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Sample records for total coliform levels

  1. Evaluation of Peel Plate™ EC for Determination of E. coli and Coliform or Total Coliform in Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ EC is a low-profile plastic, 47 mm culture dish with an adhesive top that contains a dried medium with Gram-negative selective agents and with enzyme substrate indicators for β-galactosidase (coliform) and β-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli). The method provides a conventional quantitative coliform (red) and E. coli (blue/purple/black) count with simple rehydration and incubation for 24 ± 2 h at 35 ± 1°C, while providing a total coliform result, sum of E. coli, and coliform without color differential in dairy products at 32 ± 1°C for 24 ± 2 h. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total coliform data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), heavy cream (35% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high-temperature pasteurized milk, powdered milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, shredded cheddar cheese, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, sour cream, condensed milk, eggnog, vanilla ice cream, condensed whey, yogurt, and cottage cheese. Matrixes claimed for E. coli and total coliform detection are raw ground beef, mixed cellulose 0.45 μm filtered bottled water, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, leafy green (mixed greens) rinse/flume water, irrigation water, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for total coliform in whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and heavy cream. The method was also independently evaluated for E. coli and coliform in ground beef, filtered bottled water, and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In inclusivity and exclusivity studies, the method detected 57 of 58 different strains of coliform and E. coli at 32 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C in and excluded 31 of 32 different noncoliform strains consisting of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison

  2. Comparison of Verification Procedures for the Membrane Filter Total Coliform Technique

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, Mark W.; Cameron, Susan C.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    1983-01-01

    Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of β-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliforms verified by testing for β-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase were representative of the typical coliform genera.

  3. 75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the TCR. One of the recommendations of the Committee is that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the... Systems Research and Information Collection Partnership; opportunities for stakeholders to...

  4. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical...) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to discuss...

  5. KUALITAS MIKROBIOLOGI NASI JINGGO BERDASARKAN ANGKA LEMPENG TOTAL, COLIFORM TOTAL DAN KANDUNGAN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Payastiti Yunita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate quality of food products that do not meet standard quality may lead to food poisoning cases and become a concern in public health sector. Nasi Jinggo is a small amount of cooked rice with little bit fried tempe, shredded spicy chicken, traditional made chili sauce that is packed with banana leaves, and all the cooking process usually done traditionally. Nasi jinggo is sold at night by street vendor with price ranged from Rp. 1.500,- to Rp. 2.000,- per package. The study was a quantitative descriptive study with cross-sectional design that was aimed to identify the microbiology quality of nasi jinggo that were sold in Denpasar Selatan area. From 48 population of nasi jinggo street vendor, 23 vendor was taken as samples. The microbiology quality being assessed was Total Plate Count (TPC, Total Coliform with MPN method and Escherichia coli content with Eosin Methylene Blue Agar as medium. Laboratory analysis showed that only 21,7% sample that met TPC standard with average value of 2,3 x 107 CFU/gram sample, only 8,7% that met Total Coliform standard with average value of 1,4 x 105 MPN/100 gram sample and 52,2% sample that met E. coli content standard with average value is 2,6 x 102 MPN/100 gram sample. It is recommended to the government to do quality check towards nasi jinggo in a regular basis as well as to provide education and assistance to nasi jinggo street vendors in order to improve the microbiology quality of food product and ensure food safety to the consumer.

  6. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml) − 1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  7. 75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 30 days the public comment period for a proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation,...

  8. Comparison of media for recovery of total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, E W; Fox, K R; Nash, H D; Read, E.J.; Smith, A P

    1987-01-01

    Five broth media and two solid media were compared for their ability to quantitatively recover total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water. M-Endo LES and mT7 media were used in the membrane filter technique. Lauryl tryptose broth, lactose broth, presence-absence broth, lactose broth with twice the amount of lactose, and lauryl tryptose broth with twice the amount of sodium lauryl sulfate were used in the fermentation tube procedure. The differences in recovery were not significant ...

  9. Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Reyes-Gómez, Lidia María; Hernández-Muñoz, Aurelio; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Iturbe, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic organisms can be transmitted orally through drinking water or through skin and mucosae by both direct and indirect contact, and their presence in water thus has a negative impact on public health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), water is disinfected to inactivate pathogens. The quantification of several microbial indicators in aquatic systems is required to estimate the biological quality of such systems. So far, coliform bacteria have been used as traditional indicators world-wide. This study has assessed the resistance of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis to three dosages of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at two exposure times. The bacteria were isolated from secondary effluents of a WWTP located in Hidalgo, Mexico. The results show that the number of colony-forming units of all studied bacterial types decreased when both the NaClO concentration and exposure times increased. However, they were not eliminated. The inclusion of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa in regulations for treated wastewater quality as a new indicator is highly recommended due to its importance as an opportunistic pathogen. The detection of this species along with the traditional organisms could be particulary significant for reclaimed water to be used with direct human contact.

  10. Pengaruh Ketebalan Media dan Rate filtrasi pada Sand Filter dalam Menurunkan Kekeruhan dan Total Coliform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Maryani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses filtrasi dengan menggunakan sand filter sebagai salah satu metode dalam pengolahan air bersih. Pada sand filter proses penyaringan terjadi pada media filter yang sangat halus, seperti media filter pada unit slow sand filter. Kecepatan penyaringan yang diinginkan pada sand filter ini adalah kecepatan seperti pada unit rapid sand filter. Sehingga sand filter ini adalah penggabungan antara kelebihan yang dimiliki slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter. Variasi pada penelitian ini yaitu: tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam dan tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam. Pada penelitian ini digunakan air baku yaitu air Kali Surabaya dengan nilai rata-rata total coliform 90.000 per 100 ml sampel dan nilai rata-rata kekeruhan 87,4 NTU. Dihasilkan bahwa penyisihan total coliform pada variasi tebal media 120 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 99% dan kekeruhan paling baik terjadi pada variasi panjang variasi tebal media 100 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 98,27%.

  11. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  12. Assessment of the Water Quality in Buhisan, Bulacao and Lahug Rivers, Cebu, Philippines Using Fecal and Total Coliform as Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Eukene Bensig; Mary Joyce flores; Fleurdeliz Maglangit

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the water quality of Buhisan, Bulacao and Lahug rivers in Cebu, Philippines using coliforms as indicators. Monthly sampling started from November 2011 to April 2012 in the upstream, midstream and downstream stations. The multiple tube fermentation technique was used for the analysis of coli forms. High total and fecal coli form counts were observed in the three rivers from February to April, but the difference in values across time was not sign...

  13. Evaluation of media for simultaneous enumeration of total coliform and Escherichia coli in drinking water supplies by membrane filtration techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dunling; FIESSEL Wanda

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated three different dehydrated media for simultaneous detection and enumeration of total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coil in drinking water samples with a standard membrane filtration procedure.The experiment indicated that the differential coliform agar (DCA) medium was the most effective among the tested media in enumerating TC and E.coli,without the need for extensive accompanying confirmation tests.The results for DCA medium were highly reproducible for both TC and E.coli with standard deviation of 6.0 and 6.1,respectively.A high agreement (82%) was found between DCA and m-Endo media on 152 drinking water samples in terms of TC positive.The DCA medium also reduced concealment of background bacteria.

  14. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  15. 水质污染指示菌--总大肠菌群%Indicator Bacteria of Water Fecal Pollution---The Total Coliform Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡睿娟

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This paper analyzes the reasons why the total coliform group is regarded as the indicator bacteria of water fecal pollution, compares several methods for detecting the total coliform group, and introduces the significance of the detection of the total coliform group, thermotoletant coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli and the relationship among them.%分析了总大肠菌群作为水质污染指示菌的原因,比较了总大肠菌群的几种检测方法,介绍了总大肠菌群、耐热大肠菌群、大肠埃希氏菌的检测意义以及它们之间的关系。

  16. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  17. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry CF Method for Enumeration of Total Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" CF method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 110401, was originally certified for enumeration of coliform bacteria by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw meat products. Compact Dry CF is a ready-to-use dry media sheet, containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, a chromogenic medium, and selective agents, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. Coliform bacteria produce blue/blue-green colonies on the Compact Dry CF, allowing a coliform colony count to be determined in the sample after 24 ± 2 h incubation. A validation study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom, to extend the method's claim to include cooked chicken, fresh bagged prewashed shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized 2% milk. Campden BRI collected single-laboratory data for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Thirteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The Compact Dry CF method was compared to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current version at the time this study was conducted. Each matrix was evaluated at either four or five contamination levels of coliform bacteria (including an uncontaminated level). After logarithmic transformation of counts at each level, the data for pasteurized whole milk were analyzed for sr, sR, RSDr, and RSDR. Regression analysis was also performed and r(2) was reported. Mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. A log10 range of -0.5 to 0.5 for the CI was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. In the single-laboratory evaluation (for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen

  18. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry CF Method for Enumeration of Total Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" CF method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 110401, was originally certified for enumeration of coliform bacteria by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw meat products. Compact Dry CF is a ready-to-use dry media sheet, containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, a chromogenic medium, and selective agents, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. Coliform bacteria produce blue/blue-green colonies on the Compact Dry CF, allowing a coliform colony count to be determined in the sample after 24 ± 2 h incubation. A validation study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom, to extend the method's claim to include cooked chicken, fresh bagged prewashed shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized 2% milk. Campden BRI collected single-laboratory data for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Thirteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The Compact Dry CF method was compared to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current version at the time this study was conducted. Each matrix was evaluated at either four or five contamination levels of coliform bacteria (including an uncontaminated level). After logarithmic transformation of counts at each level, the data for pasteurized whole milk were analyzed for sr, sR, RSDr, and RSDR. Regression analysis was also performed and r(2) was reported. Mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. A log10 range of -0.5 to 0.5 for the CI was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. In the single-laboratory evaluation (for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen

  19. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINA MARÍA RAMOS-ORTEGA

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM, water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m. For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving, nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  20. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. PMID:27107952

  1. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants.

  2. Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter

    OpenAIRE

    AH Mahvi; R Sheikhi; Naddafi, K

    2003-01-01

    The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led t...

  3. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  4. Comparison of methods for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Nobel PJ; Strating S; Mooijman KA; Engels GB; Brouwer A; Kiwa; PWN; MGB

    2001-01-01

    The new European Drinking Water Directive (December 1998) defines a reference method for estimating the concentration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water. Laboratories may use other methods, but should demonstrate that results obtained are at least as reliable as those produced with

  5. Effect of adding mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to raw milk on mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ortiz-Rodríguez; J.L. Aguilar-Barrera; J.J. Valdez-Alarcón; D. Val-Arreola; J Esquivel-Córdoba; H.E. Martínez-Flores; R.E. Pérez-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluó la adición de mucílago líquido y deshidratado de Opuntia ficus-indica y Opuntia atropes a la leche cruda sobre el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Las muestras de leche cruda de vacas Holstein de un sistema de producción familiar se adicionaron con mucílago líquido o deshidratado de O. ficus-indica u O. atropes en concentraciones de 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0%. En las muestras se midió el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Los resu...

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri In Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais dos Santos Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB, followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF. The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

  7. Effect of adding mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to raw milk on mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ortiz-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la adición de mucílago líquido y deshidratado de Opuntia ficus-indica y Opuntia atropes a la leche cruda sobre el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Las muestras de leche cruda de vacas Holstein de un sistema de producción familiar se adicionaron con mucílago líquido o deshidratado de O. ficus-indica u O. atropes en concentraciones de 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0%. En las muestras se midió el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Los resultados se analizaron mediante los modelos de efectos fijos y las comparaciones entre grupos se realizaron por el método de medias de mínimo cuadrados. En general, las cuentas bacterianas para mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales disminuyeron (P < 0,05 cuando se adicionó mucilago a la leche cruda al 0,5%, independientemente de la especie o de la forma física (deshidratado o líquido. Se observó disminución de cuentas bacterias para mesófilas aerobias (P < 0.05 cuando se adicionó mucílago deshidratado de O. ficus indica (Log10 2.6 UFC mL-1 y O. atropes (Log10 2,7 UFC mL-1 en concentración de 0.5%, respectivamente. Mientras que el grupo Control (leche cruda sin adición de mucílago contenía Log10 3.6 UFC mL-1 de mesófilas aerobias. La mejor respuesta para coliformes totales se observó con el mucílago deshidratado de O. ficus-indica (Log10 3.0 UFC mL-1 y mucílago líquido de O. atropes (Log10 2,7 UFC mL1, ambos adicionados al 1%. El mucílago deshidratado o líquido de O. ficus-indica y O. atropes reducen el contenido microbiano de la leche cruda.

  8. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra Lina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.

  9. [Comparative studies of fresh and seawater for the determination of total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria according to the European Economic Community guideline 76/160 (bathing water) by the use of the most-probable-number method with BRILA-MUG broth and differentiation according to the drinking water ordinance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemeister, G; Aleksic, S; Bockemühl, J; Heinemeyer, E A; Müller, H E; Von Pritzbuer, E

    1991-05-01

    During the summer season of 1989 about 222 samples of bathing water (Northsea, Baltic Sea and inland waters) were investigated, i.e. 2 times 1998 dilution tubes (1501 positive) were tested. Results with BRILA-MUG and lactose-bouillon were compared and additional 97 samples were tested with one respectively three colonies by confirmative tests. -- The BRILA-MUG one-tube-test (gas, fluorescence and indol) has as expected larger numbers of total coliforms (GC) and faecal coliforms (FC) in comparison with corresponding numbers for E. coli and coliform bacteria according to German law for drinking water (TrinkwV). -- BRILA-MUG and lactose-bouillon with the same identification mode according to "TrinkwV" has corresponding results concerning E. coli and coliform bacteria. -- Following the identification mode according to "TrinkwV" the total coliforms (GC/gas in BRILA-MUG) depending on the origin proved 60-80% as coliform bacteria. Additional API-tests showed that the other bacteria are coliform bacteria too or bacteria which can be considered as indicators for water pollution. -- Faecal coliforms (FC/fluorescence and indol-positive) depending on the origin proved 70-90% as E. coli, if following the identification mode according to "TrinkwV". Using 3 instead of 1 colony per positive dilution tube for identification the positive results increased approximately by 9%. 15% of negative results with the identification mode according to "TrinkwV" proved as E. coli-positive with identification according to API-system, i.e. the corresponding rate of E. coli-positive tubes will therefore be higher than shown above. The BRILA-MUG one-tube-test in connection with the MPN-method can be used successfully to determine the number of total and faecal coliforms according to the EEC-directive for bathing waters. The test needs only a minimum of material and also a minimum of laboratory staff. Differences between this test and other more extensive tests with several biochemical

  10. The Effect of Colony Total and Coliform Bacteria in Bean Paste Stuffing Foresaw of Different Packing%不同包装对豆沙馅料中菌落总数和大肠菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 操庆国

    2012-01-01

    本文针对冷、热真空包装豆沙馅料中菌落总数和大肠菌群进行了测定。试验证明,冷真空包装中菌落和大肠菌群可能超出国家标准,而热真空包装中菌落和大肠菌类不超出国家标准。%This article determined the colony total and coliform bacteria in bean paste stuffing foresaw of cold and hot vacuum packing. The experiment proved that, in the cold vacuum packing colony total and coliform bacteria possibly sur- passes the national standards, but in the hot vacuum packing colony total and coliform bacteria does not surpass the national standards.

  11. 总大肠菌群检测试剂盒在生活饮用水检测中的应用评价%Application Evaluation of Total Coliforms Group Detection Kit for Drinking Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娣伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价总大肠菌群检测试剂盒应用于生活饮用水中总大肠菌群检测的准确性和价值.方法 对124份生活饮用水水样,分别用总大肠菌群检测试剂盒法与国家标准认可的多管发酵法同时进行总大肠菌群检测,采用流行病学方法对检测结果进行准确性评价.结果 以国标中的检测方法作为金标准比较,总大肠菌群检测试剂盒法的灵敏度为100%,特异度为98.18%,正确指数为98.18%.结论 总大肠菌群检测试剂盒法具有很好的准确性,而且检测省时、省力,简便易行,适用于大批量样品快速检测,特别是突发事件时检验工作的开展.%[Objective]To evaluate the accuracy and value of total coliforms group detection kit for testing the total coliforms group in drinking water.[Methods]124 drinking water samples were tested for the total coliforms group by total coliforms group detection kit and multiple-tube fermentation which is the national standard method, simultaneously. The accuracy of test results was evaluated by epidemiologjcal methods.[Results]Using the national standard method as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and correct index of total coliforms group detection kit was 100% , 98. 18% and 98. 18% , respectively.[Conclusion]The total coliforms group detection kit has good accuracy, which is simple, convenient and time saving. It is suitable for rapid detection of large numbers of samples, especially in detection of emergent events.

  12. Improvement of Sealing Technology of Enzyme Substrate Method in Measuring the Total Coliforms/Fecal coliforms%总大肠菌群/粪大肠菌群检测方法中酶底物法封口技术的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗全; 黄芳; 许江

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on replacing the special program-controlled sealing machine by the household electric iron were conducted for the enzyme substrate method in measuring the total coliforms and fecal coliforms.The experi-mental results showed that the electric iron was much convenient with low cost.%通过试验,验证了在科立得固定底物技术酶底物法检测大肠菌群/粪大肠菌群的方法中,可使用家用电熨斗替换专用程控定量封口机进行封口,且经济、方便。

  13. RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikaeen ، A. Pejhan ، M. Jalali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LMX® broth as an enzymatic assay with the standard methods multiple tube fermentation technique and presence–absence test, for the detection of indicator coliforms in drinking water samples. In addition, the potential effect of water quality on the microbial detection method was assayed through measurement of some physicochemical parameters. From the 50 drinking water samples tested, 8 (16% and 7 (14% contained total coliforms and E.coli as indicated by all three techniques. Although on average the LMX recovered more total coliforms and E.Coli numbers comparing to multiple tube fermentation, but there was no significant difference. A significant difference existed between the level of residual chlorine for positive and negative samples. In conclusion, enzymatic assay showed a rapid and less labor method, allowing the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E.coli. The method is particularly useful in the early warning of fecal pollution of drinking water.

  14. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água

    OpenAIRE

    Vanerli Beloti; Juliana Aparecida de Souza; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Luís Augusto Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de Mattos; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (< 20 col/100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate to enumer...

  15. Detection of Total Bacteria and Coliform in Drinking Water Resources of Cangshan Huadianba in Dali%大理苍山花甸坝饮用水源细菌总数和大肠菌群的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发; 周娅; 和东义; 李小艳; 杨晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria of the three drinking water resources of Longtan, Xipo and Farm headquarters of Cangshan Huadianba. Methods:Using the methods of plate culture count and multiple-tube fermentation technique to detect the total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria in the three drinking water sources respectively. Results:The bac-teria and coliform bacteria were not detected in the water resource of Longtan, but a large number of bacteria and coliform bacteria were detected in the drinking water resources of Xipo and Farm headquarters. The total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria was more than 300/mL and 230/L respectively in the drinking water resources of Xipo. It was 189/mL and 230/L respectively in the drinking wa-ter resources of the Farm headquarters. Conclusion:The water drinking resource in Longtan meets the requirements of current nation-al standards for drink water (GB5749-2006), while two other drinking resources do not meet this standard.%目的:检测苍山花甸坝龙潭、西坡、农场总部3个饮用水源中的细菌总数和大肠菌群。方法:采用平板菌落计数法和多管发酵法分别对水样中的细菌总数和大肠菌群进行检测。结果:龙潭水源中未检到细菌和大肠菌群,而农场总部水源和西坡水源中检出大量细菌和大肠菌群,其中西坡水源中细菌总数>300/mL,大肠菌群数>230/L;农场总部水源细菌总数=189/mL,大肠菌群数=230/L。结论:苍山花甸坝农场总部水源和西坡水源中的细菌总数和大肠菌群均不符合我国生活饮用水卫生标准(GB5749-2006),不适于直接饮用,而龙潭水源则符合该标准。

  16. Detecting of Total Bacteria and Coliform in Rural Drinking Water Resources at Guangnan of Wenshan%文山州广南县农村饮用水源细菌总数和大肠菌群的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建芬; 张发; 林慧彪; 范先芹; 杨晓燕

    2014-01-01

    The sanitary condition of drinking water in rural areas of Wenshan Yunnan province is investigated through testing total bacteria and coliform bacteria contained in nine representative drinking water resources in Guangnan county of Wenshan Prefecture. Total bacteria and coliform bacteria in the water samples, collected from nine water resources, are tested using plate count methods and multiple-tube fermentation technique. The total bacteria is less than 100/ml in No. 6 and 7 water samples, but the rest are more than 100/ml. Coliform bacteria have been detected in all samples. The water quality from nine water resources does not meet drinking water standards(GB5749-2006), so it is unift to drink directly.%对文山州广南县9个具有代表性的农村饮用水源点进行细菌总数和大肠菌群的检测,初步了解云南省文山州广南县农村饮用水卫生状况。在选定的9个水源点进行水样采集,并用平板菌落计数法和多管发酵法分别对水样中细菌总数和大肠菌群进行检测。发现水样6和水样7细菌总数100个/mL;9个水样的大肠菌群均有检出。通过检测发现,所抽取9个饮用水水源均不符合我国饮用水卫生标准(GB5749-2006),不适宜直接饮用。

  17. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  18. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  19. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... E. coli; a determination of density of these organisms is not required. (3) Air carriers must conduct analyses for total coliform and E. coli in accordance with the analytical methods approved in... water tap is located in the aircraft water system due to aircraft model type and construction, then...

  20. 40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. When one or more turbidity measurements in any... growth or produces colonies too numerous to count with an analytical method using a membrane filter (e.g... business day. (2) The State has the discretion to allow a public water system, on a case-by-case basis,...

  1. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  2. Analysis of Difference between Enzyme Substrate Technique and Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique in Determination of Total Coliforms%酶底物法与多管发酵法检测总大肠菌群差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋宇; 赵旭坤; 郭志宇; 陈玲瑚

    2012-01-01

    采用酶底物法和多管发酵法同时检测长江中下游地区地表水中的总大肠菌群,结果表明,参照《生活饮用水标准检验方法微生物指标》( GB/T 5750.12-2006),酶底物法在肠杆菌属的检出灵敏度上显著高于多管发酵法,而在埃希氏菌属的检出灵敏度上基本一致,酶底物法可以作为评价水质微生物污染的快速准确检测方法,用于水厂日常的检测工作.%Total coliforms in surface water in middle and lower Yangtze River areas were detected by enzyme substrate method and multiple tube fermentation method. The results showed that according to Standard Examination Methods for Drinking Water-icrobiological Parameters ( GB/T 5750. 12 -2006) , the sensitivity of detection of Enterobacter by enzyme substrate technique was higher than that by multiple tube fermentation technique, and the sensitivity of detection of Escherichia was essentially consistent. Enzyme substrate technique could be used as a rapid and accurate detection method for evaluation of microbial contamination in water.

  3. CCA培养基同时检测水中总大肠菌群和大肠埃希氏杆菌%Chromocult Coliforms Agar (CCA) Medium for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and E.coli in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路

    2004-01-01

    大肠菌群(Coliforms)和大肠埃希氏杆菌(E. coli)都是判断水体是否存在粪便污染的重要微生物指标.本文介绍了一种可在24 h之内同时检测大肠菌群和大肠埃希氏杆菌数量的CCA培养基.

  4. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  5. Estimación de la Incertidumbre en los Ensayos Microbiológicos de Coliformes Totales y Fecales en Aguas Y Aguas Residuales Mediante la Técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la microbiología ambiental es de vital importancia contar con un control de la calidad, dentro del cual, debe considerarse el método de ensayo para garantizar una óptima calidad de los datos resultantes. El cálculo de la incertidumbre está siendo abordado por la comunidad de laboratorios y se espera que en un futuro se disponga de directrices más claras en este campo. La incertidumbre, como un atributo cuantificable, es un concepto relativamente nuevo en la historia de las mediciones, a pesar de que los conceptos de error y análisis de error han sido parte de la práctica de la ciencia de la medición por largo tiempo. De manera general se acepta que cuando todas las componentes, conocidas o supuestas, del error han sido evaluadas y se han aplicado las correcciones, aún persiste una incertidumbre acerca de la confiabilidad del resultado expresado, esto es, persiste una duda acerca de qué tan bien representa el resultado de la medida, al valor de la cantidad que está siendo medida. Actualmente existe en nuestro país la problemática derivada de la falta de la información fundamental acerca de los procedimientos para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la incertidumbre en los ensayos microbiológicos de coliformes totales y fecales en aguas y aguas residuales mediante la técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación, siguiendo las recomendaciones que aparecen en documentos normalizativos nacionales e internacionales. Se ofrecen los resultados alcanzados en la cuantificación de este importante parámetro. Los componentes de la incertidumbre se organizaron en tablas, lo que permite realizar de una forma rápida una apreciación global.

  6. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  7. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  8. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  9. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  10. Early Serum Procalcitonin Level after Primary Total Hip Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Bouaicha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Procalcitonin (PCT is a useful surrogate marker for the differentiation of postoperative infection and unspecific inflammatory reaction after surgery. It is known that postoperative course of the PCT serum level varies with type of surgery. No data exists about the postoperative course of serum PCT levels after primary total hip replacement (THR. Purpose. To characterize early postoperative serum PCT levels in uneventful primary THR compared to postoperative levels of different frequently used inflammatory blood parameters. Method. We prospectively investigated 31 patients. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and for 5 days postoperatively. PCT levels were compared with C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and blood leucocyte counts (WBC. Results. In uneventful THR PCT levels showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day. At the fifth day values returned to almost preoperative levels. On contrary, CRP levels remained high during the entire observational period. Only IL-6 levels showed a peak at postoperative day one with a quick and uniform return to preoperative levels. Conclusion. Similar to observations in cardiothoracic, intestinal, and neural surgeries, postoperative course of PCT after primary THR showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day but below expected levels in systemic infections.

  11. Study on the total colony of bacteria and coliform group during the production process of sausage%红肠不同生产环节中菌落总数和大肠菌群数量变化规律初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春华; 陶荣

    2013-01-01

      目的研究红肠不同生产环节、不同环境中菌落总数和大肠菌群数的变化规律。方法用国标方法检测红肠各个工序不同环境中的菌落总数和大肠菌群数,并用统计学软件 SSPS 处理结果。结果建立菌落总数和大肠菌群数量变化规律模型。红肠加工不同环境中菌落总数变化规律的非线性拟合方程为0.4822 y 1768.952=e-x+27.6370.856 x+;24.365大肠菌群数变化规律的非线性拟合方程为2 y=-+x 20.9900.968 x+结论本研究对于控制红肠中微生物数量,保证其安全卫生具有重要意义。。%Objective To study the changes of total colony of bacteria and coliform group during the production process of sausage and different environment. Methods The number of total colony of bacteria and coliform group was analysed using the method of national standard, and the data was processed with SPSS software. Results The nonlinear curves about the number of total colony of bacteria and coliform group were 2 y 1 768.952=e-0.482 x+27.637 0.856 x+24.365;and 2 y= - +x 2 , respectively. Conclusion This study 0.990 0.968 x+is important to control the number of total colony of bacteria and coliform group and guarantee safety and sa-nitation of sausage.

  12. Effect of noncoliforms on coliform detection in potable groundwater: improved recovery with an anaerobic membrane filter technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzblau, S G; Hinnebusch, B J; Kelley, L M; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in most-probable-number tubes, and extensive overgrowth by noncoliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to standard plate counts. Recovery of coliforms was greatest by the MF method at low (less than 100 CFU...

  13. 生活饮用水中总大肠菌群分离株消毒剂耐药基因检测%Detection of disinfectants-resistant gene qacE△1 in total coliforms isolates from drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红梅; 金玉怀; 李丽婕; 范尉尉; 徐保红; 李丽萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解生活饮用水中总大肠菌群分离株耐消毒剂基因qacE△1的存在情况.方法 采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术检测102株总大肠菌群分离株(来自2012年1-10月石家庄市城乡生活饮用水总大肠菌群阳性水样)的qacE△1基因,并进行DNA测序.结果 22株大肠埃希菌、27株阴沟肠杆菌、20株柠檬酸杆菌的qacE△1基因的阳性率分别为45.5%,7.4%和10.0%,27株克雷伯菌属细菌、6株产气肠杆菌及1株大肠杆菌标准株均未检出qacE△l基因.结论 生活饮用水中总大肠菌群分离株已携带消毒剂耐药基因,其中,大肠埃希菌携带率较高.%Objective To investigate the disinfectants-resistant gene qacE△l in total coliforms isolates from drinking water.Methods The disinfectants-resistant gene of qacE△l was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and verified by DNA sequencing for 102 coliforms isolates from total coliform-positive drinking water samples of Shijiazhuang urban and rural areas between January and October,2012.Results The positive rates of qacE△1 gene in 22 strains of Escherichia coli,27 strains of Enterobacter cloacae,20 strains of Citrobacter spp.were 45.5%,7.4% and 10.0% respectively.But in 27 strains of Klebsiella spp.,6 strains of Enterobacter aerogenes and one standard control strain,the qacE△1 gene was not detected.Conclusion The total coliforms isolates from drinking water have carried disinfectansts-resistant gene.The higher carrying rate was found in E.coli.

  14. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  15. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pcounts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

  16. Follicular fluid total antioxidant capacity levels in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nafiye; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gorkem, Umit; Sargin Oruc, Ayla; Yilmaz, Saynur; Turkkani, Ayten

    2016-07-01

    In this study, our aim was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in follicular fluid (FF) and their relationship to clinical pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing assisted reproduction (ART). Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group 1) and 41 women without PCOS (Group 2) were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory parameters and FF TAC levels were investigated. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups with regard to age and baseline parameters. Although we could not demonstrate a significant difference in FF TAC levels between the two groups (p=0.469), there was a significant positive correlation between FF TAC and clinical pregnancy rates, BMI, and the duration of infertility for the entire group (r=0.254, p=0.048; r=0.312, p=0.013; r=0.259, p=0.040; respectively). Owing to the correlation between FF TAC and the clinical pregnancy rates, further studies evaluating the impact of FF TAC levels on ART outcomes in patients with PCOS and other etiologies of infertility are needed. PMID:26911305

  17. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  18. Review of Risk Status of Groundwater Supply Wells by Tracing the Source of Coliform Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coliform source tracking was undertaken on 48 water sources of which 42 are potable in 26 water supply systems spread across South Australia. The water sources in the study vary from unprotected springs in creek beds to deep confined aquifers. The frequency analysis of historical coliform detections indicate that aquifer types, depth to water and casing depth are important considerations; whilst maintaining well integrity and the presence of low permeable clay layers above the production zone are the dominant parameters for minimizing coliform contamination of water supply wells. However, in karst and fractured rock aquifers, pathways for coliform transport exist, as evidenced in the >200 MPN/100 mL level of coliform detection. Data indicate that there is no compelling evidence to support the contention that the wells identified as low risk are contaminated through geological strata and clay barriers. However, data strongly supports the suggestion that coliform detection from sample taps and wellheads stem from the surrounding groundwater and soil-plant sources as a result of failed well integrity, or potentially from coliform bacteria that can persist within biofilms formed on well casings, screens, pump columns and pumps. Coliform sub-typing results show that most coliform bacteria detected in town water supply wells are associated with the soil-water-plant system and are ubiquitous in the environment: Citrobacter spp. (65%, Enterobacter spp. (63%, Pantoea spp. (17%, Serratia spp. (19%, Klebsiella spp. (34%, and Pseudomonas spp. (10%. Overall, 70% of wells harbor detectable thermotolerant coliforms (TTC with potentially 36% of species of animal origin, including Escherichia coli species found in 12% of wells.

