexes or rectal wall tension during contractions. Postprandial changes in rectal tone were significantly reduced during SNS (P

  18. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  19. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml-1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml-1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d-1 to a maximum of 1.13 d-1 for EC and from 0.17 d-1 to 1.33 d-1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  20. Potential public health significance of faecal contamination and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes in a lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhirosh, C; Sherin, V; Thomas, A P; Hatha, A A M; Mazumder, A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of faecal coliform bacteria and multiple drug resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes from Vembanadu Lake. Systematic microbiological testing. Monthly collection of water samples were made from ten stations on the southern and northern parts of a salt water regulator constructed in Vembanadu Lake in order to prevent incursion of seawater during certain periods of the year. Density of faecal colifrom bacteria was estimated. E. coli and Salmonella were isolated and their different serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance analysis of E. coli and Salmonella serotypes was done and the MAR index of individual isolates was calculated. Density of faecal coliform bacteria ranged from mean MPN value 2900 -7100/100ml. Results showed multiple drug resistance pattern among the bacterial isolates. E. coli showed more than 50% resistance to amickacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and kanamycin while Salmonella showed high resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. The MAR indexing of the isolates showed that they have originated from high risk source such as humans, poultry and dairy cows. The high density of faecal coliform bacteria and prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli and Salmonella serotypes in the lake may pose severe public health risk through related water borne and food borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a... aircraft water system, the sampling frequency must be determined by the disinfection and flushing frequency... disinfection and flushing frequency recommended by the aircraft water system manufacturer, when available...

  2. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  3. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  4. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  5. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  6. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input

  9. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  10. Effect of wastewater quality parameters on coliform inactivation by tin oxide anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2018-04-16

    The effect of six water quality constituents on wastewater effluent disinfection by tin oxide anodes (TOAs) was investigated in single cell laboratory reactors. Several concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen were added to media containing 10 6 total coliform bacteria mL -1 . Current was applied through the TOAs, and coliform bacteria viability was analyzed over time. Over 99.9% inactivation of coliform bacteria was found over 15 min in TOA reactors. Concentrations of the six water quality constituents typical of concentrations found in wastewaters had no effect on TOA disinfection efficacy. The results of this research demonstrate that TOAs, which could potentially be powered by solar panels, have potential as a sustainable disinfection process compared to chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light.

  11. Prevalence of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Lynn, Penelope Ann; Skuza, Pawel Piotr; Paterson, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To explore the prevalence rate of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people, associated factors, impact on quality of life and practices in managing faecal incontinence. Using a cross-sectional design, 600 older people aged 60+ were randomly selected from a population of 2916 in Bali, Indonesia using a simple random sampling technique. Three hundred and three participants were interviewed (response rate 51%). The prevalence of faecal incontinence was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.0-26.8). Self-reported constipation (odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.87-7.24) and loose stools (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.47-4.78) were significantly associated with faecal incontinence. There was a strong positive correlation between total bowel control score and total quality-of-life score (P Bali. © 2014 ACOTA.

  12. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  13. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E.; Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 μg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 μg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 μg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 μg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 μg/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 μg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  14. Estimation of endogenous faecal calcium in buffalo (BOS bubalis) by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Sareen, V.K.; Marwaha, S.R.; Sekhon, B.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the isotope-dilution technique for the estimation of endogenous faecal calcium were conducted with buffalo calves fed on growing ration. The ration consisted of wheat straw, green lucerne and concentrate mix. The endogenous faecal calcium was 3.71 g/day, which is 17.8 percent of the total faecal calcium. The apparent and true digestibilities of Ca were calculated as 51 and 60 percent respectively. The endogenous faecal calcium can be estimated in buffalo calves by giving single subcutaneous injection of Ca 45 and collecting blood samples on 12th and 21st days only, and representative sample from the faeces collected from 13th through 22nd day after the injection. (author)

  15. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  16. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  17. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  18. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  19. 40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802... sampling plan. (a) Each air carrier under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each... required actions, including repeat and follow-up sampling, corrective action, and notification of...

  20. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

    2016-11-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes bla TEM , bla SHV , ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Marisi Sinaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC, mercury concentration, inorganic nitrogen compounds (represent as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite, total phosphorus (TP, dissolved oxygen (D, pH, and salinity. The concentration of the parameters was then compared to the safe limit set by World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The results indicated that the drinking water resources at the Sekotong regency were contaminated by coliform and mercury. One location with low mercury concentration was recorded with E. coli contamination. Residence, agriculture, and animal livestock were subjected as the sources of coliform contamination. Mercury concentrations may inverse the growth of FC. No apparent relationship was found between total phosphorous and inorganic nitrogen compounds to FC growth. However, we recognized the FC growth responded positively to the level of phosphorous in waters, but associated negatively to nitrate concentration. An inverse correlation was also found between coliform survival and salinity in this study. The pH range at 6.05 – 6.50 supported FC survival. Conclusion: The drinking water resources at the Sekotong shallow wells were contaminated by coliform and mercury. It is important for local government to inform drinking water protection and treatment.

  2. COMPARISON OF NON-COLIFORM BACTERIA IN BALI CATTLE FAECES BASED ON LEVEL OF MATURITY AND MAINTENANCE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Andre Sulaksana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the effect of maintenance type and maturity level of bali cattle to the total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle. A total of 24 samples of bali cattle’s feces were used. This study was a Factorial 2 x 3 of group-randomised design, contained of two type maintenance (TPA Suwung and Sobangan and three levels of cattle maturity (calves, heifers, and adult. The groups were based on time sampling. The data then analyzed using Analysis of Variance Test and continued by using Least Significant Different test. The results showed that the amount of non-coliform bacteria in adult bali cattle feces were higher then heifers and calves. Total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle in  landfill was higher then the cattle that reared in captivity in Bali Cattle Breeding Center, the Sobangan village of Mengwi Badung regency.

  3. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Miles A., E-mail: miles.kirby@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Nagel, Corey L., E-mail: nagelc@ohsu.edu [Oregon Health and Science University, School of Nursing Portland Campus, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, SN-6S, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Rosa, Ghislaine, E-mail: ghislaine.rosa@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Iyakaremye, Laurien, E-mail: laurieniyakaremye1@gmail.com [DelAgua Health Rwanda Implementation, Ltd., 3rd Fl KG 19 Avenue, Kibagabaga Rd, Kigali (Rwanda); Zambrano, Laura Divens, E-mail: laura.zambrano@emory.edu [Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Clasen, Thomas F., E-mail: thomas.f.clasen@emory.edu [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9–29.4%, n = 217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0–47.1%, n = 361) of samples had > 100 TTC/100 mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (> 10 TTC/100 mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. - Graphical abstract: Household drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliform colony forming units/100 m

  4. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Miles A.; Nagel, Corey L.; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9–29.4%, n = 217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0–47.1%, n = 361) of samples had > 100 TTC/100 mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (> 10 TTC/100 mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. - Graphical abstract: Household drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliform colony forming units/100 mL) nationally and

  5. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  6. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  7. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  8. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  9. Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

    1993-10-01

    Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants.

  10. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  11. Dietary carbohydrate source influences molecular fingerprints of the rat faecal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Poulsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Background: A study was designed to elucidate effects of selected carbohydrates on composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota. Five groups of eight rats were fed a western type diet containing cornstarch (reference group), sucrose, potato starch, inulin (a long-chained fructan) or olig......Background: A study was designed to elucidate effects of selected carbohydrates on composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota. Five groups of eight rats were fed a western type diet containing cornstarch (reference group), sucrose, potato starch, inulin (a long-chained fructan...... of coliform bacteria in faeces. In the inulin and oligofructose groups, higher levels of butyrate and propionate, respectively, were measured. Principal Component Analysis of profiles of the faecal microbiota obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes...... and are not expected to reach the large intestine, the DGGE band patterns obtained indicated that these carbohydrates indeed affected the composition of bacteria in the large gut. Also the two fructans resulted in completely different molecular fingerprints of the faecal microbiota, indicating that even though...

  12. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic interve...

  13. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  14. Uncertainty on faecal analysis on dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Santos, Maristela S.; Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n. Via 9, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring programmes for internal dose assessment may need to have a combination of bioassay techniques, e.g. urine and faecal analysis, especially in workplaces where compounds of different solubilities are handled and also in cases of accidental intakes. Faecal analysis may be an important data for assessment of committed effective dose due to exposure to insoluble compounds, since the activity excreted by urine may not be detectable, unless a very sensitive measurement system is available. This paper discusses the variability of the daily faecal excretion based on data from just one daily collection; collection during three consecutive days: samples analysed individually and samples analysed as a pool. The results suggest that just 1 d collection is not appropriate for dose assessment, since the 24 h uranium excretion may vary by a factor of 40. On the basis of this analysis, the recommendation should be faecal collection during three consecutive days, and samples analysed as a pool, it is more economic and faster. (authors)

  15. A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mogharabi, M. S.; Khyami-Horani, H.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Laboratory development and field testing of sentinel toys to assess environmental faecal exposure of young children in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torondel, Belen; Gyekye-Aboagye, Yaw; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Schimdt, Wolf; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel toys are increasingly used as a method of assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens in households in low-income settings. However, there is no consensus on the suitability of different approaches. We evaluated three types of toy balls with different surfaces (plastic, rubber, urethane) in the laboratory to compare the uptake of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) on their surface. We performed bacteria survival analysis under different environmental conditions and tested laboratory methods for bacteria removal and recovery. In a field study we distributed sterile urethane balls to children toys in sterile water, assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and explored associations between the level of contamination and household characteristics. In the laboratory, urethane foam balls took up more indicator bacteria than the other balls. Bacteria recovery did not differ based on mechanic vs no agitation. Higher temperatures and moisture levels increased bacterial yield. In the field, the only factor associated with a decreased recovery of TTC from the balls was having a soil (unpaved) floor. Sentinel toys may be an effective tool for assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens. However, even using methods designed to increase bacterial recovery, limited sensitivity may require larger sample sizes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  18. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  19. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  20. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Methods: Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient’s dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). Results: A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Conclusions: Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this. PMID:27706028

  1. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-09-30

    The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  3. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly L. Lynsdale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC. To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores.

  4. Faecal soiling: pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F

    2013-08-01

    Passive postdefaecatory incontinence is poorly understood and yet is an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence in patients affected by faecal soiling. Seventy-two patients (30 women, age range 49-79 years; 42 men, age range, 53-75 years) affected by faecal passive incontinence with faecal soiling were included in the study. Two patient groups were identified: Group 1 comprised 42 patients with postdefaecatory incontinence and Group 2 had 30 patients without incontinence after bowel movements. After a preliminary clinical evaluation, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) score and the obstructed defaecation syndrome (ODS) score, all patients of Groups 1 and 2 were studied by means of endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry. The results were compared with those from 20 healthy control subjects. A significantly higher ODS score was found in Group 1 (P IAS) in Group 2 (P IAS atrophy and the FISI score (ρs 0.78; P < 0.03). Anal resting pressure (Pmax and Pm ) was significantly lower in Group 2 (P < 0.04). The straining test was considered positive in 30 (71.4%) patients in Group 1, significantly greater than in Group 2 (P < 0.01). A significantly higher conscious rectal sensitivity threshold (CRST) was found in Group 1 patients (P < 0.01). The ODS score, a positive straining test and high CRST values suggest that postdefaecatory incontinence is secondary to impaired defaecation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  6. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Are carnivore digestive separation mechanisms revealed on structure-rich diets?: Faecal inconsistency in dogs (Canis familiaris fed day old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies De Cuyper

    Full Text Available Pronounced variations in faecal consistency have been described anecdotally for some carnivore species fed a structure-rich diet. Typically two faecal consistencies are distinguished, namely hard and firm versus liquid and viscous faeces. It is possible that a separation mechanism is operating in the carnivore digestive tract, as in many herbivore species. Six beagle dogs were fed two experimental diets in a cross-over design of 7 days. Test diets consisted of chunked day old chicks differing only in particle size (fine = 7.8 mm vs coarse = 13 mm in order to vary dietary structure. Digestive retention time was measured using titanium oxide (TiO2 as marker. The total faecal output was scored for consistency and faecal fermentation profiles were evaluated through faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA and ammonia (NH3 analyses. A total of 181 faecal samples were collected. Dietary particle size did not affect faecal consistency, fermentative end products nor mean retention time (MRT. However, a faecal consistency dichotomy was observed with firm faeces (score 2-2.5 and soft faeces (score 4-4.5 being the most frequently occurring consistencies in an almost alternating pattern in every single dog. Firm and soft faeces differed distinctively in fermentative profiles. Although the structure difference between diets did not affect the faecal dichotomy, feeding whole prey provoked the occurrence of the latter which raises suspicion of a digestive separation mechanism in the canine digestive tract. Further faecal characterisation is however required in order to unravel the underlying mechanism.

  8. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: During each of the 10 test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak capacity...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  9. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: During each of the 10-test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle, and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  10. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  11. Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from eighteen different sources in Nairobi were analyzed for coliform and E. coli content using three microbiological techniques, namely: Multiple tube or Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, Defined Substrate Technique (DST) or Colilert technique and Petrifilm(TM) Plate Count Techniques. All the three ...

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and Most Probable Number (MPN) test for coliform, respectively. In comparisons with MPN the H2S test showed 84% correlation with open well water, 80% with tube well water and 94% with hotels and restaurants water at room temperature, indicating decrease in efficacy of this test with ...

  13. Effects of feeding polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbiota and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Wolff, Amanda K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-08-01

    Polydextrose is a potential prebiotic, but has not been well tested in dogs. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbial populations and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs. A total of eight adult hound dogs (3.5 (sem 0.5) years; 20 (sem 0.5) kg) were randomly allotted to one of four test diets containing the following concentrations of polydextrose: (1) 0 % (control); (2) 0.5 %; (3) 1.0 %; or (4) 1.5 %. A Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 14 d (days 0-10 adaptation; days 11-14 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed to maintain body weight. Data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS software. Although apparent total tract DM digestibility was unaffected, total tract crude protein digestibility tended to decrease (P dogs.

  14. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  15. 1865-IJBCS-Article -Caroline Nywira

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    test. Correlation test was also used to find out whether density of total counts, total coliforms and faecal coliforms were ..... Rei DDC, Edwards AC, Cooper D, Wilson E,. Mcgraw BA. 2003. ... Swimming Purposes in Abeokuta,. Nigeria. Afri.

  16. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  17. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  18. Real-time detection of faecally contaminated drinking water with tryptophan-like fluorescence: defining threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, James P R; Baker, Andy; Cumberland, Susan A; Lapworth, Dan J; MacDonald, Alan M; Pedley, Steve; Taylor, Richard G; Ward, Jade S T

    2018-05-01

    We assess the use of fluorescent dissolved organic matter at excitation-emission wavelengths of 280nm and 360nm, termed tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), as an indicator of faecally contaminated drinking water. A significant logistic regression model was developed using TLF as a predictor of thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) using data from groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water sources in India, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia. A TLF threshold of 1.3ppb dissolved tryptophan was selected to classify TTC contamination. Validation of the TLF threshold indicated a false-negative error rate of 15% and a false-positive error rate of 18%. The threshold was unsuccessful at classifying contaminated sources containing water globally. Copyright © 2017 Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), as represented by the British Geological Survey (BGS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival and detection of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-negative bacteria in Greek yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervert, C J; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2017-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of coliforms as indicator bacteria, increasing evidence suggests that the Enterobacteriaceae (EB) and total gram-negative groups more accurately reflect the hygienic status of high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk and processing environments. If introduced into milk as postpasteurization contamination, these bacteria may grow to high levels and produce a wide range of sensory-related defects. However, limited information is available on the use and survival of bacterial hygiene indicators in dairy products outside of pasteurized fluid milk and cheese. The goal of this study was to (1) provide information on the survival of a diverse set of bacterial hygiene indicators in the low pH environment of Greek yogurt, (2) compare traditional and alternative detection methods for their ability to detect bacterial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt, and (3) offer insight into optimal hygiene indicator groups for use in low-pH fermented dairy products. To this end, we screened 64 bacterial isolates, representing 24 dairy-relevant genera, for survival and detection in Greek yogurt using 5 testing methods. Before testing, isolates were inoculated into plain, 0% fat Greek yogurt (pH 4.35 to 4.65), followed by a 12-h hold period at 4 ± 1°C. Yogurts were subsequently tested using Coliform Petrifilm (3M, St. Paul, MN) to detect coliforms; Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm (3M), violet red bile glucose agar and the D-Count (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB; and crystal violet tetrazolium agar (CVTA) to detect total gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the non-EB gram-negative isolates showed significantly larger log reductions 12 h after inoculation into Greek yogurt (based on bacterial numbers recovered on CVTA) compared with the coliform and noncoliform EB isolates tested. The methods evaluated varied in their ability to detect different microbial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt. Crystal violet tetrazolium agar detected the highest

  20. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of helminth load in faecal samples of free range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminths load in faecal sample of free range indigenous chicken in Port Harcourt Metropolis was examined. Faecal samples were collected from 224 birds in 15 homesteads and 4 major markets - Mile 3, Mile 1, Borokiri and Eneka Village market where poultry birds are gathered for sale. 0.2-0.5g of feacal sample was ...

  2. Diet, faecal pH and colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boer, B.C.J. de; Faassen, A. van; Pikaar, N.A.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We suggest that a lower faecal pH may be correlated with a lower mortality of large-bowel cancer and that faecal pH should always be considered in epidemiological studies on the role of diet in colon carcinogenesis.

  3. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  4. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a Nigerian adult: review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 28-year-old Nigerian who presented with four days history of spontaneous scrotal ulceration and faecal discharge. This symptom was preceded by features of intestinal obstruction which got relieved after the faecal discharge from the scrotum. He was resuscitated and had segmental resection and anastomosis ...

  5. Faecal incontinence in rural and regional northern Queensland community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lynne M; Nowak, Madeleine J; Ho, Yikhong

    2013-01-01

    February 2008. A total of 1523 responses provided a 48.1% response rate. Faecal incontinence prevalence was 12.7% (174/1366) with no gender or locality differences. Prevalence increased significantly with age in men (p=0.034), but not in women. Only 10 respondents with faecal incontinence consulted their doctor in the previous year for this reason. Incontinent respondents had significantly more medical conditions including urinary incontinence, coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, injury to the anus, bowel cancer, spinal cord disease, neurological disease and psychiatric problems (all, pQueensland communities. Demand for treatment will increase because of the ageing population and the expectations of younger, more assertive cohorts.

  6. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  7. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  8. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  9. Faecal D/L lactate ratio is a metabolic signature of microbiota imbalance in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mayeur

    Full Text Available Our objective was to understand the functional link between the composition of faecal microbiota and the clinical characteristics of adults with short bowel syndrome (SBS. Sixteen patients suffering from type II SBS were included in the study. They displayed a total oral intake of 2661±1005 Kcal/day with superior sugar absorption (83±12% than protein (42±13% or fat (39±26%. These patients displayed a marked dysbiosis in faecal microbiota, with a predominance of Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group, while Clostridium and Bacteroides were under-represented. Each patient exhibited a diverse lactic acid bacteria composition (L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, L. reuteri, L. mucosae, displaying specific D and L-lactate production profiles in vitro. Of 16 patients, 9/16 (56% accumulated lactates in their faecal samples, from 2 to 110 mM of D-lactate and from 2 to 80 mM of L-lactate. The presence of lactates in faeces (56% patients was used to define the Lactate-accumulator group (LA, while absence of faecal lactates (44% patients defines the Non lactate-accumulator group (NLA. The LA group had a lower plasma HCO3(- concentration (17.1±2.8 mM than the NLA group (22.8±4.6 mM, indicating that LA and NLA groups are clinically relevant sub-types. Two patients, belonging to the LA group and who particularly accumulated faecal D-lactate, were at risk of D-encephalopathic reactions. Furthermore, all patients of the NLA group and those accumulating preferentially L isoform in the LA group had never developed D-acidosis. The D/L faecal lactate ratio seems to be the most relevant index for a higher D-encephalopathy risk, rather than D- and L-lactate faecal concentrations per se. Testing criteria that take into account HCO3(- value, total faecal lactate and the faecal D/L lactate ratio may become useful tools for identifying SBS patients at risk for D-encephalopathy.

  10. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  11. Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS.

  12. Effects of hot water application after defeathering on the levels of Campylobacter, coliform bacteria, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Dickens, J A; Musgrove, M T

    2000-11-01

    Scalding has been found to lower the levels of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses. However, the numbers recovered from whole-carcass rinse samples increase following defeathering. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a second scald applied after defeathering on microbial levels recovered from carcass rinses. Four treatments were evaluated: 1) immersion at 60 C for 28 s 30 min after defeathering, 2) immersion at 60 C for 28 s immediately after defeathering, 3) spray at 73 C for 20 s 30 min after defeathering, and 4) spray at 71 C for 20 s immediately after defeathering. As reported earlier, a significant increase in Campylobacter counts per mL whole carcass rinse was noted after carcasses were defeathered. However, when applied 30 min after defeathering, neither the immersion nor the spray second scald treatments lowered the Campylobacter counts. Likewise, neither treatment had any affect on Escherichia coli or coliform bacteria counts, even though total counts were slightly reduced by the treatments. When the second scald treatment immediately followed defeathering, the same trends were observed. Campylobacter counts after the second scald remained at the postpick levels, as did counts for E. coli and coliform bacteria, but total plate counts were slightly reduced. Overall, it would appear that a postscald treatment gentle enough not to alter the carcass appearance or meat quality would not effectively lower Campylobacter, E. coli, or coliform bacteria counts.

  13. Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan fatemeh

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

  14. Immunochemical faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syful Azlie, M F; Hassan, M R; Junainah, S; Rugayah, B

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review on the effectiveness and costeffectiveness of Immunochemical faecal occult IFOBT for CRC screening was carried out. A total of 450 relevant titles were identified, 41 abstracts were screened and 18 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of retrievable evidence to suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IFOBT varies with the cut-off point of haemoglobin, whereas the diagnostic accuracy performance was influenced by high temperature and haemoglobin stability. A screening programme using IFOBT can be effective for prevention of advanced CRC and reduced mortality. There was also evidence to suggest that IFOBT is cost-effective in comparison with no screening, whereby a two-day faecal collection method was found to be costeffective as a means of screening for CRC. Based on the review, quantitative IFOBT method can be used in Malaysia as a screening test for CRC. The use of fully automated IFOBT assay would be highly desirable.

  15. Detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat against fenbendazole by faecal egg count reduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramandeep; Bal, M S; Singla, L D; Kaur, Paramjit

    2017-06-01

    Anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintic fenbendazole was evaluated by employing faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in the semi organized sheep and goat farms of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. A total of 80 animals (20 each for sheep and goat in both districts) were randomly selected and their faecal samples were examined by qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Results indicate presence of high level of resistance against fenbendazole in both sheep and goat population of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. More resistance was observed in the GI nematodes from animals reared in Amritsar district as compared to Ludhiana district. The level of anthelmintic resistance observed was apparently more in sheep than goats.

  16. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  17. Faecal nitrogen excretion as an approach to estimate forage intake of wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozloski, G V; Oliveira, L; Poli, C H E C; Azevedo, E B; David, D B; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Collet, S G

    2014-08-01

    Data from twenty-two digestibility trials were compiled to examine the relationship between faecal N concentration and organic matter (OM) digestibility (OMD), and between faecal N excretion and OM intake (OMI) by wethers fed tropical or temperate forages alone or with supplements. Data set was grouped by diet type as follows: only tropical grass (n = 204), only temperate grass (n = 160), tropical grass plus supplement (n = 216), temperate grass plus supplement (n = 48), tropical grass plus tropical legume (n = 60) and temperate grass with ruminal infusion of tannins (n = 16). Positive correlation between OMD and either total faecal N concentration (Nfc, % of OM) or metabolic faecal N concentration (Nmetfc, % of OM) was significant for most diet types. Exceptions were the diet that included a tropical legume, where both relationships were negative, and the diet that included tannin extract, where the correlation between OMD and Nfc was not significant. Pearson correlation and linear regressions between OM intake (OMI, g/day) and faecal N excretion (Nf, g/day) were significant for all diet types. When OMI was estimated from the OM faecal excretion and Nfc-based OMD values, the linear comparison between observed and estimated OMI values showed intercept different from 0 and slope different from 1. When OMI was estimated using the Nf-based linear regressions, the linear comparison between observed and estimated OMI values showed neither intercept different from 0 nor slope different from 1. Both linear comparisons showed similar R(2) values (i.e. 0.78 vs. 0.79). In conclusion, linear equations are suitable for directly estimating OM intake by wethers, fed only forage or forage plus supplements, from the amount of N excreted in faeces. The use of this approach in experiments with grazing wethers has the advantage of accounting for individual variations in diet selection and digestion processes and precludes the use of techniques to estimate forage

  18. Faecal nitrogen of browser and mixed feeder game species during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal nitrogen of browser and mixed feeder game species during different seasons. ... A practical measure of assessing periods of potential nutritional stress of game species is needed in the management of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  20. [The artificial sphincter: therapy for faecal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, U

    2012-08-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) challenges a patient's professional, social and sexual life. Often the patient becomes depressive and socially isolated. If able to break open for therapy the patient should receive as first line a conservative treatment (like dietary measures, pelvic re-education, biofeedback, bulking agents, irrigation). When is the time to implant an artificial anal sphincter? If conservative therapy fails as well as surgical options (like a sphincteroplasty - if indicated a reconstruction of the pelvic floor if insufficient, or a sacral nerve stimulation) an ultimo surgical procedure should be offered to appropriate and compliant patients: an artificial anal sphincter. Worldwide, there are two established devices on the market: the artificial bowel sphincter® (ABS) from A. M. S. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and the soft anal band® from A. M. I. (Feldkirch, Austria). How to implant the artificial anal sphincter? Both devices consist of a silicon cuff which can be filled with fluid. Under absolute aseptic conditions this cuff is placed in the lithotomy position by perianal incisions around the anal canal below the pelvic floor. A silicon tube connects the anal cuff with a reservoir (containing fluid) which is placed either behind the pubis bone in front of the bladder (ABS) or below the costal arch (anal band). With a pump placed in the scrotum/labia (ABS) or by pressing the balloon (anal band) in both types operated by the patient the fluid is shifted forth and back between the anal cuff and the reservoir closing or opening the anal canal. Both systems are placed completely subcutaneously. Both devices improve significantly the anal continence. Both systems have a high rate of reoperations. However, the causes for the redos are different. The ABS is associated with high infection and anal penetration rates of the cuff leading to an explantation rate to up to 60 % of the implants. This kind of complication seems to be much lower with the anal band. The major

  1. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  2. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  3. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  4. Uji Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform pada Teh Kering Dalam Kemasan

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Patma Lumban

    2017-01-01

    142410054 Teh kering dalam kemasan adalah produk teh kering tunggal atau campuran dari teh hitam, teh hijau, teh putih dan atau teh beraroma lain yang harus memenuhi ketentuan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). Pengujian ini bertujuan untuk memeriksa adanya bakteri coliform pada teh kering dalam kemasan dengan persyaratan SNI yang berlaku. Pengujian bakteri coliform dilakukan dengan metode Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform menggunakan metode tiga tabung berdasarkan metode MA Supp 69/MIK/0...

  5. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  6. Frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary and faecal incontinence at 4 years postpartum: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, D; MacArthur, C; Woolhouse, H; McDonald, E; Brown, S J

    2016-06-01

    To investigate frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary incontinence and faecal incontinence 4 years after a first birth. Prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1011 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. Participants were followed up at 32 weeks of gestation; then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and 4 years postpartum. Frequency and severity of urinary and faecal incontinence. At 4 years, 29.6% of women reported urinary incontinence and 7.1% reported faecal incontinence. Compared with women having only spontaneous vaginal births, women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have urinary incontinence at 4 years postpartum (adjusted odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.6). Women who reported urinary incontinence before or during the index pregnancy, and those experiencing symptoms in the first year postpartum had increased odds of incontinence at 4 years, with the highest odds (6-12 times higher) among women who had previously reported moderate or severe symptoms. The odds of reporting faecal incontinence at 4 years were two to six times higher for women experiencing symptoms in pregnancy, and around four to eight times higher for those with symptoms in the first year postpartum. Urinary and faecal incontinence are prevalent conditions 4 years after a first birth. Women reporting urinary or faecal incontinence during pregnancy had markedly higher odds of reporting symptoms at 4 years postpartum, suggesting a need for further investigation and elucidation of aetiological pathways involving nonbirth-related risk factors. Moderate/severe incontinence prevalent 4 years after first birth in population cohort. Prior symptoms are biggest predictor. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Coliform bacteria isolated from recreational lakes carry class 1 and class 2 integrons and virulence-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczura, R; Krysiak, N; Taraszewska, A; Mokracka, J

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence-associated genes. The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done by disc diffusion method. Virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing Escherichia coli isolates were detected by PCR. A total of 155 integron-bearing strains of coliform bacteria were cultured. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA7, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette arrays in class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrons. Higher frequency of integron-positive bacteria and higher antimicrobial resistance ranges were noted in colder months (January and November) compared with spring and summer months. The integron-harbouring E. coli carried up to nine virulence-associated genes, with the highest frequency of kpsMT (84.6%) and traT (783%), coding for group 2 capsule and determining human serum resistance respectively. Integron-bearing multidrug resistant coliform bacteria carrying virulence genes are present in waters of recreational lakes. This study presents antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing coliform bacteria present in the waters of recreational lakes, which showed that multidrug resistant bacteria with virulence traits might pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the presence of genes typical for enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is a concern. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  9. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  10. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing faecal sludge management in peri-urban areas of Lusaka through faecal sludge valorisation: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, J. M.; Nyirenda, E.; Nyambe, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has two million inhabitants with 70% residing in peri-urban areas. Ninety (90) % of this population employ pit latrines for excretion generating approximately 22,680 tons of faecal sludge per annum. This sludge is inadequately managed hence of the generated amount, over 60% remains within the residential environment thereby compromising both the environment and public health. To foster a solution to this problem, a study was commissioned to assess faecal sludge valorisation potential and how it would impact on Faecal Sludge Management. The study evaluated policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks, sanitation practices including latrine construction and usage aspects and also characterised the faecal sludge for selected parameters relevant to valorisation. Four peri-urban areas were adopted as study sites. Policy issues together with existing institutional and regulatory frameworks were assessed through literature review. Sanitation practices were evaluated through physical observations, focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire administration. Faecal sludge characterisation was through sampling and analysis. It was observed that there are policy gaps in fostering faecal sludge valorisation. Sanitation practices and latrines construction also do not favour valorisation. The quality of the raw sludge has potential for valorisation though again, some parameters like solid waste content require drastic changes in sanitation practices in order not to compromise the reuse potential of the sludge. It was concluded that if faecal sludge management is to be enhanced through valorisation, there is need to have policies promoting pit latrine faecal sludge reuse and strengthened regulatory and institutional frameworks in this respect.

  12. Identification of the origin of faecal contamination in estuarine oysters using Bacteroidales and F-specific RNA bacteriophage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkin, S; Caprais, M P; Le Mennec, C; Le Goff, M; Edge, T A; Gourmelon, M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the origin of faecal pollution impacting the Elorn estuary (Brittany, France) by applying microbial source tracking (MST) markers in both oysters and estuarine waters. The MST markers used were as follows: (i) human-, ruminant- and pig-associated Bacteroidales markers by real-time PCR and (ii) human genogroup II and animal genogroup I of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) by culture/genotyping and by direct real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR. The higher occurrence of the human genogroup II of F-specific RNA bacteriophages using a culture/genotyping method, and human-associated Bacteroidales marker by real-time PCR, allowed the identification of human faecal contamination as the predominant source of contamination in oysters (total of 18 oyster batches tested) and waters (total of 24 water samples tested). The importance of using the intravalvular liquids instead of digestive tissues, when applying host-associated Bacteroidales markers in oysters, was also revealed. This study has shown that the application of a MST toolbox of diverse bacterial and viral methods can provide multiple lines of evidence to identify the predominant source of faecal contamination in shellfish from an estuarine environment. Application of this MST toolbox is a useful approach to understand the origin of faecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas in an estuarine setting. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Comparison of the quantitative dry culture methods with both conventional media and most probable number method for the enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, H; Sota, K; Iwasaki, M; Ogihara, H

    2017-07-01

    Sanita-kun™ CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 micro-organisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun™ met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult™ coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm™ CC and EC (PEC) and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients of both Sanita-kun™ for coliform detection were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. For E. coli detection, Sanita-kun™ EC was compared with CCA, PEC and MPN in 100 artificially contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients for E. coli detection of Sanita-kun™ EC were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. There were no significant differences in all comparisons when conducting a one-way analysis of variance (anova). Both Sanita-kun™ significantly inhibited colour interference by lactase when inhibition of enzymatic staining was assessed using 40 natural cheese samples spiked with coliform. Our results demonstrated Sanita-kun™ CC and EC are suitable alternatives for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms, respectively, in a variety of foods, and specifically in fermented foods. Current chromogenic media for coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms have enzymatic coloration due to breaking down of chromogenic substrates by food lactase. The novel sheet culture media which have film layer to avoid coloration by food lactase have been developed for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms respectively. In this study, we demonstrated these media had comparable performance with reference methods and less interference by food lactase. These media have a possibility not only

  14. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  16. Sedimentary records of sewage pollution using faecal markers in contrasting peri-urban shallow lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H., E-mail: chv@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Kim, A.W. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); McGowan, S. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Leng, M.J.; Heaton, T.H.E.; Kendrick, C.P. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Coombs, P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Yang, H. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, WC1 6BT (United Kingdom); Swann, G.E.A. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Sewage contamination in shallow lake sediments is of concern because the pathogens, organic matter and nutrients contribute to the deterioration of the water-bodies' health and ecology. Sediment cores from three shallow lakes (Coneries, Church and Clifton Ponds) within Attenborough nature reserve located downstream of sewage treatment works were analysed for TOC, C/N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, bacterial coliforms and faecal sterols. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs activities were used to date the sediments. Elemental analysis suggests that the source of organic matter was algal and down profile changes in {delta}{sup 13}C indicate a possible decrease in productivity with time which could be due to improvements in sewage treatment. {delta}{sup 15}N for Coneries Pond are slightly higher than those observed in Church or Clifton and are consistent with a sewage-derived nitrate source which has been diluted by non-sewage sources of N. The similarity in {delta}{sup 15}N values (+ 12 per mille to + 10 per mille ) indicates that the three ponds were not entirely hydrologically isolated. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) reveals that Coneries Pond had sterol concentrations in the range 20 to 30 {mu}g/g (dry wt.), whereas, those from Clifton and Church Ponds were lower. The highest concentrations of the human-sourced sewage marker 5{beta}-coprostanol were observed in the top 40 cm of Coneries Pond with values up to 2.2 {mu}g/g. In contrast, Church and Clifton Pond sediments contain only trace amounts throughout. Down-profile comparison of 5{beta}-coprostanol/cholesterol, 5{beta}-coprostanol/(5{beta}-coprostanol + 5{alpha}-cholestanol) and 5{beta}-epicoprostanol/coprostanol as well as 5{alpha}-cholestanol/cholesterol suggests that Coneries Pond has received appreciable amounts of faecal contamination. Examination of 5{beta}-stigmastanol (marker for herbivorous/ruminant animals) down core concentrations suggests a recent decrease in manure

  17. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  18. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  19. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  20. Assessment of total coliform removal and leaching of metal ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    universal

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Sewage sludge ... sewage sludge compost is harmful both for the plant ... sewage sludge grooming and maintenance and being a waste ... crop productivity depending on the nature of both soil and fly ash.

  1. Faecal incontinence following radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Høyer, Morten; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy is a known phenomenon, but has received little attention to date. This article aimed to review current knowledge on faecal incontinence related to radiotherapy for prostate cancer. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-language articles......-volume parameters and incidence is equivocal, although some studies suggest parameters confined to the lower rectum and/or anal canal may be of value to predict the extent of the injury and could be used as constraints in the dose planning process. CONCLUSIONS: Interpretation of data is limited due to lack of large...

  2. Sigmoid Colonic Perforation with Faecal Peritonitis due to Faecaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon perforation is an uncommon event usually caused by malignancy, diverticular disease, amoebic colitis, steroid therapy, trauma and ulcerative colitis, but stercoral perforation is very rare. Severe chronic constipation is considered to be the main causative factor in development of stercoral perforation of colon. Sometimes it can also produce catastrophic complications like colonic obstruction, faecal peritonitis and septicaemia. We report a rare case of sigmoid colonic perforation with faecal peritonitis and pneumoperitonium due to faecaloma which was diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy.

  3. Megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impact action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, C.; Gomez del Valle, M.; Caraballo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Seven patients with megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impaction,reviewing clinical diagnosis, aetiology and medical and surgical management.It is suggested medical management of chronic faecal impaction trying to achieve elective surgery.The curative surgery should include the resection of all pathologic bowel, but in Duhamel procedure and its modifications distal rectal tran section should be at the peritoneal reflection.Habr-Gama modification has shown to be technically easier and it has been communicated good functional results.Local unfavourable conditions may be resolve by staged surgery,which allows outline definitive bowel reconstruction after functional assessment

  4. The composition and metabolism of faecal microbiota is specifically modulated by different dietary polysaccharides and mucin: an isothermal microcalorimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, K; Kolk, K; Jaagura, M; Vilu, R; Adamberg, S

    2018-01-29

    The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Faecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in a phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without supplementation of a single substrate. The generation of heat was followed on-line, microbiota composition (V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA using Illumina MiSeq v2) and concentrations of metabolites (HPLC) were determined at the end of growth. The multiauxic power-time curves obtained were substrate-specific. More than 70% of all substrates except chitin were fermented by faecal microbiota with total heat generation of up to 8 J/ml. The final metabolite patterns were in accordance with the microbiota changes. For arabinogalactan, xylan and levan, the fibre-affected distribution of bacterial taxa showed clear similarities (e.g. increase of Bacteroides ovatus and decrease of Bifidobacterium adolescentis). The formation of propionic acid, an important colon metabolite, was enhanced by arabinogalactan, xylan and mucin but not by galacto- and fructooligosaccharides or inulin. Mucin fermentation resulted in acetate, propionate and butyrate production in ratios previously observed for faecal samples, indicating that mucins may serve as major substrates for colon microbial population. IMC combined with analytical methods was shown to be an effective method for screening the impact of specific dietary fibres on functional changes in faecal microbiota.

  5. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising.

  6. Eficiência na remoção de coliformes em águas cinza através da fitorremediação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena S. Baracuhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O semiárido é caracterizado pelas irregularidades pluviais e o tratamento de águas cinza para reuso na agricultura com tecnologia ecológica é uma forma de conviver com a seca nessas regiões. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa foi realizada no distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras/PB objetivando-se avaliar a eficiência da remoção dos coliformes totais e fecais do efluente tratado nas unidades de produção agrícola através da fitorremediação. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com e sem fitorremediação, a cultura utilizada foi o capim roxo. As águas cinza eram provenientes de uma lavanderia pública. Foram coletadas amostras mensais e analisadas os coliformes total e fecal (Escherichia coli. No tratamento sem fitorremediação, os coliformes totais variaram de 1,583 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL e quando o tratamento tinha o auxílio do capim roxo, ou seja, com fitorremediação os coliformes totais oscilaram de 1,354 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL. Ocorreu uma redução significativa de Escherichia coli no tratamento com fitorremediação. A utilização da fitorremediação no tratamento de águas cinza reduziu a presença de coliformes totais e fecal, sendo assim uma alternativa viável de tratamento, proporcionando um aumento da qualidade hídrica.

  7. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  8. Irradiation effect for the control of coliform bacteria in spices and dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yin; Li Xiangling

    2001-01-01

    lrradiation of 6 kGy could make the MPN of coliform bacteria in irradated spices and dehydrated vegetables meet the demands of the national microbiological examination of food hygiene. No new irradiation-resistance organism in coliform bacteria was found in 188 spices samples treated. The mistake in the MPN of coliform bacteria detection was caused mainly by operation. The main cause was that the detected bacteria for lactose refermentation and Gram-stain tests were not picked from the same colony. (authors)

  9. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  10. Pyrosequencing the Canine Faecal Microbiota: Breadth and Depth of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Daniel; Wallis, Corrin; Colyer, Alison; Penn, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5′ region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a “core microbiota”. Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs. PMID:23382835

  11. Pyrosequencing the canine faecal microbiota: breadth and depth of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hand

    Full Text Available Mammalian intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood despite decades of interest and investigation by culture-based and other long-established methodologies. Using high-throughput sequencing technology we now report a detailed analysis of canine faecal microbiota. The study group of animals comprised eleven healthy adult miniature Schnauzer dogs of mixed sex and age, some closely related and all housed in kennel and pen accommodation on the same premises with similar feeding and exercise regimes. DNA was extracted from faecal specimens and subjected to PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, followed by sequencing of the 5' region that included variable regions V1 and V2. Barcoded amplicons were sequenced by Roche-454 FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project Bayesian classifier and revealed dominance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroidetes phyla. Differences between animals in the proportions of different taxa, among 10,000 reads per animal, were clear and not supportive of the concept of a "core microbiota". Despite this variability in prominent genera, littermates were shown to have a more similar faecal microbial composition than unrelated dogs. Diversity of the microbiota was also assessed by assignment of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the level of 97% sequence identity. The OTU data were then subjected to rarefaction analysis and determination of Chao1 richness estimates. The data indicated that faecal microbiota comprised possibly as many as 500 to 1500 OTUs.

  12. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  13. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  14. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the application of F-RNA coliphages and faecal sterols to distinction between human and animal excreta has .... in a shaking water bath (LABOTEC) at 100 r·min-1. .... calibration standards that were plotted using Microsoft Excel.

  15. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  16. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L.

    2001-01-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented [it

  17. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. ... It, therefore, is imperative to put measures in place to counteract the drop in any of these parameters, with season, if productivity of the indigenous goats is to be maintained. Further studies are required to determine the ...

  18. Ano-rectal tuberculous granulomapresenting with faecal incontinence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... present a case of a 68-year old man with a huge mass in the ano-rectum with faecal incontinence, which was clinically diagnosed as an advanced carcinoma of the ano-rectum for which the biopsy was reported as tuberculosis. He improved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Keywords: Ano-rectum, tuberculosis, cancer.

  19. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  20. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and challenged ... Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus .... Chang et al. (2001) reported a similar observation in piglets fed probiotic strain, Lactobacillus reuteri BSA 131. Francisco et al. (1995) had earlier reported that selected ...

  1. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  2. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  3. Interpreting faecal analysis results for monitoring exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Rongier, E.; Faure, M.L.; Auriol, B.; Estrabaud, M.; Mazeyrat, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotoxicological monitoring of workers exposed to non-transferable forms of uranium requires six-monthly examinations. These examinations are prescribed according to the kind of product manipulated and tO the industrial risk attached to the workplace. The range of examinations that are useful for this kind of monitoring includes whole body counting examinations, urine analyses and in-line faecal sampling: whole body examinations, which are fundamental to monitoring, provide a lung retention value. However, the detection limit of lung examinations is not low enough for chronic operational monitoring; urine examinations are extremely sensitive to alpha activity (1 mBq per isotope) but the fraction detected in the urine after incorporation by inhalation is very small; in-line 24-hour faecal sampling allows avoiding any workplace exclusion. The authors intend to present their experience acquired over a six year period in the field of systematic faecal examinations after chronic inhalation of the different uranium compounds. They also present results of a study carried out to determine normal uranium concentrations in the faeces of a non-exposed population, the uranium content in drinking waters and the consequences on faecal excretion. Establishing the isotopic content of uranium in the faeces makes it possible to determine practical investigation levels for occupational monitoring. Even if faecal sampling may be critically perceived by the personnel, the authors' experience highlights the value of this kind of analysis which allows to track down the industrial reality of the exposure. Internal dosimetry calculations cannot, however, be carried out, because the physical parameters of the inhaled aerosols are not always known. (author)

  4. Importance of the fat content within the cheese-matrix for blood lipid profile, faecal fat excretion, and gut microbiome in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja K.; Raben, Anne; Bendsen, Nathalie T.

    2016-01-01

    and energy excretion and gut microbiome in pigs. A 14-d run-in period was followed by 14-d interventions with macronutrient-matched diets. Fasting total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol after 14 days were higher in REG compared with BUT, but only tended to be higher in RED. Compared with BUT, REG and RED had......Cheese and butter have been shown to affect blood lipids differently. This parallel-arm, randomised, controlled study in 36 crossbred growing sows compared the effect of diets with either regular-fat cheese (REG), reduced-fat cheese + butter (RED) or butter (BUT) on blood lipids, faecal fat...... higher faecal fat excretion. Faecal energy excretion was only higher in REG, and this correlated with a lower microbiome Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. In conclusion, dairy fat consumed as cheese or butter caused different metabolic effects. Differences between reduced-fat cheese+butter and butter...

  5. Synthetic Culture Media Evaluated for the Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Milk, Cheese and Egg Melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthetic culture media of liquid and solid form (X broth and X agar were tested for selective isolation of coliform bacteria. Selectivity is based on the ability of coliform bacteria to grow when the minimal medium contains simple inorganic substances as nitrogen and carbon supply. Selectivity of the media was tested by inoculation of pure cultures of different microbes belonging to the genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and the family Enterobacteriaceae and was found to be complete in this range. The comparative investigation of milk, camembert cheese and egg melange samples in the traditional and new media proved good applicability of X broth and X agar for an effective and selective detection of coliform bacteria. When testing pasteurized milk samples, X agar detected coliforms in significantly higher counts than violet red-bile-lactose agar.

  6. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  8. Analisis Mikrobiologi Minuman Teh Seduhan Berbeda Merk Berdasarkan Nilai Mpn Coliform di Kota Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa, Ana Syarifatun; Hastuti, Utami Sri; Witjoro, Agung

    2012-01-01

    Minuman teh seduhan memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam menarik minat konsumen, diantaranya kemasan yang mudah dibawa dan selalu segar tetapi juga dapat mengalami kontaminasi oleh bakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1) Nilai MPN coliform dan coliform fekal minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang; 2) Kualitas mikrobiologi minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga tempat pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang. Jenis penelitian ini ialah penelitian deskriptif o...

  9. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other beddin...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal samples from buffalo, wildebeest and zebra grazing together with and without cattle in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakweba, A A S; Møller, K S; Muumba, J; Muhairwa, A P; Damborg, P; Rosenkrantz, J T; Minga, U M; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the practice of co-grazing with cattle and wild life constitutes a risk of transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria to wild ungulates. Faecal samples were collected from buffalo (n = 35), wildebeest (n = 40), zebra (n = 40) and cattle (N = 20) from Mikumi National Park, Tanzania (MNP), where cattle is prohibited and from Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) where co-grazing is practiced. The number of coliforms and enterococci resistant to selected antibiotics was determined. Wild life generally harboured higher number of resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococci than cattle, but with no general influence in wild life of co-grazing with cattle. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci were detected in wild life samples, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime and enrofloxacin were observed among isolates from all wild life, but not from cattle. Culture independent estimates of the number of sulII gene copies obtained by qPCR did not differ between wild life from the two sample sites, while tetW was significantly higher in samples from MPN than from NCA. Antibiotic resistant bacteria were not more frequently found in ungulates grazing together with cattle than ungulates without this interaction. This study did not indicate that transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a frequent event following co-grazing of wild life and cattle. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge-Lise; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from...

  12. Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saipullizan, Siti Nurul Ain; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Sedek, Razalee

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at sixty food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia. The swab technique was used to investigate the presence of E. coli and coliforms on 180 of food utensils (chopping boards: 60, knives: 60 and dish plates: 60). The results indicated that 180 of food utensils were contaminated with E. coli and coliforms. More than 60% of the coliforms were exceeded the acceptable limit compared to E. coli on the food utensils. The one-way ANOVA analysis demonstrated that the presence of E. coli and coliforms differed significantly among the three types of food utensils (knives, chopping boards, and dish plates). In conclusion, this study revealed that there are hygiene issues exist in every food premises. The food utensils are safe to use during the food preparation if the presence of E. coli and coliforms are not exceed the acceptable limit. Thus, it is recommended that the food handlers in the food premises should improve effective cleaning and sanitizing of food utensils in their daily work.