  19. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between <10(1) and 10(3) CFU/g, and E. coli counts for nearly all lettuce samples (98.2%) were <10(1) CFU/g. No seasonal trend in coliform and E. coli counts was observed throughout the examination period nor was a difference in coliform counts observed between packaged and nonpackaged lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  20. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg−1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg−1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg−1, respectively

  1. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  2. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A....... aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ≤2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...

  3. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  4. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  5. 美国环保署的大肠菌群(Coliforms)检测技术%Introduction of Coliforms test in US EPA.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞坤

    2006-01-01

    总大肠菌群(Total Coliforms)和大肠杆菌(E.coli)是当前国内、外环境监测部门评价水体污染程度的公认指标和主要监测项目之一.本文介绍了美国环保署应用Colilert酵素变色及荧光反应的方法,检测水中的总大肠菌群(Total Coliforms)和大肠杆菌(E.coli),可以在18-24小时获得检测结果,准确检测水中的总大肠菌群(Total Coliforms)和大肠杆菌(E.coli)的数量.

  6. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  7. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  8. Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalugalage, Thilini; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Vithanage, Thamal; Somaratne, Pranitha; de Silva, H. Janaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-l...

  9. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  10. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS IN HUMAN SCALP HAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴之芳; 关铭; 等

    1994-01-01

    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  11. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  12. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  13. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. PMID:26547640

  14. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  15. Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-03-01

    Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia.

  16. Movement of coliform bacteria and nutrients in ground water flowing through basalt and sand aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entry, J A; Farmer, N

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale deposition of animal manure can result in contamination of surface and ground water and in potential transfer of disease-causing enteric bacteria to animals or humans. We measured total coliform bacteria (TC), fecal coliform bacteria (FC), NO3, NH4, total P, and PO4 in ground water flowing from basalt and sand aquifers, in wells into basalt and sand aquifers, in irrigation water, and in river water. Samples were collected monthly for 1 yr. Total coliform and FC numbers were always higher in irrigation water than in ground water, indicating that soil and sediment filtered most of these bacteria before they entered the aquifers. Total coliform and FC numbers in ground water were generally higher in the faster flowing basalt aquifer than in the sand aquifer, indicating that the slower flow and finer grain size may filter more TC and FC bacteria from water. At least one coliform bacterium/100 mL of water was found in ground water from both basalt and sand aquifers, indicating that ground water pumped from these aquifers is not necessarily safe for human consumption according to the American Public Health Association and the USEPA. The NO3 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the sand aquifer than in water flowing from the basalt aquifer or in perched water tables in the basalt aquifer. The PO4 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the basalt aquifer than in water flowing from the sand aquifer. The main concern is fecal contamination of these aquifers and health consequences that may arise from human consumption.

  17. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing...

  18. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  19. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I...

  20. Coliform bacteria in New Jersey domestic wells: influence of geology, laboratory, and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherholt, Thomas B; Bousenberry, Raymond T; Carter, Gail P; Korn, Leo R; Louis, Judith B; Serfes, Michael E; Waller, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Following passage of the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act, 50,800 domestic wells were tested between 2002 and 2007 for the presence of total coliform (TC) bacteria. Wells containing TC bacteria were further tested for either fecal coliform or Escherichia coli (FC/E. coli) bacteria. Analysis of the data, generated by 39 laboratories, revealed that the rate of coliform detections in groundwater (GW) was influenced by the laboratory and the method used, and also by geology. Based on one sample per well, TC and FC/E. coli were detected in wells located in bedrock 3 and 3.7 times more frequently, respectively, than in wells located in the unconsolidated strata of the Coastal Plain. In bedrock, detection rates were higher in sedimentary rock than in igneous or metamorphic rock. Ice-age glaciers also influenced detection rates, most likely by removing material in some areas and depositing thick layers of unconsolidated material in other areas. In bedrock, coliform bacteria were detected more often in wells with a pH of 3 to 6 than in wells with a pH of 7 to 10 whereas the reverse was true in the Coastal Plain. TC and FC/E. coli bacteria were detected in 33 and 9.5%, respectively, of sedimentary rock wells with pH 3 to 6. Conversely, for Coastal Plain wells with pH 3 to 6, detection rates were 4.4% for TC and 0.6% for FC/E. coli.

  1. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Kim, Minjeong; Pyo, JongCheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Young Mo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joon Ha

    2016-04-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variability with a significant connection to temperature levels. In all observations, fecal coliform concentrations were relatively higher in summer and lower during the winter season. This could be explained by the seasonal dominance of growth or die-off of bacteria in soil and in-stream. Existing hydrologic models, however, have limitations in simulating the seasonal variability of fecal coliform. Soil and in-stream bacterial modules of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are oversimplified in that they exclude simulations of alternating bacterial growth. This study develops a new bacteria subroutine for the SWAT in an attempt to improve its prediction accuracy. We introduced critical temperatures as a parameter to simulate the onset of bacterial growth/die-off and to reproduce the seasonal variability of bacteria. The module developed in this study will improve modeling for environmental management schemes.

  2. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. PMID:26408227

  3. Total Immunoglobulin E Levels and Dengue Infection on San Andrés Island, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Palmer, Carol J.; Shor-Posner, Gail; Velásquez, Luz Stella; Lai, Hong; Baum, Marianna K

    1999-01-01

    An evaluation of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and dengue serostatus in 168 subjects from San Andrés Island, Colombia, revealed altered levels of IgE in 89% of the population. IgE levels were higher in patients with a history of dengue or with a current secondary or current primary infection than in subjects with no exposure (P = 0.01). Dengue infection accounted for 23% of the variation in IgE levels.

  4. The effects of oral and intramuscular administration and dose escalation of enrofloxacin on the selection of quinolone resistance among Salmonella and coliforms in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Svendsen, O.;

    2003-01-01

    the resistant and total number of coliforms and Salmonella in faeces of the pigs. High frequencies of fluoroquinolone resistance developed rapidly among the coliform flora independent of route of administration, dose or time of initiation of the treatment. Selection for resistance among the artificially...... introduced Salmonella was reduced by using the intramuscular route and by escalating the dose 3 or 6 times the recommended dose of 2.5 mg/kg bwt, which also resulted in shortening of the period, in which the pigs were shedding Salmonella. The resistance among the coliform flora persisted for at least 2 weeks...

  5. Optimization of Steam Pressure Levels in a Total Site Using a Thermoeconomic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shamsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a thermoeconomic-based approach for optimization of steam levels in a steam production and distribution system by use of the specific exergy costing (SPECO method for determining optimum steam levels to minimize the cost caused by exergy destruction. In the field of total site optimization, incremental cost of the utility system caused by exergy destruction has been selected as an objective function and the result is compared with the case that energy minimization has been selected as the prime objective. The steam levels are optimized considering steam demand at each level, output power generated by turbines, boiler duty, fuel and cold utility requirements as well as capital cost of equipments. The analysis showed that thermoeconomic (exergoeconomic approach in optimization not only can change the optimum structure of steam levels but also may reduce the total cost of utility system up to 8%.

  6. Clinical evaluation of total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in oral precancer and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ahmed Taqi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Special attention has been given to define the biochemical changes in cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids that take place during malignant transformation. This study was thus designed to explore the clinical utility of total and lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) in patients with oral precancer and oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 95 subjects divided into three groups, namely healthy individuals, oral cancer, and precancer. Serum total and LSA level...

  7. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  8. Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Yanhua; Liu Yinghui; Fu Mingde; Long Shiyin; Tian Li; Jia Lianqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC) levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of N...

  9. Frequency distribution of coliforms in water distribution systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, R R; Pipes, W O

    1983-01-01

    Nine small water distribution systems were sampled intensively to determine the patterns of dispersion of coliforms. The frequency distributions of confirmed coliform counts were compatible with either the negative-binomial or the lognormal distribution. They were not compatible with either the Poisson or Poisson-plus-added zeroes distribution. The implications of the use of the lognormal distributional model were further evaluated because of its previous use in water quality studies. The geo...

  10. INFLUENCE OF MEAT MATURATION TO THE PRESENCE OF COLIFORM BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE The aim of our study was detection of coliforms bacteria and pH changes in the process of beef maturation. The number of coliforms bacteria were lower as 1 log cfu.g-1 in four samples and the highest coliforms bacteria count was 3.1 log cfu.g-1 after 1-st week of meat maturation. Average number of coliforms bacteria was lower as 1.43 log cfu.g-1.  The pH values of meat varied from 5.5 to 6.1 after 1-st week. Average value of pH was 5.75.  The number of coliforms bacteria were from 2.61 log cfu.g-1 to 3.35 log cfu.g-1 after 2-nd week of meat maturation. Average number of coliforms bacteria was 3.17 log cfu.g-1. The pH values of meat were from 6.0 to 6.2 after 2-nd week of meat maturation. Average value of pH was 6.05. doi:10.5219/181

  11. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits.

  12. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  13. Total and free valproic acid: plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadín, J A; Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, J S

    1991-04-01

    Free plasma level/dose ratio of valproic acid (L/D-F) can be more effective than total plasma level/dose ratio (L/D-T) in adjusting dosage regimens. The influence of age, dose, and plasma concentration have been studied on L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios from 67 outpatients under long-term monotherapy were obtained. Analytical data was carried out by fluorescent polarized immunoassay. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios do not vary according to age. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios decreased while the dosage increased; both ratios increased with an increase in total plasma level of valproic acid. Significant differences were found between L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. Dose and interindividual variations are the factors which most influence L/D ratios of valproic acid. PMID:2051846

  14. Changes in plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels in patients receiving methotrexate infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxson, E H; Stork, L C; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Kolhouse, J F

    1989-11-01

    Methotrexate reduces intracellular pools of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and could result in reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthetase. This study was designed to investigate the effects of moderate dose to very high dose methotrexate on methionine and total homocysteine as reflections of methotrexate induced intracellular events. Methionine and total homocysteine were measured prior to, during, and following twenty-six 24-h i.v. infusions of 33.6 g/m2 methotrexate (very high dose methotrexate) in 16 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and seven 4-h i.v. infusions of 8 g/m2 methotrexate (high dose methotrexate) in 5 children with osteogenic sarcoma. Amino acids were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Mean methionine levels decreased by 70.0 +/- 3.1% (SE) with very high dose methotrexate and 72.6 +/- 5.9% with high dose methotrexate at 24 and 4.5 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. Mean total homocysteine levels increased by 61.7 +/- 3.1% with very high dose methotrexate and 55.6 +/- 17.5% with high dose methotrexate at 36 and 24 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. No consistent or significant changes were noted in levels of total cysteine, leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Similar changes did not occur in patients receiving prednisone, vincristine, daunomycin, and intrathecal methotrexate as therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. These changes in homocysteine and methionine may reflect biological effects of methotrexate that may predict cytotoxicity of methotrexate.

  15. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  16. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL AND GRADING OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Mirhoseini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy levels constitute a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. A possible relationship was investigated between admission plasma homocysteine level and the angiographic severity and extension of coronary artery disease in patients with CAD. This study looks at the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and severity of coronary artery disease. From April 2006 to December 2006, 100 consecutive patients (65 male and 35 female that referred to our institute for coronary artery bypass graft surgery enrolled. Fasting blood samples for homocysteine were obtained on admission. Plasma homocysteine concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Our patients presented in Group 1, total plasma homocysteine >12 micromoles per liter and Group 2, total plasma homocysteine =<12 micromoles per liter. Vessel score assessed the number of vessels with significant stenosis and grading of atherosclerosis (Extent Score was intended to assess the atherosclerotic involvement of the entire arterial length and circumscribe. Our study was shown age > 60 years was correlated with high tHcy, but gender, hypertension, history of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history, and diabetes mellitus were not statistically difference between two groups. A positive correlation was found between abnormal plasma homocysteine level and vessel score (r = 0.35; p=0.002. Moreover, a positive correlation was also found with extent score (r = 0.46; p =0.002. As results of these scoring, there was a better correlation between the tHcy level and the extent of CAD when compared with the vessel score (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Abnormal elevated homocysteine levels in patients with coronary artery disease correlated with the extent of atherosclerotic disease.

  18. Total Jamur, Jenis Kapang dan Khamir Pellet Ayam Kampung Super dengan Penambahan Berbagai Level Pollard Berprobiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurdianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available (Total fungi, type of mold and yeasts in super native chicken pelleted feed with various level of probiotic pollard ABSTRACT. The research objective is assessing the effect of adding various level of probiotic pollard on total fungi, type of mold and  yeast. The material used in this research were fermented vegetables waste , molasses, distilled water, pollard,  super native chicken’s feed, physiological NaCl (0.85% NaCl and sabaroud glucose agar (SGA.  Research using  completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment used were T0 = 100% feed + 0% probiotic pollard, T1 = 90% feed + 10% probiotic pollard, T2 = 80% feed + 20% probiotic pollard and T3 = 70% feed + 30% probiotic pollard. The observed parameters were total fungi, type of molds and yeast. The average of total fungi are 0  CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU; 0,55 x 107 CFU and 0 CFU. Type of mold is Aspergillus niger and none yeast have grown. The conclusion is the addition of 10% and 20%  probiotic pollard to super native chicken’s pellet  yield mold type Aspergillus niger as much 0,55 x 107 CFU.

  19. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    OpenAIRE

    Barwais, Faisal A; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Tomson, L Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relat...

  20. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Tchounwou, Paul B.; Scott Gordon; Paulinus Chigbu

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Ni...

  1. Effect of Mentha Piperita L. Powder on the Overall Acceptability, Coliforms, and Molds and Yeasts Counts of Borujerd Domestic Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    FADAEİ NOGHANİ, Vajiheh; SAMETİ, Sadrieh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of plant powder Mentha Piperita L. in at the levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % on preventing the growth of mold, yeast and coliforms, as well as the, overall acceptability, pH and acidity of Borujerd domestic cheese samples during the cold storage were studied. The findings showed that with increasing the percentage of Mentha Piperita L. powder in cheese samples, the number of coliforms and mold and yeast, titratable acidity and overall acceptabil...

  2. Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  3. Total Antioxidant Level in Caffeine-free Herbal Infusions Suitable for Unrestricted Everyday Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskovska, Tatjana; Gjorgieva, Darinka; Crcoroska, Marija; Kukovska, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coffee and tea (Camellia sinensis), are widely used beverages among general population. АIM OF THE STUDY: Although there is no established recommended daily allowance for total antioxidants in human diet, we investigated alternative sources of antioxidants from caffeine-free and nonalcoholic beverages, free from preservatives, additives and artificial colors. CONCLUSION: In accordance with data from literature, green tea is superior with its antioxidants level.In respec...

  4. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  5. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  6. Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C(r over 3-years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR using a Mobi-C(r Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C(r Cervical Artificial Disc was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR, or a two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF as control. The 234 TDR patients and 105 ACDF patients were followed up at regular time points for three years after surgery. Results: At 36 months, both groups demonstrated an improvement in clinical outcome measures and a comparable safety profile. NDI scores, SF-12 PCS scores, patient satisfaction, and overall success indicated greater statistically significant improvement from baseline for the TDR group, in comparison to the ACDF group. The TDR patients experienced lower subsequent surgery rates and a lower rate of adjacent segment degeneration. On average, the TDR patients maintained segmental range of motion through 36 months with no device failure. Conclusion: Results at three-years support TDR as a safe, effective and statistically superior alternative to ACDF for the treatment of degenerative disc disease at two contiguous cervical levels.

  7. Office workers' objectively assessed total and prolonged sitting time: Individual-level correlates and worksite variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Lynch, Brigid M; Sethi, Parneet; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Moodie, Marj; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Wiesner, Glen; Willenberg, Lisa; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior is highly prevalent in office-based workplaces; however, few studies have assessed the attributes associated with this health risk factor in the workplace setting. This study aimed to identify the correlates of office workers' objectively-assessed total and prolonged (≥ 30 min bouts) workplace sitting time. Participants were 231 Australian office workers recruited from 14 sites of a single government employer in 2012-13. Potential socio-demographic, work-related, health-related and cognitive-social correlates were measured through a self-administered survey and anthropometric measurements. Associations with total and prolonged workplace sitting time (measured with the activPAL3) were tested using linear mixed models. Worksites varied significantly in total workplace sitting time (overall mean [SD]: 79% [10%] of work hours) and prolonged workplace sitting time (42% [19%]), after adjusting for socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Organisational tenure of 3-5 years (compared to tenure > 5 years) was associated with more time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time, while having a BMI categorised as obese (compared to a healthy BMI) was associated with less time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Significant variations in sitting time were observed across different worksites of the same employer and the variation remained after adjusting for individual-level factors. Only BMI and organisational tenure were identified as correlates of total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Additional studies are needed to confirm the present findings across diverse organisations and occupations. PMID:27413681

  8. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  9. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  10. [Levels of Ochratoxin A and total Aflatoxins in Panamanian exportation coffee by an ELISA Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heriberto; Vega, Aracelly; Reyes, Stephany; De Léon, Javier; Bonilla, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    A study about processing conditions of exportation coffee in 15 benefits located in Chiriqui, western region of Panama, was conducted. In addition, 21 samples of processed coffee (green beans), from the benefits, were analyzed. The samples were microbiologically tested in order to quantify total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A (OTA), using the immunoaffinity ELISA method. A detection limit of 0.017 ng/mL, was determined for Ochratoxin A, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.829 µg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL, for total aflatoxins, which is equivalent to a concentration of 1.350 µg/kg. It was found that four (19%) out of the 21 samples were positive to the presence of Ochratoxin A and three (14%) to the presence of total aflatoxins. Samples showed levels of Ochratoxin A in the range 4.90 - 37.73 µg/kg; only three of them exceeded the maximum limit allowed by the European Union, for the concentration of Ochratoxin, which is of 5.0 µg/kg. Total aflatoxins were found in the range 1.51 - 1.93 µg/kg, below 10 µg/kg which is the maximum limit allowed for coffee by the European Union. The results indicate that the processing of coffee produced in Panama successfully meets international standards for postharvest handling, which leads to a low incidence ofmycotoxins and very low levels ofmycotoxin-producing fungi.

  11. [Levels of Ochratoxin A and total Aflatoxins in Panamanian exportation coffee by an ELISA Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heriberto; Vega, Aracelly; Reyes, Stephany; De Léon, Javier; Bonilla, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    A study about processing conditions of exportation coffee in 15 benefits located in Chiriqui, western region of Panama, was conducted. In addition, 21 samples of processed coffee (green beans), from the benefits, were analyzed. The samples were microbiologically tested in order to quantify total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A (OTA), using the immunoaffinity ELISA method. A detection limit of 0.017 ng/mL, was determined for Ochratoxin A, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.829 µg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL, for total aflatoxins, which is equivalent to a concentration of 1.350 µg/kg. It was found that four (19%) out of the 21 samples were positive to the presence of Ochratoxin A and three (14%) to the presence of total aflatoxins. Samples showed levels of Ochratoxin A in the range 4.90 - 37.73 µg/kg; only three of them exceeded the maximum limit allowed by the European Union, for the concentration of Ochratoxin, which is of 5.0 µg/kg. Total aflatoxins were found in the range 1.51 - 1.93 µg/kg, below 10 µg/kg which is the maximum limit allowed for coffee by the European Union. The results indicate that the processing of coffee produced in Panama successfully meets international standards for postharvest handling, which leads to a low incidence ofmycotoxins and very low levels ofmycotoxin-producing fungi. PMID:25796716

  12. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  13. Pengujian Bakteri Coliform Pada Air Sumur Di Medan Johor

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Lola Alia Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Water is an essential material in life. Water is a major means to increase public health. The spread of water-borne desease can be. Water pollution canbe caused by the entry of human and animal feces. It can also be caused by the return of waste water in to the well directly or through leaks and openings where the soil. Coliform is a group of bacteria used as an indicator of pollution and dirt are not good conditions for water. The purpose of testing is to test Coliform bacteria on one of wel...

  14. Homocystein Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakdehi, MS. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance plays a key role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed to evaluate homocystiene and total antioxidant capacity in COPD patients, compared to smoker and non-smoker healthy people. Material and Methods: We measured total antioxidant capacity with Cayman Kit, uric acid with Pars Azmoon kit٫ homocysteine with ELISA Kit and inflammatory cells (leukocytes in 29 COPD patients, 29 smokers and 29 non-smokers. Results: Uric acid was significantly higher in COPD patients compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers (p<0.05. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy, non smokers (p=0. 003. In COPD patients, homocysteine and leukocytes levels were significantly higher than those in healthy smokers (P<0.05 and healthy non- smokers (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to high inflammatory cells and low antioxidant capacity in COPD, early administration of appropriate medication is recommended to reduce systemic and topical inflammation. Reduction in the exposure to oxidizing compounds can slow the process of degradation and damage to lungs. Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Homocysteine; Oxidative Stress

  15. Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yanhua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of NCEP (ATP- III guidelines. Results The increase in contents of small preβ1-HDL, HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a particles clustered and reduce in HDL2b with increased of TC. The distribution of HDL subclasses have shown abnormality characterized by the lower HDL2b (324.2 mg/L contents and the higher preβ1-HDL (90.4 mg/L contents for desirable TC Chinese subjects. Among 176 desirable TC subjects, 58.6% subjects with triglyceride (TG Conclusions The particles size of HDL subclasses shifted towards smaller with increased TC levels. The TC was liner with HDL2b contents and those can be reduced 17 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TC levels. The HDL subclasses distribution phenotype was not expectation for Chinese Population with desirable TC levels. Thus, from the HDL subclasses distribution point, when assessing the coronary heart disease(CHD risk not only rely on the TC levels, but also the concentrations of TG, HDL-C and LDL-C must considered in case the potential risk for desirable TC subjects with other plasma lipids metabolism disorders.

  16. The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998 and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998 e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual

  17. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  18. Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Kayani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for which the consumer pays. In thecase of education, the Consumer is the student as well as society. Therefore, quality education is the standard of education that satisfies the students and society both. The main objectives of this study were to identify the indicators of Total Quality Management(T.Q.M in classroom to study the efforts of teachers to ensure TQM in classroom and to identify the ways to improve the quality of education at higher level.From the findings of the study it was revealed that the teachers did not covered the five standards of TQM elements completely, students were not completely satisfied by the teaching methodology during knowledge transitory process. Most of the teachers were not prepared before delivering there lectures, teacher showed biasness that discouraged the students. Teacher also ignored the daily assessment of the students, and use of the audio visual (AV aids in classroom, obsolete teaching material, and ineffective material caused failure to produce total quality education, and failed to produce skilled workforce. Based upon the conclusion of the study it is recommended that teacher may be punctual, teacher should use AV aids for teaching in classroom, teachers may be prepared well before delivering the lecture, teacher may encourage the classroom discussion, andteacher may treat equally in classroom.

  19. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil. PMID:26553847

  20. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSI6 contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  1. Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is a common, potentially premalignant lesion with malignant transformation rate from 1 to 17% with highest transformation rate for the lesions on the floor of the mouth, soft palate and tongue. One of the main etiological factors is consuming areca nut and its commercial preparations which generate high levels of reactive oxygen species during their metabolism. So the aim of this present study is to evaluate the plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant mineral zinc, glutathione and total antioxidant status (TAS in leukoplakia patients. Materials and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we selected 23 newly diagnosed oral leukoplakia patients of both sexes within the age group 28-40 years and the same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals without having history of any systemic illness were selected as control group. In both the groups, we measured plasma antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc, GSH and TAS. Student′s t test was applied and the P value <0.001 was considered as statistically significant. Results: We observed very low levels of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc and antioxidant metabolite GSH (P<0.001 and at the same time we also observed very poor (TAS (P<0.001 in leukoplakia patients when compared to patients in control group. Conclusion: The consumption of tobacco or areca quid which contains high copper levels creates an oxidative stress like environment during their metabolism, might play a major role in causation and propagation of oral leukoplakia.

  2. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre J Obeid; Bilal E1-Khoury; Joanne Burger; Samer Aouad; Mira Younis; Amal Aoun; John Hanna El-Nakat

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet.However,very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption.This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption.Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh,frozen,processed,and canned fish.All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight.The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 μg/g in fresh samples,0.0059 to 0.0665 μg/g in frozen samples,and 0.0305 to 0.1190 μg/g in canned samples.The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure.Moreover,the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia),Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus),Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops),and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury.On the other hand,processed fish such as fish fillet,fish burger,small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury.Lebanese population should therefore,be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  3. Coliforms and Salmonella in seawater near to domestic sewage sources in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M T; Vieira, R H; Saker-Sampaio, S; Hofer, E

    1997-12-01

    The bacteriological conditions of the coastal region of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil), including the coastal zones of the Ceará and Cocó rivers, were examined. The study was conducted during June, September and December 1993, and March 1994. The region was divided into two areas: (i) Direct Influence Area (DIA), consisting of 20 sampling stations located near to discharge zones of the submarine pipeline system, where collections were carried out at the surface, and (ii) Indirect Influence Area (IIA), located near to the coastal zone, including Barra do Ceará, Kartódromo, Volta de Jurema, Mucuripe, Farol and Caça e Pesca beaches, totalling 26 sampling stations. The most probable number (MPN) of both total and fecal coliforms in DIA was positive only in station number 6, near to the sewage discharge exit. The following bacteria were identified: Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Kartódromo beach was contaminated throughout the sampling period. Results of total fecal MPN was essentially lower than 3.0 x 10(2) coliforms/100 ml at Caça e Pesca beach. In December, at both DIA and IIA, Salmonella was identified in several samples. In DIA, the spatial distribution for Salmonella suggests that there should be a coastal sea current from east to west along the coastline. In IIA, Salmonella was identified at Kartódromo and Farol beaches throughout the sampling period.

  4. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perron

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  5. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  6. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Beran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

  7. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined...... in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes......The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...

  8. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  9. Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

  10. Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia

  11. Survey of PAC Performance for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Coliform Bacteria, Heterotrophic Bacteria from Water of Karoon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Alavi Bakhtiarvand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Selection of proper coagulants for turbidity removal and determination of effective methods to reduce coagulants dose and related costs in water treatment plants is of critical importance. The present study investigates the effect of returned sludge on improving the performance of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC in turbidity, coliform bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria removal from drinking water during rapid mixing phase. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the optimal returned sludge volume injected during rapid mixing with PAC for turbidity, total coliform and hetrophic bacteria, experiments were conducted based on variables such as injected silt volume (from 0 - 125 ml, and varying turbidities from 58 - 112 NTU. At the end of each JAR experiments, remaining turbidity , microbial parameters of samples were measured . Coagulant efficiency in turbidity removal and microbial parameters were determined by Covariance, Duncan analyses and graphs were drawn by MS Excel . The results statistically showed significant among variables (P<0.05. Results: The results showed that the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.92 at 30 ppm was 10 ml while the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.31 at 10 ppm was 4 ml. The maximum total coliform removal efficiency  of 95.68 obtained for 10 ppm in 10 cc injected sludge volume.Conclusion: This study shows that addition of returned sludge to flash mixing can reduce the turbidity of samples.

  12. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952

  13. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  14. BRUCELLA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN FRESH CHEESE PRODUCED IN HAMADAN – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R YOUSEFI MASHOUF

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and its Products possess high nutritional value. It could be a desirable source for growing of pathogenic microorganisms. The objectives of this study was to obtain the frequency of pathogenic bacterial agents (i.e. brucella spp. and coliforms in fresh cheese in Hamedan.
    A total of 210 cheese samples were collected randomly from Hamadan and its rural area for a period of six months. 50 to 100 gm of fresh cheese was purchesed in each time and one gram weighted to preparation of diluted concentration in selective media. The data were gathered through a questionnaire and analysed using IEPI6"; system.
    Of 210 samples, only 5 cases (2.4 percent of Brucella spp. Were isolated, however, all samples tested were positive for Coliforms contaminations (100 percent. E.coli type I was 143 (68.1 percent. E.coli type 11 42 (19.8 percent. The other major pathogenic bacteria isolated were as follows: Staph aureus 8.1 percent, Bacillus cereus 4.7 percent, psuedomonas 1.9 percent and Salmonella typhimurium 1.2 percent.
    Because of isolation of the pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella species, Pathogenic Cofiforms and Staph aures, from fresh cheese, and the role of them in transition of infectious disease, it is recommended that high health cares must be performed to preparation and distribution of fresh cheese.

  15. Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan fatemeh

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

  16. THE APPLICABLITY TO COMPANY LEVEL OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE TURKISH ARMY

    OpenAIRE

    GENCER, Cevriye; EŞER, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn this study, the application of quality teams, which is one of the means of total quality management, has been given in the Ordanance Company in Commandos Brigade in Hakkari. The aim of this paper is to search the application of total guality management to the military systems. For this reason, two different quality teams has been constituted in military. The advantages and disadvantages of this application are given from the point of view of Turkish Army. Key Words: Quality, t...