  13. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efektifitas Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum sebagai Additif Pakan dan Antimikrobia terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Anaerob dan Coliform Secara In Vivo pada Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Manullang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jahe merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum dikenal sebagai bakteriasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakterial bubuk jahe terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp. secara in vivo pada Broiler. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua puluh empat DOC dengan berat badan 40,7 g. Pemberian bubuk jahe diberikan pada Broiler selama 5 hari dengan konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah yaitu, 0,5, 1, dan 1,5% per kg pakan. Peubah yang diamati adalah berat badan, asupan pakan dan koloni bakteri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh ekstrak jahe merah pada total koloni bakteri yang cenderung menurun dengan semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah, semakin tinggi efek hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak jahe merah memiliki sejumlah aktivitas antibakteri untuk pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (E. coli dan Salmonella sp..

  16. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMR Farrapeira

    Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

  17. Thermotolerant coliform loadings to coastal areas of Santa Catarina (Brazil) evidence the effect of growing urbanisation and insufficient provision of sewerage infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Luis H P; Souza, Robson V; Campos, Carlos J A; Vanz, Argeu; Vianna, Luiz F N; Rupp, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Thermotolerant coliform (TC) loadings were quantified for 49 catchments draining into the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina (SC, southeastern Brazil), an area known for its tourism and aquaculture. TC loadings were calculated based on flow measurements taken in 26 rivers. TC concentrations ere quantified based on surface water samples collected at 49 catchment outlets in 2012 and 2013. Median TC loads ranged from 3.7 × 10 3 to 6.8 × 10 8 MPN s -1 . TC loadings in the catchments increased in proportion to increases in resident human population, population density and percentage of urbanised area. Catchments with more than 60% of area covered by wastewater collection and treatment systems had higher TC loads per person than catchments with less than 25%. Based on the study catchments, these results indicate that current sewerage infrastructure is ineffective in reducing contamination of faecal origin to surface waters. These findings have important implications for the management of microbiological health hazards in bathing, recreational and shellfish aquaculture waters in the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina Island.

  18. Survival and transport of faecal bacteria in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    Today, there is yearly applied 34 million tonnes of animal waste to arable land in Denmark. This waste may contain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria, and when applied to arable land there is a risk of contaminating groundwater, surface water, feeding animals or fresh...... produce. Prediction of faecal bacterial survival and transport in the soil environment will help minimize the risk of contamination, as best management practices can be adapted to this knowledge. The aim of this Ph.D. is to study factors influencing faecal bacteria survival and transport in soil...... – it is based on both field scale and lab scale experiments. The influence of application method and slurry properties has been tested on both survival and transport....

  19. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  20. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  1. Evaluation of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic markers for accurate identification of swine faecal waste by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuanren; Cui, Yamin; Zhao, Yi; Zhai, Jun; Zhang, Baoyun; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Da; Chen, Hang

    2016-10-01

    A genetic marker within the 16S rRNA gene of Faecalibacterium was identified for use in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect swine faecal contamination in water. A total of 146,038 bacterial sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing. By comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences with those of numerous swine and other animal species, swine-specific Faecalibacterium 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified and Polymerase Chain Okabe (PCR) primer sets designed and tested against faecal DNA samples from swine and non-swine sources. Two PCR primer sets, PFB-1 and PFB-2, showed the highest specificity to swine faecal waste and had no cross-reaction with other animal samples. PFB-1 and PFB-2 amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 samples of swine with positive ratios of 86 and 90%, respectively. We compared swine-specific Faecalibacterium qPCR assays for the purpose of quantifying the newly identified markers. The quantification limits (LOQs) of PFB-1 and PFB-2 markers in environmental water were 6.5 and 2.9 copies per 100 ml, respectively. Of the swine-associated assays tested, PFB-2 was more sensitive in detecting the swine faecal waste and quantifying the microbial load. Furthermore, the microbial abundance and diversity of the microbiomes of swine and other animal faeces were estimated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The species specificity was demonstrated for the microbial populations present in various animal faeces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

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    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contamina

  3. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

  4. Faecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroianu, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of the plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis and images of faecal loading in the cecum. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs of 100 consecutive adult patients operated on acute appendicitis were assessed. The presence of faecal loading was registered. Results: The presence of faecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 of the cases of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: This study seems to demonstrate that the presence of radiological images of faecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis

  5. Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Franz R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.

  6. RECUENTO DE COLIFORMES Y Escherichia coli EN CANALES BOVINAS SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS FÍSICOS Y QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JAVID CORPAS-IGUARÁN

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el recuento de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli en canales bovinas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que incluyeron combinaciones de los métodos de lavado, desinfección y vaporización, utilizando el diseño completamente aleatorizado de un factor con 3 repeticiones. El muestreo se realizó mediante frotis de superficie en tres áreas diferentes de la muestra (espalda, pecho y anca, que fueron posteriormente analizadas mediante el método de recuento en placa. Al aplicar secuencialmente los métodos de remoción microbiana se apreció la disminución progresiva en el recuento de coliformes totales y E. coli, y en la variabilidad de los datos, principalmente en los tratamientos C, D y E. La prueba de contrastes múltiples de Friedman mostró la inexistencia de diferencias estadísticas entre los recuentos de los tratamientos C y E en la muestra 2, indicando la ineficacia de la vaporización como coadyuvante de la acidificación para disminuir el recuento de los microorganismos de estudio. Las pruebas de comparación en muestras independientes mostraron resultados idénticos a la prueba de Friedman, excepto para el recuento de E. coli entre los tratamientos D y E, sugiriendo que la vaporización tiene efecto significativo para potenciar la disminución del recuento del microorganismo en las canales.

  7. EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA CAPACIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE ENELDO–Anethum graveolens–COMO INHIBIDOR DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Staphylococcus aureus, COLIFORMES Y HONGOS PRESENTES EN LA CARNE DE TRUCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de eneldo tiene propiedades antimicrobianas y antifúngicas, por lo que puede ser utilizado para evitar el deterioro de los alimentos. En esta investigación se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria del aceite esencial de eneldo sobre Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes y hongos presentes en la carne de trucha ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , utilizando 50 y 100 μL de aceite esencial. Se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de extracción del aceite esencial mediante el método de hidrodestilación y se logró un rendimiento máximo en base seca de 1,32% utilizando una relación 1:5 de agua y material vegetal durante 90 minutos. Al evaluar la capacidad antimicrobiana, el mayor efecto inhibitorio se obtuvo al aplicar 100 μL de aceite esencial de eneldo en cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes fecales, coliformes totales y hongos, evidenciándose un mayor halo de inhibición para coliformes totales.

  8. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  9. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal organisms in algae products marketed as health supplements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-09-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Irish society. One of these is blue-green algae which is used with a variety health benefits in mind. A batch of Chlorella powder was found to be contaminated with Salmonella species in Ireland in 2015. This prompted additional testing of a total of 8 samples of three different products (Chlorella, Spirulina and Super Greens), for other faecal flora and antimicrobial resistance in any bacteria isolated. All 8 samples cultured enteric flora such as Enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed one isolate with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity and one with carbapenemase activity. Clinicians caring for vulnerable patients should be aware of the potential risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with these products

  10. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  11. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Faecal Samples of Cracids Bred in Captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. B. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many problems arising from poor sanitation that can affect wild birds maintained in captivity, parasitic afflictions are among the most frequent, and their effects can range from subclinical infections to death. Some of the most common cases involve endoparasites, principally if the species under consideration exists at a high population density. This being so, the aim of the current work was to report on the prevalence of endoparasites in faecal samples from cracids (curassows and allies bred in captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco state in Brazil. To do this, faecal and sand samples were collected from the enclosures of birds of the family Cracidae belonging to the collection from the Parque Dois Irmãos, which originated from private collections from the Metropolitan Region and Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco. Four lots of faecal and sand samples were collected over a 60-day period, giving a total of 84 faecal samples from 58 individuals of 21 species of cracids. The material collected was submitted for coproparasitological tests using the right method and spontaneous sedimentation. The results obtained were positive for Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillaria sp. and cysts of Entamoeba coli, as well as eggs belonging to the superfamily Strongyloidea.

  12. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  13. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  14. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  15. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  16. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  17. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  18. SOLAIR disinfection of coliform bacteria in hand-drawn drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically UV-A and UV-B radiation) and oxygen (from atmospheric air) to damage, inactivate and / or kill the coliform bacteria found in contaminated water. It is a natural process (virtually self-purification) with no need to add any potentially hazardous ...

  19. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  20. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fresno, Ana Herrero; Zachariasen, Camilla; Norholm, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered...

  1. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  2. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary

  3. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy......·96, −0·28) mmol/l, P food products in a habitual diet was associated with reduced total CHOL and LDL-CHOL concentrations, which may lower...

  4. Water potential changes in faecal matter and Escherichia coli survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, L M; Walker, M J

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of a range of evaporation rates (2.0, 5.3 and 7.4 mm day(-1)) on degradation of E. coli (ATCC Strain 25922) inoculated in canine faeces. Experiments were carried out in an environmental chamber and a first order exponential decay function (Chick's Law) was used to estimate degradation rates. We estimated die-off coefficients using linear regression. Die-off rates were -0.07, -0.22 and -0.23 h(-1), respectively, for evaporation rates of 2.0, 5.3 and 7.4 mm day(-1) (P = 0.000+, for each model). Nearly complete die-off was found within 15-60 h (7.4-2.0 mm day(-1) evaporation rates), which corresponds with a water potential of approximately -22.4 MPa. This study indicates that canine faeces need not be desiccated to achieve complete loss of indicator organisms. Water potential, which is a combination of osmotic and matric potential, is a key stress that increases as evaporation removes water from the faecal matrix and increases concentration of the remaining faecal solution. Evaporation may remove populations of indicator organisms in faeces relatively quickly, even though faeces are not completely dehydrated. This research may be used as the foundation for studies more closely resembling real-world evaporation conditions including diurnal fluctuations, rewetting and freezing.

  5. The Neanderthal meal: a new perspective using faecal biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Neanderthal dietary reconstructions have, to date, been based on indirect evidence and may underestimate the significance of plants as a food source. While zooarchaeological and stable isotope data have conveyed an image of Neanderthals as largely carnivorous, studies on dental calculus and scattered palaeobotanical evidence suggest some degree of contribution of plants to their diet. However, both views remain plausible and there is no categorical indication of an omnivorous diet. Here we present direct evidence of Neanderthal diet using faecal biomarkers, a valuable analytical tool for identifying dietary provenance. Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results from El Salt (Spain, a Middle Palaeolithic site dating to ca. 50,000 yr. BP, represents the oldest positive identification of human faecal matter. We show that Neanderthals, like anatomically modern humans, have a high rate of conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol related to the presence of required bacteria in their guts. Analysis of five sediment samples from different occupation floors suggests that Neanderthals predominantly consumed meat, as indicated by high coprostanol proportions, but also had significant plant intake, as shown by the presence of 5β-stigmastanol. This study highlights the applicability of the biomarker approach in Pleistocene contexts as a provider of direct palaeodietary information and supports the opportunity for further research into cholesterol metabolism throughout human evolution.

  6. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  7. Mediterranean diet and faecal microbiota: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, I; Fernández-Navarro, T; Sánchez, B; Margolles, A; González, S

    2016-05-18

    Despite the existing evidence on the impact of olive oil and red wine on the intestinal microbiota, the effect of the global Mediterranean Diet (MD) has not been sufficiently studied. We explored the association between the adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, and its components, with faecal microbiota in a cohort of adults with non-declared pathology. This transversal study involved 31 adults without a previous diagnosis of cancer, autoimmune or digestive diseases. Based on the data obtained by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the information existing in the literature, a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated. Dietary fibre was obtained from Marlett et al. tables and Phenol-Explorer Database was used for phenolic compounds intake. Quantification of microbial groups was performed by Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). MDS was associated with a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.001), Prevotellacea (p = 0.002) and Prevotella (p = 0.003) and a lower concentration of Firmicutes (p = 0.003) and Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.045). Also, in subjects with MDS ≥ 4, higher concentrations of faecal propionate (p = 0.034) and butyrate (p = 0.018) were detected. These results confirm the complexity of the diet-microbiota interrelationship.

  8. The core faecal bacterial microbiome of Irish Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, M M; Harris, H M B; Jeffery, I B; Claesson, M J; Younge, B; O' Toole, P W; Ross, R P

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we characterized the gut microbiota in six healthy Irish thoroughbred racehorses and showed it to be dominated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Fibrobacteres and Spirochaetes. Moreover, all the horses harboured Clostridium, Fibrobacter, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Oscillospira, Blautia Anaerotruncus, Coprococcus, Treponema and Lactobacillus spp. Notwithstanding the sample size, it was noteworthy that the core microbiota species assignments identified Fibrobacter succinogenes, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Eubacterium hallii, Eubacterium ruminantium, Oscillospira guillermondii, Sporobacter termiditis, Lactobacillus equicursoris, Treponema parvum and Treponema porcinum in all the horses. This is the first study of the faecal microbiota in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse, a significant competitor in the global bloodstock industry. The information gathered in this pilot study provides a foundation for veterinarians and other equine health-associated professionals to begin to analyse the microbiome of performance of racehorses. This study and subsequent work may lead to alternate dietary approaches aimed at minimizing the risk of microbiota-related dysbiosis in these performance animals. Although Irish thoroughbreds are used nationally and internationally as performance animals, very little is known about the core faecal microbiota of these animals. This is the first study to characterize the bacterial microbiota present in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse faeces and elucidate a core microbiome irrespective of diet, animal management and geographical location. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick; Grange, Sophie; Cameron, Elissa Z; Barnier, Florian; Ganswindt, Andre

    2011-07-01

    Regulative endocrine mechanisms influence the reproductive behaviour and success of mammals, but they have been studied predominantly in domestic and captive animals. The study aims at describing the pattern of faecal 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in wild plains zebra Equus quagga chapmani. Data were collected during wet and dry seasons 2007-2009. Enzyme Immunoassays were used to determine 20-oxopregnane and oestrogen concentrations in faecal samples (n=74) collected from individual mares (n=32) whose dates of foaling were known through long-term monitoring. Hormonal profiles were described with a General Additive Model (GAM: Hormone ∼ Days to Foaling). Faecal 20-oxopregnanes have a complex cycle during pregnancy (GAM, n=70, R(2)=0.616, p200 ng/g DW) of faecal 20-oxopregnanes associated with high (>160 ng/g DW) faecal oestrogen levels indicate mid-pregnancy in c.90% of cases (16/17). High faecal 20-oxopregnanes (>200 ng/g DW) and low faecal oestrogen levels (<160 ng/g DW) indicate late pregnancy, again in c.90% of cases. Two faecal samples would allow the stage of pregnancy to be determined with confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rectal intussusception and unexplained faecal incontinence: findings of a proctographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, R; Cunningham, C; D'Costa, H; Lindsey, I

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of faecal incontinence is multifactorial, yet there remains an approach to assessment and treatment that focusses on the sphincter. Rectal intussusception (RI) is underdiagnosed and manifests primarily as obstructed defecation. Yet greater than 50% of these patients admit to faecal incontinence on closer questioning. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of RI at evacuation proctography selectively undertaken in the evaluation of patients with faecal incontinence. Patients with faecal incontinence seen in a pelvic floor clinic were evaluated with anorectal physiology and ultrasound. Where the faecal incontinence was not fully explained by physiology and ultrasound, evacuation proctography was undertaken. Studies were classified as 'normal', 'low-grade RI' (recto-rectal), 'high-grade RI' (recto-anal) or 'anismus'. Forty patients underwent evacuation proctography (33 women, 83%). Median age was 63 years (range 34-77 years). Seven patients (17%) had a normal proctogram. Three (8%) had recto-rectal RI. Twenty-five (63%) demonstrated recto-anal RI. Five patients (12%) had anismus. Recto-anal intussusception is common in patients undergoing selective evacuation proctography for investigation of faecal incontinence. The role of recto-anal intussusception in the multifactorial aetiology of faecal incontinence has been largely overlooked. Evacuation proctography should be considered as part of routine work-up of patients with faecal incontinence.

  11. Measurement of faecal sludge in-situ shear strength and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mechanised technologies have been developed to facilitate pit emptying, which are currently either tested on faecal sludge or an 'ad-hoc' simulant that (in the opinion of the tester) approximately replicates the behaviour of faecal sludge. This ranges from a watery consistency in some pour-flush latrines to the strong ...

  12. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  13. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  14. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  15. Presencia de los géneros Vibrio y Salmonella, y detección de coliformes fecales en almejas del Golfo de México

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Pedroche, Francisco F.; Moreno-Sepúlveda, L.; Rodas-Suárez, O. R.

    2000-01-01

    Los moluscos bivalvos, por su tipo de alimentación y por las zonas elegidas para su cultivo, pueden ser un vehículo de transmisión de microorganismos patógenos. Un total de 260 muestras de almejas obtenidas a lo largo de un ciclo anual, en la porción norte del Estado de Veracruz, Golfo de México, se estudiaron para determinar la presencia de Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae y organismos coliformes fecales. La metodología usada fue la recomendada por el Manual de Bacteriología Analítica de la ...

  16. Fluorescence hyper-spectral imaging to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal contamination of fresh fruits represents a severe danger for human health. Thus some techniques based on microbiological testing were developed to individuate faecal contaminants but those tests do not results efficient because their non-applicability on overall vegetable unity. In this work a methodology based on hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging was developed and tested to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes. Two image-processing methods were performed to maximise the contrast between the faecal contaminant and tomatoes skin: principal component analysis and band image ratio (BRI. The BRI method allows classifying correctly 70% of contaminated area, with no false-positives in all examined cases. Thus, the developed methodology can be employed for a fast and effective detection of faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes.

  17. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  18. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed

  19. Comparative effectiveness of faecal microbiota transplant by route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, N D; Tamhane, A; Walker, J B; Morrow, C D; Rodriguez, J M

    2017-08-01

    The optimal route of delivery for faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is unknown. This observational single-centre study analysed the two-week cure rates for all patients who received FMT from 2013 to 2016 according to route of delivery. Overall, nasogastric delivery of FMT was less effective than lower endoscopic delivery. When patients were stratified by illness severity, nasogastric delivery achieved similar cure rates in healthier individuals, whereas lower endoscopic delivery was preferred for relatively ill individuals. Nasogastric delivery may be less effective than lower endoscopic delivery; however, when taking the cost, preparation and potential risk into account, this difference may not be clinically significant for patients with mild disease. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods.

  2. A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J; Lange, B; Frick, J-S; Sauer, H; Zimmermann, K; Schwiertz, A; Rusch, K; Klosterhalfen, S; Enck, P

    2012-01-01

    Consisting of ≈10(14) microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups. Total counts of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae spp. were significantly lower (P=0.001, P=0.002, P=0.006 and P=0.008, respectively) in vegan samples than in controls, whereas others (E. coli biovars, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp.) were not. Subjects on a vegetarian diet ranked between vegans and controls. The total microbial count did not differ between the groups. In addition, subjects on a vegan or vegetarian diet showed significantly (P=0.0001) lower stool pH than did controls, and stool pH and counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly correlated across all subgroups. Maintaining a strict vegan or vegetarian diet results in a significant shift in the microbiota while total cell numbers remain unaltered.

  3. Old beagle dogs have lower faecal concentrations of some fermentation products and lower peripheral lymphocyte counts than young adult beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Márcia de Oliveira Sampaio; Beraldo, Mariana Casteleti; Putarov, Thaila Cristina; Brunetto, Márcio Antônio; Zaine, Leandro; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2011-10-01

    The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P 0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

  4. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  5. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  6. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  7. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  9. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  10. Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT. Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25% of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05 was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (pC.difficile diarrhoea.

  11. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  12. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  13. Whole-genome comparison of urinary pathogenic Escherichia coli and faecal isolates of UTI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Leth; Stegger, Marc; Kiil, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy...... controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal......-only isolates, respectively. Comparison of the accessory genome of UTI isolates to faecal isolates revealed 35 gene families which were significantly more prevalent in the UTI isolates compared to the faecal isolates, although none of these were unique to one of the two groups. Of these 35, 22 belonged...

  14. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  15. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  16. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  17. Evaluation of the production technologies and the microbial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical qualities of curdled milk produced in Benin. ... flora, total and faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, lactic flora, sulfito-reducing anaerobic germs, Staphylococcus aureus, as well as yeasts and moulds using normalized methods was carried out.

  18. Faecal short chain fatty acids in healthy subjects participating in a randomised controlled trial examining a soluble highly viscous polysaccharide versus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, R A; Pelletier, X; Carabin, I G; Lyon, M R; Gahler, R J; Wood, S

    2012-08-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre and have been linked with intestinal health. The present study examined faecal SCFA concentrations in subjects consuming a novel soluble highly viscous polysaccharide (HVP) or control for 3 weeks. A total of 54 healthy adults participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomised to consume HVP or control (skim milk powder). A dose of 5 g day(-1) was consumed in the first week, followed by 10 g day(-1) in the second and third weeks (n = 27 per group). The primary outcome was SCFA concentrations in faecal samples collected at baseline (visit 1, V1), at 1 week (V2) and at 3 week (V3). The reduction in faecal acetate from V1 to V3 in control subjects was not observed in subjects consuming HVP. There were no differences in propionate, butyrate, valerate or caproate concentrations. There was a significant treatment effect (P = 0.03) for total SCFA, with higher concentrations observed in subjects consuming HVP versus control. HVP is a viscous functional fibre that may influence gut microbial fermentation. Further work is warranted to examine the fermentative properties of HVP and possible links with appetite regulation and reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Comparison of Methods of Sampling for Toxocara Species and Fecal Coliforms in an Outdoor Day Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.

  20. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  1. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF BAKTERI Coliform PADA DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG YANG BERADA DI WILAYAH KAYUTANGI KOTA BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kumalasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water was one of the natural resources, which was needed by all of living creatures. Safe drinking-water supply should be sought because there was a probability of microorganism contamination in the drinking water, such as Coliform bacteria contamination. The dangerous of Coliform bacteria was that it could cause various illnesses, such as diarrhea, typhus and bacillary dysentery. According to Indonesia National Standard 01- 3553-2006 for packaged drinking water quality requirements, the maximum acceptable contaminant level for Coliform bacteria in each 100 ml refill drinking water sample was <2/100 ml. The purpose of this research is to know or no Coliform bacteria in refill drinking-water and the amount of contaminant in MPN/100 ml, and also to find out whether the drinking-water in various refilling stations in Kayutangi Banjarmasin had fulfilled the requirements of Indonesia National Standard or not. The method of this research was quantitative descriptive research a research which described a phenomenon in a certain population. Saturation sampling technique was used to collect data, and this research used the method of Most Probable Number MPN/100 ml. The results showed that 5 (31,25% samples were positive for containing Coliform bacteria and 11 (65,78% samples were negative for containing Coliform bacteria. The highest MPN/100 ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 190 MPN/100 ml and the lowest MPN/100ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 4 MPN/100 ml. According to the calculation of colony amount using MPN/100 ml table, it was found that all of the five positive samples exceeded the Indonesia National Standard limit, in which the maximum contaminant level was <2/100 ml.

  2. Evaluation of Carcass Quality for Coliforms, Salmonella and Psychrophiles on Evisceration and Chiller lines in Yazd Province Industrial Poultry Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mofidi

    2014-05-01

    In general, it can be said that secondary contamination in the slaughter line along with gradual increase in temperature of the chiller can increase bacterial load of both coliforms and salmonella but it will not affect the amount of psychrophile bacteria. Due to some differences between the studied slaughterhouses, microbial load of coliform and salmonella can be acheived by improving the management and installation of appropriate aquipments in the evisceration line.

  3. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite Concentrator; A New Technique against the Direct Smear and Formol Ether Concentration Technique for the Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Stool.

  4. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  5. Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes, Susana; van Nood, Els; Tims, Sebastian; Heikamp-de Jong, Ineke; ter Braak, Cajo J. F.; Keller, Josbert J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be effectively treated by infusion of a healthy donor faeces suspension. However, it is unclear what factors determine treatment efficacy. By using a phylogenetic microarray platform, we assessed composition, diversity and dynamics of faecal

  6. Process energetics for the hydrothermal carbonisation of human faecal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danso-Boateng, E.; Holdich, R.G.; Martin, S.J.; Shama, G.; Wheatley, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of variations to scale of operation and feedstock solids content considered. • A framework for estimating energy budget of a waste treatment system is presented. • Combustion of by-product CH_4 renders the process self-sustaining in energy terms. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has the capability to convert wet biomass such as sewage sludge to a lignite-like renewable solid fuel of high calorific value. However, to date assessment of the energy efficiency of the HTC process has not been fully investigated. In this work, mass and energy balances of semi-continuous HTC of faecal waste conducted at 200 °C and at a reaction time of 30 min are presented. This analysis is based on recovering steam from the process as well as energy from the solid fuel (hydrochar) and methane from digestion of the liquid product. The effect of the feedstock solids content and the quantity of feed on the mass and energy balance were investigated. The heat of reaction was measured at 200 °C for 4 h using wet faecal sludge, and the higher heating value was determined for the hydrochar. The results indicated that preheating the feed to 100 °C using heat recovered from the process would significantly reduce the energy input to the reactor by about 59%, and decreased the heat loss from the reactor by between 50% and 60%. For feedstocks containing 15–25% solids (for all feed rates), after the process is in operation, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the hydrochar and would be sufficient for preheating the feed, operating the reactor and drying the wet hydrochar without the need for any external sources of energy. Alternatively, for a feedstock containing 25% solids for all feed rates, energy recycled from the flashing off of steam and combustion of the methane provides sufficient energy to operate the entire process with an excess energy of about 19–21% which could be used for other purposes.