  17. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  18. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry EC Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" EC method, originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Test Method(SM) program for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli coliforms in raw meat products (Performance Tested Method(SM) 110402), has undergone an evaluation to extend the method's claim to cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, instant nonfat dry milk powder, and pasteurized milk (2% fat). Compact Dry EC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, selective agents, and a chromogenic medium, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL diluted sample. E. coli form blue/blue-purple colonies, whereas other coliform bacteria form red/pink colonies. Users can obtain an E. coli count (blue/blue-purple colonies only) and a total coliform count (red/pink plus blue/blue-purple colonies) after 24 ± 2 h of incubation at 37 ± 1°C. The matrix extension study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom. Method comparison data for cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, and instant nonfat dry milk powder were collected in a single-laboratory evaluation by Campden BRI. A multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk (2% fat), with 13 laboratories participating. The Compact Dry EC method was compared to ISO 16649-2:2001 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli-Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 degrees C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-glucuronide" and to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current standards at the time of this study. Each matrix was evaluated separately for E. coli and non-E. coli coliforms at each contamination level (including an

  19. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry EC Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" EC method, originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Test Method(SM) program for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli coliforms in raw meat products (Performance Tested Method(SM) 110402), has undergone an evaluation to extend the method's claim to cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, instant nonfat dry milk powder, and pasteurized milk (2% fat). Compact Dry EC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, selective agents, and a chromogenic medium, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL diluted sample. E. coli form blue/blue-purple colonies, whereas other coliform bacteria form red/pink colonies. Users can obtain an E. coli count (blue/blue-purple colonies only) and a total coliform count (red/pink plus blue/blue-purple colonies) after 24 ± 2 h of incubation at 37 ± 1°C. The matrix extension study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom. Method comparison data for cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, and instant nonfat dry milk powder were collected in a single-laboratory evaluation by Campden BRI. A multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk (2% fat), with 13 laboratories participating. The Compact Dry EC method was compared to ISO 16649-2:2001 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli-Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 degrees C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-glucuronide" and to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current standards at the time of this study. Each matrix was evaluated separately for E. coli and non-E. coli coliforms at each contamination level (including an

  20. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  1. Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan René Mallama Leyton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (PUnder laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P<0.05) according to the Kruskal-Wallis test for the clearance rates were found. The highest levels of remotion of E. coli belonged to the treatment in which there was the highest number of individuals. The clearance rate of the clams varied between 0.47 and 3.80 l.h-1.ind-1 which is reported in the literature. Removal levels showing A. tortolis suggest that this clam can be used as a biological resource for the treatment of the tertiary waters contaminated with faecal coliform bacteria.

  2. Increased total-Tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric hydrocephalus and brain tumor patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Judith M.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Reddingius, Roel E.; Pieters, Rob; van Gool, Stefdan W.

    2008-01-01

    Total Tau (t-Tau), hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau((181P))) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have shown to be markers of neuronal and axonal degeneration in various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the presence of

  3. Integrating Total Physical Response Strategy in a Level I Spanish Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David E.; Jones, Gwendolyn

    1982-01-01

    Reports on an experiment in which one group of high school students was taught using Total Physical Response (TPR) for 20 minutes a day and a control group was taught by the usual manner. Results showed students in the TPR group scored better on standard unit tests and expressed greater satisfaction with their teacher and course. (EKN)

  4. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body c

  5. Community-Level Effects of Excess Total Dissolved Solids Doses Using Model Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 days) were conducted with four different total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in their relative dominance of major ions. One was made from sodium and calcium chloride salts only. Another was similar to the first, but a...

  6. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, A.; J. C. Block

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the co...

  7. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  8. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  9. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  10. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA.

  11. Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Cell-Free Total DNA Levels in Spontaneous Abortion with Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hyae Lim; Min Hyoung Kim; You Jung Han; Da Eun Lee; So Yeon Park; Jung Yeol Han; Moon Young Kim; Hyun Mee Ryu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy....

  12. Investigation of Coliform Removal from Drinking Water by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The practice of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in water dates back to ancient times. The most common methods for water disinfection are using chemicals, Ozonation, Ultra Violet ray, Membrane Processes and etc. There has been considerable interest in disinfection of water by using electrochemical methods in recent years. The main purpose of this study is to conduct experimental investigation of water disinfection by using the electrolysis method. Inactivation and killing Coliform in polluted waters was investigated by different voltage, electrodes (Al, St and Cu and distance between electrodes.Materials & Methods: The polluted water was prepared by adding a colony of coliform growth on EMB in raw water. Experiments were done similarly via the same electrolyzes time, electrodes distance and voltage intensity for all types of combinations of electrodes respectively. Results: The experimental results show that the removal efficiency depends on the voltage and electrodes material. From the experiments carried out at 10 V. and at current intensity of 135 mA, it was found that five-minute period was sufficient for disinfecting water using Stainless Steel electrodes.Conclusion: Due to the results, the electrochemical methods can be proposed as a promising cleaning and purifying method for water disinfection.

  13. Trichromatic π-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full π-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as √3π , √2π , and √3π completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  14. Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehghan fatemeh; Najarian Negin; Kasravi Alii Reza; Falahat Saeed; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza; Arjomandzadegan Mohammad; Kalantari Salomeh; Ahmari Gholam Reza; Sarmadian Hossein; Sadrnia Maryam; Ahmadi Azam; Shojapoor Mana

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyse molecular detection of coliforms and shorten the time of PCR. Methods:Rapid detection of coliforms by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a multiplex PCR reaction was designed and performed in comparison with most probably number (MPN) method for 16 artificial and 101 field samples. The molecular method was also conducted on isolated coliforms from positive MPN samples; standard sample for verification of microbial method certificated reference material; isolated strains from certificated reference material and standard bacteria. The PCR and electrophoresis parameters were changed for reducing the operation time. Results:Results of PCR for lacZ and uidA genes were similar in all of standard, operational and artificial samples and showed the 876 bp and 147 bp bands of lacZ and uidA genes by multiplex PCR. PCR results were confirmed by MPN culture method by sensitivity 86%(95%CI:0.71-0.93). Also the total execution time, with a successful change of factors, was reduced to less than two and a half hour. Conclusions:Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It’s recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

  15. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  16. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Kraan, P.M. van der; Rijnberg, W.J.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference

  17. Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyae Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both. The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001 than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002 and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945 and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA

  18. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Beran; Lee Danisch; Adam Chrzanowski; Maciej Bazanowski

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAA)instruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmo...

  19. Total serum cholesterol levels and suicide attempts in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Plana, Teresa; Gracia, R.; Méndez, I.; Pintor, L.; Lazaro, L; Castro-Fornieles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Associations between cholesterol and suicidal behavior in adolescent patients have not been explored in depth. In this study, 66 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit following attempted suicide were compared with a control group of 54 patients with no history of suicide attempts. The age range of the sample was from 8 to 18 years old. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in attempted suicide patients than in controls (p < 0.02), supporting...

  20. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  1. Response of atmospheric ground level temperatures to changes in the total solar irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature to TSI in time. It is found that the mean global sensitivity (alpha)measured in K(Wm-2)-1 varies from about 0.003 for 1 day, via 0.05 for 11-years to about 0.2 for decades to centuries. We conclude that mean global temperature changes related to TSI are not significant from 1975 onwards. Before 1975, when anthropogenic gases were less important, many of the temperature changes can be attributed to TSI variations. Over much longer periods of time, from Kyear to Myear, the TSI changes are more efficient still, the sensitivity alpha increasing...

  2. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a cros

  3. Observations of total electron content perturbations on GPS signals caused by a ground level explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1997-05-01

    We have measured perturbations of electron density in the ionosphere caused by a ground level explosion with an energy release of 2 kt (8.5 × 1012 J) using transmissions from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites to monitor integrated electron density. The frequencies of the transmissions were 1575.42 MHz (L1) and 1227.60 MHz (L2). The detected perturbation showed a maximum excursion of 0.14 TEC units and had a duration of 80 s beginning at 565 s after the explosion. The acoustic disturbance necessary to produce such a perturbation is well modeled as an N wave with a dimension of 35 km and a relative amplitude of 12% propagating radially at a speed of 0.7 km/s. The majority of the TEC perturbation occurred at an altitude of approximately 200 km.

  4. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Fish from the Department Madre de Díos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about environmental contamination in most otter species. In the range of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, gold miners discharge a great deal of methylmercury into the environment, and this is known to biomagnify in the food chain. Assays for methylmercury were carried out on fish collected in the Madre de Dios department of Peru, from near gold mining areas, and also from more than 100km away; additional fish were obtained from fish markets. Results show that significant contamination occurs in fish bigger than the normal prey size of the otters, but at present, there are low levels in prey species - this should be monitored closely in future.

  5. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time. PMID:1801007

  6. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Coliform Detection Technologies for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coliform detection technologies to be tested use chromatogenic and fluorogenic growth media to detect coliforms and E. coli based on the enzymatic activity of these organisms. The systems consist of single-use sample containers that contain pre-measured reagents and can be u...

  7. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  8. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

  9. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  11. Copper and ceruloplasmin levels in relation to total thiols and GST in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Dash, S; Barik, B K; Muttigi, Manjunatha S; Kedage, V; Shetty, J K; Prakash, M

    2010-01-01

    Presence of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well proved. Current study was undertaken to know the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and copper along with antioxidants like total thiols and ceruloplasmin, and antioxidant enzyme glutathione S transferase (GST). The study group consisted of a total of 201 subjects which included nondiabetic healthy control subjects (n = 78) and diabetic patients (n = 123). Plasma total thiols, GST, copper and ceruloplasmin levels were measured all the subjects using spectrophotometric methods and FPG levels were determined in clinical chemistry analyzer Hitachi 912. There was significant increase in FPG (P<0.001) and copper (P<0.001) and decrease in ceruloplasmin (P<0.001) and protein thiols (P<0.001) in type 2 DM cases compared to healthy controls. There was no significant change in GST between type 2 DM cases and controls. There was significant negative correlation of FPG with antioxidants like ceruloplasmin (r = -0.420, P<0.001) and total thiols (r = -0.565, P<0.001). Protein thiols correlated positively with ceruloplasmin (r = 0.364, P<0.001). Our study indicates possible increase in copper mediated generation of ROS leading to increased consumption of available antioxidants in the body.

  12. Pengaruh Ketebalan Media dan Rate filtrasi pada Sand Filter dalam Menurunkan Kekeruhan dan Total Coliform

    OpenAIRE

    Deni Maryani; Ali Masduqi; Atiek Moesriati

    2014-01-01

    Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses filtrasi dengan menggunakan sand filter sebagai salah satu metode dalam pengolahan air bersih. Pada sand filter proses penyaringan terjadi pada media filter yang sangat halus, seperti media filter pada unit slow sand filter. Kecepatan penyaringan yang diinginkan pada sand filter ini adalah kecepatan seperti pada unit rapid sand filter. Sehingga sand filter ini adalah penggabungan antara kelebihan yang dimiliki slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter. Varias...

  13. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... forth in plain language the requirements of the regulation and to help small businesses understand the... Law 104-121), FDA is making available this SECG stating in plain language the legal requirements of.... Background In the Federal Register of May 29, 2009 (74 FR 25651), FDA issued a final rule amending...

  14. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... environmental stresses such as lack of nutrients, and water treatments such as chlorine disinfection, in a...--Code of Federal Regulations COI--Cost of Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic Analysis EC-MUG--EC Medium with MUG EPA--United...

  15. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... CWS Community Water System DBPs Disinfection Byproducts DWC Drinking Water Committee EA Economic... Disinfection Byproducts Federal Advisory Committee in December 2000 (USEPA 2000b, 65 FR 83015, December 29... environmental stresses such as lack of nutrients, and water treatments such as chlorine disinfection, in...

  16. Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Delise L. P. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

  17. Free and total leptin serum levels and soluble leptin receptors levels in two models of genetic obesity: the Prader-Willi and the Down syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Caterina; Romualdi, Daniela; Cento, Rosa Maria; Romano, Corrado; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in energy balance and feeding behavior and the subsequent high frequency of obesity are hallmarks of 2 chromosomal diseases: the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the Down syndrome (DS). Leptin, an important regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis, circulates in 2 forms: a free, therefore active, fraction and a fraction bound to the soluble leptin receptor, whose bioavailability consequently participates in the regulation of leptin action. To investigate the possible role of the free-bound leptin balance in the pathogenesis of obesity in PWS and DS, we enrolled 7 obese women with DS, 5 obese women with PWS, 7 obese women, and 7 normal-weight healthy control women. Basal hormonal concentrations, total and free leptin levels, and leptin receptors levels were measured in plasma samples obtained from the 4 groups. No significant differences were observed in the hormonal milieu. Women with DS exhibited lower total leptin concentrations (Psyndromal obesity.

  18. Genome-wide scan on total serum IgE levels identifies FCER1A as novel susceptibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Weidinger

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High levels of serum IgE are considered markers of parasite and helminth exposure. In addition, they are associated with allergic disorders, play a key role in anti-tumoral defence, and are crucial mediators of autoimmune diseases. Total IgE is a strongly heritable trait. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS, we tested 353,569 SNPs for association with serum IgE levels in 1,530 individuals from the population-based KORA S3/F3 study. Replication was performed in four independent population-based study samples (total n = 9,769 individuals. Functional variants in the gene encoding the alpha chain of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FCER1A on chromosome 1q23 (rs2251746 and rs2427837 were strongly associated with total IgE levels in all cohorts with P values of 1.85 x 10(-20 and 7.08 x 10(-19 in a combined analysis, and in a post-hoc analysis showed additional associations with allergic sensitization (P = 7.78 x 10(-4 and P = 1.95 x 10(-3. The "top" SNP significantly influenced the cell surface expression of FCER1A on basophils, and genome-wide expression profiles indicated an interesting novel regulatory mechanism of FCER1A expression via GATA-2. Polymorphisms within the RAD50 gene on chromosome 5q31 were consistently associated with IgE levels (P values 6.28 x 10(-7-4.46 x 10(-8 and increased the risk for atopic eczema and asthma. Furthermore, STAT6 was confirmed as susceptibility locus modulating IgE levels. In this first GWAS on total IgE FCER1A was identified and replicated as new susceptibility locus at which common genetic variation influences serum IgE levels. In addition, variants within the RAD50 gene might represent additional factors within cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q31, emphasizing the need for further investigations in this intriguing region. Our data furthermore confirm association of STAT6 variation with serum IgE levels.

  19. Eficiência na remoção de coliformes em águas cinza através da fitorremediação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena S. Baracuhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O semiárido é caracterizado pelas irregularidades pluviais e o tratamento de águas cinza para reuso na agricultura com tecnologia ecológica é uma forma de conviver com a seca nessas regiões. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa foi realizada no distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras/PB objetivando-se avaliar a eficiência da remoção dos coliformes totais e fecais do efluente tratado nas unidades de produção agrícola através da fitorremediação. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com e sem fitorremediação, a cultura utilizada foi o capim roxo. As águas cinza eram provenientes de uma lavanderia pública. Foram coletadas amostras mensais e analisadas os coliformes total e fecal (Escherichia coli. No tratamento sem fitorremediação, os coliformes totais variaram de 1,583 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL e quando o tratamento tinha o auxílio do capim roxo, ou seja, com fitorremediação os coliformes totais oscilaram de 1,354 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL. Ocorreu uma redução significativa de Escherichia coli no tratamento com fitorremediação. A utilização da fitorremediação no tratamento de águas cinza reduziu a presença de coliformes totais e fecal, sendo assim uma alternativa viável de tratamento, proporcionando um aumento da qualidade hídrica.

  20. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wuhua, E-mail: dwh203@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • An improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste was developed. • Genuine high level liquid waste was used in the hot test. • 72-Stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors were used in the hot test. • The decontamination factors of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. • The stripping efficiencies of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. - Abstract: High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P and T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10{sup 3}, 2.25 × 10{sup 4} and 1.68 × 10{sup 4} after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  1. Joint Effect of Urinary Total Arsenic Level and VEGF-A Genetic Polymorphisms on the Recurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Yang

    Full Text Available The results of our previous study suggested that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Germline genetic polymorphisms might also affect cancer risk and clinical outcomes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays an important role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but the combined effect of these factors on RCC remains unclear. In this study, we explored the association between the VEGF-A -2578C>A, -1498T>C, -1154G>A, -634G>C, and +936C>T gene polymorphisms and RCC. We also evaluated the combined effects of the VEGF-A haplotypes and urinary total arsenic levels on the prognosis of RCC. This case-control study was conducted with 191 RCC patients who were diagnosed with renal tumors on the basis of image-guided biopsy or surgical resections. An additional 376 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. Concentrations of urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was investigated using fluorescent-based TaqMan allelic discrimination. We observed no significant associations between VEGF-A haplotypes and RCC risk. However, the VEGF-A ACGG haplotype from VEGF-A -2578, -1498, -1154, and -634 was significantly associated with an increased recurrence of RCC (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.03-10.91. Urinary total arsenic level was significantly associated with the risk of RCC in a dose-response manner, but it was not related to the recurrence of RCC. The combination of high urinary total arsenic level and VEGF-A risk haplotypes affected the OR of RCC recurrence in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to show that joint effect of high urinary total arsenic and VEGF-A risk haplotypes may influence the risk of RCC recurrence in humans who live in an area without obvious arsenic exposure.

  2. Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world.

  3. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  4. Evaluation of the petrifilm plate method for the enumeration of aerobic microorganisms and coliforms in retailed meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Seo, K S; Ahn, J S; Yoo, H S; Kim, S P

    2001-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the Petrifilm plate method with the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) standard aerobic count method and violet red bile agar method for meat products. The comparison was carried out using 303 meat samples collected from various retailers: 110 pork samples, 87 chicken samples, and 107 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (R) between the conventional method and the Petrifilm plate method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficient in total microorganisms was 0.99, 0.95, and 0.94 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficient in coliform count was 0.83, 0.96, and 0.81 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. Based on the high correlation in the total microorganism count, it might be possible to replace the conventional methods with the Petrifilm plate method. For coliform counts, the Petrifilm plate method also showed a generally high correlation coefficient, except for pork samples, which are more subject to contamination. The Petrifilm plate method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and, in procedures, faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the 3M Petrifilm plate method could replace the conventional methods in the analysis of microorganism contamination measurement in meat products.

  5. Association between apolipoprotein E promoter-219G/T polymorphism and total cholesterol level in patients with Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Xiao Sun; Jing Wang; Yan Kong; Li Cui; Xiangdang Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have suggested that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and total cholesterol metabolism are closely related with dementia. In the supposed theory, 219 site of APOE promoter region is near gene coding region, so its polymorphism may result in the abnormality of APOE gene and protein expression,and finally lead to dementia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the association between APOE promoter-219G/T polymorphisms with serum total cholesterol in patients with Alzheimer disease, and compare it with non-dementia people.DESIGN: Case-control, comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital of Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five dementia patients including 27 males and 28 females aged (66±3) years and treated in the Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital were selected from January 2002 to December 2005 as the Alzheimer disease group. They all diagnosed according to the DSM- Ⅳ diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer disease instituted by American Psychiatry Association in 1994. Meanwhile, 44 none-dementia patients including 21 males and 23 females aged (66±3) years were selected from other clinical departments of Fengtian Hospital as control group. All the participants were informed the detection and agreed.METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of all subjects, then "NEST"PCR, DNA sequence and enzyme digestion were adopted to detect the expression of APOE promoter-219 polymorphism,following by biomedical statistics analysis based on the clinical total cholesterol level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polymorphism of APOEpromoter-219 G/T and total cholesterol level.RESULTS: All 55 dementia patients and 44 non-dementia ones were involved in the result analysis. ①Allele and genotype frequency: The T allele frequency of the Alzheimer disease group was significantly higher than that in the control group [88.2% (97/110), 54.5% (48/88)], while G allele frequency was remarkably lower than that in the control group [11

  6. Patterns of fecal coliform contamination in day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, B; Pantell, R; Lewis, C; Gilliss, C L

    1990-12-01

    During a six-month period, on four separate occasions, six licensed day-care centers had cultures taken from environmental surfaces as well as the hands of children and teachers. Fecal coliforms were recovered from 64 (9.5%) of the 675 surfaces sampled. Recovery rate was not influenced by a center's socioeconomic status, time of year, or presence of children who were not toilet trained. Recovery rates did differ significantly in different areas, with the kitchen showing a relatively high recovery rate (19%), and toys and toilets showing remarkably low rates (2% and 4%). Centers with formal hand-washing procedures had lower recovery rates than those without such practices. We also demonstrated a high recovery rate from hands of staff (16%); 6% of children had positive cultures. Contamination of hands and classroom objects is a potential source for the transmission of enteric diseases for children in day-care centers. A program directed at reducing contamination would be important in preventing the spread of diarrheal illness. PMID:2270220

  7. Serum IL-10 Level in Allergic Rhinitis Patients and Its Effect on Serum Total IgE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guanghui; ZHU Rongfei

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the level of serum IL-10 in allergic rhinitis patients and the correlation between IL-10 and serum total IgE (TIgE). 50 allergic rhinitis patients and 30 normal subjects were involved in the study. The levels of serum IL-10 and TIgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the correlation between serum IL-10 and TIgE was analyzed. In the allergic rhinitis group, the levels of serum IL-10 and TIgE were 8.34±2.48 pg/mL and 142. 6±28.2 KUA/L. In the normal control group, they were 12. 86±2.88 pg/mL and 47.2±12.2 KUA.There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.01); and the level of serum TIgE in the patients was negatively correlated with that of IL-10 (r= -0.46, P=0.02). The level of serum IL-10 was significantly decreased in allergic rhinitis patients, which was beneficial to the synthesization of IgE. IL-10 plays an important role in the episode of allergic rhinitis.

  8. Differences in urinary prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement in relation to venous thromboembolism and bleeding events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borris, L C; Breindahl, M; Lassen, M R;

    2008-01-01

    events. PATIENTS/METHODS: This study was conducted in parallel with a prospective, dose-finding study evaluating the efficacy and safety of different doses of rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany) for thromboprophylaxis, relative to enoxaparin. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed......BACKGROUND: Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 is excreted in urine (uF1 + 2) as a result of thrombin generation and, therefore, may be a useful marker of coagulation status. OBJECTIVES: To assess uF1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding...

  9. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics. PMID:12655806

  10. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol...... levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...... infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional...

  11. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  12. Enhanced reduction of fasting total homocysteine levels with supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, A J; Gohh, R Y; Han, H; Hakas, D; Jacques, P F; Selhub, J; Bostom, A G

    1999-12-01

    The mild fasting hyperhomocysteinemia commonly observed in chronic (ie, >/=6 months posttransplantation) renal transplant recipients (RTRs) can be effectively treated with combined B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid. There are no controlled data evaluating the comparative efficacy of supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in reducing fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) levels among RTRs. We block-randomized 60 chronic, stable RTRs on the basis of their screening fasting tHcy level to 3 groups of 20 subjects treated for 12 weeks with folic acid at either 2.4 (group 1), 0.4 (ie, standard multivitamin dose) (group 2), or 0.0 (group 3) mg/d. All 60 study participants also received 50 mg/d vitamin B(6) and 0.4 mg/d vitamin B(12). The mean percent reductions (+/-SEM) in fasting tHcy were as follows: group 1, 32.3+/-2.4%; group 2, 23.4+/-2.3%; and group 3, 19.1+/-2.3%. ANCOVA accounting for the pretreatment matching and adjusted for pretreatment levels of fasting tHcy, folate, and albumin; change in creatinine during the study; and cyclosporine A use revealed significant overall group differences (P=0.005) and significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (P=0. 038) and groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.153). Moreover, a chi(2) analysis of participants with pretreatment tHcy levels >/=15 micromol/L (n=29) indicated that a significantly greater proportion of those in group 1 achieved posttreatment levels test of trend P=0. 007). We conclude that a supraphysiological dose of folic acid is superior to standard multivitamin dosing for the reduction of fasting tHcy levels in chronic RTRs. PMID:10591669

  13. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  14. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  15. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

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    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  16. Analysis of concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10, total suspended particulates and black smoke in the city of Zrenjanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Bogdana B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring on the territory of AP Vojvodina was initiated in mid 90s. During the last decade of the 20th century the development of the air quality monitoring in Serbia didn’t keep up with the pace of the other countries in the region due to political isolation and severe economic crisis. Monitoring of the particular pollutants was conducted unsystematically and sporadically. Data presented in this paper were obtained on the territory of the city of Zrenjanin, which represents typical agglomeration in the region in regard to its geographical location, population, level of industry development and the presence of natural gas as energy product in the remote and domestic heating system of residential objects. Available data on the concentration levels of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, TSP (total suspended particulates and BS (black smoke during the period of 2005-2007 (three cold and three warm seasons have been used in this work in order to carry out analysis and comparison of the daily concentration levels of PM10, TSP and BS and their seasonal variation.

  17. Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall

  18. Identifikasi Bakteri Coliform pada Air Kobokan di Rumah Makan Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur

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    Ervan Arditya Kusuma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Air kobokan merupakan media untuk cuci tangan yang banyak digunakan di rumah makan di  Kota Padang. Diare adalah penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air yang terkontaminasi oleh bakteri. Angka perkiraan kasus diare di Padang Timur merupakan yang tertinggi di Kota Padang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologi air kobokan di rumah makan di Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur. Sebanyak 21 sampel yang diambil dan dibagi sesuai dengan sumber airnya yaitu 12 sumber air PDAM dan 9 sumber air sumur bor. Penelitian ini dibagi dalam dua tahap, tahap pertama:  pengambilan sampel dan observasi faktor yang mempengaruhi kontaminasi. Kedua: uji bakteriologi dengan metode Most Propable Number (MPN yang meliputi uji penduga, uji konfirmasi dan uji lengkap.Seluruh sampel air kobokan mengandung bakteri coliform. Sebagian besar sampel tidak memenuhi syaratmikrobiologis sesuai dengan PERMENKES no 46 tahun 1990 dan hanya satu sampel yang berasal dari air PDAM memenuhi syarat mikrobiologis. Sampel yang berasal dari PDAM didapatkan 4 yang mengandung E.coli dan dari sumber sumur bor didapatkan 3 sampel mengandung E.coli dan lainnya mengandung bakteri lain seperti Klebsiella, Enterobacter dan Pseudomonas. Hal ini dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor seperti kebersihan wadah, lokasi rumah makan dan lokasi sumur bor.Kata kunci: air kobokan, most propable number (MPN. Abstract Water is the common use for hand washing in restaurant in Padang city. The research was conducted at restaurant in Andalas, East Padang. Diarrhea is a disease transmitted through water contaminated by bacteria.Morbidity of diarrhea in East Padang is the highest in Padang. The objective of this study was to identify microbiological quality of water for cleaning hand at Restaurant in Andalas sub-district, East Padang district. Total 21 sampels were taken and divided according to the water source is 12 by PDAM and 9 from dug well. This research implemented in two

  19. Plasma total homocysteine (THCY) level and other biochemical risk factors in hypertensives with and without cardiovascular events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akande AA; Salisu OT; Omotoso ABO; Kolo PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and elevated plasma tHcy level in Nigerian hypertensive. Methods: Thirty-six hypertensive patients were recruited with 36 age and sex-matched controls. The age, sex and anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were taken. Plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tri-glycerides and tHey were analyzed. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher in the subjects than in the controls (P=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). On the other hand, means of HDL-C and triglycerides were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.06 and O. 68 respectively). Mean total plasma tHey was (12. 95±4.9)μmol/L in hypertensive patients when compared with (11.29±3.6)μmol/L in the controls (P =0.09), however the mean they was significantly higher in hypertensive patients who had stroke or myocardial infarction than those without these complications (one way Anova F = 3.63, P =0.04). Significant positive correlation was seen between tHcy and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and LDL-C. Conclusion:The study suggests that elevated plasma tH-ey may predict occurrence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive individuals.

  20. Evaluation of total creatine kinase levels in a spectrum of neuro-psychiatric disorders in a tertiary neurosciences centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study usefulness of total creatine kinase (CK as a screening tool in various neurological and psychiatric disorders in emergency setting of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A 1-year retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients with complaints pertaining to neurological and psychiatric disorders in a tertiary neurosciences centre in a metropolitan city. Blood samples in plain vial were received in Emergency Laboratory and total CK levels were measured by automated analyzer and its correlation with various diseases was analyzed. Results: It was observed that CK activity was raised in various psychiatric conditions-acute transient psychotic disorder, alcohol dependence syndrome, delirium, psychosis, mental retardation, catatonia, bipolar affective disorder (BAD, depression and mania and also in neurological disorders-seizures, meningitis, myasthenia gravis (multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, extra pyramidal syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and infarct. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CK is a sensitive and an important screening parameter in diagnosis and monitoring of various neurological and psychiatric disorders in emergency setting. It is also helpful in identifying people at high risk for various neuro-psychiatric diseases.

  1. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

  2. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. PMID:27179203

  3. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority.

  4. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  5. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

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    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  6. In Vitro Monitoring of Total Choline Levels in a Bioartificial Pancreas: 1H NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Effects of Oxygen Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert C.; Papas, Klearchos K.; Sambanis, Athanassios; Constantinidis, Ioannis

    2000-09-01

    This investigation implements specifically designed solvent-suppressed adiabatic pulses whose properties make possible the long-term monitoring of 1H NMR detectable metabolites from alginate/poly-l-lysine/alginate (APA)-encapsulated βTC3 cells. Our encapsulated preparations were maintained in a perfusion bioreactor for periods exceeding 30 days. During this prolonged cultivation period, the cells were exposed to repetitive hypoxic episodes of 4 and 24 h. The ratio of the total choline signal (3.20 ppm) to the reference signal (observed at 0.94 ppm assigned to isoleucine, leucine, and valine) decreased by 8-10% for the 4-h and by 20-32% for the 24-h episodes and returned to its prehypoxic level upon reoxygenation. The decrease in the mean value of total choline to reference signal ratio for three 4-h and two 24-h episodes in two different cultures was highly significant (P metabolism are suggested. In addition, the implications of these findings to the development of a noninvasive monitoring method for tissue-engineered constructs composed of encapsulated cells are discussed.

  7. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

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    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  8. Effect of energy levels of diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and carcass and breast yields of broilers fed two different energy levels (3,200 or 2,900 kcal ME/kg and two ways of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA between 21 and 42 days of age. The results showed that broilers fed the diet containing 3,200 kcal ME/kg had higher weight gain (P=0.015, better feed conversion (P=0.001, and higher abdominal fat deposition (P=0.001 as compared to those fed the diet containing 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Diets formulated on DAA basis promoted higher weight gain (P=0.043, better feed conversion (P=0.010 and better conversion of ME intake into weight gain (P=0.007 as compared to those formulated on TAA basis. The results of this study suggest that formulation based on DAA is necessary if the diets contain protein sources that are not reliable in terms of amino acid digestibility. The response to formulation based on DAA was minimized when birds received the low energy level diet (2,900 kcal ME/kg.

  9. Estimation of total and bioaccessible levels of iodine in edible seaweeds of Japan by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible seaweeds play important roles as daily source of minerals and dietary fibers for Japanese population groups. It is therefore of interest to estimate the intake of minerals and dietary fibers from seaweeds. Although the levels of iodine can be measured by ICP-MS in liquid samples such as urine and water, it is rather difficult to do the same in seaweeds due to polysaccharides in them. In this study, the following eight edible seaweeds were collected from local shores or purchased from stores. Sea mustard is the most popular edible seaweed in Japan; it starts growing quickly in January until it reaches a height of about 2 m in March. Sea mustards in different growing stages were collected, cut into several longitudinal pieces, freeze dried, and pulverized. Dietary fiber was separated from dried powder by in vitro enzymolysis using α-Amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Portions of dried powder and dietary fiber were irradiated for 1-5 min at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) in Canada or the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in Japan. After appropriate cooling time, the 442.9-keV gamma-ray of 128I was used to assay iodine by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA). Total and bioaccesible iodine levels in eight edible seaweeds are shown

  10. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. - The concentration of an organic compound in soil based on the entire soil mass is not a proper measure of its contamination intensity.