  7. Determination of the faecal excretion of labelled bile salts after i.v. administration of 14 C-cholic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H.; Filipsson, S.; Hulten, L.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring total faecal radioactivity, correlated to 24-hour enterohepatic circulation following i.v. administration of 14 C-cholic acid, bile salt malabsorption was evaluated before and/or after surgery in 80 patients with Crohn's disease localized to the ileum and/or the colon and the results related to the length of ileum diseased or resected. Before operation bile salt malabsorption was observed only in patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum, but no significant correlation was found between bile salt excretion and the extent of ileal disease. In patients subjected to ileal resection with sacrifice of the ileocaecal valve, bile salt malabsorption correlated strongly to the length of ileum resected. This correlation was about the same in ileostomy patients and in patients subjected to restorative operation. It is concluded that determination of 14 C in faeces is a more sensitive test than the Schilling test and the faecal fat excretion test in reflecting ileal dysfunction, at least in patients with ileal resections. (Auth.)

  8. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  9. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum on counts of coliforms, lactobacilli and bacterial enzyme activities in rats exposed to N,N-dimethylhydrazine (chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Čokášová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague dowley rats (n = 33 were divided into control and experimental groups and were fed a conventional laboratory diet. In the experimental group, rats were treated with the probiotic at the dose of 1 × 109 CFU (colony-forming units/ml. Two weeks after the beginning of the trial, N,N-dimethylhydrazine (chemical carcinogen injections were applied s.c. at the dose of 21 mg/kg b.w., 5 × weekly. At the end of the 8-month experimental period, faeces samples were taken from the rats and used for laboratory analysis. The counts of lactobacilli and coliforms and bacterial enzyme activity were determined. The probiotic strain L. plantarum as single species or in combination with oil (Lini oleum virginale decreased the count of total coliforms and increased lactobacilli in faeces of rats. Application of probiotic microorganisms significantly (P < 0.05 decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase compared to the control group rats. The results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by N,N-dimethylhydrazine.

  11. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  12. The Survey on Contamination Value of Staphylococcus aureus, Coliform and E.coli in Traditional Ice Cream Offered in Ahvaz Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ekhtelat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The diseases due of the consumption septic and unsafe nutrition are one of the major problems in developed and developing countries yet. Ice cream is a dairy product which favors the growth of microorganisms. Production of non-pasteurized hand made ice cream as traditional ice cream is very popular in Iran. In attention to more consumption of ice cream in warm seasons, especially in tropical areas, this study was conducted from the aspect of indicator microorganisms in ice cream. In this research, totally 120 samples were collected during summer of 2009 from different part of Ahvaz. According to reference methods and in order to examine Coliform and E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus contamination of samples, selective media and finally biochemical test were carried out. The results showed that 94 (78.33% and 13 (10.83% samples were contaminated to coliform and E.coli respectively, while 38 (31.67% out of 120 samples were contaminated to coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus. The result of this study showed that in attention the standard limits, the most of the examined ice creams were not allowed for consumption. Therefore, the more seriously monitoring to prevent bacterial contaminations should be considered by responsible authorities.

  13. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-05-21

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%).

  14. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, B R; Ashbolt, N J; Korajkic, A

    2017-07-01

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the aquatic environment and provide an overview of the environmental factors affecting their survival. In summary, concentrations of bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Overall, our investigation indicates that bacteriophages may be adequate viral surrogates, especially in built systems, such as wastewater treatment plants. Bacteriophage are alternative fecal indicators that may be better surrogates for viral pathogens than fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). This report offers a summary of the existing literature concerning the utility of bacteriophage as indicators of viral presence (fecal sources and surface waters) and persistence (in built infrastructure and aquatic environments). Our findings indicate that bacteriophage levels in all matrices examined are consistently lower than FIB, but similar to viral pathogens. Furthermore, in built infrastructure (e.g. wastewater treatment systems) bacteriophage closely mimic viral pathogen persistence suggesting they may be adequate sentinels of enteric virus removal. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Contaminación actual de la cuenca del río San Carlos con coliformes fecales y totales

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves-Campos, Adolfo; Mora-Molina, Jesús; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Francisco; Springer, Monika; Solís-Esquivel, Eida

    2016-01-01

    La contaminación del agua es uno de los principales problemas ambientales en el mundo debido a la importancia estratégica de este recurso. Las actividades económicas (agrícolas, industriales, mineras, turísticas) y las poblaciones humanas están generando crecientes cantidades de desechos que contaminan gravemente sobre todo los cuerpos de aguas superficiales, sin que los acuíferos dejen de verse también perjudicados. La contaminación del agua tiene actualmente -y tendrá más en el futuro- enor...

  16. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a colorectal cancer screening program in a cohort of healthy construction workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shuhaibar, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing. We evaluated uptake rates and outcomes of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Guaiac test (gFOBT) kits as part of a two-step CRC screening. METHODS: A 3-year CRC screening program for a defined population of construction workers was conducted. Those satisfying the inclusion criteria were provided with gFOBT or FIT kits. Individuals testing positive were invited for a colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 909 faecal testing kits were distributed. Age range was 53-60 years. Compliance rate was higher for FIT (58.3%) as compared to gFOBT (46.7%) (p = 0.0006). FIT detected adenomatous polyps and CRC in 37.5 and 25%, respectively, whereas; gFOBT detected 23.5 and 18%. Colonoscopies were normal in 53 and 25% tested positive by gFOBT and FIT, respectively (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The FIT was more cost-effective when compared with gFOBT with higher return rate, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a CRC screening program in a healthy cohort of construction workers.

  17. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Effect of Lactobacillus Treatment on the Faecal Metabolite Profile of Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Jiang, Hongli; He, Quan; Wang, Meng; Xue, Jinhong; Liu, Hua; Shi, Kehui; Wei, Meng; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Liwen

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups. The rats in uremia and UP groups were prepared through surgical renal mass 5/6 ablation. The rats in the UP group received Lactobacillus LB (1 ml, 109 CFU/ml) through gavage every day for 4 weeks. The rats were fed with a standard diet. Faecal samples were analysed through ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed using MetaboAnalyst and MATLAB. A total of 99, 324 and 177 significantly different ion peaks were selected between sham and uremia groups; sham and UP groups; and uremia and UP groups, respectively. In the 3 groups, 35 significantly altered metabolites were identified; of the 35 metabolites, 27 initially increased and then decreased; by contrast, 8 metabolites initially decreased and then increased. The 35 metabolites were subjected to pathway analysis in MetaboAnalyst. Faecal metabolites were significantly altered in rats with uremia; these changes were partially reversed by Lactobacillus. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Treatment of faecal impaction with polyethelene glycol plus electrolytes (PGE + E) followed by a double-blind comparison of PEG + E versus lactulose as maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, David C A; Edwards, Diane; Geraint, Mike

    2006-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes (PEG + E; Movicol) as oral monotherapy in the treatment of faecal impaction in children, and to compare PEG + E with lactulose as maintenance therapy in a randomised trial. An initial open-label study of PEG + E in the inpatient treatment of faecal impaction (phase 1), followed by a randomised, double-blind comparison between PEG + E and lactulose for maintenance treatment of constipation over a 3-month period (phase 2) in children aged 2 to 11 years with a clinical diagnosis of faecal impaction. Disimpaction on PEG + E was achieved in 58 (92%) of 63 of children (89% of 2-4 year olds and 94% of 5-11 year olds) without additional interventions. A maximum dose of 4 sachets (for 2-4 year olds) or 6 sachets (for 5-11 year olds) was required; median time to disimpaction was 6 days (range, 3-7 days). Seven children (23%) reimpacted whilst taking lactulose, whereas no children reimpacted while taking PEG + E (P = 0.011). The total incidence rate of adverse events seen was higher in the lactulose group (83%) than in the PEG + E group (64%). PEG + E is safe and highly effective in the management of childhood constipation. It allows a single orally administered laxative to be used for disimpaction without recourse to invasive interventions. It is significantly more effective than lactulose as maintenance therapy, both in efficacy in treating constipation and efficacy in preventing the recurrence of faecal impaction.

  19. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated...

  20. Whole-genome comparison of urinary pathogenic Escherichia coli and faecal isolates of UTI patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen Leth; Stegger, Marc; Kiil, Kristoffer; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Lilje, Berit; Andersen, Paal S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2017-12-01

    The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal-only isolates, respectively. Comparison of the accessory genome of UTI isolates to faecal isolates revealed 35 gene families which were significantly more prevalent in the UTI isolates compared to the faecal isolates, although none of these were unique to one of the two groups. Of these 35, 22 belonged to a genomic island and three putatively belonged to a type VI secretion system (T6SS). MLST types and SNP phylogeny indicated no clustering of the UTI or faecal E. coli from patients distinct from the control faecal isolates, although there was an overrepresentation of UTI isolates belonging to clonal lineages CC73 and CC12. One combination of mutations in FimH, N70S/S78N, was significantly associated to UTI, while phylogenetic analysis of FimH and fimH identified no signs of distinct adaptation of UTI isolates compared to faecal-only isolates not causing UTI. In summary, the results showed that (i) healthy women who had never previously had UTI carried faecal E. coli which were overall closely related to UTI and faecal isolates from UTI patients; (ii) UTI isolates do not cluster separately from faecal-only isolates based on SNP analysis; and (iii) 22 gene families of a genomic island, putative T6SS proteins as well as specific metabolism and virulence associated proteins were significantly more common in UTI isolates compared to faecal-only isolates and (iv) evolution of fim

  1. Effect of environmental parameters on pathogen and faecal indicator organism concentrations within an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rebekah; Schang, Christelle; Kolotelo, Peter; Coleman, Rhys; Rooney, Graham; Schmidt, Jonathan; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T.

    2016-06-01

    Current World Health Organisation figures estimate that ∼2.5 million deaths per year result from recreational contact with contaminated water sources. Concerns about quantitative risk assessments of waterways using faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) as surrogates to infer pathogenic risk currently exist. In Melbourne, Australia, the Yarra River has come under public scrutiny due to perceived public health risks associated with aquatic recreation; a characteristic shared with urban estuaries worldwide. A 10-month study of the Yarra estuary investigated the processes that affect FIOs and pathogens within this system. A total of 74 samples were collected from three estuarine and two upstream, freshwater, locations under different climatic and hydrological conditions, and the levels of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, fRNA coliphages, Campylobacter spp. Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses were monitored. Reference pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses were detected in 81%, 19%, and 8% of samples, respectively. Variations in FIO concentrations were found to be associated with changes in specific climatic and hydrological variables including: temperature, flow, humidity and rainfall. In contrast, pathogen levels remained unaffected by all variables investigated. Limitations of current national and international culture-based standard methods may have played a significant role in limiting the identification of correlative relationships The data demonstrate the differences between FIOs and microbial pathogens in terms of sources, sinks, and survival processes within an urban estuary and provide further evidence of the inadequacy of FIO inclusion in the development of worldwide regulatory water quality criteria and risk assessment models.

  2. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ≈ 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ≈ 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  3. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conventional treatment of functional constipation has a positive impact on the behavioural difficulties in children with and without faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Constipation studies have only evaluated behavioural difficulties in children with faecal incontinence. This study evaluated changes in behavioural difficulties in childhood with functional constipation (FC) with and without faecal incontinence, based on treatment outcomes. METHODS: Children...... treatment of FC had a positive impact on behavioural difficulties in constipated children with and without faecal incontinence. This study highlights the importance of proactive detection and treatment of FC in paediatric patients....

  5. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  6. Effect of oral diclofenac intake on faecal calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Zlatica; Falk, Magnus; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Wahlin, Karl; Kechagias, Stergios; Svernlöv, Rikard; Hjortswang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs are a known source of increased faecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after NSAID intake. The aim was to investigate how oral diclofenac intake affects FC levels and assess how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after oral diclofenac intake. Thirty healthy volunteers received diclofenac 50 mg three times daily for 14 days. Participants provided a stool sample on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14 during intake and Days 17, 21, 28 after discontinuation. FC levels were then followed at 7-day intervals until normalization. During diclofenac intake, eight participants (27%) had FC levels exceeding the upper limit of normal (median, 76 μg/g; range, 60-958 μg/g), corresponding to 8.3% of measurements. FC was not constantly increased and became normal in most participants during diclofenac intake. FC levels were on average significantly higher during intake (M = 9.5, interquartile range (IQR) = 13.4) than on baseline (M = 7.5, IQR = 0.0), p = 0.003. After discontinuation, two participants had increased FC on Days 17 and 21, respectively. No significant differences in FC levels were found between baseline and measurements after discontinuation. Two weeks after discontinuation, all participants had normal FC levels. Short-term oral diclofenac intake is associated with increased FC levels. However, the likelihood of an increased test result is low. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of diclofenac withdrawal is sufficient to get an uninfluenced FC test result.

  7. Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounis, Xenofon; Vulevic, Jelena; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; George, Trevor; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Gibson, Glenn R; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the bacterial-dependent metabolism of ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin using a pH-controlled, stirred, batch-culture fermentation system reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of ( - )-epicatechin or (+)-catechin (150 mg/l or 1000 mg/l) with faecal bacteria, led to the generation of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 5-phenyl-gamma-valerolactone and phenylpropionic acid. However, the formation of these metabolites from (+)-catechin required its initial conversion to (+)-epicatechin. The metabolism of both flavanols occurred in the presence of favourable carbon sources, notably sucrose and the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides, indicating that bacterial utilisation of flavanols also occurs when preferential energy sources are available. (+)-Catechin incubation affected the growth of select microflora, resulting in a statistically significant increase in the growth of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli, as well as a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of the C. histolyticum group. In contrast, the effect of ( - )-epicatechin was less profound, only significantly increasing the growth of the C. coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. These potential prebiotic effects for both (+)-catechin and ( - )-epicatechin were most notable at the lower concentration of 150 mg/l. As both ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin were converted to the same metabolites, the more dramatic change in the growth of distinct microfloral populations produced by (+)-catechin incubation may be linked to the bacterial conversion of (+)-catechin to (+)-epicatechin. Together these data suggest that the consumption of flavanol-rich foods may support gut health through their ability to exert prebiotic actions.

  8. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  9. Electrochemical disinfection of coliform and Escherichia coli for drinking water treatment by electrolysis method using carbon as an electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Agustiningsih, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Disinfection of coliform and E. Coli in water has been performed by electrolysis using carbon electrodes. Carbon electrodes were used as an anode and cathode with a purity of 98.31% based on SEM-EDS analysis. This study was conducted using electrolysis powered by electric field using carbon electrode as the anode and cathode. Electrolysis method was carried out using variations of time (30, 60, 90, 120 minutes at a voltage of 5 V) and voltage (5, 10, 15, 20 V for 30 minutes) to determine the effect of the disinfection of the bacteria. The results showed the number of coliform and E. coli in water before and after electrolysis was 190 and 22 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The standards quality of drinking water No. 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 requires the zero content of coliform and E. Coli. Electrolysis with the variation of time and potential can reduce the number of coliforms and E. Coli but was not in accordance with the standards. The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to the electrochemical disinfection was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The levels of H2O2 formed increased as soon after the duration of electrolysis voltage but was not a significant influence to the mortality of coliform and E.coli.

  10. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  11. Polyacrylamide+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E

    2003-03-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min{sup -1} flowed over PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH{sub 4}{sup +} and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater.

  12. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min -1 flowed over PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH 4 + and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH 4 + , NO 3 - , ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  13. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  15. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMR Farrapeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

  16. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11 and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10 were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis challenges on measurements of feces, and blood samples, were investigated to determine which of these measurements may aid in the diagnosis. pH changes in ruminal fluid collected via rumenocentesis were measured. Besides the following parameters were also measured; blood pH, faecal pH and faecal scoring. Blinded investigators performed the sample collection. Results. No statistical differences between the groups were detected for blood gas values studied regarding pCO2, HCO3, BE, indeed mean that pO2 values decreased statistically (p<0.05 and faecal pH was significantly decreased (p<0.05 in cows with subclinical laminitis in contrast to healthy controls. Conclusions. pO2 values and faecal pH may be valuable as indirect indicators of subclinical laminitis in cattle.

  17. Faecal Waste Disposal and Environmental Health Status in a Nigerian Coastal Settlement of Oron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edet E. Ikurekong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: This research investigated the relationship between faecal waste disposal and the environmental health status of the inhabitants of Oron LGA, of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The objectives were to identify the methods of faecal disposal; identify the incidence of faecal waste related diseases and the pattern and types of diseases occurrence in the study area. METHOD: 400 households were randomly selected for interview from 17 villages of the study area. Ground and surface water samples were spatially collected and analysed to determine their quality. These include streams, boreholes pipe-borne, and rain and river water from the 17 villages. RESULTS: The result shows that both the qualitative and quantitative aspect of the major sources of drinking water supply are at variance with the established national and international standards. The stepwise multiple regression models applied proved the validity of population demographic characteristics, unhygienic environment and poor quality of water supply as factors that enhance the incidence and vulnerability of the population to faecal waste related disease occurrence. CONCLUSION: The study recommends sustainable strategies towards the management of human faecal waste and related diseases in the study area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 363-368

  18. Essential oils have different effects on human pathogenic and commensal bacteria in mixed faecal fermentations compared with pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dinesh; Louis, Petra; Losa, Riccardo; Zweifel, Béatrice; Wallace, R John

    2015-02-01

    A static batch culture system inoculated with human faeces was used to determine the influence of essential oil compounds (EOCs) on mixed faecal microbiota. Bacteria were quantified using quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes. Incubation for 24 h of diluted faeces from six individuals caused enrichment of Bifidobacterium spp., but proportions of other major groups were unaffected. Thymol and geraniol at 500 p.p.m. suppressed total bacteria, resulting in minimal fermentation. Thymol at 100 p.p.m. had no effect, nor did eugenol or nerolidol at 100 or 500 p.p.m. except for a slight suppression of Eubacterium hallii. Methyl isoeugenol at 100 or 500 p.p.m. suppressed the growth of total bacteria, accompanied by a large fall in the molar proportion of propionate formed. The relative abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was unaffected except with thymol at 500 p.p.m. The ability of EOCs to control numbers of the pathogen Clostridium difficile was investigated in a separate experiment, in which the faecal suspensions were amended by the addition of pure culture of C. difficile. Numbers of C. difficile were suppressed by thymol and methyl isoeugenol at 500 p.p.m. and to a lesser extent at 100 p.p.m. Eugenol and geraniol gave rather similar suppression of C. difficile numbers at both 100 and 500 p.p.m. Nerolidol had no significant effect. It was concluded from these and previous pure-culture experiments that thymol and geraniol at around 100 p.p.m. could be effective in suppressing pathogens in the small intestine, with no concern for beneficial commensal colonic bacteria in the distal gut. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment-mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated...... with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg...... significant changes in number or proportion of tetracycline resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant, but not to cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, difference in dose of oxytetracycline...

  20. Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpello, J.H.B.; Sladen, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14 C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14 CO 2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14 C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14 C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14 C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14 C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14 C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14 C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14 C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14 C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

  1. Bacterial levels in the Nyl River system, Limpopo province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotrophic plate counts, faecal coliform counts and total coliform counts indicated that the system was stressed. The Modimolle sewage treatment works and local agricultural activities were found to be the point and diffuse sources of bacterial contamination, respectively. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2010, 35(1): ...

  2. Effects of Land Use Types on the Levels of Microbial Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of land use types on levels of microbial contamination based on total coliforms and E. coli (faecal coliform) levels was investigated in the Mara River system, Kenya and Tanzania. Water samples were taken from five sampling sites with different land uses and the Most Probable Number (MPN) method used to ...

  3. Influence of sampling depth and post-sampling analysis time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    designed to select for growth of total coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. Five tubes were used for each of the three decimal dilutions (10mL, 1mL and 0.1mL). All ..... Robertson A., Porter. S., and Brodie G. Creative. Publishers, St. John's, p 13 - 31. Beliaeff B and Cochard M 1995. Applying geostatistics to identification of.

  4. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  5. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  6. [Detailed methodological recommendations for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with faecal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely György; Várvölgyi, Csaba; Balogh, Zoltán; Orosi, Piroska; Paragh, György

    2013-01-06

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated enteral disease shows dramatic increase worldwide, with appallingly high treatment costs, mortality figures, recurrence rates and treatment refractoriness. It is not surprising, that there is significant interest in the development and introduction of alternative therapeutic strategies. Among these only stool transplantation (or faecal bacteriotherapy) is gaining international acceptance due to its excellent cure rate (≈92%), low recurrence rate (≈6%), safety and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately faecal transplantation is not available for most patients, although based on promising international results, its introduction into the routine clinical practice is well justified and widely expected. The authors would like to facilitate this process, by presenting a detailed faecal transplantation protocol prepared in their Institution based on the available literature and clinical rationality. Officially accepted national methodological guidelines will need to be issued in the future, founded on the expert opinion of relevant professional societies and upcoming advances in this field.

  7. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  8. Limitations of the A-1M method for fecal coliform enumeration in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Weagant, S D

    1987-01-01

    Use of the A-1M method, which was originally devised for testing water samples, has recently been extended for enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish and other food products. Results of our study indicate that while this method is reliable for analysis of growing waters, the use of the A-1M method for testing Pacific oysters may be less reliable because bacteria not belonging to the coliform group but which are sometimes present in these animals also give a positive reaction.

  9. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  10. Integrity of the Human Faecal Microbiota following Long-Term Sample Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Kia

    Full Text Available In studies of the human microbiome, faecal samples are frequently used as a non-invasive proxy for the study of the intestinal microbiota. To obtain reliable insights, the need for bacterial DNA of high quality and integrity following appropriate faecal sample collection and preservation steps is paramount. In a study of dietary mineral balance in the context of type 2 diabetes (T2D, faecal samples were collected from healthy and T2D individuals throughout a 13-day residential trial. These samples were freeze-dried, then stored mostly at -20°C from the trial date in 2000/2001 until the current research in 2014. Given the relative antiquity of these samples (~14 years, we sought to evaluate DNA quality and comparability to freshly collected human faecal samples. Following the extraction of bacterial DNA, gel electrophoresis indicated that our DNA extracts were more sheared than extracts made from freshly collected faecal samples, but still of sufficiently high molecular weight to support amplicon-based studies. Likewise, spectrophotometric assessment of extracts revealed that they were of high quality and quantity. A subset of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and compared against publicly available sequence data representing a similar cohort analysed by the American Gut Project (AGP. Notably, our bacterial community profiles were highly consistent with those from the AGP data. Our results suggest that when faecal specimens are stored appropriately, the microbial profiles are preserved and robust to extended storage periods.

  11. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  12. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment...... treatment and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is participants' rating of symptom changes after 16 weeks of treatment using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement Scale. Secondary outcomes are the Vaizey Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, the Fecal Incontinence...

  13. Perianal injectable bulking agents as treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. (Update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Laurberg, Søren; Norton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence is a complex and distressing condition with significant medical and social implications. Injection of perianal bulking agents has been used to treat the symptoms of passive faecal incontinence. However, various agents have been used without a standardised technique...... evaluation of outcomes and thus it is difficult to gauge whether the improvement in incontinence scores matched practical symptom improvements that mattered to the patients. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: One large randomised controlled trial has shown that this form of treatment using dextranomer in stabilised...

  14. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  15. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L.N.; Lungholt, M.M.; Nielsen, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    of development and gross pathological mucosal lesions were recorded and compared with serum antibody responses and faecal egg counts. Faecal egg counts were determined in samples from A. perfoliata infected horses using a semi-quantitative centrifugation/flotation technique. Blood samples collected at slaughter...

  16. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  17. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  18. Faecal S100A12 as a non-invasive marker distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, T; Langhorst, J; Wittkowski, H; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W; Rueffer, A; Dobos, G J; Roth, J; Foell, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: S100A12 is a pro-inflammatory protein that is secreted by granulocytes. S100A12 serum levels increase during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed the first study analysing faecal S100A12 in adults with signs of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Faecal S100A12 was determined by

  19. Assessing the removal of turbidity and coliform transport through canal-bed sediment at lab-scale: column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.; Sahito, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted at lab scale to determine the performance of the canal-bed for the removal of turbidity and microorganisms TC (Total Coliforms) from surface water. The canal-bed sediments were collected and analyzed for the characteristics of sediments for grain size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and the POM (Particulate Organic Matter) percent. Canal-bed sediments were containing fine particles<0.075mm in the range of 40-58%, with hydraulic conductivity averaged 7ft/day, and the POM 2.75%. The water samples collected from the canal-water have shown average POM 3.6%. Theremoval-reduction in turbidity and TC were determined through the column experiments on the canal-bed sediments. Three columns were prepared at lab-scale by using prepared canal-bed sediment as a filter-bed in the columns for the filtration of raw water samples. Fine particles of the canal-bed grain size D10 0.2 and D10 0.1mm were selected for the filter-bed formation. The prepared concentrated and diluted influent water samples containing turbidity and TC were passed through the washed filter-bed into the columns for 8-weeks filter run. The frequency of sampling and analysis were followedafter the interval of one-week run, the influent (raw water) and effluent (filtered) water samples were collected and analyzed for the turbidity and TC concentrations. The performance of the grain size D10 0.1mm have shown 95-99.95% reduction in turbidity and TC compared to the larger grain size having D10 0.2mm particles. (author)

  20. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  1. Responses to procedural information about colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood testing: the role of consideration of future consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wagner, Christian; Good, Anna; Smith, Samuel G.; Wardle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation is low despite its effectiveness in reducing CRC mortality. Identifying benefits and barriers requires consideration of specific characteristics of screening modalities. Aims and Research Questions  To monitor the impact of providing information about CRC screening via faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) on intentions to participate. To investigate moderation by individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC). Design, setting and participants  A total of 211 healthy adults (aged 45–59) with no experience of CRC screening were presented with eight consecutive statements about FOBt‐based screening in a web survey. Participants completed measures of i) intention (after each statement), ii) CFC and iii) the importance of screening practicalities (e.g. unpleasantness of completing the test) and benefits (e.g. early detection of cancer). Results  An 8 (information) × 2 (CFC) mixed ancova showed that intentions varied across the eight statements. (P < 0.001): increasing after information about FOBt being completed at home (P < 0.001) before subsequently decreasing after information about the requirement to collect faecal samples (P < 0.001) in a plastic tub (P < 0.01) on three occasions (P < 0.01) with the low CFC group generally being less inclined to complete the test (P < 0.01). Two between‐group anovas demonstrated that the low CFC group attributed greater importance to practicalities of screening than the high CFC group while the opposite was found for the importance of benefits (both P’s < 0.001). Conclusion  Deconstructing FOBt‐based screening pointed to specific benefits and barriers which can advance research into public preferences of screening and educational materials. PMID:21501350

  2. Impact of a new sampling buffer on faecal haemoglobin stability in a colorectal cancer screening programme by the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Grazia; Ventura, Leonardo; Rubeca, Tiziana; Rapi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Di Dia, Pietro P; Mallardi, Beatrice; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Castiglione, Guido

    2017-07-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) stability in faecal samples is an important issue in colorectal cancer screening by the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for Hb. This study evaluated the performance of the FIT-Hb (OC-Sensor Eiken) used in the Florence screening programme by comparing two different formulations of the buffer, both in an analytical and in a clinical setting. In the laboratory simulation, six faecal pools (three in each buffer type) were stored at different temperatures and analysed eight times in 10 replicates over 21 days. In the clinical setting, 7695 screenees returned two samples, using both the old and the new specimen collection device (SCD). In the laboratory simulation, 5 days from sample preparation with the buffer of the old SCD, the Hb concentration decreased by 40% at room temperature (25°C, range 22-28°C) and up to 60% at outside temperature (29°C, range 16-39°C), whereas with the new one, Hb concentration decreased by 10%. In the clinical setting, a higher mean Hb concentration with the new SCD compared with the old one was found (6.3 vs. 5.0 µg Hb/g faeces, respectively, Pbuffer under laboratory conditions, but no difference was found in the clinical performance. In our study, only marginal advantages arise from the new buffer. Improvements in sample stability represent a significant target in the screening setting.

  3. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Balamurugan; Rani, B Sandya; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; John, K R; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2017-02-01

    The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced. Totally 227,710 good-quality reads were analyzed. TAs consumed a millets-based diet, ate pork every day, and did not consume milk or milk products. RAs consumed a rice-based diet with meat intake once a week. In both groups, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The median Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was 34.0 in TA and 92.9 in RA groups. Actinobacteria were significantly low in TA, possibly due to non-consumption of milk. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in both groups, but was significantly more abundant in TAs than RAs, while Streptococcus was significantly more abundant in RA (P<0.05). Analyses of genetic distance revealed that the microbiota were distinctly different between TA and RA, and principal component analysis using 550 distinct taxonomically identifiable sequences revealed a clear separation of microbiota composition in the two groups. Phylogenetic analysis of major microbiota indicated clustering of microbial groups at different major branch points for TAs and RAs. Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  4. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  5. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  6. Isolation and characterization of coliforms from glacial ice and water in Canada's High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; Shears, P; Platt, D J

    1997-05-01

    Ellesmere Island is the northern most member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with over one-third of the land mass covered by ice. A joint services expedition to the island's Blue Mountains offered a unique opportunity for microbiological studies of resident bacteria in an environment uninhabited by man. Over 100 samples of water and ice were collected from stream, lake and glacier and the filtrate cultured under canvas. Bacterial growth was harvested onto swabs for transport back to the UK and 50 coliforms chosen at random for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the glacial strains were capsulated, pigmented and some over 2000 years old. Genera such as Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Yersinia were found; speciation was inconclusive and some organisms remain unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was evident in 80% of water isolates as opposed to 30% of the glacial organisms, but the isolates were generally exquisitely susceptible to antibiotics. The facility for ampicillin resistance did not appear to be transferable. Plasmid DNA was found in 33% of the glacial organisms and over 50% of the water isolates. Similar profiles were identified within and apparently between species and required plasmid restriction analysis to help establish identity. Plasmid-free Serratia spp. were subjected to genomic fingerprinting. Indistinguishable patterns were found within sets of isolates both widely spaced by distance and collection date and it was postulated that coliforms able to survive an Arctic environment had spread extensively throughout the expedition area. In conclusion, this study contributes towards knowledge of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance, confirms the presence of plasmids and genotypic data provided evidence that potentially ancient organisms from glaciers can be cultured from water samples significantly distant.

  7. Fast coliform detection in portable microbe enrichment unit (PMEU) with Colilert(®) medium and bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias; Heitto, Anneli; Heitto, Lauri

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory strains of coliforms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella mobilis were used to artificially contaminate water samples in two different cultivation and detection systems, without and with bubble flow. Samples were collected with an automated system (ASCS). The positive coliform signal caused the color change into yellow (at 550-570nm). This signal could also be transmitted on-line to cell phones. E. coli containing samples emitted UV fluorescence at 480-560nm when activated by UV light. If cultivation was started with inocula varying from 10,000 to 1cfu/ml, the positive detection was obtained between 2 and 18h, respectively, in Colilert medium using Coline PMEU device without gas bubbling. Accordingly, a single K. mobilis cell produced detectable growth in 18h. Various clinical E. coli strains were compared to each other with equal inoculum sizes, and they showed slight variations in the initiation and speed of growth. The gas bubble flow in PMEU Spectrion promoted the mixing and interaction of bacteria and indicator media and speeded the onset of growth. Carbon dioxide also accelerated bacterial growth. In the presence of vancomycin, the onset of E. coli culture growth was speeded up by the volatile outlet flow from previous cultures. In the last cultivation syringe in a series of five, the lag phase disappeared and the growth of the inoculum continued without major interruption. the stimulation of the cultures by the gas flow turned out to be a useful means for improving the detection of indicator bacteria. It could also be used in combination with antibiotic selection in the broth medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFEKTIVITAS KAPORIT PADA PROSES KLORINASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN BAKTERI Coliform DARI LIMBAH CAIR RUMAH SAKIT X SAMARINDA (The Effectiveness of Calcium Hypochlorite to Chlorination Process in Decreasing the Amount of Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater of X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kaporit pada limbah cair rumah sakit digunakan sebagai desinfektan, tetapi, penggunaan kaporit dengan dosis yang tidak tepat akan menyebabkan pembentukan senyawa Trihalomethane (THMs yang beracun dan bersifat karsinogenik. Pada limbah cair rumah sakit X Samarinda, diperoleh nilai MPN Coliform sebesar >160.000 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 0 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum dari penggunaan kaporit menggunakan titik Breakpoint Chlorination (BPC dan pengaruhnya terhadap penurunan Coliform. Analisis dilakukan dengan titrasi iodometri dan menghitung jumlah bakteri Coliform memakai metode Most Probable Number (MPN. Penentuan dosis kaporit berdasarkan dosis optimum pada titik BPC dimaksudkan agar dapat menjaga residu klor dari penambahan dosis yang semakin meningkat. Hasil penelitian mempengarui rerata kadar bahan organik pada sampel limbah cair sebesar 137,26 ppm, sehingga dosis kaporit yang dibubuhkan dimulai dari 130-165 ppm. Titik BPC terjadi pada pembubuhan klor aktif 160 ppm untuk kedua waktu kontak yaitu 30 dan 40 menit. Pada titik BPC, waktu kontak 30 menit diperoleh rerata persentase penurunan nilai Coliform yaitu 98,21% sebesar 2.899 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 88 ppm. Pada waktu kontak 40 menit diperoleh persentase penurunan bakteri Coliform hingga 98,83%, yaitu dari >160.000/100 mL menjadi 1.866/100 mL dengan residu klor 97,5 ppm. ABSTRACT Calcium hypochlorite of hospital wastewater serves as disinfectant, however, inappropriate dose of it will lead to the formation of Trihalomethane (THMs which is toxic and carcinogenic. The value of MPN Coliform of wastewater in X hospital Samarinda is >160.000 MPN / 100 mL with residual chlorine 0 ppm. This research aims at determining the optimum dose of calcium hypochlorite usage by using Breakpoint Chlorination curve and its effect to Coliform decrease. Further, the analysis is done by employing iodometric titration and the amount of Coliform

  9. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  10. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  13. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1-2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations.

  14. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  15. Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula in a neonate: report of a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21 day old boy with spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula following a neglected strangulated right inguinal hernia is reported. He had necrotizing fasciitis of the right scrotum with sparing of the testis. He successfully had debridement, herniotomy and bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis. This is a rare occurrence in ...

  16. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  17. Pelvic floor muscle lesions at endoanal MR imaging in female patients with faecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Vervoorn, Inge; Deutekom, Marije; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of lesions of different pelvic floor muscles at endoanal MRI in women with severe faecal incontinence and to study their relation with incontinence severity and manometric findings. In 105 women MRI examinations were evaluated for internal anal sphincter (IAS),

  18. Microbial shifts and signatures of long-term remission in ulcerative colitis after faecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Rossen, Noortje G.; Spek, van der Mirjam J.; Hartman, Jorn H.A.; Huuskonen, Laura; Korpela, Katri; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Aalvink, Steven; Vos, de Willem M.; Haens, D' Geert R.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may contribute towards disease remission in ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is unknown which factors determine long-term effect of treatment. Here, we aimed to identify bacterial signatures associated with sustained remission. To this end, samples from

  19. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  20. Inappropriate use of the faecal occult blood test in a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Anne F.; Stroobants, An K.; Deutekom, Marije; Lauppe, Corinne; Sturk, Auguste; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although all international guidelines state that there is no indication to perform a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in symptomatic patients, we believe the test is frequently used as a diagnostic test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the current guidelines for FOBT

  1. Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramón-Laca

    Full Text Available Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species. In New Zealand, 10 species of ungulate (Order: Artiodactyla have established wild populations and are managed as pests because of their impacts on native ecosystems. However, identifying the ungulate species present within a management area based on pellet morphology is unreliable. We present a method that enables reliable identification of 10 ungulate species (red deer, sika deer, rusa deer, fallow deer, sambar deer, white-tailed deer, Himalayan tahr, Alpine chamois, feral sheep, and feral goat from swabs of faecal pellets. A high resolution melting (HRM assay, targeting a fragment of the 12S rRNA gene, was developed. Species-specific primers were designed and combined in a multiplex PCR resulting in fragments of different length and therefore different melting behaviour for each species. The method was developed using tissue from each of the 10 species, and was validated in blind trials. Our protocol enabled species to be determined for 94% of faecal pellet swabs collected during routine monitoring by the New Zealand Department of Conservation. Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

  2. Effect of faecal soiling on skatole and androstenone occurrence in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    Production of entire male pigs could be a future strategy for organic pig production. However, production of entire males leads to increased risk of carcasses with elevated boar taint levels. It is hypothesized that skatole levels in pig meat are affected by faecal soiling and that organic housing...

  3. The potential beneficial role of faecal microbiota transplantation in diseases other than Clostridium difficile infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Nieuwdorp, M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    This review gives an outline of the indications for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for diseases other than Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. The remarkable efficacy of FMT against C. difficile infection has already been demonstrated. The use of FMT for other diseases, such as

  4. Assessing radiocaesium bioavailability in birds separation of urates from faecal pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, J.; Beresford, N.A [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Concomitant analyses of urine and faeces present a methodology whereby the bioavailability of dietary radionuclides can be estimated. Whilst the collection of urine from most wild animals is impractical, birds excrete urine in a semi-solid state making field collection possible. In birds the end product of nitrogen metabolism is uric acid which is combined with albumin, calcium and potassium cations as a laminated sphere 0.5 to 15 {mu}m in size. Urate spheres are passed as a colloidal suspension in a proteinaceous fluid composed predominantly of water, albumin and electrolytes giving the characteristic white dollop' to avian guano. Some herbivorous bird species (e.g. Lagopus spp.) excrete comparatively dry-pelleted guano with distinct urate (white) and faecal (brown) components. These are readily separable as they form the predominant constituents of the opposite ends of the cylindrically shaped pellet. This raises the hypothesis that the separation and analyses of the faecal and urate component of herbivorous bird pellets presents a possible methodology to estimate the bioavailability of ingested radionuclides (i.e. as the apparent absorption coefficient). Preliminary sampling and analyses determined that the radiocaesium content of the urate component of Lagopus spp. guano was consistently higher than the faecal tip. The results of a field sampling programme to test this hypothesis are discussed. Lagopus Lagopus scoticus (Red grouse) guano (separated into urate and faecal components), Calluna vulgaris (predominant dietary component of L. lagopus) and soil samples were collected over a period one year from an upland area in northern England. Comparison of the urate to faecal radiocaesium activity concentrations is used to investigate potential changes in the dietary radiocaesium of L. lagopus throughout the year. (author)

  5. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited - Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Prost

    Full Text Available Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids. We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid. The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago.

  6. Assessing radiocaesium bioavailability in birds separation of urates from faecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, J.; Beresford, N.A

    2004-01-01

    Concomitant analyses of urine and faeces present a methodology whereby the bioavailability of dietary radionuclides can be estimated. Whilst the collection of urine from most wild animals is impractical, birds excrete urine in a semi-solid state making field collection possible. In birds the end product of nitrogen metabolism is uric acid which is combined with albumin, calcium and potassium cations as a laminated sphere 0.5 to 15 μm in size. Urate spheres are passed as a colloidal suspension in a proteinaceous fluid composed predominantly of water, albumin and electrolytes giving the characteristic white dollop' to avian guano. Some herbivorous bird species (e.g. Lagopus spp.) excrete comparatively dry-pelleted guano with distinct urate (white) and faecal (brown) components. These are readily separable as they form the predominant constituents of the opposite ends of the cylindrically shaped pellet. This raises the hypothesis that the separation and analyses of the faecal and urate component of herbivorous bird pellets presents a possible methodology to estimate the bioavailability of ingested radionuclides (i.e. as the apparent absorption coefficient). Preliminary sampling and analyses determined that the radiocaesium content of the urate component of Lagopus spp. guano was consistently higher than the faecal tip. The results of a field sampling programme to test this hypothesis are discussed. Lagopus Lagopus scoticus (Red grouse) guano (separated into urate and faecal components), Calluna vulgaris (predominant dietary component of L. lagopus) and soil samples were collected over a period one year from an upland area in northern England. Comparison of the urate to faecal radiocaesium activity concentrations is used to investigate potential changes in the dietary radiocaesium of L. lagopus throughout the year. (author)

  7. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1–2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P < 0.05) during the winter (1.54 ± 0.04 µg/g) and rainy season (1.43 ± 0.04 µg/g) compared with the summer (1.22 ± 0.05 µg/g). Significant relationships were found between faecal glucocorticoids and rainfall (positive) and day length (negative), but not a temperature–humidity index. This is the first study to assess adrenal steroidogenic activity in female fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations. PMID:27293767

  8. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  9. Indications for and outcome of primary repair compared with faecal diversion in the management of traumatic colon injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, E; Emile, S; Elfeki, H; Youssef, M; Ghanem, A; Fikry, A A; Elshobaky, A; Omar, W; Khafagy, W; Morshed, M

    2016-08-01

    Injuries of the colon are a serious sequel of abdominal trauma owing to the associated morbidity and mortality. This study aims to assess postoperative outcome and complications of faecal diversion and primary repair of colon injuries when applied according to established guidelines for the management of colon injuries. This retrospective study was conducted on 110 patients with colon injuries. Guided by estimation of risk factors, patients were managed either by primary repair alone, repair with proximal diversion or diversion alone. There were 102 (92.7%) male patients and 8 (7.3%) female patients of median age 38 years. Thirty-seven were managed by primary repair and 73 by faecal diversion. Colon injuries were caused by penetrating abdominal trauma in 65 and blunt trauma in 45 patients. Forty-three patients were in shock on admission, and were all managed by faecal diversion. Forty patients developed 84 complications after surgery. Primary repair had a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion (P = 0.037). Wound infection was the commonest complication. The overall mortality rate was 3.6%. Primary repair, when employed properly, resulted in a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion. Significant predictive factors associated with a higher complication rate were faecal diversion, severe faecal contamination, multiple colon injuries, an interval of more than 12 h after colon injury and shock. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity in wild African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W C; Cizauskas, C A; Getz, W M

    2010-03-01

    Estimates of parasite intensity within host populations are essential for many studies of host-parasite relationships. Here we evaluated the seasonal, age- and sex-related variability in faecal water content for two wild ungulate species, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). We then assessed whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions regarding differences in strongyle infection rates by season, age or sex. There was evidence of significant variation in faecal water content by season and age for both species, and by sex in springbok. Analyses of faecal egg counts demonstrated that sex was a near-significant factor in explaining variation in strongyle parasite infection rates in zebra (P = 0.055) and springbok (P = 0.052) using wet-weight faecal samples. However, once these intensity estimates were re-scaled by the percent of dry matter in the faeces, sex was no longer a significant factor (zebra, P = 0.268; springbok, P = 0.234). These results demonstrate that variation in faecal water content may confound analyses and could produce spurious conclusions, as was the case with host sex as a factor in the analysis. We thus recommend that researchers assess whether water variation could be a confounding factor when designing and performing research using faecal indices of parasite intensity.

  11. Effect of room temperature transport vials on DNA quality and phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiota of elderly adults and infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2016-05-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota have been correlated with a growing number of diseases. Investigating the faecal microbiota is widely used as a non-invasive and ethically simple proxy for intestinal biopsies. There is an urgent need for collection and transport media that would allow faecal sampling at distance from the processing laboratory, obviating the need for same-day DNA extraction recommended by previous studies of freezing and processing methods for stool. We compared the faecal bacterial DNA quality and apparent phylogenetic composition derived using a commercial kit for stool storage and transport (DNA Genotek OMNIgene GUT) with that of freshly extracted samples, 22 from infants and 20 from older adults.

  12. Evaluation of standard and modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliforms in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; Hilner, C A; Coubrough, P

    1981-08-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtainable, easy to prepare and handle, and yielded clearly recognizable fecal coliform colonies. Identification of 1,139 fecal coliform isolates showed that fecal coliform tests cannot be used to enumerate Escherichia coli because the incidence of E. coli among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 51% for river water to 93% for an activated sludge effluent after chlorination. The incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 4% for the activated sludge effluent after chlorination to 32% for the river water. The advantages of a standard membrane filtration procedure for routine counting of fecal coliforms in water using M-FC agar without rosolic acid as growth medium, in the absence of preincubation or resuscitation steps, are outlined.

  13. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.); Analise microbiologica de coliformes e aerobicos mesofilos em amendoas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) irradiadas com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  15. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  16. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  17. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  18. Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certified multimeters were used to measure pH, conductivity and turbidity while membrane filtration technique was employed to test for E. coli and total Enterococci in 18 water samples collected during sampling from January to March, 2014. The pH and conductivity values obtained varied between 7.30-7.88 and ...

  19. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  20. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  1. Effects of habituation, research and ecotourism on faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild western lowland gorillas: Implications for conservation management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shutt, K.; Heistermann, M.; Kasim, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Dicky, J.-F.; Bopalanzognako, J.-B.; Setchell, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 172, April (2014), s. 72-79 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation * Ecotourism * Faecal-glucocorticoids * Habituation * Primate * Stress * Wildlife Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  2. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  3. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  4. Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

    1999-06-07

    Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community.

  5. An abbreviated Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale for Chinese-speaking population with colorectal cancer after surgery: cultural adaptation and item reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L-F; Hung, C-L; Kuo, L-J; Tsai, P-S

    2017-09-01

    No instrument is available to assess the impact of faecal incontinence (FI) of quality of life for Chinese-speaking population. The purpose of the study was to adapt the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) for patients with colorectal cancer, assess the factor structure and reduce the items for brevity. A sample of 120 participants were enrolled. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and contrasted-groups validity were assessed. Construct validity was analysed using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the total scale and four subscales = 0.98 and 0.97, 0.96, 0.92, 0.82 respectively), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥.98 for all scales with p < .001) and significant correlations of all scales with selected subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Wexner scale suggested satisfactory reliability and validity. The severe FI group (with a Wexner score ≥9) scored significantly lower on the scale than the less severe FI group (with a Wexner score <9) did (p < .001). The CFA supported a two-factor structure and demonstrated an excellent model fit of the 15-item abbreviated version of the FIQL-Chinese. The FIQL-Chinese has satisfactory validity and reliability and the abbreviated version may be more practical and applicable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate....... The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  7. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  8. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Mengíbar, Marian; Heras, Angeles

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan with high number of deacetylated units, its reacetylated derivative and COS obtained through an enzymatic treatment with chitosanase were tested in pH controlled batch cultures to investigate the ability of the human faecal microbiota to utilise them. Chitosan derivatives with high number of deacetylated units decreased the bacterial populations: Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides, C. Histolyticum and Bacteroides/Prevotella. On the other hand, chitosan derivatives with high content of acetylated residues maintained the tested bacterial groups and could increase Lactobacillus/Enterococcus. Regarding short chain fatty acids (SCFA), only low Mw COS increased the production in similar levels than fructo-oligossacharides (FOS). The acetylated chitosans and their COS do not appear as potential prebiotics but did not affect negatively the faecal microbiota, while derivatives with high number of deacetylated units could induce a colonic microbiota imbalance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient’s own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully...... infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments. The identified non...... in virulence potential were observed in a mouse UTI model for five matching faecal and UTI isolates with or without mutations in antigen 43 and haemolysin B. Variations in plasmid content were observed in only four of the 42 pairs. Although, we observed mutations in known UTI virulence genes for a few pairs...

  10. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  11. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  12. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  13. Environmental impact on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, K; Walker, SL

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive nature of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assessment means that sample collection is on an opportunistic basis and samples cannot always be collected immediately upon defection during field studies. Faeces that have been exposed to heat and moisturemay not accurately reflect levels of FGM. Our study exposed male (n=3) and female (n=3) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) faeces to six environmental conditions to simulate a range of weather and seasonal patterns (temperate clim...