  11. Assessment of Erythemal UV Level in Nepal Based on Solar UV Estimatks from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binod Kumar BHATTARAF; Berit KJELDSTAD; Trond Morten THORSETH

    2011-01-01

    Nepal lies on the southern slope of Himalaya in Asia. In a width ranging between 150 and 250 km, the altitude varies greatly from about 100 m at its southern border to a maximum of 8848 min the northern part. Like the variation in altitude, climatic condition varies quite a lot. Long-term monthly mean erythemal UV daily dose values for Nepal arc evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) estimation from the time of its overpass between 1996 and 2003. The results are presented as summer and winter maps of mean UV levels in each satellite grid. The mean winter erythemal UV daily dose ranges between 2.1 and 3.6 kJ m-2 whereas summer values are found to lie between 4.6 and 9.7 kJ m -2. The altitude variation increases the UV levels by about 0.2 kJ km-1 in winter months, and 0.9 kJ km-1 in summer. A multiyear monthly average erythemal daily dlose in most of the areas shows that the summer value is about three times higher than that in winter. Although year-to-year variation is not pronounced in high- and mid-elevation regions, UV levels seemed to decrease from 1997 to 2002 in the southern part of the country in the low elevation region by about 5.35%. Due to the combined effects of the altitude, low ozone concentration in the troposphere, and thin air, surface UV radiation at higher altitudes is found to be higher than in the surrounding regions.

  12. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Francisco Cerna-Cortes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g. Although fecal coliforms (FC were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g. Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five, M. abscessus (two, M. gordonae (two, M. mucogenicum (two, and M. avium complex (one. Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable.

  13. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

  14. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

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    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contamina

  15. Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo

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    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. The experiment had two periods and each period’s take 15d for adaptation, 7d for sample collection and determination of nutrient digestibility and for determination of passage rate, 2d for measuring ruminal pH, and 3d for measuring chewing activity. Using Penn Stat Particle Separator (PSPS, distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets were determined. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00a.m and 21:00p.m. The time that spent for eating and rumination were optically recorded in 24h with 5 minutes intervals and total chewing activity calculated from sum of eating and rumination time. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility, but digestibility ADF, NDF and NFC decreased as content of fiber increased(P1.18 increased (P1.18 increased (P<0.05.

  16. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

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    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  17. Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population

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    Shruthi Shimoga Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05 and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology.

  18. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  19. Serum total cholesterol level and some cancer mortality:A 7 years follow-up study in 698796 people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-feng; WU Duo-wen; Jong Ku Park; Sang Baek Koh; Chun Bae Kim; Sei Jin Chan

    2003-01-01

    were lung cancer during the follow up period. Meanwhile serum total cholesterol levels were inversely and significantly related to overall cancer and liver cancer mortality in population, in both male and female. Overall cancer and liver cancer mortality decreased with increasing cholesterol levels at the lowest levels in both gender. This effect is still apparent when deaths within three years are excluded in population and male. A weak inverse association between cholesterol and stomach cancer. This is not significant for cholesterol and lung cancer. Conclusion: There is important relation between lower serum cholesterol increased the risk of overall cancer and liver cancer mortality. Low serum cholesterol concentration as predictor of overall cancer and liver cancer is importance in both genders.

  20. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Proteins and Total Antioxidant Capacity Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children: An In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, B P; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7-10 and 11-14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries active with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method and flow rates were determined. The samples were then analyzed for pH, buffering capacity, total protein, calcium and total antioxidant capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student t test (unpaired). The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries free and caries active children, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity were slightly reduced in caries active children, but total protein and total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries active children and the total calcium decreased significantly in caries active children. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of caries. PMID:21966118

  1. Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Méndez-Reyes, Eligio; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-05-15

    Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A(1-2), B(1-2), C(1-2)). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (pMexico. Health authorities should focus on implementing DEPs screening in raw vegetables and enforcing the legislation that forbids irrigation with untreated sewage water of both root and leafy vegetables. PMID:22507628

  2. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  3. The seasonality of fecal coliform bacteria pollution and its influence on closures of shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Paulinus; Gordon, Scott; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Niña (1999, 2000) years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February) reaching 120 MPN (February 1990), 165 MPN (January 1992), and 86 MPN (January 1997), and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 - 19 MPN). Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 - 24 MPN). Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 -10.3 MPN) than in 1992 (1.2 - 165 MPN), and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year), peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN) was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March). The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April) to 24 - 26 (October to December). ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal

  4. Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

  5. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN......: Total TIMP-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA in blood samples from two different blood donor populations from IBD patients, and preoperative samples from patients with primary colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma TIMP-1...... levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98...

  6. Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Razi; Gholam Abbass Moosavi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after t...

  7. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  8. Serum total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 levels in an elderly population - Relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method to measure free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels has been developed. Free IGF-I levels may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total (bound and free) IGF-I. The associations between the circulating IGF-I/IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system and cardiova

  9. Coliform contamination of vegetables obtained from popular restaurants in Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoonmo L; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Brown, Eric; Garcia, Coralith; Qi, Huibin; Dupont, Herbert L

    2008-07-15

    Food is the primary vehicle of transmission for traveler's diarrhea. We evaluated coliform contamination of vegetables from popular restaurants in Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas. Contamination of vegetables in Guadalajara restaurants was widespread. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea by avoidance of "high-risk" foods may be unsuccessful, because contamination of foods may occur regardless of how they are prepared.

  10. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  11. NEW MEDIUM FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new membrane filter medium was developed for the improved recovery of injured coliforms from drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3,20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of pol...

  12. Validation and comparison of methods for enumeration of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Poelman M; Stegeman H; Warmerdam C; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; RIKILT; MGB

    2007-01-01

    The main result of the validation study to show the equivalence of two methods for the enumeration of faecal coliforms in bivalve molluscs is that the plate count method on Mac Conkey agar was indeed found to be equivalent to the MPN method. Meaning that the Netherlands fulfilled the demands as stat

  13. Testable uniqueness conditions for empirical assessment of undersampling levels in total variation-regularized X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Kruschel, C.; Lorenz, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We study recoverability in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) with sparsity and total variation priors: how many underdetermined linear measurements suffice for recovering images of given sparsity? Results from compressed sensing (CS) establish such conditions for example for random measurements...

  14. Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F; Fenger, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing...

  15. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- γ were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  16. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific Ig

  17. The relationship between debt levels and total shareholder return of JSE-listed platinum companies / Sandra Jooste

    OpenAIRE

    Jooste, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Investors make investment decisions based on their risk appetite. Furthermore, when such investors consider shares as part of their investment portfolio, these investors will consider the risk profile of the company it is interested in. By taking on a certain level of risk, shareholders expect to be commensurately compensated. Shareholders of companies with relatively higher debt levels in their capital structure and therefore higher financial risk, require a relatively higher ...

  18. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-ming Guo; Xue-ning Duan; Shu-de Cui; Fu-guo Tian; Xu-chen Cao; Cui-zhi Geng; Zhi-min Fan; Xiang Wang; Shu Wang; Hong-chuan Jiang; Jian-guo Zhang; Feng Jin; Jin-hai Tang; Hong Liang; Zhen-lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family...

  19. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed

  20. Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk / Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Helena Walter de Santana

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determination of total conforms and E. coli in water based in specific enzymatic reactions of these microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate its utilization in milk. Ninety-five samples of pasteurized milk were collected from the markets in Londrina city, Parana and analyzed by the Most Probable Number (NMP enumeration using the Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGBL and ColiSure™. There was a correlation of 0.80 betwee-n the mediums when the incubation time was 43 hours for total conforms. The low down occurrence of E. coffin the analyzed samples made impossible to comparate the performance of methods for this microorganism. Compfementary analysis showed a greater sensibility and especifity of the ColiSure™ in comparation with the BGBL. The CofiSure™ can be indicated as a substitute for the traditional method, with the advantage to be faster and easier.Na indústria láctea a detecção de microrganismos do grupo coliformes é utilizada como indicativo da higiene na produção do leite e de contaminação pós-pasteurizaçüo. Os métodos tradicionais para a enumeração de coliformes totais e fecais são trabalhosos, com tempo de incubação longo, de até 96 horas. Métodos rápidos para a detecção destes microrganismos têm sido desenvolvidos na área de microbiologia de alimentos. O ColiSure™ é um método rápido, que fornece resultados simultaneamente para a presença ou a ausência de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em

  1. The GAP Portion of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type III Secreted Toxin ExoS Upregulates Total and Surface Levels of Wild Type CFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali N. Tukaye

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA infections account for a large percentage of fatal hospital acquired pneumonias. One of the PA Type III secreted toxin (TTST ExoS, a bifunctional protein with N-terminal GTPase activating protein (GAP and C-terminal ADP rybosyl transferase (ADPRT activities, significantly contributes to PA virulence by targeting small molecular weight G-proteins (SMWGP. In this study, we have looked at one of the mechanisms by which the GAP portion of ExoS (ExoS-GAP mediates cellular toxicity. Methods: The effects of ExoS-GAP on CFTR trafficking were studied in CFBE41o- Kir 2.2 and MDCK cell lines stably expressing CFTR using a transient transfection system. Results: Transient transfection of ExoS-GAP increased the total and surface protein levels of mature wild type CFTR in epithelial cells stably expressing wild type (WT CFTR. The effect of ExoS-GAP was specific to CFTR in bronchial epithelial cells since it did not affect the total protein levels of Na+/K+ATPase, another membrane protein. A point mutation in the ExoS GAP domain (R146K, known to disrupt its catalytic GAP activity, abolished the effect of ExoS-GAP on WT CFTR. Lysosomal inhibition studies with Bafilomycin A1 indicate that ExoS-GAP decreased lysosomal degradation of the mature WT CFTR with concomitant increase in the total levels of mature WT CFTR. However, ExoS-GAP did not increase the total protein levels of ∆F508CFTR. Conclusion: The GAP portion of the PA TTST ExoS increases the total and surface levels of wild type CFTR in vitro mammalian cell system. The effect of ExoS-GAP on WT CFTR total protein levels provides new insight into understanding the virulent pathophysiology of PA infections.

  2. Extra-intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: related to high total IgE levels and atopic sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, Ellen Johanne; Valeur, Jørgen; Hausken, Trygve; Lied, Gülen Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Objective We have previously found that high levels of total IgE, but not atopic sensitization, was a significant predictor for functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS patients, and explore their relation to total IgE levels and atopic sensitization. Materials and methods Seventy-one patients with functional GI complaints were included. Severity of GI symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using the following questionnaires: IBS-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) for musculoskeletal pain. Levels of total IgE and specific IgE-antibodies were analyzed. Results Fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were demonstrated in 78.9 and 43.7% of the patients, respectively. IBS-SSS scores were significantly correlated with fatigue scores and musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain had significantly higher IBS-SSS scores than patients without fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in IBS patients compared to a healthy control group from a previous study. However, neither total IgE nor atopic sensitization was significantly associated with extra-intestinal symptoms. Conclusions IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated. Total IgE levels were higher in IBS patients than healthy controls, but not related to intestinal or extra-intestinal symptom severity. Atopy was not associated with any of the co-morbidities. Thus, the clinical significance of high IgE levels in IBS remains unclear and further studies are warranted to explore a common underlying mechanism for the co-morbid triad of IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27161383

  3. Diagnostic values of combination of free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Li Yong; Zeng Meiying

    2014-01-01

    Background A free running asthma screening test is usually used for screening exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.The total serum allergen IgE level can reveal the patient's atopy characteristics.Our study is to evaluate the diagnostic values of the combination of the two tests in asthmatic children and compare this new diagnostic method with the Intemational Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC) questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test,which are popular diagnostic tool for pediatric asthma.Methods A total of 773 school children were recruited in this study.The children's asthma was diagnosed by means of a combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level.The new diagnostic method value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with other diagnostic tools such as ISSAC questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test.Results The AUC of this new diagnostic method was higher than 0.9.When the cut-off value of total serum allergen IgE level was ≥47 KU/L,the sensitivity and the specificity were 71.4% and 85.1%,respectively,which were better than those of either the ISSAC questionnaires or bronchial provocation test.Conclusion The combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level may be an effective diagnostic tool for children's asthma.

  4. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  5. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA NARVÁEZ

    palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL. The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

  6. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  7. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungcharoenkul, Kanit; Thongnopnua, Phensri

    2011-11-01

    The impact of consuming curcuminoids containing curcumin at 500 mg/day and 6 g/day for 7 days on plasma antioxidant capacity and serum cholesterol level were determined by using vitamin E 200 IU/day consumption as a comparison. Group A and group B subjects consumed 500 mg and 6 g curcumin, respectively, but group C subjects consumed vitamin E 200 IU. By using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that plasma antioxidant capacity of group A rose from a baseline of 13% to 24% on day 1 and day 7, as against a 19-20% increase for group B. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment at 500 mg/day. By consuming vitamin E, both ORAC values and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly increased, but only very slight responses on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed. It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

  8. Influence of Ileo-Caecal Cannulation and Oxytetracycline on Ileo-Caecal and Rectal Coliform Populations in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren P; Lindberg JE; Högberg A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of surgery (insertion of an ileo-caecal cannula) and a subsequent parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline on the ileo-caecal and rectal coliform populations in 7 Swedish Yorkshire castrates were studied. Samples were collected during surgery as well as 3, 7, 14 and 20 days post surgery. The diversity of the enteric coliform flora was initially high both in the ileo-caecal ostium and in rectum. No alteration in the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was observed following su...

  9. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  10. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ...

  11. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  12. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  13. Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

  14. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  15. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  16. Simultaneous multi-level analysis of the total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu up to 160 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to describe cross-sections a multi-level scheme based on S-matrix theory was used taking the Doppler effect and the resolution into account. A multi-level analysis of the total cross-section and fission cross-section of 239Pu was made by the least-squares method in the energy region up to 160 eV. The experimental cross-section data used have a good resolution. The multi-level parameters can be used to represent all the features of the detailed energy structure of experimental cross-sections where the regions of interference minima are of the greatest interest. (author)

  17. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  18. Total and carboxylated osteocalcin associate with insulin levels in young adults born with normal or very low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M Paldánius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteocalcin (OC, a bone-derived protein, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. Young adults born with very low birth weight (VLBW have altered glucose regulation and lower bone mineral density (BMD compared with those born at term. The aim of this study was to explore the association between bone and glucose metabolism in healthy young adults born prematurely or at term. METHODS: The cohort of this cross-sectional study comprised 332 non-diabetic young adults (age 18 to 27 years born either preterm with VLBW (n = 163 or at term (n = 169. OC, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC and markers of glucose metabolism were measured at fasting and after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. RESULTS: VLBW adults were shorter, had lower BMD (p<0.001 and higher fasting OC (p = 0.027 and cOC (p = 0.005 than term-born subjects. They also had higher 2-hour insulin (p = 0.001 and glucose (p = 0.037 concentrations. OGTT induced a significant reduction in OC (p<0.001, similar in both groups. OC reduction was not associated with OGTT-induced increases in insulin (p = 0.54. However, fasting total OC and cOC correlated negatively with fasting insulin after adjustment for age, gender, BMD and VLBW status (r = -0.182, p = 0.009 and r = -0.283, p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adults born with VLBW have higher OC and cOC than their peers born at term. This may in part reflect the mechanisms that underlie their lower BMD and decreased insulin sensitivity. Serum OC appears to be negatively associated with long-term glucose regulation whereas acute changes during OGTT may be mediated via other mechanisms.

  19. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  20. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in minded repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models

  1. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  2. An investigation of the impact of intramammary antibiotic dry cow therapy on clinical coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Green, M J

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of an intramammary antibiotic dry cow preparation with significant gram-negative spectrum (product A; Leo Red Dry Cow, Leo Animal Health, UK) was compared with a product with no gram-negative efficacy (product B; Orbenin Extra DC, Pfizer Ltd, UK) as assessed by control of coliform mastitis in the first 100 d of the lactation. The efficacy of both products was also compared for control of noncoliform mastitis and for the ability to control existing and new intramammary infections as measured by individual cow somatic cell counts. Cows treated with product A were significantly less likely to develop clinical Escherichia coli or coliform mastitis during the dry period or the first 100 d of lactation than cows treated with product B. Cows treated with product A were no more likely to develop clinical mastitis due to a noncoliform organism than were cows treated with product B. There was no significant difference between the two groups as measured by individual cow somatic cell count changes across the dry period. This study is the first to have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of an intramammary antibiotic dry cow preparation, as measured by reduction in gram-negative clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These findings demonstrate that selection of a dry cow intramammary preparation with a significant gram-negative spectrum can influence the incidence of clinical coliform mastitis in the subsequent lactation. This finding should be one of the factors taken into account when selecting products. PMID:11467813

  3. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  4. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  5. Monitoring and spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach Márcia T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of heterothrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms was monitored at four sampling stations located near the shore of the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected, monthly from October 1994 through September 1998. The highest heterothrophic count (6.5x10 7 CFU/100mL was recorded at stations 2 and 4 during August 1998 and the lowest (10 ³ CFU/100 mL at station 3 during February 1995. With respect to fecal coliforms, the highest and lowest counts were 1.6x10 5 coliforms/100mL at station 3 during March 1997 and <1 coliform/100mL at all the stations during February 1995 and September 1997 as well as station 3 during February 1998. The data indicated a percentage increase of the microorganisms surveyed over time at all the sampling stations studied.

  6. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (Pspinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  7. Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Determination by an Entry Level Triple Quadrupole Instrument: Comparison between Two Commercial Kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Gervasoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 (25-OHD2/D3 determination is a reliable biomarker for vitamin D status. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was recently proposed as a reference method for vitamin D status evaluation. The aim of this work is to compare two commercial kits (Chromsystems and PerkinElmer for 25-OHD2/D3 determination by our entry level LC-MS/MS. Design and Methods. Chromsystems kit adds an online trap column to an HPLC column and provides atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, isotopically labeled internal standard, and 4 calibrator points. PerkinElmer kit uses a solvent extraction and protein precipitation method. This kit can be used with or without derivatization with, respectively, electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. For each analyte, there are isotopically labeled internal standards and 7 deuterated calibrator points. Results. Performance characteristics are acceptable for both methods. Mean bias between methods calculated on 70 samples was 1.9 ng/mL. Linear regression analysis gave an of 0.94. 25-OHD2 is detectable only with PerkinElmer kit in derivatized assay option. Conclusion. Both methods are suitable for routine. Chromsystems kit minimizes manual sample preparation, requiring only protein precipitation, but, with our system, 25-OHD2 is not detectable. PerkinElmer kit without derivatization does not guarantee acceptable performance with our LC-MS/MS system, as sample is not purified online. Derivatization provides sufficient sensitivity for 25-OHD2 detection.

  8. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  10. Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs. PMID:25541044

  11. Pollution situation and analysis of drinking water source coliform in Pingdingshan%平顶山市饮用水源地总大肠菌群(粪大肠菌群)污染现状及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世景

    2012-01-01

    In this study,total coliform bacteria was taken as participating factor;fecal coliform as a participating factor for surface water,and multiple tube fermentation method was adopted to monitor and analyze sources of drinking water so as to investigate the pollution status of groundwater and thus to propose feasibility advice and countermeasures.The results showed that the annual total coliform parameters were not super GB/T14848-93 groundwater quality standards for Class III standard limits(MPN≤ 3.0/L) in 2010 and 2011;the average annual concentration of fecal coliform indicators were not super-GB3838-2002 surface water quality standards for class III standard limits(MPN 10,000/L),the water quality reached the national health and safety standards.%地下水以总大肠菌群作为参评因子,地表水以粪大肠菌群作为参评因子,采用多管发酵法,对平顶山市饮用水源地水质进行监测与分析,了解污染现状,提出可行性意见及防治对策。结果表明:2010年、2011年度总大肠菌群指标均未超GB/T14848-93《地下水质量标准》Ⅲ类标准限值(MPN≤3.0个/L),粪大肠菌群指标的年均值均未超GB3838-2002《地表水质量标准》Ⅲ类标准限值(MPN〈10 000个/L),其水质达到国家卫生安全标准。

  12. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  13. Total petroleum content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in soil and groundwater at the site of a fuel service station in Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Total Petroleum Content (TPC) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in soil and groundwater at the site of a fuel service station indicated leakage of petroleum products from the underground storage tanks buried 3.6km below the surface. The leakage resulted in contamination of areas within a 60 m radius. In the TPC profiles, distinct peak corresponding to diesel oil occurred between 5 and 17 mins; while a hump characteristic of mineral oil occurred between 17 and 25 mins. In the PAH profiles, 18 compounds were identified and quantified by means of gas chromatography. The TPC levels ranged between 0.918 - 21.9 μg/L for ground water and 44.1 - 894 mg/kg for soil. The levels of PAHs were low and HM-PAHs were not detected. The total PAH levels varied between 20.93 - 51.85 μg/L for groundwater and 2.07 - 6.5 ng/kg ww for soil. The levels of LM-PAHs were above the International standard of 200 ng/L, while BaP levels were 710 ng/L (indicative of carcinogenic effects). Naphthalene was found to be abundant in the groundwater. (au)

  14. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

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    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  15. Can Serum Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Phosphate Predict Cardiovascular Diseases and Total Mortality in Individuals with Preserved Renal Function? A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Wei Li; Cui Xu; Ye Fan; Yong Wang; Ying-Bin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background It is demonstrated that elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphate indicate a higher risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality in population with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains unclear whether this association exists in people with normal or preserved renal function. Method Clinical trials were searched from Embase and PubMed from inception to 2013 December using the keywords “ALP”, “phosphate”, “CVD”, “mortality” and so on, and ...

  16. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    OpenAIRE

    Sharawy, S. M.; Saleh, N. H.; Attalah, S. A.; Absy, G. M.; Doaa, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  17. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injur...

  18. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  19. Total antioxidant status in lung cancer is associated with levels of endogenous antioxidants and disease stage rather than lifestyle factors – preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porębska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in different neoplasms, including lung cancer. However, no study concerning the relationship between endogenous antioxidants, lifestyle factors, and TAC has been conducted among lung cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between endogenous antioxidants, severity of disease, lifestyle factors, and TAC in lung cancer patients. Material and methods The study was conducted among 59 lung cancer patients. The levels of total antioxidant status (ATBS method), endogenous antioxidants, and C-reactive protein were measured in patients’ sera automatically. Dietary habits of the subjects were evaluated based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) on the day of admission to hospital. Results We found a positive correlation between serum albumin, uric acid (UA), and TAC and a negative correlation between CRP and TAC. Moreover, TAC was significantly positively associated with disease stage. We did not find any significant relationship between the frequency of selected food consumption and TAC in lung cancer patients, except for a positive correlation between the frequency of refined cereal products consumption and TAC level. Smoking status did not correlate with TAC. Conclusions Total antioxidant status of lung cancer patients results from their disease stage and levels of endogenous antioxidants rather than from lifestyle factors. The lack of influence of diet and smoking on the TAC presumably result from disturbed homeostasis in which cancer, while developing, could determine the redox state to a greater extent than lifestyle factors. PMID:27688727

  20. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100 m, traffic signal density within 400 m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450 m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500 m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400 m, road length within 100 m, and interior building area within 100 m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and

  1. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  2. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ≈ 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ≈ 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  3. High expression levels of total IGF-1R and sensitivity of NSCLC cells in vitro to an anti-IGF-1R antibody (R1507.

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    Yixuan Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IGF receptor type 1 (IGF-1R pathway is frequently deregulated in human tumors and has become a target of interest for anti-cancer therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a panel of 22 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines to investigate predictive biomarkers of response to R1507, a fully-humanized anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody (Ab; Roche. 5 lines were moderately sensitive (25-50% growth inhibition to R1507 alone. While levels of phospho-IGF-1R did not correlate with drug sensitivity, 4 out of 5 sensitive lines displayed high levels of total IGF-1R versus 1 out of 17 resistant lines (p = 0.003, Fisher's Exact. Sensitive lines also harbored higher copy numbers of IGF-1R as assessed by independent SNP array analysis. Addition of erlotinib or paclitaxel to R1507 led to further growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant lines. In one EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line (11-18, R1507 and erlotinib co-treatment induced apoptosis, whereas treatment with either drug alone induced only cell cycle arrest. Apoptosis was mediated, in part, by the survival-related AKT pathway. Additionally, immunohistochemical (IHC staining of total IGF-1R with an anti-total IGF-1R Ab (G11;Ventana was performed on tissue microarrays (TMAs containing 270 independent NSCLC tumor samples. Staining intensity was scored on a scale of 0 to 3+. 39.3% of tumors showed medium to high IGF-1R IHC staining (scores of 2+ or 3+, respectively, while 16.7% had scores of 3+. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In NSCLC cell lines, high levels of total IGF-1R are associated with moderate sensitivity to R1507. These results suggest a possible enrichment strategy for clinical trials with anti-IGF-1R therapy.

  4. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

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    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  5. Total and Proteinase K-Resistant α-Synuclein Levels in Erythrocytes, Determined by their Ability to Bind Phospholipids, Associate with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhadi, Suaad; Honig, Asaf; Simhi-Haham, Dganit; Schechter, Meir; Linetsky, Eduard; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Sharon, Ronit

    2015-06-11

    A marker for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), which reflects on the occurrence of peripheral pathogenic mechanisms, would potentially improve therapy. The significance of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) expression in red blood cells (RBC) is currently unclear. Here we investigated whether RBC's-expressed α-Syn may associate with PD. To this aim, we determined the levels of total and proteinase K-resistant α-Syn in samples of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Twenty-one individuals with PD at various disease stages and 15 healthy controls, with similar demographic features, were recruited to this study. α-Syn levels were determined by their biochemical property to bind phospholipids, using a phospholipid-ELISA assay. A significantly lower ratio of total-to-proteinase K-resistant α-Syn levels was detected in PD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. Suggesting a need for additional markers to be tested in combination with α-Syn levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence for an association between RBCs-expressed α-Syn and pathogenic mechanisms involved in PD.

  6. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

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    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic

  7. Effect of meteorologic conditions on total suspended particulate (TSP) levels and elemental concentration of aerosols in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva, Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) levels in Beer-Sheva, situated in a semi-arid area with winds bringing in dust from the surrounding deserts, was measured 41 times between June 1977 and May 1978. The TSP levels are correlated with climatic conditions. High TSP levels (890 +- 250 μg m-3) were found during Sharav conditions and sandstorms (hot, dry weather, typical to this region). Low TSP levels (59 +- 28 μg m-3) were found in the winter following rain. Usual TSP levels were found to be 140 +- 20 μg m-3 occurring during normal weather conditions. The elemental composition of the Beer-Sheva aerosols were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The concentrations of the following elements Fe, Na, Br, K, Sm, Au, Sb, Ga, La, Yb, Lu, Se, Hg, Cr, Sc, Rb, Co, Ta and Zn were determined by INNA and Ca, Si, S, Ti, Cl, Pb, Fe, V, Ni and Mn by XRF. Their relative abundances were found to depend on the prevailing TSP level. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  9. Opportunistic virus DNA levels after pediatric stem cell transplantation: serostatus matching, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation are additive risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Mellgren, K; Friman, V; Fasth, A; Ascher, H; Nilsson, S; Lindh, M

    2011-04-01

    Viral opportunistic infections remain a threat to survival after stem cell transplantation (SCT). We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. Serum samples from 47 consecutive patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. DNAemia at any time point occurred for CMV in 47%, for EBV in 45%, for HHV6 in 28%, and for AdV in 28%. Three patients (6.3%) died of CMV-, EBV-, or AdV-related complications 4, 9, and 24 weeks after SCT, respectively, representing 21% of total mortality. These 3 cases were clearly distinguishable by DNAemia increasing to high levels. Serum positivity for CMV immunoglobulin G in either recipient or donor at the time of SCT, total body irradiation, and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning were independent risk factors for high CMV or EBV DNA levels. We conclude that DNAemia levels help to distinguish significant viral infections, and that surveillance and prophylactic measures should be focused on patients with risk factors in whom viral complications rapidly can become fatal.

  10. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in human scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile (composed by pregnant women, nurse women and prescholar children residing in fisheries distributed within the coastal zone of this region), whose diet should include fish and shellfish as main food components, and to evaluate the degree of mercury contamination of this population by comparison with a control population. 6 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Is Vitamin C Supplementation Beneficial on Plasma Levels of Vitamin C and Total Anitioxidants for Pediatric Thalassemic Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation?

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    Molouk Hadjibabaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemic patients undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT are faced with cumulative high level of oxidative stress and depletion of critical antioxidants. Administration of antioxidants, is promising towards minimizing oxidative damage in both thalassemic and HSCT patients.Method: This was a prospective cross-sectional observational study. Patients as a part of institutional protocol were received Vitamin C (Vit C (all the patients received oral Vit C; 200 mg and 400 mg Vit C, if they were less or more than 20 kg respectively plus 10 mg/kg/day intravenous infusion of Vit C.We measured plasma Vit C and total antioxidant (TAs levels at four different time points; baseline, transplantation day (0, day +7 and day +14. We calculated mean and standard error for plasma levels of Vit C and TAs.Results: Fifthy patients enrolled in this study (mean age 7.97± 3.53. In all four time points, means of Vit C and TAs serum levels were under their reference values and their highest means were belong to baseline. Serum TAs and Vit C both depleted significantly from baseline to day 0 (P: 0.00 for both variables, then increased up to day +7 and it keeps rising till day +14 (P: 0.00 from day0 to day +7 and +14 for both variables. These changes were significant through the measurement time. There is also a significant correlation between baseline Vit C and baseline TAs (P: 0.11. This means the higher level of Vit C is correlated with higher level of TAs and vice versa.Conclusion: We did not observe any beneficial effects of administering Vit C in thalassemic patients undergoing HSCT in order to increase or prevent depletion of Vit C and TAs serum levels. This could be resolved by further investigations carrying out higher doses or longer duration and having a control group.