  14. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-pat...

  15. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Akin; Deniz Alic Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Kerem Ural

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11) and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10) were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis chal...

  16. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  17. Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostholm-Balkhed, Ase; Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Maud; Nilsson, Lennart E; Hanberger, Håkan; Hällgren, Anita

    2013-09-01

    To study the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among the faecal flora during travel, with a focus on risk factors, antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL-encoding genes. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study of individuals attending vaccination clinics in south-east Sweden was performed, in which the submission of faecal samples and questionnaires before and after travelling outside Scandinavia was requested. Faecal samples were screened for ESBL-PE by culturing on ChromID ESBL and an in-house method. ESBL-PE was confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Susceptibility testing was performed with the Etest. Individuals who acquired ESBL-PE during travel (travel-associated carriers) were compared with non-carriers regarding risk factors, and unadjusted and adjusted ORs after manual stepwise elimination were calculated using logistic regression. Of 262 enrolled individuals, 2.4% were colonized before travel. Among 226 evaluable participants, ESBL-PE was detected in the post-travel samples from 68 (30%) travellers. The most important risk factor in the final model was the geographic area visited: Indian subcontinent (OR 24.8, P Asia (OR 8.63, P < 0.001) and Africa north of the equator (OR 4.94, P = 0.002). Age and gastrointestinal symptoms also affected the risk significantly. Multiresistance was seen in 77 (66%) of the ESBL-PE isolates, predominantly a combination of reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides. The most common species and ESBL-encoding gene were Escherichia coli (90%) and CTX-M (73%), respectively. Acquisition of multiresistant ESBL-PE among the faecal flora during international travel is common. The geographical area visited has the highest impact on ESBL-PE acquisition.

  18. Measuring the gut microbiome in birds: Comparison of faecal and cloacal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Strandh, Maria; Engelbrecht, Anel; Cloete, Schalk; Cornwallis, Charlie K

    2018-05-01

    The gut microbiomes of birds and other animals are increasingly being studied in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Numerous studies on birds and reptiles have made inferences about gut microbiota using cloacal sampling; however, it is not known whether the bacterial community of the cloaca provides an accurate representation of the gut microbiome. We examined the accuracy with which cloacal swabs and faecal samples measure the microbiota in three different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (ileum, caecum, and colon) using a case study on juvenile ostriches, Struthio camelus, and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that faeces were significantly better than cloacal swabs in representing the bacterial community of the colon. Cloacal samples had a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and fewer Clostridia relative to the gut and faecal samples. However, both faecal and cloacal samples were poor representatives of the microbial communities in the caecum and ileum. Furthermore, the accuracy of each sampling method in measuring the abundance of different bacterial taxa was highly variable: Bacteroidetes was the most highly correlated phylum between all three gut sections and both methods, whereas Actinobacteria, for example, was only strongly correlated between faecal and colon samples. Based on our results, we recommend sampling faeces, whenever possible, as this sample type provides the most accurate assessment of the colon microbiome. The fact that neither sampling technique accurately portrayed the bacterial community of the ileum nor the caecum illustrates the difficulty in noninvasively monitoring gut bacteria located further up in the gastrointestinal tract. These results have important implications for the interpretation of avian gut microbiome studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  20. Modeling of Faecal Contamination in Water from Catchment to Shellfish Growing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Perenne, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique

    2009-01-01

    During rainstorms, watersheds can introduce large amounts of faecal pollution into the rivers and sea, leading to shellfish contamination. In this study, we assessed Escherichia coli fluxes from a catchment, and their impact on estuarine water quality, using two assembled models. For the catchment, the agro-hydrological model SWAT was implemented integrating land uses, soil, topography, rainfall and other climatic data on Daoulas watershed (France). Initially, the SWAT model was calibrated an...

  1. Male commuters in north and south England: risk factors for the presence of faecal bacteria on hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donachie Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found that the prevalence of contamination with bacteria of faecal-origin on the hands of men differed across UK cities, with a general trend of increased contamination in northern cities. The aim of this study was to (1 confirm the north-south trend (2 identify causes for the trend. Methods Hand swabs from commuters (n = 308 at train stations in 4 cities were tested for the presence of faecal bacteria. Results The prevalence of hand contamination with faecal bacteria was again higher in cities in the north compared to the south (5% in London, 4% in Birmingham, 10% in Liverpool and 19% in Newcastle. Contamination risk decreased with age and better personal hygiene (self-reported. Soil contact and shaking hands increased contamination with faecal bacteria. However, in multivariable analysis, none of these factors fully explained the variation in contamination across cities. Conclusion The study confirmed the north-south differences in faecal contamination of hands without finding a clear cause for the trend. Faecal contamination of hands was associated with personal hygiene indicators suggesting that microbiological testing may contribute to evaluating hygiene promotion campaigns.

  2. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei. Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  3. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistiaga, Ainara; Wrangham, Richard; Rothman, Jessica M; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei). Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  4. Faecal incontinence after chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer survivors: Long-term results of a national cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Anne Gry; Guren, Marianne G.; Vonen, Barthold; Wanderås, Eva H.; Frykholm, Gunilla; Wilsgaard, Tom; Dahl, Olav; Balteskard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and severity of faecal incontinence amongst anal cancer survivors after chemoradiotherapy. Material and methods: Anal cancer survivors from a complete, unselected, national cohort, minimum 2-years follow-up, were invited to a cross-sectional study. The St. Mark’s incontinence score was used to evaluate occurrence and degree of faecal incontinence the last four weeks. The results were compared to age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. Results: Of 199 invited survivors and 1211volunteers, 66% and 21%, respectively, signed informed consent. The survivors had significantly higher St. Mark’s score than the volunteers (mean 9.7 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001). Incontinence of stool of any degree was reported by 43% vs. 5% (OR 4.0, CI 2.73–6.01), and urgency was reported by 64% vs. 6% (OR 6.6, CI 4.38–9.90) of the survivors and volunteers, respectively. Only 29% of those with leakage of liquid stool used constipating drugs. Survivors of locally advanced tumours had a higher incontinence score (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Moderate to severe faecal incontinence is common amongst anal cancer survivors. Post-treatment follow-up should include the evaluation of continence, and incontinent survivors should be offered better symptom management and multidisciplinary approach if simple measures are insufficient

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  6. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2017-02-28

    Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P diet significantly (P diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and end products of fermentation. The administration of MD diet promoted a more balanced growth of bacterial communities and a positive change in the readouts of healthy gut functions in comparison to RD diet.

  7. The contribution of simple random sampling to observed variations in faecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Paul, Michaela; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-09-10

    It has been over 100 years since the classical paper published by Gosset in 1907, under the pseudonym "Student", demonstrated that yeast cells suspended in a fluid and measured by a haemocytometer conformed to a Poisson process. Similarly parasite eggs in a faecal suspension also conform to a Poisson process. Despite this there are common misconceptions how to analyse or interpret observations from the McMaster or similar quantitative parasitic diagnostic techniques, widely used for evaluating parasite eggs in faeces. The McMaster technique can easily be shown from a theoretical perspective to give variable results that inevitably arise from the random distribution of parasite eggs in a well mixed faecal sample. The Poisson processes that lead to this variability are described and illustrative examples of the potentially large confidence intervals that can arise from observed faecal eggs counts that are calculated from the observations on a McMaster slide. Attempts to modify the McMaster technique, or indeed other quantitative techniques, to ensure uniform egg counts are doomed to failure and belie ignorance of Poisson processes. A simple method to immediately identify excess variation/poor sampling from replicate counts is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent perspectives on the relations between faecal mutagenicity, genotoxicity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGratz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in faecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in faecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower faecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity.

  9. PCR Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Faecal Samples from Australian and Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensdale, Joshua T; Xian, Darren Ten Wei; Wei, Chooi Ming; Lv, Quanjun; Wen, Xiajian; Guo, Jing; Coorey, Ranil; LeSouëf, Peter; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Brad; Dykes, Gary A

    2018-03-31

    Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage. Faecal samples from 46 Australian and 53 Chinese children were screened for the presence of six clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes using PCR. Clinical and demographic data was also collected from each patient. Over 90% of faecal samples from Chinese children tested positive for β-lactam, macrolide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside resistance genes, which was substantially higher than Australian samples. Besides country of origin, no clear trend could be seen to predict carriage of resistance genes. The exception to this was Chinese born children who immigrated to Australia having higher rates of carriage for bla TEM and tetM genes than children born and still living in Australia. These data indicated that Chinese children were more likely to carry certain antibiotic resistance genes than Australian children. The Chinese government has recently implemented strict policies to control the overuse of antibiotics in hospitals. However, many of these policies do not extend to the agricultural industry which could explain the differences seen in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Near infrared spectrometry for faecal fat measurement: comparison with conventional gravimetric and titrimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Guidi, G C; Vaona, B; Talamini, G; Vantini, I; Scuro, L A

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at comparing a new method for measuring faecal fat excretion, carried out with a semi-automated instrument by using near infrared analysis (NIRA), with the traditional titrimetric (Van de Kamer) and gravimetric (Sobel) methods. Near infrared analysis faecal fat was assayed on the three day stool collection from 118 patients (68 chronic pancreatitis, 19 organic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, 19 alcoholic liver disease, 12 functional gastrointestinal disorders). A strict linear correlation was found between NIRA and both the titrimetric (r = 0.928, p less than 0.0001) and the gravimetric (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001) methods. On homogenised faeces, a mean coefficient of variation of 2.1 (SD 1.71)% was found. Before homogenisation (where a mean coefficient of variation of 7% was found) accurate results were obtained when the mean of five measurements was considered. In conclusion, the assay of faecal fat excretion by the near infrared reflessometry appears a simple, rapid and reliable method for measuring steatorrhoea. PMID:2583563

  11. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Andersen, Paal S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-12-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient's own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments. The identified non-synonymous mutations (0-12 substitutions in each pair) were primarily associated to genes encoding virulence factors and nutrient metabolism; and indications of parallel evolution were observed in genes encoding the major phase-variable protein antigen 43, a toxin/antitoxin locus and haemolysin B. No differences in virulence potential were observed in a mouse UTI model for five matching faecal and UTI isolates with or without mutations in antigen 43 and haemolysin B. Variations in plasmid content were observed in only four of the 42 pairs. Although, we observed mutations in known UTI virulence genes for a few pairs, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Faecal microbiota transplantation: Where did it start? What have studies taught us? Where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Chanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition and activity of microorganisms in the gut, the microbiome, is emerging as an important factor to consider with regard to the treatment of many diseases. Dysbiosis of the normal community has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and, most notoriously, Clostridium difficile infection. In Canada, the leading treatment strategy for recalcitrant C. difficile infection is to receive faecal material which by nature is filled with microorganisms and their metabolites, from a healthy individual, known as a faecal microbiota transplantation. This influx of bacteria into the gut helps to restore the microbiota to a healthy state, preventing C. difficile from causing further disease. Much of what is known with respect to the microbiota and faecal microbiota transplantation comes from animal studies simulating the human disease. Although these models allow researchers to perform studies that would be difficult in humans, they do not always recapitulate the human microbiome. This makes the translation of these results to humans somewhat questionable. The purpose of this review is to analyse these animal models and discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of them in relation to human translation. By understanding some of the limitation of animal models, we will be better able to design and perform experiments of most relevance to human applications.

  13. Does the Internet provide patients or clinicians with useful information regarding faecal incontinence? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Murphy, J; Hodgkinson, J D; Vaizey, C J; Maeda, Y

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has become an important platform for information communication. This study aim to investigate the utility of social media and search engines to disseminate faecal incontinence information. We looked into Social media platforms and search engines. There was not a direct patient recruitment and any available information from patients was already on public domain at the time of search. A quantitative analysis of types and volumes of information regarding faecal incontinence was made. Twelve valid pages were identified on Facebook: 5 (41%) pages were advertising commercial incontinence products, 4 (33%) pages were dedicated to patients support groups and 3 (25%) pages provided healthcare information. Also we found 192 Facebook posts. On Twitter, 2890 tweets were found of which 51% tweets provided healthcare information; 675 (45%) were sent by healthcare professionals to patients, 530 tweets (35.3%) were between healthcare professionals, 201 tweets (13.4%) were from medical journals or scientific books and 103 tweets (7%) were from hospitals or clinics with information about events and meetings. The second commonest type of tweets was advertising commercial incontinence products 27%. Patients tweeted to exchange information and advice between themselves (20.5%). In contrast, search engines as Google/Yahoo/Bing had a higher proportion of healthcare information (over 70%). Internet appears to have potential to be a useful platform for patients to learn about faecal incontinence and share information; however, given one lack of focus of available data, patients may struggle to identify valid and useful information.

  14. Use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect Actinobacteria associated with the human faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Lesley; Clear, Jessica A; McCartney, Anne L

    2013-08-01

    With the exceptions of the bifidobacteria, propionibacteria and coriobacteria, the Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract have received little attention. This has been due to the seeming absence of these bacteria from most clone libraries. In addition, many of these bacteria have fastidious growth and atmospheric requirements. A recent cultivation-based study has shown that the Actinobacteria of the human gut may be more diverse than previously thought. The aim of this study was to develop a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach for characterizing Actinobacteria present in faecal samples. Amount of DNA added to the Actinobacteria-specific PCR used to generate strong PCR products of equal intensity from faecal samples of five infants, nine adults and eight elderly adults was anti-correlated with counts of bacteria obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization probe HGC69A. A nested PCR using Actinobacteria-specific and universal PCR-DGGE primers was used to generate profiles for the Actinobacteria. Cloning of sequences from the DGGE bands confirmed the specificity of the Actinobacteria-specific primers. In addition to members of the genus Bifidobacterium, species belonging to the genera Propionibacterium, Microbacterium, Brevibacterium, Actinomyces and Corynebacterium were found to be part of the faecal microbiota of healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  16. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. REDUCCIÓN DE COLIFORMES y Escherichia coli EN UN SISTEMA RESIDUAL LÁCTEO MEDIANTE MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS REDUÇÃO DE COLIFORMES E Escherichia coli EM UM SISTEMA DE ÁGUAS RESIDUAIS DE LEITE POR MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS REDUCTION COLIFORM AND Escherichia coli IN A DAIRY WASTE SYSTEM THROUGH BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JAVID CORPAS I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la disponibilidad comercial de diversos sistemas para tratar aguas residuales, muchas empresas no poseen plantas, y otras poseen sistemas ineficientes, por lo cual, descargan a los cuerpos de agua cantidades significativas de materia orgánica y microorganismos afines al sustrato, como los coliformes, comprometiendo el equilibrio ambiental. El presente estudio evaluó la capacidad de una mezcla de microorganismos beneficos (MB para remover coliformes y E. coli presentes en residuos líquidos generados en una planta de tratamiento lácteo, teniendo como factores controlados, la concentración del coctel de MB y el tipo de carga orgánica almacenada en el afluente. La reducción en la población de coliformes fluctuó entre 41,1 y 48% al utilizar las diferentes concentraciones de MB para las horas de toma establecidas. En cuanto a la eliminación de E. coli, se apreciaron reducciones notorias a partir de las muestras tomadas a las 10 a.m., con una reducción del 52% al utilizar el coctel al 2% y del 49,7% cuando la concentración de esta mezcla correspondió al 4%. Se recomendó mejorar la eficacia en la remoción de coliformes y E. coli a partir de la valoración de diversas proporciones entre las concentraciones de los microorganismos constituyentes de la mezcla.Apesar da disponibilidade comercial de vários sistemas de tratamento de esgoto, muitas empresas não têm instalações de esgoto, e outros ter sistemas ineficientes, assim, descarregados em massas de água grandes quantidades de matéria orgânica e microrganismos relacionados com o substrato, como o coliformes, comprometer o equilíbrio ambiental. Este estudo avaliou a capacidade de uma mistura de microorganismos benéficos (MB para remover coliformes e E. coli presente em resíduos líquidos geraçãos em uma estação de tratamento de efluente lácteo, tendo como variável, a concentração de cocktail de MB e tipo de carga orgânica armazenada no afluente. A redução na

  18. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma disposition and faecal excretion of oxfendazole, fenbendazole and albendazole following oral administration to donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Akar, Ferda; McKellar, Quintin A

    2006-07-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ), oxfendazole (fenbendazole sulphoxide, FBZSO), and albendazole (ABZ) were administered orally to donkeys at 10mg/kg bodyweight. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 1 to 120 h post-treatment. The plasma and faecal samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The parent molecule and its sulphoxide and sulphone (FBZSO(2)) metabolites did not reach detectable concentrations in any plasma samples following FBZ administration. ABZ was also not detected in any plasma samples, but its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites were detected, demonstrating that ABZ was completely metabolised by first-pass mechanisms in donkeys. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of FBZSO (0.49microg/mL) and FBZSO(2) (0.60microg/mL) were detected at (t(max)) 5.67 and 8.00h, respectively, following administration of FBZSO. The area under the curve (AUC) of the sulphone metabolite (10.33microg h/mL) was significantly higher than that of the parent drug FBZSO (5.17microg h/mL). C(max) of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) (0.08g/mL) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO(2)) (0.04microg/mL) were obtained at 5.71 and 8.00h, respectively, following ABZ administration. The AUC of the sulphoxide metabolite (0.84microg h/mL) of ABZ was significantly higher than that of the sulphone metabolite (0.50microg h/mL). The highest dry-faecal concentrations of parent molecules were detected at 32, 34 and 30h for FBZSO, FBZ and ABZ, respectively. The sulphide metabolite was significantly higher than the parent molecule after FBZSO administration. The parent molecule was predominant in the faecal samples following FBZ administration. After ABZ administration, the parent molecule was significantly metabolised, probably by gastrointestinal microflora, to its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZSO) that showed a similar excretion profile to the parent molecule in the faecal samples. The AUC of the parent FBZ was significantly higher than that of FBZSO and ABZ in faeces. It is

  20. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Parker, Mary L.; Bisignano, Carlo; Raciti, Roberto; Baer, David J.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. PMID:29443942

  1. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA, roasted almonds (RA, roasted diced almonds (DA and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB. Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm. Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut.

  2. A molecular diagnostic tool to replace larval culture in conventional faecal egg count reduction testing in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Roeber

    Full Text Available The accurate diagnosis of parasitic nematode infections in livestock (including sheep and goats is central to their effective control and the detection of the anthelmintic resistance. Traditionally, the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, combined with the technique of larval culture (LC, has been used widely to assess drug-susceptibility/resistance in strongylid nematodes. However, this approach suffers from a lack of specificity, sensitivity and reliability, and is time-consuming and costly to conduct. Here, we critically assessed a specific PCR assay to support FECRT, in a well-controlled experiment on sheep with naturally acquired strongylid infections known to be resistant to benzimidazoles. We showed that the PCR results were in close agreement with those of total worm count (TWC, but not of LC. Importantly, albendazole resistance detected by PCR-coupled FECRT was unequivocally linked to Teladorsagia circumcincta and, to lesser extent, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, a result that was not achievable by LC. The key findings from this study demonstrate that our PCR-coupled FECRT approach has major merit for supporting anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations. The findings also show clearly that our PCR assay can be used as an alternative to LC, and is more time-efficient and less laborious, which has important practical implications for the effective management and control strongylid nematodes of sheep.

  3. Faecal Escherichia coli from patients with E. coli urinary tract infection and healthy controls who have never had a urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are primarily caused by Escherichia coli with the patient's own faecal flora acting as a reservoir for the infecting E. coli. Here we sought to characterize the E. coli faecal flora of UTI patients and healthy controls who had never had a UTI. Up to 20 E. coli...... colonies from each rectal swab were random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typed for clonality, dominance in the sample and correlation to the infecting UTI isolate in patients. Each distinct clone was phylotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Eighty-seven per cent of the UTI patients...... carried the infecting strain in their faecal flora, and faecal clones causing UTI were more often dominant in the faecal flora. Patients had a larger diversity of E. coli in their gut flora by carrying more unique E. coli clones compared to controls, and patient faecal clones were more often associated...

  4. Combined quantification of faecal sterols, stanols, stanones and bile acids in soils and terrestrial sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Jago Jonathan; Dippold, Michaela; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Glaser, Bruno

    2012-06-15

    Faeces incorporation can alter the concentration patterns of stanols, stanones, Δ(5)-sterols and bile acids in soils and terrestrial sediments. A joint quantification of these substances would give robust and specific information about the faecal input. Therefore, a method was developed for their purification and determination via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based on a total lipid extract (TLE) of soils and terrestrial sediments. Stanols, stanones, Δ(5)-steroles and bile acids were extracted by a single Soxhlet extraction yielding a TLE. The TLE was saponified with KOH in methanol. Sequential liquid-liquid extraction was applied to recover the biomarkers from the saponified extract and to separate the bile acids from the neutral stanoles, stanones and Δ(5)-steroles. The neutral fraction was directly purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) columns packed with 5% deactivated silica gel. The bile acids were methylated in dry HCl in methanol and purified on SPE columns packed with activated silica gel. A mixture of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and pyridine was used to silylate the hydroxyl groups of the stanols and Δ(5)-sterols avoiding a silylation of the keto groups of the stanones in their enol-form. Silylation of the bile acids was carried out with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing N-trimethylsilylimidazole (TSIM). TLEs from a set of soils with different physico-chemical properties were used for method evaluation and for comparison of amounts of faecal biomarkers analysed with saponification and without saponification of the TLE. Therefore, a Regosol, a Podzol and a Ferralsol were sampled. To proof the applicability of the method for faecal biomarker analyses in archaeological soils and sediments, additional samples were taken from pre-Columbian Anthrosols in Amazonia and an Anthrosol from a site in central Europe settled since the Neolithic. The comparison of the amounts of steroids

  5. In vitro evaluation of a novel bacteriophage cocktail as a preventative for bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Anderson, J; Carter, L; Donjacour, E; Paros, M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of bacteriophage in preventing Escherichia coli mastitis on dairies. A cocktail consisting of 4 distinct bacteriophages was generated by screening against 36 E. coli isolates from dairy cows in Washington State with clinical mastitis. The bacteriophage significantly inhibited growth of 58% of the Washington State isolates and 54% of E. coli mastitis isolates from New York State, suggesting that the cocktail of phages had a relatively broad spectrum of action against relevant strains from 2 distinct geographies. The ability to suppress bacterial growth of these isolates in a liquid growth medium was not affected by the ratio of bacteriophage particles to bacterial cells (multiplicity of infection, MOI). For those E. coli that were completely inhibited by the phage cocktail, an MOI as low as 10 had the same effect as 10 µg/mL of ceftiofur on the growth rate of E. coli over a 12-h period using optical density measurements. A 3.3- to 5.6-log reduction of growth was achieved when E. coli was co-incubated with our phage cocktail in raw milk over a 12-h period at physiologic temperature. A modified gentamicin protection assay using bovine mammary epithelial cells provided a model to test whether bacteriophage could prevent cell attachment and invasion by chronic coliform mastitis strains. Pretreatment of cell cultures with the phage cocktail significantly reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of E. coli compared with controls. When combined with a bismuth-based teat sealant, the phage cocktail was able to inhibit bacterial growth when challenged with 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/mL of a clinical mastitis E. coli strain. In vitro results show bactericidal activity by our phage in raw milk and mammary tissue culture systems. Before a bacteriophage-based dry-cow treatment becomes a potential option for dairies, in vivo studies must be able to demonstrate that a specific dose of bacteriophage can protect cows from

  6. Microbiological Studies of Abattoir wastes in Ipata Market, Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physicochemical studies of abattoir waste was conducted within a period of 12 weeks. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from 4.0x108 to 5.6x108 cfu/ml with cow dung yielding the highest count. Total coliform counts ranged from 1.0x108 to 9.0x108 while total faecal coliform counts ranged from ...

  7. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of geoinformatic data and spatial analysis to predict faecal pollution during extreme precipitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ray; Purnell, Sarah; Ebdon, James; Nnane, Daniel; Taylor, Huw

    2013-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) regulates surface water quality standards in the European Union (EU). The Directive call for the identification and management of point and diffuse sources of pollution and requires the establishment of a 'programme of measures' for identified river basin districts, in order to achieve a "good status" by 2015. The hygienic quality of water is normally monitored using faecal indicator organisms (FIO), such as Escherichia coli, which indicate a potential risk to public health from human waterborne pathogens. Environmental factors influence the transmission of these pathogens and indicator organisms, and statistically significant relationships have been found between rainfall and outbreaks of waterborne disease. Climate change has been predicted to lead to an increase in severe weather events in many parts of Europe, including an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. This in turn is likely to lead to an increase in incidents of human waterborne disease in Europe, unless measures are taken to predict and mitigate for such events. This study investigates a variety of environmental factors that influence the concentration of FIO in surface waters receiving faecal contamination from a variety of sources. Levels of FIO, including Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, somatic coliphage and GB124 (a human-specific microbial source tracking marker), were monitored in the Sussex Ouse catchment in Southeast England over a period of 26 months. These data were combined with geoinformatic environmental data within a GIS to map faecal contamination within the river. Previously, precipitation and soil erosion have been identified as major factors that can influence the concentration of these faecal markers, and studies have shown that slope, soil type and vegetation influence both the mechanisms and the rate by which erosion occurs in river catchments. Of the environmental variables studied, extreme precipitation was found to

  9. Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world.

  10. Faecal Microbiota of Forage-Fed Horses in New Zealand and the Population Dynamics of Microbial Communities following Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W.; Gee, Erica K.; Bolwell, Charlotte F.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet (“Group A”; n = 6) or pasture (“Group B”; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson’s index of diversity >0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (Phorses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change. PMID:25383707

  11. Another one bites the dust: faecal silica levels in large herbivores correlate with high-crowned teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jürgen; Findeisen, Eva; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Ruf, Irina; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Bucher, Martin; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    The circumstances of the evolution of hypsodonty (= high-crowned teeth) are a bone of contention. Hypsodonty is usually linked to diet abrasiveness, either from siliceous phytoliths (monocotyledons) or from grit (dusty environments). However, any empirical quantitative approach testing the relation of ingested silica and hypsodonty is lacking. In this study, faecal silica content was quantified as acid detergent insoluble ash and used as proxy for silica ingested by large African herbivores of different digestive types, feeding strategies and hypsodonty levels. Separate sample sets were used for the dry (n = 15 species) and wet (n = 13 species) season. Average faecal silica contents were 17–46 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) for browsing and 52–163 g kg−1 DM for grazing herbivores. No difference was detected between the wet (97.5 ± 14.4 g kg−1 DM) and dry season (93.5 ± 13.7 g kg−1 DM) faecal silica. In a phylogenetically controlled analysis, a strong positive correlation (dry season r = 0.80, p < 0.0005; wet season r = 0.74, p < 0.005) was found between hypsodonty index and faecal silica levels. While surprisingly our results do not indicate major seasonal changes in silica ingested, the correlation of faecal silica and hypsodonty supports a scenario of a dominant role of abrasive silica in the evolution of high-crowned teeth. PMID:21068036

  12. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS® to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%, followed by 1/2a (13.2%, and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level.

  13. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  16. Identifying faecal impaction is important for ensuring the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Most research on functional constipation has been carried out at a tertiary level. We focused this study on a secondary-level hospital outpatients' department, assessing the distribution of diagnostic criteria for childhood functional constipation and evaluating the consequences of current...... diagnostic practice based on current guidelines. METHODS: We enrolled 235 children, aged two to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria and assessed them using medical histories and physical examinations, including rectal examinations and ultrasound measurements...... the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation at the secondary care level. Ultrasound examination proved a reliable alternative to rectal examination or abdominal radiography when identifying faecal impaction....

  17. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  18. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  19. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  20. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took

  1. Baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo para estimativa da produção fecal em bovinos Low level of chromium oxide to estimate faecal output in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o uso de baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo (Cr2O3 incorporado em um alimento concentrado para estimativa da produção fecal (PF em bovinos. Para tanto, foram conduzidos quatro ensaios de digestibilidade in vivo utilizando quatro novilhos com peso vivo médio de 214±31kg, recebendo ad libitum no cocho azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cortado verde. Aproximadamente 200g de ração contendo 5g kg-1 do indicador foi fornecida diariamente durante 12 dias, sendo feito a coleta de dados e amostras nos últimos cinco dias de cada período. A PF foi medida com o uso de sacolas de coleção total ou estimada com base na concentração do indicador em amostras fecais coletadas duas vezes ao dia (8 e 16h ou a intervalos de duas horas entre 8 e 22h. A concentração média de cromo nas amostras coletadas às 8 e 16h (445mg kg-1 foi semelhante à média geral de todos os horários (447mg kg-1. O grau de recuperação fecal (GR do indicador aumentou linearmente, de aproximadamente 40% para em torno de 80%, com o aumento da concentração fecal de cromo até esta última atingir um valor em torno de 250mg kg-1 de MO. Quando a concentração de cromo nas fezes foi superior a este valor o GR se manteve relativamente constante, em média 76%. A produção fecal foi superestimada pelo indicador em até 35% quando não corrigido para o GR. Quando corrigido para a recuperação fecal, as estimativas de produção fecal de MO estimadas foram similares às observadas. A excreção fecal de bovinos alimentados com azevém pode ser acuradamente estimada com o uso de baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo incorporado em uma ração peletizada concomitante à coleta de duas amostragens diárias de fezes.The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of a low level of chromium oxide (Cr2O3 incorporated into the concentrate ration to estimate faecal output (FO in cattle. Four in vivo digestibility essays were conducted using four steers with live weights of

  2. Results of faecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening, in average risk population, in a cohort of 1389 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miuţescu, Bogdan; Sporea, Ioan; Popescu, Alina; Bota, Simona; Iovănescu, Dana; Burlea, Amelia; Mos, Liana; Miuţescu, Eftimie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening, detection of precancerous lesions and early colorectal cancer. The study evaluated asymptomatic patients with average risk (no personal or family antecedents of polyps or colorectal cancer), aged between 50 and 74 years. The presence of the occult haemorrhage was tested with the immunochemical faecal test Hem Check 1 (Veda Lab, France). The subjects were not requested to have any dietary or drug restrictions. Colonoscopy was recommended in all subjects that tested positive. In our study, we had a total of 1389 participants who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 61.2 ± 12.8 years, 565 (40.7%) men and 824 (59.3%) women. FIT was positive in 87 individuals (6.3%). In 57/87 subjects (65.5%) with positive FIT, colonoscopy was performed, while the rest of the subjects refused or delayed the investigation. A number of 5 (8.8%) patients were not able to have a complete colonoscopy, due to neoplastic stenosis. The colonoscopies revealed in 10 cases (0.7%) cancer, in 29 cases (2.1%) advanced adenomas and in 15 cases (1.1%) non advanced adenomas from the total participants in the study. The colonoscopies performed revealed a greater percentage of advanced adenomas in the left colon compared to the right colon, 74.1% vs. 28.6% (p<0.001). In our study, FIT had a positivity rate of 6.3%. The detection rate for advanced neoplasia was 2.8% (0.7% for cancer, 2.1% for advanced adenomas) in our study group. Adherence to colonoscopy for FIT-positive subjects was 65.5%.

  3. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  4. Appraisal of the /sup 14/C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal /sup 14/C excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpello, J H.B.; Sladen, G E [Royal Hospital, Sheffield (UK). Academic Div. of Medicine

    1977-09-01

    The /sup 14/C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal /sup 14/C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion, but normal faecal excretion of /sup 14/C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal /sup 14/C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath /sup 14/C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal /sup 14/C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal /sup 14/C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal /sup 14/C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The /sup 14/C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal /sup 14/C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected.

  5. Pesquisa de coliformes em compostagem de resíduos de hortaliças com a utilização de diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a redução ou a eliminação de bactérias do grupo coliforme, em um sistema de compostagem de resíduos sólidos de hortaliças (RSH com os substratos serragem e capim seco. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com três repetições em cada um.No primeiro tratamento, foram utilizados RSH e serragem na proporção de 6:1. No segundo, foi utilizada a mesma proporção do primeiro, porém o substrato foi o capim seco. Para a pesquisa das bactérias do grupo coliforme foram efetuadas 16 coletas em cada canteiro. Analisou-se também a temperatura e produção de chorume. Os resultados revelaram que a utilização dos substratos serragem ou capim seco foi incapaz de reduzir coliformes totais. Entre a terceira e a sétima semana, houve redução de aproximadamente 50 % dos coliformes termotolerantes para o substrato serragem e, entre a terceira e a sexta semana, o substrato capim seco foi capaz de reduzir em aproximadamente 40 % os coliformes termotolerantes. As temperaturas foram inferiores a 40 °C durante as dezesseis semanas do experimento para os dois tipos de substratos.

  6. Simulation of the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters based on a fractionated sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model is refined in this paper to simulate the hydrodynamics, graded sediment transport process and the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters. The sediment mixture is divided into several fractions according to the grain size. A bed evolution model is adopted to simulate the processes of the bed elevation change and sediment grain size sorting. The faecal bacteria transport equation includes enhanced source and sink terms to represent bacterial kinetic transformation and disappearance or reappearance due to sediment deposition or re-suspension. A novel partition ratio and dynamic decay rates of faecal bacteria are adopted in the numerical model. The model has been applied to the turbid water environment in the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary, UK. The predictions by the present model are compared with field data and those by non-fractionated model.

  7. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Brynskov, J.; Steenholdt, C.

    2012-01-01

    process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures...... of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative...... PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even...

  8. Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Ali, W.

    2011-01-01

    A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

  9. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  10. Assessing diet quality of African ungulates from faecal analyses: the effect of forage quality, intake and herbivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Wrench

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Faecal phosphorous and nitrogen can be used as indicators of the nutritive content of the veld. Dietary P concentrations can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from faecal P concentrations in faeces of caged impala rams using a simple linear regression model, Y = 0.393X (r2 = 0.97. This regression holds whether impala are grazing or browsing as well as for high and low levels of intake. The regression equation used in the prediction of dietary P in zebra, blue wildebeest and cattle, did not differ significantly from this simple regression and a combined regression equation could be formulated. A faecal P concentration of less than 2 g P/kg OM would appear to indicate a P deficiency in most species. The prediction of dietary N is influenced by the intake of phenolic compounds and different regression equations exist for grazers and browsers. For prediction of dietary N concentrations, both the concentration of N and P in the faeces should be taken into account. This multiple regression equation is applicable for grazing impala at all levels of intake. For impala utilising browse, a regression model with faecal Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen (ADIN and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL should be used to predict dietary N concentration. For grazers, a faecal N concentration of less than 14 g/kg DM would indicate a deficiency. Dietary digestibility can be predicted accurately in some species using faecal N, P and ADL concentrations. However, more work needs to be done to quantify their effects.

  11. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  12. Effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise on faecal incontinence in rectal cancer patients after stoma closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-H; Yang, H-Y; Hung, S-L; Chen, H-P; Liu, K-W; Chen, T-B; Chi, S-C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) on the faecal incontinence (FI) of rectal cancer patients following stoma closure. Participants were randomly distributed into an exercise group (n = 27) and non-exercise group (n = 26). An experimental design and longitudinal approach were implemented for data collection. Baseline data were collected at 1 day before discharge, and then PFME was taught before the patients were discharged from the hospital. We collected data and followed up with the patients at their pre-discharge visit and at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months after discharge. The Cleveland Clinic Faecal Incontinence (CCI) score was used to measure patient outcome. PFME proved to effectively decrease the degree of FI in stoma closure recipients. The FI score of the exercise group significantly decreased from 8.37 to 2.27 after PFME compared with that of the non-exercise group (from 8.54 to 2.58). The generalised estimation equation tests showed that both group and time were significantly different. The tests also indicated that although PFME appeared to hasten the decline of incontinence, this effect was no longer detectable at 9 months; thus, it may be an effective intervention for FI when implemented up to half a year after discharge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Schwarz, Sandra; Boehm, Anke; Fuhrmann, H; Richter, A; Henle, T; Krueger, Monika

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty-five volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. At the end of a 7 d run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of fifteen subjects each, consuming either snack bars with CH or JA, or snack bars without fructans (placebo); for 7 d (adaptation period), they ingested one snack bar per day (7.7 g fructan/d) and continued for 14 d with two snack bars per day. The composition of the microbiota was monitored weekly. The consumption of CH or JA increased counts of bifidobacteria (+1.2 log10 in 21 d) and reduced Bacteroides/Prevotella in number and the Clostridium histolyticum/C. lituseburense group in frequency at the end of intervention (P bakery products stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and may contribute to the suppression of potential pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  15. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  16. Pelvic floor muscle lesions at endoanal MR imaging in female patients with faecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Vervoorn, Inge; Dobben, Annette C.; Stoker, Jaap; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.; Deutekom, Marije; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Wasser, Martin N.J.M.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Baeten, Cor G.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of lesions of different pelvic floor muscles at endoanal MRI in women with severe faecal incontinence and to study their relation with incontinence severity and manometric findings. In 105 women MRI examinations were evaluated for internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS), puborectal muscle (PM) and levator ani (LA) lesions. The relative contribution of lesions to differences in incontinence severity and manometric findings was studied. IAS (n=59) and EAS (n=61) defects were more common than PM (n=23) and LA (n=26) defects. PM and LA defects presented mainly with IAS and/or EAS defects (isolated n=2 and n=3). EAS atrophy (n=73) was more common than IAS (n=19), PM (n=16) and LA (n=9) atrophy and presented mainly isolated. PM and LA atrophy presented primarily with EAS atrophy (isolated n=3 and n=1). Patients with IAS and EAS lesions had a lower resting and squeeze pressure, respectively; no other associations were found. PM and LA lesions are relatively common in patients with severe faecal incontinence, but the majority of lesions are found in women who also have IAS and/or EAS lesions. Only an association between anal sphincter lesions and manometry was observed. (orig.)

  17. Significance of the thickness of the anal sphincters with age and its relevance in faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Pye, S D; Wild, S R; Smith, A N

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasonographic studies in healthy volunteers showed that the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) thicknesses were inversely related at rest. The functional importance of the two sphincters in continence control was demonstrated in the relationship between the sum of the thicknesses of the two sphincters and the anal canal resting pressure. The aims of the present study were to assess the morphometric appearance of the anal sphincters by endosonography in faecally incontinent patients and to contrast this with that of older healthy subjects. Twenty-eight female patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence (FI) were studied. An older group of 7 healthy women, aged 41-75 years, and a young group of 11 nulliparous healthy women, aged 20-23 years, served as control groups. Anal endosonography was performed with a radial rotating endoprobe, with the subject in the left lateral position. Conventional anal manometry was performed in all subjects. The EAS in the FI group was thicker than the EAS in the old (p IAS thickness in the FI group did not differ from that in the older group. In both these groups the IAS was thicker than in the young women (p IAS in the FI group does not seem to compensate for function and results in a failure of the sphincter mechanism to maintain continence, whereas in healthy elderly subjects the increased IAS thickness appears to be compensatory and important for continence control.

  18. Additional oligofructose/inulin does not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen A; Cole, Jayne; Emery, Peter W; Whelan, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Patients with diarrhoea during enteral nutrition (EN) have been shown to have low faecal bifidobacteria concentrations. Oligofructose/inulin selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in healthy humans. This study investigates the effect of additional oligofructose/inulin on the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and faecal output in patients receiving EN. Adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who were starting EN with a formula containing fibre were randomised to receive 7 g/d of additional oligofructose/inulin or an identically packaged placebo (maltodextrin). A fresh faecal sample was collected at baseline and following at least 7 days of supplementation. Faecal microbiota were analysed using fluorescent in-situ hybridisation and faecal output was monitored daily. Twenty-two patients (mean age 71 years) completed at least 7 days of intervention (mean 12 days). At the end of the intervention, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of bifidobacteria between the groups, after adjusting for baseline values (oligofructose/inulin 6.9 + 1.4, placebo 7.8 + 1.3 log10 cells/g dry faeces, P > 0.05), but there were significantly lower concentrations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (7.0 + 1.0 vs. 8.4 + 1.3 log10 cells/g, P = 0.01) and Bacteroides-Prevotella (9.1 + 1.0 vs. 9.9 + 0.9 log10 cells/g, P = 0.05) in patients receiving additional oligofructose/inulin. There were no differences in faecal concentrations of any SCFA, secretory IgA, daily faecal score or incidence of diarrhoea between the two groups. Additional oligofructose/inulin did not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving EN, although it did result in lower concentrations of F. prausnitzii and Bacteroides-Prevotella. This trial is registered at http://controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN06446184. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All

  19. Cow-specific diet digestibility predictions based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy scans of faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, T; Rinne, M; Nyholm, L; Mäntysaari, P; Sairanen, A; Mäntysaari, E A; Pitkänen, T; Lidauer, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to obtain information on prediction of diet digestibility from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) scans of faecal spot samples from dairy cows at different stages of lactation and to develop a faecal sampling protocol. NIRS was used to predict diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre content (iNDF) from faecal samples, and dry matter digestibility (DMD) using iNDF in feed and faecal samples as an internal marker. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an internal digestibility marker was used as a reference method to evaluate the reliability of NIRS predictions. Feed and composite faecal samples were collected from 44 cows at approximately 50, 150 and 250 days in milk (DIM). The estimated standard deviation for cow-specific organic matter digestibility analysed by AIA was 12.3 g/kg, which is small considering that the average was 724 g/kg. The phenotypic correlation between direct faecal OMD prediction by NIRS and OMD by AIA over the lactation was 0.51. The low repeatability and small variability estimates for direct OMD predictions by NIRS were not accurate enough to quantify small differences in OMD between cows. In contrast to OMD, the repeatability estimates for DMD by iNDF and especially for direct faecal iNDF predictions were 0.32 and 0.46, respectively, indicating that developing of NIRS predictions for cow-specific digestibility is possible. A data subset of 20 cows with daily individual faecal samples was used to develop an on-farm sampling protocol. Based on the assessment of correlations between individual sample combinations and composite samples as well as repeatability estimates for individual sample combinations, we found that collecting up to three individual samples yields a representative composite sample. Collection of samples from all the cows of a herd every third month might be a good choice, because it would yield a better accuracy. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effects of inulin supplementation on selected faecal characteristics and health of neonatal Saanen kids sucking milk from their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, C; Orman, A; Gencoglu, H; Kovanlıkaya, A; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Yıbar, A; Kasap, S; Turkmen, I; Deniz, G

    2012-12-01

    Fifty newborn Saanen kids were used to study the effects of inulin supplementation on faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial population, BW, body temperature, haematological traits, selected health parameters and the incidence of diarrhoea. Kids were sorted by parity of their dams and multiple birth (twin or triplet) and assigned to one of the two groups (control: CG, and experimental: EG) at birth. Each group consisted of 25 kids. The groups were similar with regard to sex and birth weight. All kids were fed colostrum for the first 3 days after birth, and then the kids in EG were adapted to inulin supplementation by an increased dosage from day 4 to 7. Each kid in EG was supplemented with 0.2 g, 0.3 g, 0.4 g, 0.5 g and 0.6 g inulin on day 4, 5, 6, 7 and from day 8 to 28, respectively, whereas the kids in CG did not receive inulin. Faecal score and faecal bacterial population were not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). There were differences in faecal pH on day 14 (P = 0.01) and 28 (P 0.05) was detected between groups. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW and haematological traits were found between groups. Body temperature did not differ on day 14 and 21 (P > 0.05), whereas there was a difference in body temperature on day 28 (P = 0.01) between groups. The numbers of kids with pneumonia and kids treated for pneumonia and diarrhoea were similar for CG and EG. Kid losses during the study were the same for CG and EG. The incidence of diarrhoea was not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). Inulin supplemented to kids did not adversely affect faecal score. The effect of inulin on faecal pH was not consistent. The results of our study suggested that daily dose (0.6 g) of inulin might not be enough to observe effects of it. Our data will be useful to determine the dose and timing of inulin supplementation in future studies investigating the effects of inulin on the parameters associated with performance and health status in kids and other

  1. Metagenomic analysis of faecal microbiome as a tool towards targeted non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jun; Feng, Qiang; Wong, Sunny Hei

    2017-01-01

    known associations of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus stomatis with CRC, we found significant associations with several species, including Parvimonas micra and Solobacterium moorei. We identified 20 microbial gene markers that differentiated CRC and control microbiomes, and validated 4...... in the independent Chinese cohort with AUC=0.84 and OR of 23. These genes were enriched in early-stage (I-II) patient microbiomes, highlighting the potential for using faecal metagenomic biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first metagenomic profiling study of CRC faecal microbiomes...

  2. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...

  3. Are carnivore digestive separation mechanisms revealed on structure-rich diets?: Faecal inconsistency in dogs (Canis familiaris) fed day old chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuyper, De Annelies; Clauss, M.; Hesta, Myriam; Cools, An; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, Geert P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pronounced variations in faecal consistency have been described anecdotally for some carnivore species fed a structure-rich diet. Typically two faecal consistencies are distinguished, namely hard and firm versus liquid and viscous faeces. It is possible that a separation mechanism is operating in

  4. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  5. Ammonia production by human faecal bacteria, and the enumeration, isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The products of protein breakdown in the human colon are considered to be detrimental to gut health. Amino acid catabolism leads to the formation of sulfides, phenolic compounds and amines, which are inflammatory and/or precursors to the formation of carcinogens, including N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of protein breakdown and the bacterial species involved. Results Casein, pancreatic casein hydrolysate (mainly short-chain peptides or amino acids were incubated in vitro with suspensions of faecal bacteria from 3 omnivorous and 3 vegetarian human donors. Results from the two donor groups were similar. Ammonia production was highest from peptides, followed by casein and amino acids, which were similar. The amino acids metabolized most extensively were Asp, Ser, Lys and Glu. Monensin inhibited the rate of ammonia production from amino acids by 60% (P = 0.001, indicating the involvement of Gram-positive bacteria. Enrichment cultures were carried out to investigate if, by analogy with the rumen, there was a significant population of asaccharolytic, obligately amino acid-fermenting bacteria (‘hyper-ammonia-producing’ bacteria; HAP in the colon. Numbers of bacteria capable of growth on peptides or amino acids alone averaged 3.5% of the total viable count, somewhat higher than the rumen. None of these were HAP, however. The species enriched included Clostridium spp., one of which was C. perfringens, Enterococcus, Shigella and Escherichia coli. Conclusions Protein fermentation by human faecal bacteria in the absence of sugars not only leads to the formation of hazardous metabolic products, but also to the possible proliferation of harmful bacteria. The kinetics of protein metabolism were similar to the rumen, but HAP bacteria were not found.

  6. The role of faecal diversion in low rectal cancer: a review of 1791 patients having rectal resection with anastomosis for cancer, with and without a proximal stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkin, S; Kakarla, V R; Ruiz, D E; Cance, W G; Tiszenkel, H I

    2013-06-01

    The morbidity of anastomotic dehiscence may be mitigated by a defunctioning stoma, but it is unclear if it is required for most low rectal anastomoses. Preoperative risk factors leading to anastomotic complications and the indications for faecal diversion have yet to be clearly defined. Using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) participant-use file, patients were identified who underwent low anterior resection with anastomosis for cancer at the 211 participating hospitals in 2005-08. A total of 1791 patients underwent low anterior resection. Patients were subdivided into two groups based on the level of the anastomosis. Of these 1266 patients had a low pelvic anastomosis (LPA) and 525 a coloanal anastomosis (CAA). In the LPA group, 606 patients had a stoma and 660 had no stoma. There were no differences in wound complications, sepsis or septic shock. Patients who had a stoma were more likely to have postoperative acute renal failure (1.7 vs 0.5%, P = 0.0485, OR 3.674). In the CAA group, 352 had a stoma and 173 had no stoma. In patients without faecal diversion, there was a significantly greater incidence of sepsis (8.7 vs 3.7%, P = 0.022, OR 2.47), septic shock (3.5 vs 0.57%, P = 0.018, OR 6.29) and need for reoperation (11 vs 1.7%, P = 0.0001, OR 7.11). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer with CAA and no stoma. On multivariate analysis, not having a stoma with a CAA was a risk factor for serious postoperative morbidity. While a defunctioning stoma with a coloanal anastomosis seems to protect from postoperative sepsis, septic shock and need for reoperation, it is likely that it is overused in rectal cancer surgery. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Emergency laparoscopic ileo-colic resection and primary intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn's acute ileitis with free perforation and faecal peritonitis: first ever reported laparoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, A; Tugnoli, G; Beghelli, D; Siciliani, A; Biscardi, A; Bertarelli, C; Selleri, S; Lombardi, R; Di Saverio, S

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy for abdominal surgical emergencies is gaining increasing acceptance given the spreading of advanced laparoscopic skills among modern surgeons, as it may allow at the same time an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of acute abdomen. The use of the laparoscopic approach also in case of diffuse peritonitis is now becoming accepted provided hemodynamic stability, despite the common belief in the past decades that such severe condition represented an indication for conversion to open surgery or an immediate contraindication to continue laparoscopy. Crohn's Disease (CD) is a rare cause of acute abdomen and peritonitis, only a few cases of CD acute perforations are reported in the published literature; these cases have always been approached and treated by open laparotomy. We report on a case of a faecal peritonitis due to an acute perforation caused by a terminal ileitis in an undiagnosed CD. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy followed by a laparoscopic ileo-colic resection and primary intracorporeal anastomosis, with a successful postoperative outcome. Complicated CD has to be considered within the possible causes of small bowel non-traumatic perforation. Emergency laparoscopy with resection and primary intra-corporeal anastomosis can be feasible and may be a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to open surgery even in case of faecal peritonitis, in selected stable patients and in presence of appropriate laparoscopic colorectal surgical skills and experience. To the best of our knowledge the present experience is the first ever reported case managed with a totally laparoscopic extended ileocecal resection with intracorporeal anastomosis in case of acutely perforated CD and diffuse peritonitis.