  12. The Analysis of Different Culture Time Affect Test Results of Coliform Bacteria Primary Fermentation%不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌彦; 盛满钰

    2012-01-01

    为了了解不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响,为大肠菌群检测方法、卫生标准的修订及食源性疾病的预防和控制提供科学依据。在同一品牌快餐店随机采集具有代表性的6大类342件样品进行大肠菌群检测,得到有效样品数为254件。依照国家标准进行检验和结果评价,并将初发酵培养时间为(24±2)h和(48±2)h的检测结果进行比较。结果表明,样品经(48±2)h初发酵培养的大肠菌群检出率及LST肉汤阳性率均高于(24±2)h,其差异均具有统计学意义Co〈o.01)。因此,大肠菌群迟缓发酵现象普遍存在。适当延长初发酵培养时间将有利于提高大肠菌群的检出率,从而更真实的反映食品的卫生质量状况。2010年6月正式实施的GB4789.3—2010,与2003版相比其结果表达发生了变化,而相应的很多产品卫生标准仍未同时更新。%In order to understand what effect on the different culture period of coliform bacteria cause on the test result of coliforms primary fermentation, provide the scientific proof for coliform bacteria detection methods, and revise health standard and prevention and control of food-borne disease, a total of 342 representative samples of six main categories were randomly collected in various chain stores of the same brand fast-food restaurant for coliform bacteria testing. Finally, 254 effective samples were got. In accordance with national standards for testing and evaluation of results, and to compare test results between (24~:2) h and (48~2) h on the coliforms primary fermentation time, according to results of the comparison view, the sample after (48h:k2) h primary fermentation coliform .detection rate and positive rate of LST broth were higher than the (24+2) h, the differences are statistically significant (p〈0.01). Therefore, coliform slow fermentation is widespread and ubiquity. Extend the time of primary

  13. Effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Cryotherapy on Recovery of Joint Function and C-reactive Protein Levels in Patients after Total Knee Replacement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Il; Kim, Yong-Nam; Choi, Hyun

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy on joint function recovery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of patients with total knee replacement. [Subjects] Forty-six patients with total knee replacement were recruited and allocated to either low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy (n=15), cryotherapy (n=15), or a combination of both (n=16). Therapy was administered once a day, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. To determine functional joint recovery and reduction of inflammation, changes in the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (K-WOMAC), range of motion (ROM), and CRP were assessed postsurgically and four times over a 3-week period. Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), homogeneity tests were performed based on participants' general characteristics. To recognize changes in time-variant K-WOMAC, ROM, and CRP values between groups, repeated measures ANOVA was performed, and Tukey's test was used for post-test analysis. Values at α=0.05 were considered significant. [Results] We found a difference between groups and times, and the group that received the combined therapies showed greater changes in outcomes than the group that received low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy alone. [Conclusion] Applying both low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy can relieve inflammation and enhance joint function in patients who undergo total knee replacement.

  14. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. PMID:26743740

  16. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  17. Genomic breeding value prediction for simple maize hybrid yield using total effects of associated markers, under different imbalance levels and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantelmo, N F; Von Pinho, R G; Balestre, M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of a maize breeding program is to generate hybrid combinations that are more productive than those pre-existing in the market. However, the number of parents, and consequently the number of crosses, increases so rapidly that the phenotypic evaluation of all the possible combinations becomes economically and technically infeasible. In this context, predicting the performance of the most promising genotypes may increase the genetic gains with increased selection intensity and reduced breeding cycles. Thus, the present study aimed to use the total effects of associated markers method to predict genomic breeding values (GBVs) via cross-validation and by using different imbalance levels (10, 30, 50, and 70%). A set of 51 genotyped strains was used with 79 microsatellite markers and 273 hybrids that were generated by a partial diallel. A total of 186 and 272 hybrids were analyzed in the experiments within the southern and central regions of Brazil, respectively. The GBVs were, thus, predicted for each location in both the regions, and for training in one region and validation in another region. The correlation between the predicted and observed GBVs ranged from 0.48 to 0.91, depending on the imbalance level and the region analyzed. Overall, the results obtained in the present study were promising, particularly considering that a small number of markers were used and that the training and predictions occurred in the very distinct regions of southern and central Brazil. PMID:26985952

  18. Chemical state analysis of trace-level alkali metals sorbed in micaceous oxide by total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Y.; Shimoyama, I.; Hirao, N.

    2016-10-01

    In order to determine the chemical states of radioactive cesium (137Cs or 134Cs) sorbed in clay minerals, chemical states of cesium as well as the other alkali metals (sodium and rubidium) sorbed in micaceous oxides have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since the number of atoms in radioactive cesium is extremely small, we specially focused on chemical states of trace-level alkali metals. For this purpose, we have measured XPS under X-ray total reflection (TR) condition. For cesium, it was shown that ultra-trace amount of cesium down to about 100 pg cm-2 can be detected by TR-XPS. This amount corresponds to about 200 Bq of 137Cs (t1/2 = 30.2 y). It was demonstrated that ultra-trace amount of cesium corresponding to radioactive cesium level can be measured by TR-XPS. As to the chemical states, it was found that core-level binding energy in TR-XPS for trace-level cesium shifted to lower-energy side compared with that for thicker layer. A reverse tendency is observed in sodium. Based on charge transfer within a simple point-charge model, it is concluded that chemical bond between alkali metal and micaceous oxide for ultra-thin layer is more polarized that for thick layer.

  19. Elimination of fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphage from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) relaid in floating containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kator, H; Rhodes, M

    2001-06-01

    Declining oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production in the Chesapeake Bay has stimulated aquaculture based on floats for off-bottom culture. While advantages of off-bottom culture are significant, the increased use of floating containers raises public health and microbiological concerns, because oysters in floats may be more susceptible to fecal contamination from storm runoff compared to those cultured on-bottom. We conducted four commercial-scale studies with market-size oysters naturally contaminated with fecal coliforms (FC) and a candidate viral indicator, F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphage. To facilitate sampling and to test for location effects, 12 replicate subsamples, each consisting of 15 to 20 randomly selected oysters in plastic mesh bags, were placed at four characteristic locations within a 0.6- by 3.0-m "Taylor" float, and the remaining oysters were added to a depth not exceeding 15.2 cm. The float containing approximately 3,000 oysters was relaid in the York River, Virginia, for 14 days. During relay, increases in shellfish FC densities followed rain events such that final mean levels exceeded initial levels or did not meet an arbitrary product end point of 50 FC/100 ml. FRNA coliphage densities decreased to undetectable levels within 14 days (16 to 28 degrees C) in all but the last experiment, when temperatures fell between 12 and 16 degrees C. Friedman (nonparametric analysis of variance) tests performed on FC/Escherichia coli and FRNA densities indicated no differences in counts as a function of location within the float. The public health consequences of these observations are discussed, and future research and educational needs are identified. PMID:11403128

  20. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  2. Combined effects of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3A polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic levels on the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Hsieh, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lin, Ying-Chin; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study showed that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) might influence DNMT enzyme activity associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the association of five SNPs from DNMT1 (rs8101626 and rs2228611), DNMT3A (rs34048824 and rs1550117), and DNMT3B (rs1569686) with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We also examined the combined effects of DNMT genotypes and urinary arsenic levels on ccRCC risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study, which included 293 subjects with ccRCC and 293 age- and gender-matched controls. The urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We observed that the DNMT1 rs8101626 G/G genotype was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of ccRCC [OR=0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.99]. Subjects with concurrent DNMT1 rs8101626 A/A+A/G and DNMT3A rs34048824 T/T+T/C genotypes had significantly higher OR for ccRCC [OR=2.88, 95% CI 1.44-5.77]. Participants with the high-risk genotype of DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 with concurrently high urinary total arsenic levels had even higher OR of ccRCC in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to evaluate variant DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 genotypes that modify the arsenic-related ccRCC risk in a geographic area without significant arsenic exposure in Taiwan. PMID:27292127

  3. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A R; Wiley, B J; Ren, Y; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-11-14

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au(100-x)Pd(x) (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when "tuned up" against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design. PMID:26463562

  4. Mosapride citrate, a 5-HT₄ receptor agonist, increased the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in non-diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kiyomi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptaine (5-HT)₄ receptor, is typically used to treat heartburn, nausea, and vomiting associated with chronic gastritis or to prepare for a barium enema X-ray examination. Mosapride citrate reportedly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. As mosapride citrate activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that mosapride citrate affects incretin secretion. We examined the effect of the administration of mosapride citrate on the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, and plasma incretin levels before breakfast and at 60, 120, and 180 min after breakfast in men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to exclude gastropathy. Mosapride citrate was administered according to two different intake schedules (C: control (no drug), M: mosapride citrate 20 mg) in each of the subject groups. The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels was smaller in the M group than in the C group. The time profiles for the serum insulin levels at 60 and 120 min after treatment with mosapride citrate tended to be higher, although the difference was not statistically significant. The AUCs of the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were significantly larger in the M group than in the C group. No significant difference in the AUC of the plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level was observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that mosapride citrate may have an antidiabetic effect by increasing GLP-1 secretion. PMID:23257734

  5. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  6. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (Pbilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement). Conclusions Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress. PMID:23342222

  7. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  8. Overview of total system model used for the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented for the total system model used to represent physical processes associated with the seven scenario classes (i.e., nominal conditions, early waste package (WP) failure, early drip shield (DS) failure, igneous intrusive events, igneous eruptive events, seismic ground motion events and seismic fault displacement events) considered in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The total system model estimates dose to an exposed individual resulting from radionuclide movement through the repository system and biosphere. Components of the total system model described in this presentation include models for (i) climate analysis, (ii) land surface infiltration and associated unsaturated zone flow, (iii) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal–hydrologic environment, (iv) EBS physical and chemical environment, (v) WP and DS degradation, (vi) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, (vii) waste form degradation and mobilization, (viii) water and radionuclide movement in the EBS and underlying unsaturated and saturated zones, (ix) radionuclide movement in the biosphere and resultant human exposure, and (x) processes specific to early WP and DS failures, intrusive and eruptive igneous events, and seismic ground motion and fault displacement events. - Highlights: • The models indicated below associated with four scenario classes are described: (i) nominal conditions, (ii) early waste package (WP) and/or early drip shield (DS) failure, (iii) igneous events, and (iv) seismic events. • Models for (i) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal-hydrologic environment, (ii) EBS physical and chemical environment, (iii) WP and DS degradation, (iv) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, and (vi) waste form degradation and mobilization. • Models for processes specific to (i) early WP and DS failures, (ii

  9. Emission of SO2 and SO42- from copper smelter and its influence on the level of total s in soil and moss in Bor and the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šerbula Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bor and the surroundings (Eastern Serbia have been known for exploitation and processing of sulphide copper ores for more than 100 years. Emissions of waste gases and particulate matter rich in heavy metals are characteristic for pyrometallurgical production of copper. Long-term measurement results (2005-2008 indicate an increased sulphur dioxide level in the urban-industrial zone of Bor since it is closest to the copper smelter which is a dominant source of air pollution in the studied area. Average annual sulphur dioxide concentrations at four measuring sites in the urban-industrial zone exceeded the maximum allowable value of 50 μg/m3. However the maximum allowable value of the total atmospheric depositions (200 mg/m2/day on an annual basis exceeded only at two of 15 measuring sites in the urban-industrial and rural zone. The highest annual deposition rate of sulphates from deposition was detected in the urban-industrial zone. Since the maximum permitted value for sulphates is not defined by the Serbian Regulations, the extent of the pollution cannot be discussed. Since the environment can continuously be polluted through the wet and dry deposition, biomonitoring by moss was conducted, which revealed significantly higher concentrations of total sulphur in moss in the urban-industrial zone, compared to the background zone. The obtained results confirm the reliability of moss as a bioindicator of ambient pollution. Higher total S concentration in soil samples was noted at the rural site (Ostrelj located in the close vicinity of two tailing ponds. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010, br. 33038 i br. 172037

  10. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  11. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Gopal Satpati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g. The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching, ketone (C-C stretching, carboxylic acid (O-H bending, phosphine (P-H stretching, aromatic (C-H stretching and bending, and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  12. Feasibility study of UV disinfection for agricultural reuse of secondary level effluent in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chun G; Chung, Kwang-Wuk; Ham, Jong-Hwa; Jeon, Ji-Hong

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to examine the feasibility of UV disinfection for agricultural reuse of reclaimed water. The effluent from the bio-filter of a 16-unit apartment was used as input to the flow-through type UV disinfection system, with average suspended solid (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations of 3.4 and 5.9 mg/L, respectively, and a mean level of total coliforms in the range of 1.5 x 10(4) MPN/100 mL. UV disinfection was found to be effective, in that it reduced mean concentration of indicator microorganisms (total coliform [TC], fecal coliform [FC], and E. coli) to less than 100 MPN/ 100 mL within 60s exposure using 17, 25, and 40 W lamps. The microorganisms often exceeded 200 MPN/100 mL with 17 and 25W lamps, but were completely removed with 40W lamp in one cylindrical chamber. Disinfection with two chambers in series demonstrated complete removal for all the experiments. About 30 mW x s/cm2 was thought to be adequate for the disinfection of secondary effluent to keep the suggested bacterial standards of 100 MPN FC/100 mL for agricultural reuse. Water quality effect on the UV efficiency was not apparent within the experimental conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the removal rates of TC, FC, and E. coli did not significantly vary with turbidity, dissolved organic matter (DOM), or SS concentrations (p = 0.05). Photo-reactivation problems after UV disinfection might be a lesser concern in agricultural reuse than for other uses, due to exposure of water to solar radiation and resulting inactivation. Overall, UV disinfection of effluent from secondary level wastewater treatment plants in Korea was thought to be an effective and feasible alternative for agricultural reuse, and thus it is strongly recommended.

  13. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  14. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  15. Rapid disinfection of E-Coliform contaminated water using WO3 semiconductor catalyst by laser-induced photo-catalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Khalil, Amjad

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced photo-catalysis process using WO(3) semiconductor catalyst was applied for the study of disinfection effectiveness of E-coliform-contaminated water. For this purpose, wastewater polluted with E-coliform bacteria was exposed to 355 nm UV radiations generated by third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser in special glass cell with and without WO(3) catalyst. E-Coliform quantification was performed by direct plating method to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The dependence of disinfection process on laser irradiation energy, amount of catalyst and duration of laser irradiation was also investigated. The disinfection with WO(3) was quite efficient inactivating E-coliforms. For inactivation of E-coliforms, less than 8 minutes' laser irradiation was required, so that, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water. This study opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries using solar radiation. PMID:18324535

  16. A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculatio

  17. Modification of the standard most-probable-number procedure for fecal coliform bacteria in seawater and shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, F.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether or not presumptive tubes which take 48 h to become positive need to be transferred to EC medium during the fecal coliform multitube most-probable-number procedure, 572 seawater and shellfish samples were considered. When the 24-hour positive tubes alone were transferred to EC, it appeared that incorrect dilution data would be rare.

  18. Effect of repeated irrigation with water containing varying levels of total organic carbon on the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on baby spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, David T; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan

    2011-05-01

    The California lettuce and leafy greens industry has adopted the Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA), which allows for 126 most-probable-number (MPN) Escherichia coli per 100 ml in irrigation water. Repeat irrigation of baby spinach plants with water containing E. coli O157:H7 and different levels of total organic carbon (TOC) was used to determine the epiphytic survival of E. coli O157:H7. Three irrigation treatments (0 ppm of TOC, 12 or 15 ppm of TOC, and 120 or 150 ppm of TOC) were prepared with bovine manure containing E. coli O157:H7 at either low (0 to 1 log CFU/100 ml) or high (5 to 6 log CFU/100 ml) populations, and sprayed onto baby spinach plants in growth chambers by using a fine-mist airbrush. MPN and direct plating techniques were used to determine the E. coli O157:H7 populations on the aerial plant tissue. Plants irrigated with high E. coli O157:H7 populations, regardless of TOC levels, showed a 3-log reduction within the first 24 h. Low levels of E. coli O157:H7 were observed for up to 16 days on all TOC treatments, ranging from 76.4 MPN per plant (day 1) to 0.40 MPN per plant (day 16). No viable cells were detected on spinach tissue 24 h after irrigation with water containing fewer than 126 CFU/100 ml E. coli O157:H7. Under growth chamber conditions in this study, E. coli O157:H7 populations in irrigation water that complies with the LGMA standards will not persist for more than 24 h when applied onto foliar surfaces of spinach plants.

  19. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended. PMID:25732906

  20. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  1. Presence of faecal coliforms and selected heavy metals in ice cubes from food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Meor Ahmad, Z; Abdul Wahab, R

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present cross sectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance. Faecal coliforms were detected in 11 (36.67%) of the samples, ranging between 1 CFU/100 mL to > 50 CFU/100 mL; two of the samples were grossly contaminated (>50 CFU/100 mL). Interestingly, while positive detection of lead was observed in 29 of the 30 ice cube samples (mean: 0.511±0.105 ppm; range: 0.489-0.674 ppm), copper, manganese and zinc were not detected. In addition, analysis on commercially bottled mineral water as well as in tap water samples did not detect such contaminations. Therefore, it appears that (1) contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes in food outlets in Malaysia may not be sporadic in pattern but rather prevalent and (2) the source of water used for manufacturing the ice cubes that contained significant amount of lead would suggest that (3) it was neither originated from the treated tap water supply nor bottled mineral water or (4) perhaps contaminated during manufacturing process. Further studies exploring the source of water used for manufacturing these ice cubes as well as the handling process among food operators deserve consideration.

  2. Effect of elevated total cholesterol level and hypertension on the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease: a cohort study of Chinese steelworkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying; GU Dong-feng; LI Jian-xin; CHEN Ji-chun; CAO Jie; LU Xiang-feng; CHEN Shu-feng; WU Xi-gui; DUAN Xiu-fang; MO Xing-bo

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased blood pressure and elevated total cholesterol (TC) level are the two most important modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the world.Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia co-exist more often than would be expected and whether there is a synergistic impact on fatal CVD between elevated TC and hypertension need to be further examined in Chinese population.Methods We conducted a cohort study which recruited 5092 Chinese male steelworkers aged 18-74 years in 1974-1980 and followed up for an average of 20.84 years.Totally 302 fatal CVD events were documented by the year of 2001.Cox proportional hazards regression models were undertaken to adjust for baseline variables with fatal CVD events as the outcome variable.Additive interaction model was used to evaluate the interaction between elevated TC and hypertension.Results Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) of fatal CVD (1.67 (95% CI 1.18-2.38) and 2.91 (95% CI 2.23-3.80) respectively.Compared to participants with normotension and TC <240 mg/dl,the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI 0.56-2.21),2.74 (95% CI 2.07-3.64) for hypercholesterolemia and hypertension respectively,and 5.51 (95% CI 3.58-8.46) for participants with both risk factors.There was an additive interaction with a 2.65 (95% CI 0.45-4.85) relative excess risk (RERI) between hypercholesterolemia and hypertension on CVD.Conclusion We found that the risk of fatal CVD was significantly associated with an additive interaction due to hypercholesterolemia and hypertension besides a conventional main effect derived from either of them,which highlights that the prevention and treatment of both risk factors might improve the individual risk profile thus reduce the CVD mortality.

  3. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p soya beans for EE (p soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected

  4. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  5. Cantronic Systems Takes Active Night Vision to the Next Level By Breaking 800m (2600 ft) Mark in Total Darkness and Demanding Weather Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Capturing clear images in total darkness from up to 800m (2600 ft) away in demanding weather conditions and total darkness isnow possible with Cantronic Systems' CIRPS00m Active Infrared Night Vision System. Cantronic Systems, Inc.

  6. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KO Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG∆cobS∆cbiA and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr of Gallinarum (SG. In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4. At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG∆cobS∆cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI and 24 hours after (1 DAI, and three (3 DAI, five (5 DAI, seven (7 DAI ten (10 DAI, and fifteen (15 DAI days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain.

  7. 钱塘江(杭州段)粪大肠菌群污染现状研究%Analysis of pollution of fecal coliform in Qiantang river ( Hangzhou section)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In the view of hygiene, through the continuous dynamic monitoring of fecal coliform in surface water of Qiantang River (Hangzhou section) in different seasons, different sections and different tidal conditions, to explore the factors of fecal coliform pollution, in order to provide a scientific basis to strengthen the control of Qiantang River water pollution. Methods: According to "Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Analysis Methods" (4th edition) of National Environmental Protection Administration, fecal coliform in surface water of Qiantang River( Hangzhou section) was monitored. Results-. According to the surface water M level standard for the fecal coliform, the average attainment rate is 61.0%. From 2006 to 2009, the attainment rates of fecal coliform in four years were 54.2% , 56.9% , 59.4% and 74.0% , showing a gradual uptrend. The attainment rate of fecal coliform in upstream river water is higher than that of downstream, and the attainment rates in four seasons reduced accordingly in the order of winter, spring, autumn and summer. Conclusion: The pollution of fecal coliform in Qiantang River ( Hangzhou section) is still serious, increasing year by year. The condition of pollution was increasingly improved, but the new pollution continue to breed. Strengthening the regulation of pollution sources and dynamic monitoring of water are still the focus of our work.%目的:从卫生学角度出发,通过对钱塘江(杭州段)流域地表水不同季节、不同河段、不同潮汐等条件粪大肠菌群连续动态监测,探究其粪大肠菌群污染的诸多因素,为加强钱塘江水体污染监管提供科学的依据.方法:按照国家环保局《水和废水监测分析方法》第四版要求,进行粪大肠菌群的监测.结果:以粪大肠菌群Ⅲ级地表水标准,平均达标率为61.0%,2006年- 2009年粪大肠菌群四年达标率依次为54.2%、56.9%、59.4%、74.0%,呈逐渐上升趋势.河段上游水体粪大肠菌

  8. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates at Purchase Knob, a high elevation site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased with increased foliar stipple. Sensitive plants had lower photosynthetic rates for all leaves, except the very youngest and oldest when compared to tolerant plants. Stomatal conductance decreased with increasing leaf age, but no ozone-sensitivity differences were found. Lower leaves had less starch than upper ones, while leaves on sensitive plants had less than those on tolerant plants. These results show that ambient levels of ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can adversely affect gas exchange, water use efficiency and leaf starch content in sensitive coneflower plants. Persistence of sensitive genotypes in the Park may be due to physiological recovery in low ozone years. - Highlights: ► Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared. ► Net photosynthesis decreased with increased foliar stipple and leaf age. ► Sensitive plants with visible stipple had lower photosynthetic rates when compared to tolerant plants. ► Stomatal conductance did not differ between sensitivity types. ► Sensitive plants had lower leaf starch content than tolerant plants. - Ambient ozone may cause declines in gas exchange and starch in ozone-sensitive genotypes of cutleaf coneflower.

  9. On Medicare But At Risk: A State-Level Analysis of Beneficiaries Who Are Underinsured or Facing High Total Cost Burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Solís-Román, Claudia; Huober, Nick; Kelchner, Zachary

    2016-05-01

    Medicare provides essential health coverage for older and disabled adults, yet it does not limit out-of-pocket costs for covered benefits and excludes dental, hearing, and longer-term care. The resulting out-of-pocket costs can add up to a substantial share of income. Based on U.S. Census surveys, nearly a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries (11.5 million) were underinsured in 2013–14, meaning they spent a high share of their income on health care. Adding premiums to medical care expenses, we find that 16 percent of beneficiaries (8 million) spent 20 percent or more of their income on insurance plus care. At the state level, the proportion of beneficiaries underinsured ranged from 16 percent to 32 percent, while the proportion with a high total cost burden ranged from 11 percent to 26 percent. Low-income beneficiaries were most at risk. The findings underscore the need to assess beneficiary impacts of any proposal to redesign Medicare.

  10. Using Bromocresol Purple to Determine Fecal Coliforms with the Most Probable Number Technique; Utilizacion de purpura de bromocresol para la determinacion de coliformes fecales con la tecnica del numero mas probable (NMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Mendez Novelo, R.

    2003-07-01

    The object of this piece of research was to determine the reliability of using bromocresol purple as an indicator for determining fecal coliforms by means of the most probable number (MPN) technique using multiple tubes and comparing the results obtained in this way with those obtained using the traditional technique of the formation of carbon dioxide in a Durham tube. Twelve samples of different types of water were analysed using sets of nine tubes, one with a Durham tube and another with the addition of bromocresol purple. In the former case, a reaction was jadged as positive (indicating the presence of coliforms) if CO{sub 2} was formed in the Durham tube. In the latter case, the reaction was considered as positive if a change in colour-from purple to yellow-of the culture medium was observed. A statistical analysis was performed to determine the significant differences in the sensitivity and specificity of both methods. (Author)

  11. Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL and low IgE (OBJETIVO: Determinar se há uma relação dos níveis de IgE total no soro e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta à farmacoterapia de rotina em pacientes com asma aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 162 pacientes com asma aguda. Foram determinados os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos. O tratamento foi ajustado individualmente de acordo com a gravidade da asma. Foi realizada espirometria antes do início do tratamento e duas semanas após seu término. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: alto nível de IgE (> 100 UI/mL e baixo nível de IgE (< 100 UI/mL. Foram comparadas entre os dois grupos as relações das determinações basais e das alterações em percentual dos seguintes parâmetros: VEF, CVF, FEF25-75%, contagem de células brancas no sangue periférico e contagem de eosinófilos. RESULTADOS:Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às alterações em percentual dos parâmetros estudados. Tampouco houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação aos valores basais de VEF, CVF e FEF25-75%, em % do predito. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses achados, concluímos que os níveis séricos de IgE total, as contagens de células brancas no sangue periférico e as contagens de eosinófilos não são preditores do tratamento farmacológico de

  12. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  13. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  14. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  15. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  16. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  17. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi; Eliane Moretto

    1995-01-01

    Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores

  18. Survey of PAC Performance for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Coliform Bacteria, Heterotrophic Bacteria from Water of Karoon River

    OpenAIRE

    N Alavi Bakhtiarvand; A Takdastan; Mirzaei, A

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives: Selection of proper coagulants for turbidity removal and determination of effective methods to reduce coagulants dose and related costs in water treatment plants is of critical importance. The present study investigates the effect of returned sludge on improving the performance of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) in turbidity, coliform bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria removal from drinking water during rapid mixing phase. Materials and Methods: In order to determine th...

  19. Calculation of the expected increases of coliform organisms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, in raw blended mutton tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of blended mutton tissue in small polyvinyl chloride sachets were incubated in water baths for different times and at varying temperatures. The temperature of each bath was recorded accurately throughout each experiment. Using equations previously derived for the lag and generation times of coliform organisms in blended mutton tissue, the expected increases of these bacteria were calculated from the time/temperature recordings. These were compared with the data obtained from plate cou...

  20. Analisa Bakteri Coliform Pada Air Kran Di Rumah Makan Yang Terdapat Di Jalan Dr Mansur,Medan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Pandian, Sharmilla

    2016-01-01

    There are many restaurant that sell food and drinks around the Jalan dr Mansur area. Taking into account that there are many factors that contribute to the growth and cultivation of bacteria in the tap water, thus there is a high possibility of the water being poluted by bacteria. Coliform bacteria including Escherichia coli is an indicator of water polution by waste and is not healthy to consume bu human. Poluted water may be hazardous to human health and well being. The...

  1. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  2. Digesta Passage Time, Digestibility, and Total Gut Fill in Captive Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects Food Type and Food Intake Level

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Ei; Hanya, Goro

    2011-01-01

    Digestion is an important process in understanding the feeding ecology of animals. We examined digesta passage time, digestibility, and total gut fill in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; n = 4) under 4 dietary conditions representing the seasonal and regional variations in the diets of wild populations to determine the effects of food type and food intake on these digestive features. Food type is associated with mean retention time (MRT), digestibility, and total gut fill. Dry matter intake...

  3. Levels of total arsenic in edible fish and shellfish obtained from two coastal sectors of the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile: use of non-migratory marine species as bioindicators of sea environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo H; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2011-01-01

    The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the total arsenic content in these products was performed by Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, HG-AAS. The results showed that marine species associated with the CB sector had higher total arsenic levels than the same species in the area of VB, a finding attributed to much higher total arsenic concentrations in the water and soils of CB than VB. The species with the highest total arsenic concentration was the Venus antique (7.50 mg kg (-1)) from the CB, and the lowest total arsenic content was found in Cheilodactylidae variegatus (0.34 mg kg(-1)) from VB. PMID:21879860

  4. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J;

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...... for the adaption of the GH-IGF-IGFBP axis in AN may be different from other catabolic conditions, because the low levels of free and total IGF-I in AN are not associated with increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis....

  5. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mahima,; Vinod Kumar; Tomar, S. K.; Debashis Roy; Muneendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05)...

  6. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... (C17H39AsO, C19H41AsO and C23H37AsO) and five arsenic-containing fatty acids (C17H35AsO3, C(19)H(39)AO(3), C19H37AsO3, C23H37AsO3 and C24H37AsO3) were identified using HPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Arsenobetaine was the major arsenic species in the water......-soluble fraction of the livers, while dimethylarsinate, arsenocholine and inorganic arsenic were minor constituents. Inorganic arsenic accounted for less than 0.1% of the total arsenic in the liver samples. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved....

  7. Enumeração de coliformes fecais e presença de Salmonella sp. em queijo Minas Enumeration of fecal coliforms and presense of Salmonella sp. in Minas cheese

    OpenAIRE

    M.L. Pereira; M.C.A. Gastelois; E.M.A.F Bastos; Caiaffa, W. T.; E.S.C. Faleiro

    1999-01-01

    Foram submetidas à contagem de coliformes fecais e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram adquiridos queijos com e sem registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) para avaliar a diferença de qualidade microbiológica. Os resultados evidenciaram ausência de Salmonella sp. em todas as amostras de queijo. Entretanto, verificou-se que 90% das amostras de queijo ...

  8. A downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya Beas, Rosa Elena; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; van Lier, Jules B; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous laboratory-scale DHS reactors, i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges, were studied. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), 0.53 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) and 0.24 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m(-2) d(-1), 2.97 m3 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.32 m3 m(-2) d(-1), respectively (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The 1989 WHO guidelines standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C, is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops. PMID:26606098

  9. Numbers of coliforms, Escherichia coli, F-RNA phage, rotavirus, bovine enteric calicivirus and presence of non-O157 STEC on commercial vacuum packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T H; Nattress, F M; Dilts, B; Olsen, D; Muehlhauser, V

    2014-09-01

    The numbers of coliforms, Escherichia coli, F-RNA coliphages, bovine enteric calicivirus (BEC) and rotavirus (RV) and presence of non-O157 shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) were determined on commercial vacuum packaged beef subprimals at the retail level from swabs obtained from the entire surfaces of 150 cuts that originated from federally and provincially registered plants. The prevalence and log mean numbers of E. coli were higher in provincially registered plants than in federally registered plants; 64% vs 20%, respectively, and -0.3 vs -1.22 log cfu/100 cm(2), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence and mean log numbers of F-RNA coliphages were lower for the provincially registered plants than for the federally registered plants; 31% vs 68% and -0.86 vs -0.13 log cfu/100 cm(2), respectively. One E. coli sample tested positive for stx2 and eae. F-RNA coliphages associated with human origin (GII/GIII) were detected in 12% and 30% of samples that originated from provincially and federally registered plants, respectively. RV RNA was detected in 4% of samples while BEC RNA was not detected. Although the infectivity of RV is unknown, the presence of viable F-RNA coliphages suggests that consumers could potentially be at risk when consuming undercooked meat that is contaminated with RV. PMID:24929741

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. Emission of SO2 and SO42- from copper smelter and its influence on the level of total s in soil and moss in Bor and the surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Šerbula Snežana M.; Ţivković Dragana T.; Radojević Ana A.; Kalinović Tanja S.; Kalinović Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Bor and the surroundings (Eastern Serbia) have been known for exploitation and processing of sulphide copper ores for more than 100 years. Emissions of waste gases and particulate matter rich in heavy metals are characteristic for pyrometallurgical production of copper. Long-term measurement results (2005-2008) indicate an increased sulphur dioxide level in the urban-industrial zone of Bor since it is closest to the copper smelter which is a dominant source...

  12. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  13. Effect of the Total Extract of Averrhoacarambola (Oxalidaceae Root on the Expression Levels of TLR4 and NF-κB in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Averrhoacarambola L., which is a folk medicine used in diabetes mellitus (DM in ancient China, has been reported to have anti-diabetic efficacy. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract of Averrhoacarambola L. root (EACR on the regulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-Nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB pathway in B pathway in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods: the mice were injected with STZ (120 mg/kg body weight via a tail vein. After 72 h, the mice with FBG = 11.1 mmol/L were confirmed as having diabetes. Subsequently, the mice were treated intragastrically with EACR (300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d for 14 days. Results: As a result the serum fasting blood glucose (FBG, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a levels were decreased following EACR administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the pancreatic tissue expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB were downregulated after EACR administration. EACR suppressed pancreatic mRNA expression level of TLR4 and blocked the downstream NF-κB pathway in the pancreas. According to Western blot analysis EACR suppressed pancreatic TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression levels. Histopathological examination of the pancreas showed that STZ-induced pancreas lesions were alleviated by the EACR treatment. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the modulation of the IL-6 and TNF-a inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway are most likely involved in the anti-hyperglycemic effect of EACR in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  14. Is Almond Consumption More Effective Than Reduced Dietary Saturated Fat at Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and LDL-c Levels? A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy M. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia can be a consequence of excessive dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA, while almond-supplemented diets can improve lipid profiles. However, the differential and independent impacts of dietary SFA and almondsupplemented diets on plasma total cholesterol (pTC and low-density lipoprotein (pLDL-c concentrations have not been directly compared and are not well described. We reviewed the available data to construct multiple regression analyses to theoretically assess the impact of relative almond intake (RAI and dietary SFA on reducing pTC and pLDL-c concentrations. Strong, negative correlations between RAI and percent change in mean pTC (R=0.776;P=0.005 and RAI and percent change in mean pLDL-c (R=0.818;P=0.002 were detected. The relationships between percent change in mean dietary SFA, and percent change in mean pTC and mean pLDL-c were weaker and only significant for pLDL-c. The multiple regression analyses demonstrated modest improvements in the strength of the correlations for both pTC (R=0.804;P=0.016 and pLDL-c (R=0.855;P=0.005. The models suggest that the increase in RAI contributes to the reduction in pTC and pLDL-c to a greater extent than a reduction in dietary SFA, but a simultaneous decrease in dietary SFA should further improve lipid profiles.

  15. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiachen; Cao, Yang; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Four Japanese black beef cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the fermentation quality, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and preference of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with differing proportions of apple pomace (AP). Experimental treatments were the control (no AP added, CAP), 5% (low, LAP), 10% (medium, MAP) and 20% (high, HAP) of TMR dry matter (DM) as AP. All TMR silages were well preserved. Ethanol was produced in silages containing AP and the amount increased with the proportion of AP (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility with LAP, MAP and HAP treatment was lower than that with CAP treatment (P < 0.05). The ruminal molar proportion of acetic acid increased (P < 0.05), but the ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased (P < 0.05) as the proportion of AP increased. The preference of the animals was highest for HAP, followed by MAP, CAP and LAP. This study demonstrates that decrease in nutrient digestibility might be related to the ethanol produced naturally from AP. Therefore, the proportion of AP in TMR silages should be less than 5% of dietary DM.

  16. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by spleen helps rapidly predict the dose level after total body irradiation in a Tibetan minipig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu Jue; Gu, Wei Wang [Southern Medical University, Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wu, Shao Jie; Guo, Kun Yuan; Chen, Chi [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xie, Qiang; Cai, Liang [Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Department of Oncology and PET/CT, Guangdong Provincial Corp Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zou, Fei [Southern Medical University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate whether {sup 18}F- FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate the rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation doses after a nuclear accident. Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomised into a control group (n = 3) and treatment groups (n = 45). {sup 18}F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) were carried out before total body irradiation (TBI) and at 6, 24 and 72 h after receiving TBI doses ranging from 1 to 11 Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were also collected for histological examination, apoptosis and blood analysis. Mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) of the spleen showed significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Spleen SUV at 6 h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.97 (P < 0.01). Histological observations showed that damage to the splenic lymphocyte became more severe with an increase in the radiation dose. Moreover, apoptosis was one of the major routes of splenic lymphocyte death, which was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. In the Tibetan minipig model, radiation doses have a close relationship with the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the spleen. This finding suggests that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation doses. (orig.)

  17. The survival of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and enterobacteriaceae in general in soil treated with sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, I B; Aller, A; Aller, F; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2004-06-01

    We monitored the effect of the application of treated sludge on the behaviour of enterobacteriaceae (mainly faecal coliforms and especially Escherichia coli) in the soil, and studied their evolution over time after application. Three different sludges were used: two from a municipal sewage plant, one of them had been subjected to anaerobic digestion and heat drying, and the other to anaerobic digestion and mechanical dehydration, and one from a dairy waste treatment to aerobic digestion and gravity thickening. Two types of tests were carried out: type O, in the open air, with no possibility of controlling humidity or temperature; and type L, under laboratory conditions, with controlled temperature and humidity. Sludge tests were also run on unscreened soil previously treated with chemical fertilizer. After 80 days of experimentation the populations of faecal coliforms and E. coli had decreased considerably or were undetectable in assays carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, under both open-air and laboratory conditions, but that, over the same period, in the mixtures containing chemical fertilizer (calcium ammonium nitrate) there had been a considerable increase in the micro-organism populations studied. PMID:15051081

  18. Number of residual thermotolerant coliforms on plants and in soil when using reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamkure, Sasirot; Cervantes, Edmundo Peña; Zermeño González, Alejandro; Cervantes, Rubén López; Melo, Prócoro Gamero; Ramírez, Homero

    2013-01-01

    The reclamation of domestic wastewater for irrigation is one alternative approach to solve the water scarcity crisis, but it is essential to control the microbiological quality of wastewater used for irrigation. The removal of thermotolerant coliforms, also known as faecal coliforms (FC), from treated domestic wastewater by intermittent media infiltration (IMI) in column was studied. The columns were filled with natural filter media (soil, soil/charcoal and zinc-modified zeolite, Zeo-Zn), and wastewater, IMI-treated wastewater and disinfected wastewater were compared. The numbers of residual FC on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) and in agricultural soil were determined over a 4-month period. The column using Zeo-Zn had a higher FC removal efficiency (2.98 log) than columns with other filter media and disinfection (1.87-2.57 log) due to the bactericidal properties of Zn(2+). The treatment of wastewater using Zeo-Zn and disinfection both decreased the accumulation of FC on plants and in soil to approximately 1-20 MPN/g dry matter. IMI-treated wastewater using the column with Zeo-Zn was suitable for unrestricted agricultural use, complied with Mexican regulations (as did disinfected wastewater) and had a low risk of FC contamination of plants and soil. PMID:23168639

  19. [Total Peroxidase and Catalase Activity of Luminous Basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in Comparison with the Level of Light Emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil'naya, O A; Ronzhin, N O; Medvedeva, S E; Bondar, V S

    2015-01-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities in the mycelium of luminous basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in normal conditions and under stress were compared. An increase in the luminescence level was observed under stress, as well as an increase in peroxidase and catalase activities. Moreover, the peroxidase activity in extracts of A. borealis mycelium was found to be almost one and a half orders of magnitude higher, and the catalase activity more than two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the N. nambi mycelium. It can be suggested that the difference between the brightly luminescent and dimly luminescent mycelium of N. nambi is due to the content of H2O2 or other peroxide compounds.

  20. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.J.; Hetland, M.L.; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 32, and psoriatic arthritis, n = 17) initiating TNF alpha inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n = 38......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......Euro parts per thousand 0.001), whereas total aggrecan was lower (662 mu g/l (223-2,219) vs. 816 (399-2,190),p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p a parts per thousand currency signa...

  1. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine...... and lifestyle change on levels of total bilirubin in an overweight or obese, cardiovascular high-risk population. Data from the first 4 weeks of the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome study were analyzed. A total of 10 198 patients provided body weight measurements before and after 4 weeks......, respectively. At screening, bilirubin concentrations were similar between weight loss groups (around 11 micromol/L, P = .7) and increased linearly as a function of weight loss. The effect was significantly more pronounced in men compared with women (P for interaction = .003). Adjusted for multiple variables...

  2. Branch-level measurement of total OH reactivity for constraining unknown BVOC emission during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT, in enclosure air, so that the measurement dataset contains both measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution from unmeasured isoprene (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity indicates that the ratio of OH reactivity from unmeasured products over OH reactivity from MVK + MACR is strongly dependent on NO concentrations. The unmeasured oxidation products can contribute ~7.2% (8.8% from LIM and 5.6% by MIM 2 when NO = 100 pptv of the isoprene contribution towards total ambient OH reactivity. This amount can

  3. Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    Undesirable butter-tasting vicinal diketones are produced as by-products of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis during wort fermentation. One promising method of decreasing diacetyl production is through control of wort valine content since valine is involved in feedback inhibition of enzymes controlling the formation of diacetyl precursors. Here, the influence of valine supplementation, wort amino acid profile and free amino nitrogen content on diacetyl formation during wort fermentation with the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was investigated. Valine supplementation (100 to 300 mg L(-1)) resulted in decreased maximum diacetyl concentrations (up to 37 % lower) and diacetyl concentrations at the end of fermentation (up to 33 % lower) in all trials. Composition of the amino acid spectrum of the wort also had an impact on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione production during fermentation. No direct correlation between the wort amino acid concentrations and diacetyl production was found, but rather a negative correlation between the uptake rate of valine (and also other branched-chain amino acids) and diacetyl production. Fermentation performance and yeast growth were unaffected by supplementations. Amino acid addition had a minor effect on higher alcohol and ester composition, suggesting that high levels of supplementation could affect the flavour profile of the beer. Modifying amino acid profile of wort, especially with respect to valine and the other branched-chain amino acids, may be an effective way of decreasing the amount of diacetyl formed during fermentation.

  4. Characterization of vitamin E and total cholesterol levels in meat of lamb produced in the south of Sonora State, México by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher cholesterol content in some meat species has been associated in many scientific papers with degenerative and cardiovascular illness. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies on Sonora’s lamb meat vitamin E and cholesterol content. The use of analytical techniques to determinate meat quality and healthiness are important as routine food analysis. The objective of this work was to characterize cholesterol and vitamin E levels in lamb meat produced in Sonora using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC as a precise analytical technique. Samples (15 from criollo race Longissimus dorsi muscle, 35-40 kg live weight produced in a stabled system feed with corn was lyophilized to determinate -tocopherol and cholesterol via HPLC. Results shown that the average concentration were 2.3±1.06 mg/mL and 135.62±31.4 mg/mL in 100 g of meat for α-tocopherol and cholesterol, respectively. The characterization of these analites is important to provide the necessary purchase information to consumer, increasing lamb meat added value.

  5. The Impact of Free/Total PSA Ratio on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Patients with PSA Level Between 2,5-10 mg/dl Undergoing Transrectal Prostate Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Sener

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of pathologic results of patients underwent transrectal prostate biopsy (TRIB with free/total PSA ratio. Material and Method: Patients having a PSA level between 2.5-10 ng/ml and underwent TRIB were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups as having a free/total PSA ratio below and over 20%. The ratio below 20% was in Group 1 and over 20% were in Group 2. Results: There were 60 patients in Group 1 and 82 patients in Group 2. PSA levels were 7,45 ± 2,14 and 6,31 ± 1,89 for groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.067. Fourteen patients in Group 1 (23% and 15 patients in Group 2 (18% were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 23% when PSA level was between 2.5 and 10. Discussion: Free/Total PSA ratio can be applied to PSA levels between 2.5 and 10. Even though it has a low specificity, with high sensitivity, it can be used in urologic practice.

  6. The effect of zinc oxide supplementation on the stability of the intestinal flora with special reference to composition of coliforms in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouli, M; Melin, L; Jensen-Waern, M; Wallgren, P; Möllby, R

    1999-10-01

    The effect of a dietary supplementation of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the stability of the intestinal flora and on the composition of coliforms in weaned pigs was investigated. Faecal floras were characterized by their metabolic activities and fermentative capacity (FC) using the Phene Plate generalized microplate. Coliforms were characterized by conventional enumeration and by the Phene Plate-RS plates. The latter measured FC, phenotypic diversity, persistence of each coliform strain in piglets, and similarity among the coliform populations within groups. From weaning onwards, the control pigs (n = 5) were fed a basal diet ad libitum, while experimental pigs (n = 5) were given the same food supplemented with 2500 ppm ZnO. Metabolic fingerprinting of faecal floras indicated marked differences between the composition of floras of treated and control pigs during the first 2 weeks post-weaning. The FC of faecal flora in both groups decreased as pigs aged, but it was significantly (P pigs during the first 2 weeks post-weaning. Neither the number of coliforms, nor their FC-values, differed between the groups. However, during the first 2 weeks post-weaning, there was a significant increase in both variety (P = 0.019) and diversity (P pigs compared with the ZnO treated group. Homogeneity between coliform populations of piglets was high during the suckling period, indicating the presence of many identical strains among piglets. This, however, decreased in control pigs during the first 2 weeks post-weaning. Several coliform strains that colonized the gut at the early stage of the pigs' life were found to be resident in animals of both groups. It is concluded that supplementation of ZnO to weaned pigs helped to maintain the stability of the intestinal microflora and the diversity of coliforms during the first 2 weeks post-weaning, but not later, and that ZnO supplementation to creep feed should be restricted to the first 2 weeks post-weaning in veterinary practice. PMID:10583685

  7. 调味品中大肠菌群检验的不确定度评定%Uncertainty evaluation for testing of fecal coliforms in Condiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建荣; 吴芸芸; 吴俐

    2015-01-01

    对调味品中大肠菌群检验的不确定度进行评定.本次实验的扩展不确定度为0.0749,此方法适合于同类产品大肠茵群检验结果不确定度的评定.%The testing uncertainty of coliform group in condiment was evaluated. The expanded uncertainty was 0.251 in this experiment. This method is suitable for uncertainty evaluation for testing of coliforms in the similar products.

  8. The Independent and Joint Association of Blood Pressure, Serum Total Homocysteine, and Fasting Serum Glucose Levels With Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Hypertensive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Ningling; Yu, Tao; Fan, Fangfang; Zheng, Meili; Qian, Geng; Wang, Binyan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Hou, Fanfan; Xu, Xiping; Yang, Xinchun; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and joint association of blood pressure (BP), homocysteine (Hcy), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a measure of arterial stiffness) in Chinese hypertensive adults.The analyses included 3967 participants whose BP, Hcy, FBG, and baPWV were measured along with other covariates. Systolic BP (SBP) was analyzed as 3 categories (SBP < 160 mmHg; 160 to 179 mmHg; ≥ 180 mmHg); Hcy as 3 categories (< 10 μmol/L; 10 to 14.9 μmol/L; ≥ 15.0 μmol/L) and FBG: normal (FBG < 5.6 mmol/L), impaired (5.6 mmol/L ≤ FBG < 7.0 mmol/L), and diabetes mellitus (FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L). We performed linear regression analyses to evaluate their associations with baPWV with adjustment for covariables.When analyzed individually, BP, Hcy, and FBG were each associated with baPWV. When BP and FBG were analyzed jointly, the highest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 2227 ± 466 cm/s) was observed in participants with FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and SBP ≥ 180 mmHg (β = 432.5, P < 0.001), and the lowest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 1692 ± 289 cm/s) was seen in participants with NFG and SBP < 160 mmHg. When Hcy and FBG were analyzed jointly, the highest baPWV value (2072 ± 480 cm/s) was observed in participants with FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and Hcy ≥ 15.0 μmol/L (β = 167.6, P < 0.001), while the lowest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 1773 ± 334 cm/s) was observed in participants with NFG and Hcy < 10 μmol/L.In Chinese hypertensive adults, SBP, Hcy, and FBG are individually and jointly associated with baPWV.Our findings underscore the importance of identifying individuals with multiple risk factors of baPWV including high SBP, FBG, and Hcy.

  9. Five-year clinical results of cervical total disc replacement compared with anterior discectomy and fusion for treatment of 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease: a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter investigational device exemption clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Kris; Coric, Domagoj; Albert, Todd

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of a study of 2-level cervical total disc replacement (Mobi-C) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Although the long-term outcome of single-level disc replacement has been extensively described, there have not been previous reports of the 5-year outcome of 2-level cervical disc replacement. METHODS This study reports the 5-year results of a prospective, randomized US FDA investigational device exemption (IDE) study conducted at 24 centers in patients with 2-level, contiguous, cervical spondylosis. Clinical outcomes at up to 60 months were evaluated, including validated outcome measures, incidence of reoperation, and adverse events. The complete study data and methodology were critically reviewed by 3 independent surgeon authors without affiliation with the IDE study or financial or institutional bias toward the study sponsor. RESULTS A total of 225 patients received the Mobi-C cervical total disc replacement device and 105 patients received ACDF. The Mobi-C and ACDF follow-up rates were 90.7% and 86.7%, respectively (p = 0.39), at 60 months. There was significant improvement in all outcome scores relative to baseline at all time points. The Mobi-C patients had significantly more improvement than ACDF patients in terms of Neck Disability Index score, SF-12 Physical Component Summary, and overall satisfaction with treatment at 60 months. The reoperation rate was significantly lower with Mobi-C (4%) versus ACDF (16%). There were no significant differences in the adverse event rate between groups. CONCLUSIONS Both cervical total disc replacement and ACDF significantly improved general and disease-specific measures compared with baseline. However, there was significantly greater improvement in general and disease-specific outcome measures and a lower rate of reoperation in the 2-level disc replacement patients versus ACDF control patients. Clinical trial registration no. NCT00389597

  10. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p count. This analysis evidenced a significant time effect in the average log bacteriological cell count. Although bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  11. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  12. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  13. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  14. Research on Precision of Trigonometric Leveling of North NTS-300 Electronic Total Station%南方NTS-300全站仪三角高程测量精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 谢力分

    2011-01-01

    According to the principle of trigonometric leveling of enctronic total station, formula of height difference of trigonometric leveling is deduced and precision which can be reached by using the measuring method is studied.%根据全站仪三角高程测量原理,推导了全站仪三角高程测量高差的公式,并对南方NTS-300全站仪进行三角高程测量能达到的精度进行了研究分析。

  15. Metal ion levels in large-diameter total hip and resurfacing hip arthroplasty-Preliminary results of a prospective five year study after two years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer-Ertl W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is an alternative to metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, especially for young and physically active patients. However, wear which might be detected by increased serum ion levels is a matter of concern. Methods The aims of this preliminary study were to determine the raise of metal ion levels at 2-years follow-up in a prospective setting and to evaluate differences between patients with either resurfacing or total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore we investigated if the inclination of the acetabular component and the arc of cover would influence these findings. Therefore, 36 patients were followed prospectively. Results The results showed increments for Co and Cr in both implant groups. Patients treated with large-diameter total hip arthroplasty showed fourfold and threefold, respectively, higher levels for Co and Cr compared to the resurfacing group (Co: p  Discussion In order to clarify the biologic effects of ion dissemination and to identify risks concerning long-term toxicity of metals, the exposure should be monitored carefully. Therefore, long-term studies have to be done to determine adverse effects of Co and Cr following metal-on-metal hip replacement.

  16. Fluidized sand biofilters used to remove ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand, total coliform bacteria, and suspended solids from an intensive aquaculture effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluents from aquaculture facilities must be effectively managed to remove dissolved wastes and suspended solids that can pollute receiving bodies of water. High volume, dilute flows leaving settling or filtration units can appear pristine, but still contain dissolved wastes. Effective technologie...

  17. Remoción de fenoles, detergentes y coliformes presentes en aguas residuales por medio de irradiación

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Moreno; Arturo Colín; Octavio Vázquez

    1992-01-01

    Muestras de aguas con distinto grado de contaminación (con tratamiento primario y biológico), fueron expuestas a diez diferentes dosis de radiación gamma de Co-60 en el intervalo de 6 a 37 kCy, a una razón de dosis de 25 kCy/h para definir en que etapa del tratamiento convencional de las aguas residuales, la radiación puede remover contaminantes químicos y biológicos. Con 6 a 10 kGy se eliminó hasta 5 órdenes de magnitud de microorganismos coliformes. No se encontró una dosis especifica para ...

  18. 自制大肠菌群快速检测纸片的应用效果%Application Effect of Self-made Rapid Detection Paper for Coliform Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝生宏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] The aim was to explore the application effect of self-made rapid detection paper for coliform bacteria. [ Method ] The quantities of coliform bacteria in tableware and water collected from Liaoning Agricultural Vocational-technical College were determined by self-made rapid detection paper, meanwhile detection results of self-made rapid detection paper, saled paper and national standard method were compared. [Result] When the water was detected, the result of self-made rapid detection paper was consistent with the coincidence rate and the passing rate of national standard method. When the tableware was detected, the result of self-made rapid detection paper was consistent with the coincidence rate and the passing rate of saled paper. [ Conclusion ] The self-made rapid detection paper for coliform bacteria could save more manpower and material resources than national standard method, and the detection result is similar to that of saled paper, so it is suitable for food microorganism monitoring of basic level inspection department.%[目的]探究自制大肠菌群快速检测纸片的应用效果.[方法]以自制大肠菌群快速检测纸片为材料,对辽宁农业职业技术学院餐具及水质进行了监测,并比较了自制纸片、市售纸片和国标方法的检测结果.[结果]检测水质时,自制纸片与国标法的符合率、合格率相一致;检测餐具时,自制纸片与市售纸片的符合率、合格率相一致.[结论]纸片法比发酵法能大量节省人力和物力,且与市售纸片结果相似,适合在基层检验单位推广使用.

  19. Evaluation of data from the literature on the transport and survival of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in aquifers under saturated conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J W A; Schijven, J F

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms are of major importance as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Due to its negative surface charge and relatively low die-off or inactivation rate coefficient, E. coli is able to travel long distances underground and is therefore also a useful ind

  20. Changes in Aerobic Plate and Escherichia coli-Coliform Counts and in Populations of Inoculated Foodborne Pathogens on Inshell Walnuts during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Davidson, Gordon R; Harris, Linda J

    2016-07-01

    After harvest, inshell walnuts are dried using low-temperature forced air and are then stored in bins or silos for up to 1 year. To better understand the survival of bacteria on inshell walnuts, aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Escherichia coli?coliform counts (ECCs) were evaluated during commercial storage (10 to 12°C and 63 to 65% relative humidity) over 9 months. APCs decreased by 1.4 to 2.0 log CFU per nut during the first 5 months of storage, and ECCs decreased by 1.3 to 2.2 log CFU per nut in the first month of storage. Through the remaining 4 to 8 months of storage, APCs and ECCs remained unchanged (P > 0.05) or decreased by drying (10 to 12 h; 40°C) and simulated commercial storage (12 months at 10°C and 65% relative humidity). Populations declined by 2.86, 5.01, and 4.40 log CFU per nut for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively, after drying and during the first 8 days of storage. Salmonella populations changed at a rate of -0.33 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, to final levels of 2.83 ± 0.79 log CFU per nut. E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations changed by -0.17 log CFU per nut per month and -0.26 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, respectively. For some samples, E. coli or L. monocytogenes populations were below the limit of detection by plating (0.60 log CFU per nut) by day 183 or 148, respectively; at least one of the six samples was positive at each subsequent sampling time by either plating or by enrichment. PMID:27357033

  1. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFα inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......-2,190), p≤0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p≤0.03) in clinical responders (n=24), and persistent reductions over 3 years were found in IL-6, VEGF, YKL-40, and MMP-3. Only MMP-3 decreased (p≤0.02) in non-responders (n=13). The study demonstrated...

  2. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFa inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8......The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated......-2,190), p=0.001). Two weeks after first treatment, all biomarker levels changed towards normal levels (p=0.03) in clinical responders (n=24), and persistent reductions over 3 years were found in IL-6, VEGF, YKL-40, and MMP-3. Only MMP-3 decreased (p=0.02) in non-responders (n=13). The study demonstrated...

  3. Strictness and Totality Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, K. L.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    We define a novel inference system for strictness and totality analysis for the simply-typed lazy lambda-calculus with constants and fixpoints. Strictness information identifies those terms that definitely denote bottom (i.e. do not evaluate to WHNF) whereas totality information identifies those...... terms that definitely do not denote bottom (i.e. do evaluate to WHNF). The analysis is presented as an annotated type system allowing conjunctions at ?top-level? only. We give examples of its use and prove the correctness with respect to a natural-style operational semantics....

  4. 即食凉拌食品中微生物污染情况及大肠菌群限量的调查分析%Investigation of Instant Cold Foods and Microbial Contamination of Coliform Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梓娴; 速存芬; 陈磊; 刘辉光

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the microbial contamination of food ready to eat salad investigation and analysis, to develop a reliable instant cold food microbiological limits. Methods A "People's Republic of China national standards of food hygiene mi-crobiological testing methods" and the national monitoring network and other food-borne illness as a monitoring program, instant cold foods in the restrants and supermarbets of Qujing for microbial contamination were detected From May to september 2014. The main test items include coliform bacteria, yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella, hemolytic streptococcus, E. coli cause diarrhea, Listeria monocytogenes, and the total number of colonies. Results 80 parts of instant salad product samples exam-ined 31 retail processing unit processing the target pathogen detection does not appear. The positive rate of coliform detection pro-cess is about 72.25%, the main contaminating bacteria. Conclusion Coliforms in instant cold dishes as the main pollution flora, for a limited countries such flora as soon as possible as soon as possible health and safety standards, recommended instant cold foods coliform limit should be less than 100 MPN/g.%目的:对即食凉拌食品的微生物污染状况进行调查分析,为即食凉拌食品制定出可靠的微生物限量标准。方法采用《中华人民共和国国家标准食品卫生微生物学检验方法》以及国家食源性疾病监测网等作为监测方案,2014年5要9月份曲靖市管辖区部分饭店超市的即食凉拌食品中微生物污染情况进行检测。主要检测项目包括大肠菌群、酵母菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺菌、沙门菌、溶血性链球菌、致泻性大肠埃希菌、单增李斯特菌以及菌落总数。结果进行检查的31家零售加工单位加工生产的80份即食凉拌品样品中未出现目标致病菌的检出。检测过程中大肠菌群的阳性率约为72.25%,为主要污染菌。结论在

  5. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  6. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pinheiro Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas.Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples collected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average

  7. 粪大肠菌群检测方法研究进展%Research Progress on Detection Methods of Fecal Coliform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建

    2012-01-01

    The fecal coliform is indicator bacteria of faecal contamination of water bodies. To describe the advantages, disadvantages and the main application examples of some detection methods for fecal coliform, including multiple tube fermentation method,membrane tilter,paper strip method, enzyme substrate EC technique and molecular biolo gy method.%粪大肠菌群是水体粪便污染的指示菌。详细介绍了多管发酵法、滤膜法、纸片法、酶底物法及分子生物学方法检测粪大肠菌群的优缺点及主要应用实例。

  8. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Martha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.

  9. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  10. Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g, 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h, permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas.