  8. Water quality monitoring in a bathing area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) using Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as a tracer of faecal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Caruso, Gabriella; Stefani', Chiara; Consalvi, Natalizia; Piermattei, Viviana; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Coastal urban bathing areas are often affected by events of faecal contamination, caused by the discharge of untreated wastewaters during the bathing season that can increase the risk for public health. Monitoring the quality of recreational waters is still closely linked to time-consuming seawater sampling and laboratory analysis, not allowing promptly management interventions. To face this issue, the European environmental policies strongly promote the development of coastal observing systems, above all in the Southern European Seas (SES). Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) has been increasingly used as a tracer of bacterial loads, since wastewaters are characterized by a large amount of organic compounds. The aim of this work was to study the relation between CDOM and Escherichia coli abundance, giving relevance to bacterial physiological state detected using both the standard culture method and the innovative fluorescent antibody technique. Attention has been paid also on the expression of extracellular enzymatic activity by the total microbial community to explore the role of bacteria in the decomposition processes of dissolved organic matter. Data were collected during summer 2015 and 2016 in a bathing area of Civitavecchia at increasing distances from the discharge point. The results confirm the usefulness of CDOM measurements as a proxy of faecal pollution in bathing areas. In this perspective, the low-cost stand-alone systems equipped with CDOM fluorescence sensors developed by the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (Tuscia University) (Marcelli et al., 2014) could allow the continous monitoring of water quality, increasing the capabilities of the Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System (C-CEMS) in the analysis of pollution events. Thanks to the integration of in situ fixed stations, high-resolution satellites imagery and numerical models, C-CEMS provides a management tool to support the stakeholders for timely

  9. Development of a sensitive chemiluminometric assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase in permeabilized coliform bacteria and comparison with fluorometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    1995-01-01

    We developed a chemiluminometric assay of beta-galactosidase in coliform bacteria, using a phenylgalactose-substituted 1,2-dioxetane derivative as a substrate. Permeabilization of cells is required to ensure the efficient cellular uptake of this compound. By this method, one coliform seeded in 100 ml of sterile water can be detected after a 6- to 9-h propagation phase followed by a 45-min enzyme assay in the presence of polymyxin B. Compared with fluorometry and colorimetry, chemiluminometry afforded 4- and 1,000-fold increases in sensitivity and 1- and 6-h increases in the speed of detection, respectively. PMID:8534120

  10. Microbial contamination in kitchens and bathrooms of rural Cambodian village households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G; Gerba, C P

    2011-02-01

    To quantify microbial contamination on kitchen and bathroom surfaces (fomites) in rural Cambodian homes and to compare these concentrations to similar data from the United States and Japan. This study monitored the numbers of faecal coliforms (i.e. thermotolerant coliforms), total coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate count bacteria on household surfaces in a rural village of Cambodia. Faecal coliform levels in Cambodia were highest on moist locations such as the plastic ladle used for sink water, the toilet seat surface and the cutting board surface with 100-fold higher levels of faecal coliform bacteria than E. coli and 100-fold higher levels of faecal coliforms than the US and Japanese studies. A single public health intervention barrier, such as an improved latrine, is only partially effective for household sanitation. For complete sanitation, multiple environmental barriers may be necessary. These barriers occur in a house constructed with easily washable surfaces, a chlorinated water distribution system, house climate control and cleaning product availability. Results of this study can be used to emphasize the importance of increasing household environmental sanitation barriers. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  12. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  13. Faecal consistency and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in cats in UK rehoming shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Allison C; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Morgan, Kenton L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe faecal consistency, prevalence and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in a rescue cat population. Methods Faecal samples in litter trays from a stratified random sample of cats in pens at 25 UK rehoming centres were scored for consistency in two discrete time periods, summer and winter. A six-point scale was used, with diarrhoea ⩽3, severe diarrhoea ⩽2 and constipation as 6. The effect on faecal consistency of age, number of cats per pen and season was investigated using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression with centre and pen as random effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate the effect of pen and centre. Results Overall, 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:10.4-13.7) of cats had diarrhoea, 2.4% (95% CI 1.6-3.7) had severe diarrhoea and 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.5) were constipated. The prevalence of diarrhoea (median 11.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-14.5%) and constipation (median 4.2%, IQR 1.8-5.9) varied at the centre level. Diarrhoea was associated with being a kitten (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, 95% CI 1.45-4.46; P = 0.001) and being in a multi-cat pen (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48; P = 0.02) but not with season (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.55-1.77; P = 0.96). Severe diarrhoea was associated with senior cats (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.25-17.44; P = 0.02). Constipation was associated with increasing age (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01; P = 0.02) and winter (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.89; P = 0.02). Both diarrhoea and constipation showed moderate correlation with pens within a centre. Conclusions and relevance From IQRs, we suggest acceptable levels for diarrhoea and constipation of 11% and 4%, respectively, targets of 5% and 2%, and intervention at 15% and 6%. Increasing age was associated with decreased risk of diarrhoea and increased risk of constipation. However, severe diarrhoea was associated with being a senior cat. Season (winter) was a risk factor for constipation; multi-cat pens were a risk

  14. Using faecal DNA to determine consumption by kangaroos of plants considered palatable to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J

    2010-02-01

    Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification

  15. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p bacterial count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  16. Effect of injury on S1 dorsal root ganglia in an experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peirce, C

    2011-08-01

    An experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence has recently been established. This study aimed to quantify and compare the effect of crush and compression injury on first-order sensory neurones of the inferior rectal nerve (IRN) using a nuclear marker of axonal injury, activating transcription factor (ATF) 3.

  17. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Aitken, M.; Crowther, J.; Dickson, I.; Edwards, A.C.; Francis, C.; Hopkins, M.; Jeffrey, W.; Kay, C.; McDonald, A.T.; McDonald, D.; Stapleton, C.M.; Watkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wyer, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  18. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  19. Evaluation of two automated enzyme-immunoassays for detection of thermophilic campylobacters in faecal samples from cattle and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Nielsen, E.M.; Stryhn, H.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of two enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of naturally occurring, thermophilic Campylobacter spp. found in faecal samples from cattle (n = 21 and n = 26) and swine (n = 43) relative to the standard culture method, and also assuming that none of the tests...

  20. The relationship between faecal-associated and mucosal-associated microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, I.; Sundin, J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Repsilber, D.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The faecal-associated microbiota is commonly seen as a surrogate of the mucosal-associated microbiota. However, previous studies indicate that they are different. Furthermore, analyses of the mucosal microbiota are commonly done after standard bowel cleansing, affecting the microbial

  1. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of faecal and urinary Escherichia coli isolated from dogs and humans in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Tramuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During this study, 109 faecal Escherichia coli samples isolated from 61 dogs and 48 humans were characterised according to phylogenetic group, extraintestinal virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The isolates from dogs were predominantly distributed within phylogroup B1 (36%, while the majority of human strains belonged to phylogroup B2 (54%. The prevalence of cnf1, hlyA, papC and sfa virulence genes was significantly associated with the group B2. Canine isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR more frequently than human strains. Since group B2 contains most of the strains that cause extraintestinal infections, all 46 B2 faecal strains were confronted against an addition population of 57 urinary E. coli strains belonging to the same phylogroup. The comparison shows that there was no significant difference in the occurrence of virulence factors or in the distribution of antibiotic resistance between faecal and urinary E. coli isolates fromd dogs. At the same time, a highly significant association was detected between multiple resistence and the source of the strains and between MDR and E. coli isolated from urine in human. This study highlighted similar features of E. coli isolated across sources and hosts. The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in faecal strains, which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can function as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli.

  2. Increase of faecal tryptic activity relates to changes in the intestinal microbiome: analysis of Crohn's disease with a multidisciplinary platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Midtvedt

    Full Text Available To investigate-by molecular, classical and functional methods-the microbiota in biopsies and faeces from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD and controls.The microbiota in biopsies was investigated utilizing a novel molecular method and classical cultivation technology. Faecal samples were investigated by classical technology and four functional methods, reflecting alterations in short chain fatty acids pattern, conversion of cholesterol and bilirubin and inactivation of trypsin.By molecular methods we found more than 92% similarity in the microbiota on the biopsies from the two groups. However, 4.6% of microbes found in controls were lacking in CD patients. Furthermore, NotI representation libraries demonstrate two different clusters representing CD patients and controls, respectively. Utilizing conventional technology, Bacteroides (alt. Parabacteroides was less frequently detected in the biopsies from CD patients than from controls. A similar reduction in the number of Bacteroides was found in faecal samples. Bacteroides is the only group of bacteria known to be able to inactivate pancreatic trypsin. Faecal tryptic activity was high in CD patients, and inversely correlated to the levels of Bacteroides.CD patients have compositional and functional alterations in their intestinal microbiota, in line with the global description hypothesis rather than the candidate microorganism theory. The most striking functional difference was high amount of faecal tryptic activity in CD patients, inversely correlated to the levels of Bacteroides in faeces.

  3. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  4. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  5. Coliform bacteria as indicators of diarrheal risk in household drinking water: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Ercumen, Ayse; Colford, John M

    2014-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant ("fecal") coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence. We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health. Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water.

  6. Development of an Intervention for implementing Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Denne korte artikel handler om udviklingen af en intervention til implementering af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. Artiklen gennemgår processen fra de tidlige udviklingsstadier, over pilot-testning og frem til de endelige justeringer før selve implementeringen blev...... vurdering og viden om patienten. Kombinationen af teori og praksis viste sig at være en god måde at sikre hurtig ibrugtagning af en ny test i almen praksis til at identificere potentielle tegn på tarmkræft hos patienter. Særligt pilot-testning af interventionen viste sig at være værdifuld, fordi den...

  7. Establishment of an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis to prevent faecal reflux after ileocolic resection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, K W; Pistorius, G; Menger, M D; Feifel, G

    2000-05-01

    To construct an immunocompetent nipple valve anastomosis (NVA) to exclude faecal reflux and compare it with an end-to-end anastomosis to see if it would prevent recurrent inflammation caused by intraluminal bacterial antigens in Crohn's disease. Laboratory study. Teaching hospital, Germany. Two groups of six beagle dogs each of which had NVA or end-to-end anastomosis. Construction of a NVA by stapling the telescoped nipple, and replacing the ileal mucosa on the valve by colonic mucosa; end-to-end anastomosis. Radiological, bacteriological, angiographic, and morphometric results. Absolute retrograde pressure-competence and free orthograde permeability of the NVA resulted in significantly lower intestinal bacterial counts compared with the end-to-end anastomosis (p < 0.05). Transposition of colonic mucosa was successful as demonstrated by revascularisation from the ileal nipple and looked normal on morphometry. If NVA were constructed in patients with Crohn's disease, recurrences should be prevented, which would verify the immunopathogenetic hypothesis of new inflammation.

  8. Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Manuela M; Kessler, Alexandre M; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Knotts, Trina A; Kim, Kyoungmi; Wei, Alfreda; Ramsey, Jon J; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-01

    Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction. Lean neutered cats had a bacterial profile similar to obese rodents and humans, with a greater abundance (Pcats was due to a bloom in Peptostreptococcaceae. Obese cats had an 18 % reduction in fat mass after energy restriction (Pcats. Additional work is needed to understand how neutering, obesity and weight loss are related to changes in feline microbiota and how these microbial shifts affect host physiology.

  9. Encopresis in children: a cyclical model of constipation and faecal retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, T

    1991-01-01

    Encopresis afflicts one in 100 children causing considerable stigma and parental concern. General practitioners are in a position to help in most cases but are often deterred by the psychoanalytical theories which have been developed to explain this problem. It is currently accepted that children with encopresis tend to retain stools. This leads to constipation, overstretching of sphincters and resultant faecal soiling. Physical and psychological perpetuating factors result in retention once again, thus completing a cycle of constipation and retention. Various precipitant and predisposing factors can maintain this cycle. Once physical causes have been excluded a simple behavioural approach can be adopted aimed at retraining the bowel. By using laxatives to prevent retention, gaining the child's confidence, cooperation and understanding and involving both the family and school, encopresis can be successfully managed in general practice. PMID:1807329

  10. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W; Gee, Erica K; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6) or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P 003), CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004), and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003) and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006). The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  11. SaFaRI: sacral nerve stimulation versus the FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation for adult faecal incontinence: a randomised investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Annabelle E; Croft, Julie; Napp, Vicky; Corrigan, Neil; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; Brown, Steven R; Lodge, Jen; Protheroe, David; Jayne, David G

    2016-02-01

    Faecal incontinence is a physically, psychologically and socially disabling condition. NICE guidance (2007) recommends surgical intervention, including sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), after failed conservative therapies. The FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device is a novel continence device consisting of a flexible band of interlinked titanium beads with magnetic cores that is placed around the anal canal to augment anal sphincter tone through passive attraction of the beads. Preliminary studies suggest the FENIX MSA is safe, but efficacy data is limited. Rigorous evaluation is required prior to widespread adoption. The SaFaRI trial is a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded UK multi-site, parallel group, randomised controlled, unblinded trial that will investigate the use of the FENIX MSA, as compared to SNS, for adult faecal incontinence resistant to conservative management. Twenty sites across the UK, experienced in the treatment of faecal incontinence, will recruit 350 patients randomised equally to receive either SNS or FENIX MSA. Participants will be followed-up at 2 weeks post-surgery and at 6, 12 and 18 months post-randomisation. The primary endpoint is success, as defined by device in use and ≥50 % improvement in the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) at 18 months post-randomisation. Secondary endpoints include complications, quality of life and cost effectiveness. SaFaRI will rigorously evaluate a new technology for faecal incontinence, the FENIX™ MSA, allowing its safe and controlled introduction into current clinical practice. These results will inform the future surgical management of adult faecal incontinence.

  12. Social, state-dependent and environmental modulation of faecal corticosteroid levels in free-ranging female spotted hyenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, W; East, M L; Wachter, B; Höner, O P; Möstl, E; Van't Hof, T J; Hofer, H

    2001-12-07

    Little is known about to what extent the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be state dependent and vary in the same species between environments. Here we tested whether the faecal corticosteroid concentrations of matrilineal adult female spotted hyenas are influenced by social and reproductive status in adjacent ecosystems and whether they vary between periods with and without social stress. Females in the Serengeti National Park frequently become socially subordinate intruders in other hyena territories by undertaking long-distance foraging trips to migratory herds, whereas in the Ngorongoro Crater they usually forage inside their own small territories on resident prey. The faecal corticosteroid concentrations in Serengeti females were significantly higher than in Ngorongoro females. Energy expenditure by lactation is exceptionally high in spotted hyenas and this may be reflected in their corticosteroid levels. The faecal corticosteroid levels in both populations were higher in lactating than in non-lactating females. During periods of social stability, faecal corticosteroid concentrations increased in non-lactating females but not in lactating females as social status declined. Lactating Serengeti females had significantly higher faecal corticosteroid concentrations during periods with acute severe social stress than during periods without, indicating that the HPA axis is sensitive to social stimuli even in lactating females. So far few studies have used non-invasive monitoring methods for assessing social stress in freeranging animals. This study demonstrates for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that corticosteroid concentrations may differ between periods with and without social stress for a free-ranging female mammal and that the modulating effect of social status may depend on reproductive status.

  13. Improved Methods of Carnivore Faecal Sample Preservation, DNA Extraction and Quantification for Accurate Genotyping of Wild Tigers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Katakam; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasively collected samples allow a variety of genetic studies on endangered and elusive species. However due to low amplification success and high genotyping error rates fewer samples can be identified up to the individual level. Number of PCRs needed to obtain reliable genotypes also noticeably increase. Methods We developed a quantitative PCR assay to measure and grade amplifiable nuclear DNA in feline faecal extracts. We determined DNA degradation in experimentally aged faecal samples and tested a suite of pre-PCR protocols to considerably improve DNA retrieval. Results Average DNA concentrations of Grade I, II and III extracts were 982pg/µl, 9.5pg/µl and 0.4pg/µl respectively. Nearly 10% of extracts had no amplifiable DNA. Microsatellite PCR success and allelic dropout rates were 92% and 1.5% in Grade I, 79% and 5% in Grade II, and 54% and 16% in Grade III respectively. Our results on experimentally aged faecal samples showed that ageing has a significant effect on quantity and quality of amplifiable DNA (pDNA degradation occurs within 3 days of exposure to direct sunlight. DNA concentrations of Day 1 samples stored by ethanol and silica methods for a month varied significantly from fresh Day 1 extracts (p0.05). DNA concentrations of fresh tiger and leopard faecal extracts without addition of carrier RNA were 816.5pg/µl (±115.5) and 690.1pg/µl (±207.1), while concentrations with addition of carrier RNA were 49414.5pg/µl (±9370.6) and 20982.7pg/µl (±6835.8) respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that carnivore faecal samples should be collected as freshly as possible, are better preserved by two-step method and should be extracted with addition of carrier RNA. We recommend quantification of template DNA as this facilitates several downstream protocols. PMID:23071624

  14. Faecal microbiota composition in vegetarians: comparison with omnivores in a cohort of young women in southern India.

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    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2012-09-28

    The effect of vegetarian diets on faecal microbiota has been explored largely through culture-based techniques. The present study compared the faecal microbiota of vegetarian and omnivorous young women in southern India. Faecal samples were obtained from thirty-two lacto-vegetarian and twenty-four omnivorous young adult women from a similar social and economic background. Macronutrient intake and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal microbiota of interest was quantified by real-time PCR with SYBR Green using primers targeting 16S rRNA genes of groups, including: Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), Roseburia spp.-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides--Prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum group (Clostridium cluster IV), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus productus--C. coccoides, Butyrivibrio, Enterococcus species and Enterobacteriaceae. The groups were matched for age, socio-economic score and anthropometric indices. Intake of energy, complex carbohydrates and Ca were significantly higher in the omnivorous group. The faecal microbiota of the omnivorous group was enriched with Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria, specifically Roseburia-E. rectale. The relative proportions of other microbial communities were similar in both groups. The butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene, associated with microbial butyrate production, was present in greater amounts in the faeces of omnivores, and the levels were highly correlated with Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia-E. rectale abundance and to a lesser extent with Clostridium leptum and F. prausnitzii abundance and with crude fibre intake. Omnivores had an increased relative abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria and butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene compared with vegetarians, but we were unable to identify the components of the diet responsible for this difference.

  15. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

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    Karlette A Fernandes

    Full Text Available The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6 or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6 for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8, with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P < 0.017 adjusted for multiple comparisons. There were differences between Groups A and B in the relative abundances of four genera, BF311 (family Bacteroidaceae; P = 0.003, CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004, and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003 and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006. The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  16. Modelling the costs and consequences of treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia.

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    Guest, Julian F; Clegg, John P

    2006-01-01

    To compare the costs and consequences of using oral macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol) compared to enemas/suppositories, manual evacuation and naso-gastric administration of macrogol (NGA-PEG) lavage solution in treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia. A decision model was constructed using published clinical outcomes, utilities and clinician-derived resource utilisation estimates. The model was used to determine the expected Commonwealth and parent costs associated with each treatment over the period of disimpaction and 12 weeks post-disimpaction, in Australian dollars at 2003/2004 prices. 92% of oral macrogol 3350-treated patients are expected to be disimpacted within 6 days following initial treatment, compared with 79% of patients treated with enemas and suppositories who are expected to be disimpacted within 8 days. All patients are expected to be disimpacted within 5 days following a manual evacuation and within 2 days following NGA-PEG. The level of health gain at 12 weeks post-disimpaction irrespective of treatment for disimpaction and subsequent maintenance is expected to be the same; the expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) being 0.20 (95% CI: 0.17; 0.23). Starting treatment with oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting is expected to lead to a Commonwealth cost of $758, compared to $1838 with NGA-PEG, $2125 with enemas and suppositories, $3931 with oral macrogol 3350 in an inpatient setting and $4478 with manual evacuation. Resource use associated with maintenance following initial disimpaction is expected to be broadly similar, irrespective of initial laxative. Hence, the expected Commonwealth cost is primarily affected by the treatment used to initially disimpact a patient. Expected parents' costs are expected to be comparable irrespective of treatment ranging from $89 to $112 per patient. Within the limitations of our model, using oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting for treating faecally impacted

  17. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

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    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of faecal indicators and harmful algae using an in-situ autonomous sensor.

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    Yamahara, K M; Demir-Hilton, E; Preston, C M; Marin, R; Pargett, D; Roman, B; Jensen, S; Birch, J M; Boehm, A B; Scholin, C A

    2015-08-01

    Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and harmful algal blooms (HABs) threaten the health and the economy of coastal communities worldwide. Emerging automated sampling technologies combined with molecular analytical techniques could enable rapid detection of micro-organisms in-situ, thereby improving resource management and public health decision-making. We evaluated this concept using a robotic device, the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). The ESP automates in-situ sample collection, nucleic acid extraction and molecular analyses. Here, the ESP measured and reported concentrations of FIB (Enterococcus spp.), a microbial source-tracking marker (human-specific Bacteriodales) and a HAB species (Psuedo-nitzschia spp.) over a 45-day deployment on the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Both FIB and HABs were enumerated from single in-situ collected water samples. The in-situ qPCR efficiencies ranged from 86% to 105%, while the limit of quantifications during the deployment was 10 copies reaction(-1) . No differences were observed in the concentrations of enterococci, the human-specific marker in Bacteroidales spp., and P. australis between in-situ collected sample and traditional hand sampling methods (P > 0·05). Analytical results were Internet-accessible within hours of sample collection, demonstrating the feasibility of same-day public notification of current water quality conditions. This study presents the first report of in-situ qPCR enumeration of both faecal indicators and harmful algal species in coastal marine waters. We utilize a robotic device for in-situ quantification of enterococci, the human-specific marker in Bacteriodales and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from the same water samples collected and processed in-situ. The results demonstrate that rapid, in-situ monitoring can be utilized to identify and quantify multiple health-relevant micro-organisms important in water quality monitoring and that this monitoring can be used to inform same

  19. Variation in siderophore biosynthetic gene distribution and production across environmental and faecal populations of Escherichia coli.

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    Laura J Searle

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism.

  20. Faecal contamination of water and sediment in the rivers of the Scheldt drainage network.

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    Ouattara, Nouho Koffi; Passerat, Julien; Servais, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The Scheldt watershed is characterized by a high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture and breeding. A monthly monitoring (n = 16) of the abundance of two faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci (IE), showed that microbiological water quality of the main rivers of the Scheldt drainage network was poor (median values ranging between 1.4 × 10(3) and 4.0 × 10(5) E. coli (100 mL)( -1) and between 3.4 × 10(2) and 7.6 × 10(4) IE (100 mL)( -1)). The Zenne River downstream from Brussels was particularly contaminated. Glucuronidase activity was measured in parallel and was demonstrated to be a valid surrogate for a rapid evaluation of E. coli concentration in the river waters. FIB were also investigated in the river sediments; their abundance was sometimes high (average values ranging between 2.1 × 10(2) and 3.3 × 10(5) E. coli g( -1) and between 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.7 × 10(5) IE g( -1)) but was not sufficient to contribute significantly to the river water contamination during resuspension events, except for the Scheldt and the Nethe Rivers. FIB were also quantified in representative point sources (wastewater treatment plants) and non-point sources (runoff water and soil leaching on different types of land use) of faecal contamination. The comparison of the respective contribution of point and non-point sources at the scale of the Scheldt watershed showed that point sources were largely predominant.