  11. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals. PMID:23445624

  12. Levels of direct-acting mutagens, total N-nitroso compounds in nitrosated fermented fish products, consumed in a high-risk area for gastric cancer in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Bouvier, G; Shuker, D; Hautefeuille, A; Zhang, R F; Bartsch, H

    1992-02-01

    A high gastric cancer mortality in Fujian province (Peoples Republic of China) has been associated with the consumption of certain salted fermented fish products such as fish sauce (FS). We have investigated the levels and nature of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and genotoxins present, before and after nitrosation, in 49 FS samples collected from villages in this high-risk area, pooled into six samples. The concentrations of total NOC before nitrosation ranged from 0.2 to 16 mumoles/l, and after nitrosation at pH 2 and pH 7, they rose by up to 4800- and 100-fold, respectively. In nitrosated samples, 40-50% of total NOC was not extractable into organic solvents; volatile N nitrosamines accounted for 1-2% and N-nitrosamino acids for 8-16% of total NOC. None of the FS samples exhibited genotoxic activity, but after nitrosation all were weakly active in the SOS chromotest. The highest SOS-inducing potency was observed with nitrosated ethyl acetate extracts of most samples. The formation of methylating agents was measured by incubation of nitrosated FS with DNA and subsequent analysis of 7-methylguanine adduct. 2 of the 6 nitrosated FS samples caused a slight increase in DNA methylation. 1 pooled home-made FS sample (the only one tested) contained tumour promoter-like substances, as measured by expression of certain EBV genes in Raji cells. HPLC fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of FS samples allowed identification of three UV-absorbing peaks that, upon nitrosation, produced direct-acting genotoxins. This genotoxicity was partly ascribed to the formation of nitrite-derived arene diazonium cations that were characterized by a coupling reaction with N-ethyl-1-naphthylamine and thin-layer chromatography. PMID:1370720

  13. Application of Laser Level Meter in the Locating of Lung Block in Total Body Irradiation%十字激光水平仪在全身放疗肺挡铅定位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建荣; 李珍

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a laser level meter was used to implement the accurate locating of lung block in total body irradiation (TBI) instead of the light field system of linear accelerator. Compared with traditional locating methods, this method is an easy and effective technique to improve the lung shielding precision in TBI.%本文采用十字激光水平仪代替直线加速器光野系统,用于全身放疗(TBI)中肺挡块精确位置的确定。与传统方法相比,该方法操作简单、实用性强,可有效提高肺屏蔽精度。

  14. Níveis de mercúrio total em peixes de água doce de pisciculturas paulistas Mercury levels in freshwater fishes from piscicultures estabilished in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Morgano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de peixes de água doce, procedentes de pesqueiros e pisciculturas de 39 regiões do estado de São Paulo. As espécies de peixes estudadas foram: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Foram avaliadas três metodologias de digestão de amostras para a determinação de mercúrio total, variando-se o volume de mistura sulfonítrica utilizada e a concentração do permanganato de potássio, sendo que o uso de 10mL de mistura sulfonítrica e solução de permanganato de potássio a 7% (m/v na digestão da amostra foi a que forneceu as recuperações mais altas (96%, precisão de 1% e limite de quantificação de 0,3µg/kg. Após a validação do método, foram realizadas as determinações de teor de mercúrio total em 293 amostras de pescado, usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão com fonte de plasma acoplado em gerador de hidretos. Os níveis médios de mercúrio encontrados variaram entre: tambaqui (0,0003-0,012mg/kg, carpa (0,063mg/kg, matrinxã (0,0003-0,074mg/kg, pacu (0,0003-0,078mg/kg, piauçu (0,0003-0,183mg/kg e tilápia (0,0003-0,217mg/kg. Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras procedentes das diferentes regiões e diferentes pesque-pagues, apresentaram níveis de mercúrio total acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira, que é de 0,5mg/kg para pescado não-predador.In this work, the levels of mercury were evaluated in samples of freshwater fish, coming from fishing-grounds and piscicultures of 39 regions of São Paulo State. The species of fish studied were: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Three digestion methodologies of sample were evaluated for the mercury determination, with

  15. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  16. Changes in Aerobic Plate and Escherichia coli-Coliform Counts and in Populations of Inoculated Foodborne Pathogens on Inshell Walnuts during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Davidson, Gordon R; Harris, Linda J

    2016-07-01

    After harvest, inshell walnuts are dried using low-temperature forced air and are then stored in bins or silos for up to 1 year. To better understand the survival of bacteria on inshell walnuts, aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Escherichia coli?coliform counts (ECCs) were evaluated during commercial storage (10 to 12°C and 63 to 65% relative humidity) over 9 months. APCs decreased by 1.4 to 2.0 log CFU per nut during the first 5 months of storage, and ECCs decreased by 1.3 to 2.2 log CFU per nut in the first month of storage. Through the remaining 4 to 8 months of storage, APCs and ECCs remained unchanged (P > 0.05) or decreased by <0.15 log CFU per nut per month. Similar trends were observed on kernels extracted from the inshell walnuts. APCs and ECCs were consistently and often significantly higher on kernels extracted from visibly broken inshell walnuts than on kernels extracted from visibly intact inshell walnuts. Parameters measured in this study were used to determine the survival of five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella inoculated onto freshly hulled inshell walnuts (∼8 log CFU/g) after simulated commercial drying (10 to 12 h; 40°C) and simulated commercial storage (12 months at 10°C and 65% relative humidity). Populations declined by 2.86, 5.01, and 4.40 log CFU per nut for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively, after drying and during the first 8 days of storage. Salmonella populations changed at a rate of -0.33 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, to final levels of 2.83 ± 0.79 log CFU per nut. E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations changed by -0.17 log CFU per nut per month and -0.26 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, respectively. For some samples, E. coli or L. monocytogenes populations were below the limit of detection by plating (0.60 log CFU per nut) by day 183 or 148, respectively; at least one of the six samples was positive at each subsequent

  17. Relation between chronic periodontal disease and plasmatic levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions Relação entre doença periodontal crônica e os níveis plasmáticos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Posch Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been connected to several systemic health changes, including an altered lipid metabolism. Transient and recurrent bacteremias, which may be caused by periodontal infection, induce an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to changes in the whole body. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between severe and moderate periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Sixty individuals seen at the clinics of the University of Taubaté, São Paulo, over 20 years old, were divided into two groups, with and without periodontitis, and paired according to sex and age. Their levels of total cholesterol, tryglicerides and fractions were determined. Variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, sex and body mass index, were evaluated. The values recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology were considered to classify lipidemia. The results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (192.1 mg/dl ± 40.9 and triglycerides (153.5 mg/dl ± 105.6 in individuals with periodontitis were higher than, but not statistically different from, those of individuals without periodontitis (186.1 mg/dl ± 35.4 and 117.5 mg/dl ± 68, respectively. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless of its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population.A doença periodontal crônica, bastante prevalente na população adulta, tem sido relacionada com diversas alterações sistêmicas, entre elas as dislipidemias, que são fatores de risco conhecidos para a aterosclerose. Bacteremias transitórias e recorrentes, que podem ser causadas pela infecção periodontal, levam a uma intensa resposta inflamatória local e sistêmica, promovendo modificações ao longo do corpo

  18. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  19. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87

  20. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, β 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, β 2-microglobulin (β 2-MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants ≥50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of β 2-MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 μg/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 μg/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China

  1. Early postoperative albumin level following total knee arthroplasty is associated with acute kidney injury: A retrospective analysis of 1309 consecutive patients based on kidney disease improving global outcomes criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Jung; Koh, Won-Uk; Kim, Sae-Gyeol; Park, Hyeok-Seong; Song, Jun-Gol; Ro, Young-Jin; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-08-01

    Hypoalbuminemia has been reported to be an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, little is known about the relationship between the albumin level and the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of our study was to assess incidence and risk factors for AKI and to evaluate the relationship between albumin level and AKI following TKA.The study included a retrospective review of medical records of 1309 consecutive patients who underwent TKA between January 2008 and December 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the lowest serum albumin level within 2 postoperative days (POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL vs ≥3.0 g/dL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for AKI. A comparison of incidence of AKI, hospital stay, and overall mortality in the 2 groups was performed using propensity score analysis.Of 1309 patients, 57 (4.4%) developed AKI based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Factors associated with AKI included age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09; P = 0.030), diabetes (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.65-5.89; P < 0.001), uric acid (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.26-1.82; P < 0.001), beta blocker use (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.48-4.73; P = 0.001), diuretics (OR 16.42; 95% CI 3.08-87.68; P = 0.001), and POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.09-3.37; P = 0.023). After propensity score analysis, POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was associated with AKI occurrence (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.03-3.24, P = 0.041) and longer hospital stay (P = 0.001).In this study, we demonstrated that POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was an independent risk factor for AKI and lengthened hospital stay in patients undergoing TKA. PMID:27495094

  2. Relación entre las cantidades de cobre y zinc administradas a pacientes graves con nutrición parenteral total y los niveles de cobre y zinc en plasma y eritrocitos Relationship between the amount of copper and zinc given to critically ill patients on total parenteral nutrition and plasma and erythrocyte copper and zinc levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Menéndez

    2008-08-01

    superiores a 1,2 mg/d.Objectives: Complications resulting from zinc and copper deficiency, or adverse effects from excessive zinc and copper intake should be avoided during total parenteral nutrition (TPN. This study was conducted on critically ill patients requiring TPN to determine the relationship between the zinc and copper levels of the TPN mixtures, patients' clinical progression, and changes in plasma levels of zinc, serum levels of copper, and erythrocyte levels of zinc and copper. Patients and methods: 29 adult critically ill patients following pancreatitis or after a major abdominal surgery were studied. Zinc and copper levels in TPN, plasmatic zinc levels, copper serum levels and erythrocyte levels of zinc and copper were determined at the onset and at the end of the treatment (5-21 days (using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (and ranges in parenthesis of zinc and copper levels in TPN were (μg/mL: zinc: 4.2 ± 1.7 (1.8 a 9.3; copper: 0.94 ± 0.66 (0.1 a 3.1. Biochemical parameters at the onset and at the end of the treatment were, respectively: (μg/mL: plasmatic zinc: 80 ± 45 (29-205 and 122 ± 56 (37-229; erythrocyte zinc: 2,300 ± 1,070 (790-5,280 and 2,160 ± 920 (790-4,440; serum copper (μg/dL: 124 ± 35 (62-211 and 128 ± 41 (60- 238; erythrocyte copper (μg/dl: 72 ± 39 (4-183 and 70 ± 41 (9-156. Plasmatic and erythrocyte zinc levels did not correlated neither at the onset nor at the end of the treatment. Changes in erythrocyte zinc levels correlated with daily administered zinc (mg/d in the parenteral nutrition (r = 0.38. Serum copper and erythrocyte copper showed significant correlation at the onset (p = 0.0005 and at the end of treatment (p = 0.008. Changes of serum or erythrocyte copper levels showed a significant correlation with daily administered copper (r = 0.31 and 0.26, respectively. Conclusions: These results show that: 1 determination of erythrocyte zinc and copper levels in these critically ill

  3. COMPORTAMIENTO DE COLIFORMES FECALES COMO INDICADORES BACTERIANOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN DIFERENTES MEZCLAS DE BIOSÓLIDO Y ESTÉRILES UTILIZADOS PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA DE LA CANTERA SORATAMA, BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fuccz-Gamboa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El biosólido de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, contiene una importante concentración de materia orgánica y nutrientes, los cuales pueden ser utilizados como enmienda orgánica en la agricultura, reforestación y recuperación de terrenos disturbados por el hombre. Su aplicación se encuentra condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos presentes, ya que generan un riesgo sanitario para las personas que lo manipulan o entran en contacto directo con él. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de los coliformes fecales, como indicadores bacterianos de contaminación fecal en mezclas de biosólido y estériles en diferentes proporciones utilizadas para la restauración ecológica de la cantera de “Soratama” en un período de 60 días. Se realizaron tres tratamientos (T1 8:1; T2 4:1 y T3 2:1, v/v de estériles-biosólido con tres réplicas cada uno y un control negativo, únicamente con estériles. Se tomaron un total de 60 muestras y se analizaron de acuerdo con el protocolo de la EPA/625/R92/013(1999, técnica de filtración por membrana. La concentración final de coliformes fecales fue de 2.3 x 103UFC/g de PS para T1, 1.6 x 102 UFC/g de PS para T2 y 1.2 x 101 UFC/g de PS para T3; con un porcentaje de reducción de 38,1, 53,8 y 78,5% respectivamente. La radiación solar, la temperatura ambiente, la humedad y la precipitación influyeron significativamente en la reducción de la concentración de colifor- mes fecales.

  4. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing dietary concentrate levels for Nellore of three sexual categories: intake, partial and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2008-05-01

    levels of concentrate - 25 or 50% and three sexual categories to evaluate intake, partial and total digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal metabolism. The collection of ruminal fluid was done before and at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-feeding to determine pH and ammonia concentration. With the exception of EE, no other significant effect of concentrate levels and sexual categories was observed on intake and partial or total tract digestibility of nutrients. The intakes of DM, OM, EE, CP, NFC, and TDN (kg/day and DM (% BW or g/kg0.75 were affected neither by the concentrate levels nor by sexual category. Increasing dietary concentrate levels decreased NDF digestibility. Average bacterial N contents ranged from 6.91 to 7.39. No significant effect of concentrate levels and sexual category was observed on duodenal flow of nutrients and microbial efficiency excepted when expressed as gNmic/kgOMDR. Maximum ruminal NH3 concentration (14.55 mg/dL was estimated at 1.83 hours after-feeding. It was concluded that increasing dietary concentrate levels did not affect intake, partial and total tract digestibility of most nutrients and microbial protein synthesis.

  5. Níveis de proteína na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing crude protein levels in diets of Nellore cattle: intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2007-08-01

    .Twelve Nellore cattle fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to investigate the effects of increasing dietary crude protein level (7, 10, 13, and 15% on intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, degradabilities of corn silage, corn starch, and cottonseed meal, and ruminal metabolism. Animals were blocked by sexual category (heifers, bulls and steers averaging 254.8, 285.1, and 265.6 kg of body weight, respectively and then assigned to one out of three Latin squares. Samples were incubated in the rumen of one animal of each sexual category to estimate ingredient degradability after determination of DM, CP and NDF in the incubation residues. Ruminal fluid was collected before and after-feeding to determine pH and concentration of ammonia while ruminal samples for bacterial isolation were taken 6 hours post-feeding. Blood (BUN and urine (UU were also collected for measurement of urea concentration. The degradation rates of DM and CP were both lower in corn silage than on corn starch and cottonseed meal. The interaction sexual condition x dietary crude protein level was not significant for nutrient intake. With the exception of EE and NFC, no other significant effect of dietary CP level was observed for daily intake of nutrients. Increasing dietary CP level affected total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and NFC and also resulted in higher concentrations of BUN and UU. A significant dietary crude protein level x collection time interaction was observed for ruminal NH3 but not for ruminal pH. It was concluded that increasing dietary CP levels affected intake and total tract digestibility of most nutrients.

  6. 全局过程公用工程系统改造顶层分析法及其应用%Improved philosophy of top level analysis for total site energy integration retrofit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范继宽; 尹洪超

    2001-01-01

    对全局过程节能改造的能量集成方法进行了分析研究;提出了改进的顶层分析法,对公用工程系统剩余热的热功转化途径进行了分析和改进;采用了全局过程产用蒸汽等级优化,使过程改造的全局能量集成始终以经济效益为判据,由外及里层层深入,以较少的过程数据和工作量完成复杂的能量集成改造分析.应用实例表明,改进的顶层分析法用于复杂过程系统节能改造方案的确定是非常有效的.%An improved philosophy of top level analysis is proposed fortotal site energy integration retrofit. It is shown that steam saving or more generating from processes creates a surplus of steam in the total site. Paths for a more efficient use of this surplus steam to generate more power are identified with the help of a path-analysis, in which the difference of electricity power generating turbines and process turbines is taken into account. The improved approach not only provides powerful insights into the utility system economics, but also is a useful tool for evaluation of steam saving, steam generating, and steam switching projects under the condition of fixed configuration of utility network. Furthermore, it rules out uneconomic options, and reduces the time and effort for data extraction for project identification. A practical example of total site utility retrofit shows that the improved path-analysis is effective.

  7. Age, gender and normalization covariates for spinal cord gray matter and total cross-sectional areas at cervical and thoracic levels: A 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Papinutto

    Full Text Available The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA, the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull- and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and explored associations between cord measures and a brain volumes and b skull- and vertebra-derived metrics. Age and gender had a significant effect on TCA, WM and GM areas (with women and elderly having smaller values than men and younger people respectively, but not on the GM area/TCA ratio. The total intracranial volume and C3 vertebra dimensions showed the highest correlations with cord measures. When used in multi-regression models, they reduced cord areas group variability by approximately a third. Age and gender influences on cord measures and normalization strategies here presented might be of use in the study of compartment specific changes in various neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord.

  8. Free and total testosterone levels in field males of Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: accuracy of the hormonal regulation of behavior Niveles de testosterona libre y totales en machos silvestres de Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: exactitud de la regulación hormonal del comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO SOTO- GAMBOA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit continuous seasonal changes in physiological, morphological and behavioral traits associated to their natural annual cycles. One of the most important changes in the organism occurs at the initiation of breeding season. In males these changes include activation of spermatogenesis, enhance of sexual secondary characters and an increase of aggressiveness. All of theses changes are basically regulated by testosterone, but the physiological basis of this testosterone regulation and the effective hormone proportion that acts in target tissues are unknown. In this work I evaluated the relationship between total testosterone, free testosterone associated to aggressive behavior in wild males of Octodon degus. I compared hormonal levels and aggressive behavior during pre, middle and post breeding periods. Results showed that behavioral aggressiveness was correlated with both total and free testosterone in June, during the beginning of breeding season, but not at other times. Results also indicated a lack of relationship between free and total testosterone in most of breeding period. I discuss the importance of this behavior-hormonal regulation (determined by free testosterone and the physiological importance of this mechanism to the organismLos animales presentan variaciones estacionales continuas que incluyen cambios fisiológicos, morfológicos y conductuales, asociados al ciclo anual. Estos cambios generalmente están activados por factores endógenos o exógenos, pero son regulados por el sistema endocrino de organismo. Uno de los cambios más importantes ocurre en el inicio del periodo reproductivo. Durante este periodo los machos presentan cambios asociados a la producción de esperatozoides, exacerbación de caracteres sexuales secundarios y un aumento de la agresividad. Todos estos cambios son regulados en parte por los niveles de testosterona, sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiológicos de esta regulación son desconocidos. En este

  9. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  10. The clinical features of serum total sialic acid levels in pathological newborn%病理状态新生儿血清唾液酸水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮莉莉; 华春珍; 方妍彤; 王晓安

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serum sialic acid ( SIA ) levels in pathological newborn and evaluate the correlation between SIA levels and gestational ages or ages .Method Premature newborn and mature newborn were grouped according to gestational ages and not more than 24h subgroup, 25 h~7 d and more than 7d subgroups were defined by day ages .The enzymatic method was used when the contents of serum SIA were detected .The statistical analysis software, SPSS version 17.0 was used in the study.Findings A total of 987 newborn, including 238 (24.1%) pre-term newborns, 737 (75.3%) full term newborns and 6(0.6%)pos-term newborns were included in the study .The serum SIA levels of the ≤24h subgroup, 25 h~7 d subgroup and>7d subgroup in the pre-full newborns group were 27.2 ±8.1mg/dl, 33.3 ±5.8 mg/dl and 32.9 ±6.2 mg/dl respectively,which were significant lower than that in the full term group in which the SIA level were 30.4 ±9.2mg/dl,35.4 ±6.7 mg/dl and 37.6 ±9.0mg/dl instead.Lower SIA level was found in≤24h subgroups compared with the 25 h ~7 d subgroups or >7d subgroups in both pre-term and full term groups . Conclusion There was correlation between serum sialic acid level and day age in newborns in the study .Lower SIA level was identified in pre-full newborn when compared with the full term newborn .%目的:探讨病理状态新生儿血清唾液酸(sialic acids, SIA)水平及其与胎龄和日龄的关系。方法将因病理状态住院的新生儿(987例)分早产儿(238例)和足月儿(743例)两组,每组又根据日龄分24 h以内、25 h~7 d和大于7 d亚组,SIA测定采用神经氨酸苷酶法。结果早产儿各亚组血清SIA水平显著低于足月儿相应亚组( P<0.05);早产儿≤24h亚组血清SIA水平显著低于25 h~7 d亚组(t=4.70,P<0.01);早产儿组和足月儿组中≤24 h亚组血清SIA水平均显著低于25 h~7 d亚组或>7 d亚组。结论本组新生儿血清唾液酸

  11. Níveis de aminoácidos sulfurados totais para poedeiras semi-pesadas após a muda forçada Total sulfur amino acids levels for semi heavy weight laying hens after forced molt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cento e sessenta e duas poedeiras semipesadas anteriormente submetidas à muda forçada foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e nove repetições de seis aves para cada. Os tratamentos consistiram no fornecimento de rações contendo 0,45, 0,60 e 0,75% de aminoácidos sulfurados totais (AAST durante 30 dias após o término da muda forçada (fase de pós-muda. Após os 30 dias, cada um dos tratamentos adotados na fase de pós-muda foi desmembrado nos mesmos níveis de AAST, compondo, portanto, um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3x3 (3 níveis de AAST da fase pós-muda - 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% x 3 níveis de AAST na fase de produção - 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75%, sendo os tratamentos nesta fase compostos de três repetições de seis aves cada. Na fase de pós-muda, o menor nível de AAST determinou menores valores para consumo de ração (POne hundred and sixty two brown laying hens after the induced molt were randomly assigned to three treatments with nine replications and six birds each. The treatments consisted of 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA in the diets for 30 days after the end of induced molt (postmolt phase. After 30 days, each one of the treatments used in the postmolt phase was dismembered in the same TSAA levels, composing therefore a completely randomized desing in a factorial arrangement 3x3 (3 levels of TSAA in the postmolt phase - 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% x 3 TSAA levels in the production phase - 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75%. The treatments in the production phase were composed of three replications of six birds each. At the production phase the performance and egg quality were evaluated for 4 periods of 21 days. At postmolt phase the lower TSAA level (0.45% determined lower values (P<0.01 for feed intake, TSAA intake and body weight. The TSAA levels used in the postmolt phase affected (P<0.05 only the egg weight and the smaller weight were determined by 0

  12. ONPG培养基快速测定食品中大肠菌群的研究%Rapid evaluation of coliforms from food samples in ONPG medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建煌; 姚蕾; 李玉优; 李焕仪; 何亮辉; 姜春宝; 曹维强

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To explore the application of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) medium in the rapid evaluation of coliforms from food samples.MethodsThe detection results of Escherichia coliat different time in ONPG medium and lauryl sulfate tryptose (LST) were compared and analyzed byχ2-test analysis. The results of coliforms form food samples in ONPG medium and LST were also compared, and analyzed by Wilcoxon analysis.Results There was no significant difference between the results ofE. coli in ONPG medium (in 18 h) and LST (in 48 h) (P>0.05). There was also no significant difference between the results of coliforms from food samples in ONPG medium (in 18 h) and LST (in 48 h) (P>0.05).Conclusion ONPG medium can be used for rapid evaluation of coliforms from food samples.%目的:探讨邻硝基苯-β-D-吡喃半乳糖苷(o-Nitrophenyl-β-D-Galactopyranoside, ONPG)培养基在快速测定食品中大肠菌群的应用。方法比较ONPG培养基和月桂基硫酸盐胰蛋白胨(lauryl sulfate tryptose, LST)肉汤测定大肠埃希氏菌不同时段的结果,使用χ2-test分析;比较ONPG培养基和LST肉汤测定食品中大肠菌群的结果,使用Wilcoxon配对法分析。结果测定大肠埃希氏菌时ONPG培养基18 h结果与LST肉汤48 h结果无显著性差异(P>0.05);测定食品中大肠菌群时ONPG培养基18 h结果与LST肉汤48 h结果无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论 ONPG培养基可用于快速测定食品中大肠菌群。

  13. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Haldar; Gandhi, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B...

  14. Cemaran Mikroba Escherichia coli dan Total Bakteri Koliform pada Air Minum Isi Ulang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolan Sudirman Pakpahan

    2015-05-01

    there is no guarantee that refill drinking water quality meets any requirement every time. Results of refill drinking water sample in Kupang City in 2013 showed the water was 37.5% contaminated by microbes. This study aimed to analyze microbial contamination and determine determinants of Escherichia coli (E. coli and total Coliform on refill drinking water. This study used cross sectional design on January - March 2015. The population was 51 depots determined using total sampling technique. Data analysis was conducted in univariate, bivariate using simple logistic regression test and multivariate using multiple logistic regression test. Results showed drinking water contaminated by microbes worth 26 depots (51%, by E. coli 33.33% and by total Coliform 51%. Microbial contamination determinants using bivariate were knowledge (p value = 0.01 and behavior of operator (p value = 0.05. Meanwhile, microbial contamination determinants conducting multivariate were knowledge (p value = 0.026, hygiene of operator (p value = 0.05 and depot sanitation (p value = 0.044. Most dominating variables influencing microbial contamination are knowledge, operator’s hygiene and depot sanitation.

  15. The discuss on quality control methods of culture medium for thermotolerant coliform bacteria%检测耐热大肠菌群培养基的质量控制方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宁

    2012-01-01

      The quality of culture medium is the foundation of the microbial detection, affecting directly the reliability of the test results. In this paper, combining with the actual situation, the discuss on quality control of the EC culture medium for thermotolerant coliform bacteria was carried out through the outside,pH value, asepsis check, sensitivity check and others aspects so as to microbiology laboratory perfect and improve continuously culture medium quality level , and to ensure the accuracy of the test results.%  培养基的质量是微生物检测工作的基础,直接影响检测结果的可靠性。本文结合实际情况,从外观、pH值、无菌检查及灵敏度检查等几个方面,对检测耐热大肠菌群所用EC培养基的质量控制进行讨论,以便微生物实验室不断完善和提高培养基的质控水平,从而保证检验结果的准确性。

  16. Study on the GB 4789.3-2010 MPN Method Fitting in Coliform Bacteria Current Indicators of Pickled Vegetables%GB 4789.3-2010 MPN 法适合酱腌菜大肠菌群现行指标的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耕典; 李宏梁; 舒静; 王涛; 杨雯

    2016-01-01

    实验采用 GB/T 4789.3-2003方法与 GB 4789.3-2010的 MPN(最可能数)计数法对散装酱腌菜与袋装酱腌菜共90个样品中的大肠菌群进行检测,并结合2010版国家标准对2003版大肠菌群的限量指标进行替换来对比两类酱腌菜的检测结果,在此基础上,对两类酱腌菜的不合格率进行了分析。结果表明:两类酱腌菜中,2003版大肠菌群限量指标分别为90,30 MPN/100 mL(g),替换后的2010版大肠菌群限量指标分别为0.9,0.3 MPN/g(mL),两种方法检测袋装酱腌菜均为大肠菌群阴性,即合格样品。散装酱腌菜2003版的不合格率为8.6%,替换后的2010版不合格率为11.4%,二者差值小于5%,其原因在于2003版与2010版检测方法的灵敏度有差异,因此替换后的检测结果对酱腌菜的不合格率未产生影响。研究结果可为食品中大肠菌群限量指标的确定提供一定依据。%In the present study,the coliform bacteria from bulk pickles and bag pickles (totaling 90 samples)are detected by two methods,namely GB/T 4789.3 -2003 method and GB 4789.3 -2010 MPN enumeration.The two methods are compared through replacing the coliform bacteria limited index of 2003 version with 2010 edition national standard.And then,the fraction defective of both kinds of pickles are analyzed.The results show that,as to the pickled vegetables,the coliform bacteria limited indicators of 2003 version are 90 MPN/100 mL (g )and 30 MPN/100 mL (g ) respectively.After being replaced as 2010 version,they are 0.9 MPN/g (mL)and 0.3 MPN/g (mL) respectively.The coliform bacteria detection result of bag pickles reveals negative by both detection methods,indicating they are qualified samples.The fraction defective of bulk pickles which analyzed by 2003 and 2010 versions are 8.6% and 11.4% respectively,indicating a difference value of less than 5%.The reason should be the sensitivity between both methods has

  17. Qualidade total do produto Products total quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira de Almeida

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o conceito de qualidade total do produto, seus determinantes, bem como as dimensões que compõem essa qualidade. Parte-se do pressuposto de que a qualidade do produto deve ser avaliada pela satisfação total do consumidor. Para o consumidor a qualidade do produto envolve pelo menos as seguintes dimensões: a qualidade do produto em si; a qualidade do produto ao longo do tempo; a qualidade dos serviços associados ao uso do produto; e o custo do ciclo de vida do produto. O trabalho procura detalhar e discutir cada uma dessas dimensões da qualidade, tendo em vista a satisfação do consumidor.The paper concerns to the concept of product's total quality, its determinants, and the dimensions wich constitute this quality. We admit that product quality should be evaluated via consumer's total satisfaction. Product quality for consumers includes at least the following dimensions: the product quality per se; the performance of product quality over time; the quality of services related to the use of the product; and the product lifecycle costs. This study seeks to specify and to discuss each of these quality dimensions related to consumer's satisfaction.

  18. 大肠菌群MPN计数法与CFU计数法相关性初探%Investigation of Correlation Between Coliform Bacteria MPN and CFU Counting Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧; 李天添

    2012-01-01

    Coliform bacteria are common and important food quality evaluation index. Today, there are two parallel units of MPN and CFU in both detection of coliform bacteria and limitation of national standards of various products. In this paper, combined the principles of these two detection techniques with author's own experience in food inspection for many years, the correlation between MPN and CFU were investigated.%大肠菌群是常见且重要的食品质量评价指标。如今,大肠菌群检验方法和各类产品国家限量标准值都存在MPN、CFU两种计数单位并行的现象,结合两种技术方法的原理与作者多年从事食品检验的经验,对MPN单位与CFU单位的相关性进行初步探讨。

  19. Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuicola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Alvis Angela Inés

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluó la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli determinada mediante filtración  en  membrana  por  8  horas.  El  experimento  se  diseñó  con  dos  tratamientos (densidades  de seis (T1 y ocho almejas (T2 mãs un control con tres replicaciones.  Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0.05 en las tasas de aclaración entre tratamientos. Los mayores niveles de remoción de E. coli se presentan en el tratamiento con mayor cantidad de individuos y la tasa de aclaración varió entre 0,47 y 3,80 l/h por individuo. La almeja mostró tasas de aclaración dentro de los rangos registrados en la literatura, lo que hace a este organismo importante como potencial recurso biológico para el tratamiento de aguas terciarias con coliformes fecales

  20. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get ...

  1. Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following total knee replacement include unlimited walking, swimming, golf, driving, light hiking, biking, ballroom dancing, and other ... to the final success of your surgery. To learn more about the full value of total knee ...

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  4. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  5. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  6. Controversy Total War

    OpenAIRE

    Segesser, Daniel Marc

    2014-01-01

    Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe crisis (1916/17), it has become a term used by historians and other academics to cover a wide array of elements when looking at wars of the past. A real total war was and is impossible. Elements of total war – total war aims, total methods of...

  7. 血清唾液酸水平检测在非小细胞肺癌中的诊断价值%Estimation of serum total sialic acid levels as tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 王立伟; 张铁; 赵兴波; 张远春

    2012-01-01

    disease patients [ asthma( n =11 ),pneumonia( n =19) ] and 60 age-matched healthy persons with no evidence of lung disease and/or of neoplasm.All patients and controls gave their informed consent to enrollment in the present study,which was ethically conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration.The enzymatic was employed to detect the content of serum sialic acids.We compared results between the patients with and without cancer and between different histopathology types.The statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 17.0 software.The diagnostic performance of an assay was assessed by the analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.The tumor marker levels between the benign and lung cancer patient groups were compared using the Student's t-test. Frequencies and percentages were calculated,and the x2 was used for categorical factors.Results Serum sialic acid in malignant patients,benign cases and healthy subjects were (813 ± 218)mg/L,(639 ±92) mg/L and (568 ± 62) mg/L.The levels of serum sialic acid were significantly increased in malignant compared to benign cases and healthy subjects (P < 0.01 ).According to the detection value of health control group,the cutoff value was 695 mg/L,the sensitivity was 69.00%,the specificity was 88.90%,Negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 72.07% and 87.34% respectively,The total efficiency was 78.4%.The level of serum sialic acid in adenocarcinoma,squamous cell carcinoma,adenosquamous carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma were ( 845 ± 91 ) mg/L,( 782 ± 91 ) mg/L,( 794 ± 126 ) mg/L and ( 831 ± 113 ) mg/L,respectively.The content of serum sialic acid in malignant tumor cases of different histopathology types is apparently higher than of the control (P <0.01 ).While there is no significance between different histopathology types (P > 0.05 ).The values increased gradually with higher tumor grade and stage.Conclusion Biochemical analysis of sialic acid

  8. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  9. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  10. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index; Niveles de concentracion de radionucleidos emisores alfa en aguas de origen natural. Implicaciones en el uso de los distintos radionucleidos de referencia para la determinacion del indice de actividad total alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  11. 小白菜表面粪大肠菌群的污染及其耐药性研究%Occurrence of Fecal Coliforms on Chinese Cabbages and Their Resistance to Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 李雅颖; 姚槐应; 葛超荣

    2014-01-01

    为明确粪大肠菌群对蔬菜的污染及其耐药性,对厦门市集美区主要菜市场及超市的小白菜进行抽样调查。采用平板计数和MPN法对小白菜表面的粪大肠菌群进行计数,并通过对分离的细菌进行药敏试验,揭示粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素的耐药性。结果显示平板计数粪大肠菌群数量平均为631.3 CFU·g-1,合格率达90.9%;MPN计数平均为48.2 MPN·g-1,合格率达87.9%。清洗处理后粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到92.5 CFU·g-1;流水浸泡10 min后,粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到99.2 CFU·g-1。药敏试验结果表明,粪大肠菌对青霉素和四环素的耐药率达到100%,对红霉素的耐药率达到85.0%,但对庆大霉素、阿米卡星和环丙沙星没有耐药性。研究表明清洗处理显著降低粪大肠菌群的数量,粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素具有一定程度的耐药性,其耐药谱较广。%Microbial contamination of vegetables has aroused public concerns. An investigation was carried out to examine occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of fecal coliforms on fresh Chinese cabbages collected from farmers-markets and supermarkets in Jimei district of Xiamen city, China. Fecal coliforms were quantified using both MPN(most-probable-number)and PC(plate count)methods. Two treat-ments(washing or immersion in water)were used to evaluate the effect of cleaning on the abundance of fecal coliforms. The resistance of the isolated fecal coliforms to six common antibiotics(gentamicin, amikacin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin)was eval-uated using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results showed that average population of fecal coliforms from the samples was 631.3 CFU·g-1 by PC method, with qualified rate of 90.9%, whereas average population of fecal coliforms was 48.2 MPN·g-1 by MPN method, with qualified rate of 87.9%. Washing and 10 min immersion reduced the number of fecal

  12. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat...

  13. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  14. Evolution of the total logistics costs concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution stages of the total logistics cost concept; an interrelations of TLC and EOQ models has been analyzed. The author presented analytical approaches to determine a value of total cost, as well as an integral criterion for logistics systems' functioning, based upon package treatment of the total costs value and service level.

  15. Estado trófico e bioacumulação do fósforo total no cultivo de peixes em tanques-rede na área aqüícola do reservatório de Itaipu - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.519 Trophic level and bioaccumulation of total phosphorus in cage fish rearing on the aquaculture area at Itaipu reservoir - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.519

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A intensa produção de peixes e uso dos recursos hídricos pode comprometer a qualidade e disponibilidade da água, além de afetar a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, causando eutrofização e conseqüentemente a poluição do mesmo. Realizou-se um estudo das variáveis físico-químicas da água e dos teores de fósforo total (P-total no sedimento, rações e peixes cultivados em tanques-rede em uma área aqüícola localizada no reservatório da Itaipu, no município de Santa Helena – PR, objetivando monitorar a qualidade da água e determinar o índice de eutrofização total da área de cultivo, além de analisar a bioacumulação de P-total nos peixes e sedimento. As variáveis físico-químicas da água mantiveram valores normais indicados pelo CONAMA. A concentração média de P-total na área aqüícola foi de 28,41 IET e com transparência por disco de Secchi de 2,74 m, enquadrando o ambiente como oligotrófico. Houve correlação de 0,55 (pThe intense production of fishes and the use of water resources can compromise the quality and the availability of water, besides its affects in the environment carrying capacity, causing eutrophization and consequently water pollution. Therefore the objective of this study was to monitor the physical-chemical water variables and to measure the total phosphorus (total-P in sediment, feed and fish in cage culture on an aquaculture area situated at the Itaipu reservoir in Santa Helena – Parana state, observing the water quality and determining the total eutrophic level on the aquaculture area, in addition to analyze the total-P bioaccumulation in fish and sediment. The physical-chemical water variables presented normal values as indicated from CONAMA. The mean concentration of total-P for the aquaculture area was 28.41 IET and Secchi disc transparency of 2.74 m, giving it an oligotrophic classification. There was a correlation of 0.55 (p<0.01 between this two variables. The bioaccumulation of

  16. Correlation of lipid profile levels with deoxyribonucleic acid damage and total antioxidant capacity levels in obese pregnant women%肥胖产妇血脂水平与 DNA 损伤及总抗氧化能力水平的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红霞; 董艳双; 蔡友治; 朱颖军

    2015-01-01

    Objective The article aimed to investigate the correlation of lipid profile levels with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in obese pregnant women. Methods Healthy pregnant women (n=120 ) who took routine prenatal care from August 2011 to August 2012 in our hospital were recruited .All the pregnant women were di-vided into normal weight group ( n =45 ) and obese group ( n=75 ) .The lipid profile levels , DNA damage and TAC levels of two groups were compared and analyzed , and the correlations among lipid profile levels , DNA damage and TAC levels were analyzed . Results Compared to normal weight group , obese group showed significantly higher levels of TC (P=0.000), TG(P=0.000), and LDL-c(P=0.004), but a lower level of HDL-c (P=0.006).The DNA damage and TAC level of obese group were obviously higher than those of normal weight group (P=0.000, P=0.000).The DNA damage was positively correlated with levels of TC , TG and LDL-c among obese pregnant women (r=0.23, P=0.026;r=0.26, P=0.008;r=0.19, P=0.032), and TAC level was positive-ly correlated with TG level (r=0.32,P=0.000). Conclusion Dyslipidemia, imbalance of prooxidant and antioxidant status al-ways occur to obese pregnant women .The DNA damage is positively correlated with levels of TC , TG and LDL-c among obese pregnant women, and TAC is positively correlated with TG level .%目的:血脂代谢异常所致的DNA损伤很可能与自然流产、胎膜早破、子痫前期等有着密切的关系。文中旨在探讨肥胖产妇血脂水平与DNA损伤及总抗氧化能力水平的相关性。方法选取2011年8月至2012年8月于天津医科大学第四中心临床学院门诊进行系统产科检查的妊娠女性120例为研究对象,按照体重指数( BMI )分为肥胖组( BMI≥28kg/m2,n=75)和正常组(BMI<28kg/m2且孕期体重增长≤15kg,n=45)。比较分析2组血脂水平、DNA损伤情况与总抗氧化能力水平,并分

  17. The Necessity of Enzyme Substrate Technique to Fecal Coliform in Environmental Monitoring%粪大肠菌群酶底物法在环境监测中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤琳

    2014-01-01

    Fecal coliforms,used as indicator bacteria of water fecal pollution,play an important role in the assessment of surface wa-ter quality monitoring.Taking an accurate,fast detection method of fecal coliform has an important scientific significance for the oc-currence and spread of epidemic disease control.From the meaning of fecal coliform monitoring,monitoring method,standard appli-cation and other aspects,this article put forward the necessity of popularizing and standardizing the enzyme substrate technique to monitor fecal coliforms.%粪大肠菌群作为水体粪便污染的指示菌,对地表水的水质监测评价具有重要作用。采取较为精确、快速的粪大肠菌群检测方法,对控制流行疾病的发生和传播有重要的科学意义。从粪大肠菌群的检测意义、监测方法、标准化应用情况等方面进行归纳分析,提出推广和标准化酶底物法监测粪大肠菌群的迫切性。

  18. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  19. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  20. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to longevity of total shoulders versus hips and knees. 00:46:20 GERALD WILLIAMS, MD: Well, obviously, ... ten years younger than the average hip or knee replacement patient. But if you look at the ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  2. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And we have Dr. Song visiting us from South Korea. This patient is a 78-year-old male ... there's probably six or eight articles in the literature right now that have compared hemis to totals. ...

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We had a question with regard to physical therapy after total shoulder arthroplasty: expectations and limitations. 00: ... opposite. We don't -- we do hardly any therapy at all to reverse. With reverse patients, they ...

  4. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  5. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD: This is Doug Boardman from Richmond, Virginia. We're here at Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia, where ... will be performing a total shoulder arthroplasty. Before we go to Dr. Williams, I'd like to ...

  6. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you look anyplace, there's probably six or eight articles in the literature right now that have compared ... Dr. Rockwood, my friend and mentor, published an article that showed pain relief was better in totals. ...

  7. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be performing a total shoulder arthroplasty. Before we go to Dr. Williams, I'd like to encourage ... It's always a question about how deep we go with this osteotomy. I tend to go almost ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  10. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... WILLIAMS, MD: The patients that have a total shoulder replacement will come in on their first postoperative visit and tell you their pain's gone. The hemi arthroplasty without interposition will come ...

  11. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... compared hemis to totals. Even Dr. Rockwood, my friend and mentor, published an article that showed pain ... reasonably good cortices, I get a little more aggressive, but not a lot. This is not a ...

  12. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  14. Consumo e digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com teores crescentes de proteína bruta na dieta contendo cana-de-açúcar e concentados Intake and total digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition in dairy cows fed with increasing crude protein levels in the diet with sugar cane and concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabrícia de Araujo Cordeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de teores crescentes de PB na MS total da dieta (11,5; 13,0; 14,5 e 16,0% sobre os consumos e a digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas leiteiras no terço inicial da lactação. O experimento foi constituído de quatro períodos experimentais de 15 dias, sete para adaptação dos animais à dieta e oito para coleta de dados. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, manejadas em cochos individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos balanceados 4 × 4. Utilizou-se concentrado à base de farelo de algodão e fubá de milho (40% e, como volumoso, cana-de-açúcar corrigida com 1% de uréia + sulfato de amônio (9:1, na proporção de 60% (% MS. Os consumos médios diários de nutrientes, exceto EE e CNF, diferiram à medida que os teores de PB da dieta aumentaram. Os teores de PB na dieta não afetaram os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes. A produção de leite corrigida ou não para 3,5% de gordura e seus componentes (gordura, PB e lactose, expressa em g/dia, e o nitrogênio uréico no leite (NUL tiveram efeito linear crescente, enquanto a eficiência de utilização de N sofreu efeito linear negativo dos teores de PB da dieta. A dieta com 16% PB resultou em valores numericamente maiores de consumo e produção do leite e de seus componentes se comparada às dietas com menores teores de PB.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of CP in the total DM of diet (11.5, 13.0, 14.5 and 16.0% on the intakes and the total digestibility of nutrients and the milk production and composition of dairy cows in initial third of lactation. The research was constituted by four experimental periods of 15 days each, seven for adaptation of the animals to the diet and eight for data collection. Eight cows, individually fed, were distributed to two balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares. A cottonseed meal, ground corn-based concentrate (40

  15. Níveis de lípides plasmáticos em ratos submetidos à esplenectomia total, ligadura simultânea dos vasos esplênicos e à esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do pólo inferior Plasmatic lipids levels in rats after total splenectomy, simultaneous ligature of the splenic vessels and subtotal splenectomy with inferior pole preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos Paulo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da esplenectomia total, da ligadura dos vasos esplênicos principais e da esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do pólo inferior, nos lípides plasmáticos de ratos alimentados com dieta-controle ou dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 111 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 273g e 427g, com idade aproximada de 12 semanas, assim distribuídos: Grupo 1, controle (N = 20, não operado; Grupo 2 (N = 20 submetido à manipulação do baço; Grupo 3 (N = 31 submetido à esplenectomia total; Grupo 4 (N = 20, ligadura simultânea da artéria e veia esplênicas; Grupo 5 (N = 20, esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do pólo inferior. Foram dosados os lípides plasmáticos, e os ratos foram distribuídos em dois subgrupos, de acordo com a dieta (Subgrupo A- dieta-controle; Subgrupo B - dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. Todos os animais foram submetidos à nova colheita de sangue após 90 dias do início do experimento. RESULTADOS: Os animais submetidos à esplenectomia total, independentemente do tipo de dieta, apresentaram aumento significante (p 0,05. Os animais submetidos à ligadura simultânea da artéria e veia esplênicas e à esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do pólo inferior e alimentados com dieta-controle, não apresentaram alterações nos níveis de lípides plasmáticos, exceto pelo aumento da HDL (p BACKGROUND: To verify the effect on plasmatic lipid level of rats feed with control diet and diet added with 2.5% pure cholesterol after total splenectomy, ligature of the splenic vessels and partial splenectomy with preservation of the inferior pole. METHODS: One hundred and eleven male Wistar rats weighting between 273 and 427g aged 12 weeks, were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (N = 20 control group was not submitted to surgery; Group 2 (N = 20 submitted to manipulation of the spleen; Group 3 (N = 31 total splenectomy; Group 4 (N = 20 simultaneous ligature

  16. Research on Amount Various of Fecal Coliform in Bio-solids Autothermal Themophilic Aerobic Digestion%生物固体自热好氧消化中粪大肠杆菌数量的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈越; 张健

    2013-01-01

      自热好氧消化可杀灭生物固体中的粪大肠杆菌,使生物固体达到无害化和可资源化利用标准。文章研究了特定工艺条件下,粪大肠杆菌数量在生物固体自热好氧消化过程中的变化,结果表明,自热好氧消化过程中,当消化时间为26~50 h 时(平均温度为47℃),粪大肠杆菌数量呈大幅度下降的趋势,仅仅24 h,粪大肠杆菌数量减少了95.83%;消化进行到第68 h 时(温度为55℃),粪大肠杆菌的数量已达到“未检出”的水平,为生物固体快速资源化利用提供试验参考。%Fecal coliform in bio-solids can be inactivated in autothermal themophilic aerobic digestion, therefore, the bio-solids become harmlessness and reach the resource reuse standards. In fixed conditions, the paper researched the amount various of fecal coliform, the results showed that when the digestion time was 26~50 h (average temperature was 47 ℃) the amount of fecal coliform was heavily decreased, the amount of fecal coliform was decreased 95.83 % only in 24 h. When the digestion time was 68h (average temperature was 55 ℃), the amount of fecal coliform reached to not detected standard. The paper supplied research reference to bio-solids resource reuse quickly.

  17. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  18. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  19. Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep.

  20. Remoção de matéria orgânica, de nutrientes e de coliformes no processo anaeróbio em dois estágios (reator compartimentado seguido de reator UASB para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Organic matter, nutrients and coliforms removal in two-stage anaerobic process (anaerobic baffled reactor followed by UASB reactor for swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. de Abreu Neto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito das águas residuárias de suinocultura, com concentrações médias de sólidos suspensos totais variando de 4.591 a 13.001 mg L-1, no desempenho de processo anaeróbio, em dois estágios, compostos por reator compartimentado (ABR e reator de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB, instalados em série, em escala- -piloto (volumes de 530 e 120 L, respectivamente, submetidos a tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH de 60; 36 e 24 h no primeiro reator, e de 13,6; 8,2 e 5,4 h no segundo reator. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal variaram de 69 a 84% no reator ABR e de 39 a 58% no reator UASB, resultando em valores médios de 87 a 94% para o sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios, com carga orgânica volumétrica (COV na faixa de 11,5 a 18,0 g DQOtotal (L d-1 no reator ABR, e de 4,2 a 13,4 g DQOtotal (L d-1 no reator UASB. A produção volumétrica máxima de metano de 0,227 m³ CH4 (m³ reator d-1 ocorreu no reator UASB, com COV de 10,6 g DQOtotal (L d-1 e TDH de 5,4 h. As maiores eficiências de remoção de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (99,7%, DQOdiss (94%, SST (96%, NTK (71%, P-total (61% e outros nutrientes, no sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios, foram obtidas com o TDH de 73,6 h e temperatura climatológica média de 24,6 °C, aplicando-se a menor COV (de 11,5 g DQOtotal (L d-1 no reator ABR, e de 4,2 g DQOtotal (L d-1 no reator UASB com a maior concentração de SST do afluente (13.001 mg L-1.In this work it was evaluated the effect of swine wastewater with mean total suspended solid (TSS concentration ranging from 4.591 to 13.001 mg L-1 on the performance of the anaerobic process in two stages composed of anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR and an upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB, installed in series, in pilot scale testing (volumes of 530 and 120 L, respectively and with hydraulic detention times (HDT of 60; 36 and 24 h in the ABR reactor and 13.6; 8.2 and

  1. Efeito da aplicação de bissulfato de sódio sobre cama de frangos na sobrevivência de Escherichia coli e coliformes Effect of sodium bisulfite application on the bed of broiler on survival of Escherichia coli and coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Carvalho Neto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do bissulfato de sódio, aplicado sobre a cama de frangos, criados em diferentes densidades, na sobrevivência de Escherichia coli e coliformes, utilizando-se as densidades de 12, 16 e 20 aves/m², com a inoculação de uma cepa de E. coli. Houve maior desenvolvimento microbiano no 21º dia de criação, com tendência de redução a partir daí. A eficácia do bissulfato de sódio foi maior nos primeiros dias do experimento.The effect of sodium bisulfate has been evaluated on survival of Escherichia coli and coliforms, when applied on the broiler beds, adopting different densities. It has been adopted densities of 12, 16 and 20 birds/m², using inoculations of E. coli strains. The results have shown the highest microbial development on the 21st day of inoculation, with a trend of a microbial reduction afterwards. The sodium bisulfate was efficient during the first days of analyses, reducing its efficacy during the experiment.

  2. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  3. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  4. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  5. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  6. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  7. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  8. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  9. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  10. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  11. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  12. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  13. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  14. Mercúrio total em cabelos: uma contribuição para se avaliar o nível de exposição em Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil Total mercury in hair: a contribution to the evaluation of mercury exposure levels in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nogueira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrem na Bacia do Rio Bento Gomes (MT, às margens do Pantanal Mato-grossense, cerca de sessenta garimpos de ouro, onde o mercúrio é utilizado de forma intensiva nos processos de produção, através da formação de amálgamas que facilitam a aglutinação de partículas finas. A queima do amálgama nem sempre é feita em sistemas fechados de recuperação, havendo, portanto, perda de vapor para a atmosfera. Este estudo traz resultados de análises de mercúrio total nos cabelos de quatro grupos de voluntários que vivem em Poconé (MT, e faz uma caracterização geral do ambiente no que se refere à presença do metal na água e no sedimento do Rio Bento Gomes. Um equipamento de detecção por fluorescência foi usado para a determinação das concentrações, e os resultados indicam que os valores são mais baixos do que os de outras populações de áreas de garimpo no Brasil. Indicam também que a via ocupacional parece ser a mais eficiente rota potencial de contaminação da população por mercúrio.There are some 60 gold-mining sites in the Bento Gomes River basin (Mato Grosso, at the border of the Mato Grosso Pantanal (Swamp, where mercury is used to agglutinate fine gold particles through amalgamation. During burning of the amalgam to release the gold, mercury vapor is lost to the atmosphere, since closed systems for mercury recovery are not always used. This study shows the results of total mercury analysis in hair from four volunteer groups living in Poconé, Mato Grosso, and presents a general environmental description pertaining to the presence of mercury in water and sediments from the Bento Gomes River. Atomic fluorescence was used for measuring mercury concentrations. The results were lower than for other populations from gold-mining areas in Brazil.

  15. 332份农村饮用井水总大肠菌群和耐热大肠菌群污染状况分析%Pollution Analysis of Total Coliform and Thermotolerant Coliform Bacteria in Rural Drinking Water (332 Samples)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘新明

    2009-01-01

    [目的]了解武汉市江夏区农村井水微生物污染状况.[方法]对332件农村饮用井水的水质按GB/T5750.12-2006规定的方法进行总大肠菌群和耐热大肠茵群检测.[结果]总大肠菌群阳性检出率为95.8%;耐热大肠菌群的检出率为73.2%.[结论]农村井水微生物污染主要为耐热大肠菌群,且污染比较严重,存在暴发肠道传染病的可能性.农村饮水安全问题应引起高度重视.

  16. Improvement of Sealing Technology of Enzyme Substrate Method in Measuring the Total Coliforms/Fecal coliforms%总大肠菌群/粪大肠菌群检测方法中酶底物法封口技术的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗全; 黄芳; 许江

    2014-01-01

    通过试验,验证了在科立得固定底物技术酶底物法检测大肠菌群/粪大肠菌群的方法中,可使用家用电熨斗替换专用程控定量封口机进行封口,且经济、方便.

  17. Rapid Detection of Coliforms Using Cell Culture Bottle%用细胞培养瓶法快速检测大肠菌群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学辉; 魏斌; 傅奇; 郭炳其; 贾奎艳

    2011-01-01

    研究了一种快速检测大肠菌群的细胞培养瓶剂法,即以国标法中的乳糖胆盐发酵培养基为基本营养成分,经浓缩、干燥后制成快速检测瓶剂,待检样品滴入细胞培养瓶内,培养24h,依据培养瓶盖上产气指示试纸颜色变化及瓶内溶液颜色变化,确定可疑阳性样品,并对其进行氧化酶实验,验证大肠菌群的存在.实验对细胞培养瓶法进行了大肠菌群的重复性及实际样品检测,并与国标法进行比较.结果显示:细胞培养瓶法与国标法所测结果符合率达96%,样品检测报告时间只需24h,比国标法减少48 h,2种方法所测结果在统计学上无显著性差异(P>0.05).细胞培养瓶法简单、快速、准确,利于基层监测机构和生产企业对食品中大肠菌群的快速检测.%A cell culture bottle method was developed for rapid detection of coliforms in food samples. In this study, lactose bile salt medium were concentrated and dried for bottle testing agent. According to the color change of the gas test strip and the solution in cell culture bottle, suspected positive samples could be determined, and then be verified the presence of coliforms in suspected samples through oxidize and microscopic examination. The results of repetitive tests and actual samples detection were compared with national standard method. A high agreement (96% ) was found between the cell culture bottle method and national standard method on 50 samples. The overall assay time of cell culture bottle method only needed 24 h, which reduced 48 h than that of national standard method. The statistical analysis showed that there werent significant difference (P >0. 05) between the examination results for these methods. As a simple,rapid and accurate detection method,cell culture bottle could meet the needs of the primary monitoring agency and manufacturers for rapid detection of coliforms in food.

  18. CYPRINIDS TOTAL BLOOD PROTEINS DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANŢI PATRICHE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture to get a high production is conditioned by awareness and keeping of an unaltered health condition of the biological material. To be aware of the health condition of the biological material in a fish farm allows us to establish the preventive measures required to prevent spreading of a disease and the treatment to be applied in case that a mass disease occurs. The level of the total protein in serum is, first of all, a synthetically indicator of the nutritional condition of the organism, presenting, at the same time, ample qualitative and quantitative variations depending on species, age, sex, stage of sexual maturity, water temperature and especially in correlation with the health condition of fish. Modification in value of the total protein point out some metabolic perturbations in fish body.

  19. Niveles de Partículas Suspendidas Totales (PST, PM10 y PM2.5 y su Relación en Lugares Públicos de la Ciudad Riohacha, Caribe Colombiano Levels of total suspended particles (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 and their relationship in public places of the city Riohacha, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E Rojano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones de partículas suspendidas totales (PST y partículas menores de 10 y 2.5 micrómetros (PM10 y PM2.5 en la zona urbana del municipio de Riohacha, Colombia. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un muestreador de alto volumen para PST y PM10 y un muestreador de bajo volumen (Partisol para las partículas PM2.5, todo en seis estaciones de monitoreo. Los resultados mostraron que el promedio de la concentración de PM10 varió desde 43,69 a 19,47 µg/m3, las PST de 86,02 a 27,38 µg/m3 y las PM2.5 mostraron un promedio de 14.57 µg/m3. Las relaciones PM10/PST variaron desde 0,50 a 0.68. Las seis estaciones presentaron buena correlación PST/PM10 (R = 0,795. Las PST pueden implicar presencia de partículas PM10 en el área urbana esta ciudad, pero las concentraciones de PM10 no necesariamente indican presencia de partículas PM2.5 (R= 0,035. Los resultados de correlación de PM10/PST son similares a estudios realizados en otras zonas urbanas de Colombia y de otros países.The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP and particles with size below 10 and 2.5 micrometers (PM10 and PM2.5 in the urban area of the city of Riohacha in Colombia were determined. The instruments used were a high-volume sampler for TSP and PM10 and a low-volume sampler (Partisol for PM2.5, all in six monitoring stations. The results showed that the average PM10 concentrations ranged from 43.69 to 19.47 µg/m3, the PST ranged from 86.02 to 27.38 µg/m3 and the average for PM2.5 was 14.57 µg/m3. Relations PM10/PST ranged from 0.50 to 0.68. The six stations showed good correlation PST/PM10 (R=0.795. The PST can imply the presence of PM10 particles in the urban area of this city but PM10 concentrations not necessarily indicate the presence of PM2.5 particles (R=0.035. The results for the correlation PM10/PST are similar to studies conducted in other urban areas of Colombia and of other countries.

  20. Evaluation of an additive efficacy in broiler litter microbial level control in field: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pennacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate in field the efficacy of an additive (SOP® C POULTRY, as an agent for the control of micro-organisms in broiler litter. The Total aerobic Microbial Count (TMC, Staphylococcus species (spp., Coliforms, and Salmonella spp. in broiler litter samples of both the Houses, 2 (H2 and 3 (H3, were determined, and also at the end of each cycle the mortality rate was recorded. The results showed significant reduction of all the microbial counts: P= 0.0078 (CMT, 0,0021 (Staphylococcus spp. and 0.0541 (Coliforms, and mortality (P= 0.00106 in treated litter samples H2 and the control H3.

  1. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  2. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  3. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  4. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  5. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  6. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    OpenAIRE

    Monica M. Ndoile; van Heerden, Fanie R

    2013-01-01

    The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

  7. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Ndoile

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

  8. Boosting Total Relationship Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut, Arslan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the track of marketing, by referring to the literature, through the advancements in digitalized technological systems particularly Information Technologies (IT), the emergence of a more broadly educated and more discerning consumer with increasing discretionary spending and purchasing power, the adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM) as the biggest competitive issue of 1990s, the growth of the service economy, the increase of competitive intensity and its impact on cus...

  9. Effects of Anaerobic Fermentation Temperature on Extermination of Fecal Coliform in Biogas Effluent%沼气发酵温度对沼液粪大肠菌群去除效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 魏晓明; 耿如林; 薛晓燕; 张庆东; 周磊

    2015-01-01

    Elimination of fecal coliforms in biogas effluent under either middle or high anaerobic fermentation temperature was studied to investigate whether the biogas effluent can be used to flush animal houses .After 28 d of anaerobic fermen-tation under 35°C, 99.1% of fecal coliforms in the raw swine manure , of which TS was 8%, were eliminated.Howev-er , the residual fecal coliforms concentration in the biogas effluent was still very high and cannot be used to flush the ani -mal houses.Under the high temperature of 45°C or 55°C, almost all of the fecal coliforms in the biogas effluents , dis-charged from the anaerobic fermentation of swine manure , was eliminated .The results showed that the biogas effluent dis-charged from the anaerobic fermentation under middle temperature still have high concentration of fecal coliforms .A short term treatment of anaerobic fermentation under high temperature should be applied to further eliminate the fecal coliforms in the biogas effluents and made it qualified to be used to flush the animal houses .%为探讨沼液作为畜舍回冲水的可能性,研究了沼气发酵温度对粪大肠菌群的杀灭效果。在35℃条件下对TS为8%的猪粪废水进行沼气中温发酵28天后,废水中99.1%的粪大肠菌群被杀灭;但沼液中残留的粪大肠菌群数依然很高,不能作为畜禽舍的回冲水使用。在45℃和55℃的条件下对猪粪沼气中温发酵所排出的沼液进行3天的沼气高温发酵后,沼液中残留的粪大肠菌几乎全部被杀灭。上述结果表明,沼气中温发酵所排出的沼液依然残留有大量粪大肠菌群,可采用短期沼气高温发酵对沼液进行再处理以满足沼液安全使用的要求。

  10. 提升全面质量管理在企业中的应用水平%To Improve the Application Level of Total Quality Management in the Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华

    2013-01-01

      全面质量管理(以下简称“TQM”)是一个组织以顾客为中心,以全员参与为基础,以流程(过程)管理为主要切入点,以数据统计和分析为基本手段,以顾客忠诚和零缺陷为主要目标,目的是通过让顾客忠诚和本组织所有成员及社会受益而确保企业中长期稳定发展的管理途径。它在传统质量管理的基础上,进一步将质量管理系统化、标准化、程序化和规范化,并推广到企业经营管理的所有领域,通过综合的组织绩效管理方法,使组织和个人得到进步和发展,提高企业的整体绩效和竞争能力,为顾客和其它相关方创造价值,使组织持续获得成功,以引导企业的生产经营实现从优秀到卓越的跨越。%  Total Quality Management (TQM) is a kind of management way, its center is customers, its basis is full participation, its main entry point is process management, its basic means is the data statistics and analysis, its main target is customer loyalty and zero defects, and its purpose is to ensure the long-term stable development of enterprise through the customer loyalty and benefit of all members in this organization and the society. Based on the traditional quality management, it further makes the quality management systematized, standardized, routinized and normalized, and it is extended to all fields of business administration. Through the organization performance management method, it makes the organization and individual have a progress and development, improves the enterprise's overall performance and competitive ability, creates value for customers and other stakeholders, and makes the organization continued success to achieve the leap of production and operation of enterprises from good to great.

  11. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite em vacas no terço inicial da lactação alimentadas com níveis crescentes de proteína bruta no concentrado Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas no terço inicial da lactação recebendo dietas contendo níveis crescentes (20; 23; 26 e 29% da matéria natural - MN de proteína bruta (PB no concentrado. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças (Holandês x Zebu, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4. Foram utilizados quatro períodos de 15 dias cada, considerando-se uma semana de adaptação. A dieta consistiu de 60% de silagem de milho como volumoso e 40% de concentrado. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT aumentaram linearmente, enquanto o consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF apresentou redução linear com os níveis de PB no concentrado. As digestibilidades da MS, matéria orgânica (MO, PB e FDN elevaram linearmente em função dos teores de PB. A produção de leite (PL e PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, as quantidades de gordura e proteína e suas concentrações no leite não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB no concentrado. No entanto, a PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura de 29,08 kg/dia foi numericamente superior para o nível de 26% de PB na MN do concentrado. O concentrado contendo 26% de PB utilizado na proporção de 40%, que correspondeu a 15,5% na MS da dieta total, permitiu melhores respostas na produção de leite em vacas produzindo em média 28 kg/dia de leite no terço inicial da lactação e alimentadas com silagem de milho como volumoso.The intake, total apparent digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition were evaluated in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels (20; 23; 26 and 29% natural matter - NM of crude protein (CP in concentrate. Twelve crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three latin square (4x4, in four periods of 15 days each (one week of adaptation. The feeding consisted of 60% of

  12. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  13. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...... carefully after the supravaginal operation in order to secure that subsequent screening actually is taking place. One must have a normal smear and offer a colposcopic examination before the operation. In general the rate of complications after both kind of hysterectomies is low. However, a few new studies...

  14. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  15. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  18. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  19. Estimación de La Incertidumbre en los Ensayos Microbiológicos de Coliformes Totalesy Fecales en Aguas y Aguas Residuales mediante La Tecnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la microbiología ambiental es de vital importancia contar con un control de la calidad, dentro del cual, debe considerarse el método de ensayo para garantizar una óptima calidad de los datos resultantes. El cálculo de la incertidumbre está siendo abordado por la comunidad de laboratorios y se espera que en un futuro se disponga de directrices más claras en este campo. La incertidumbre, como un atributo cuantificable, es un concepto relativamente nuevo en la historia de las mediciones, a pesar de que los conceptos de error y análisis de error han sido parte de la práctica de la ciencia de la medición por largo tiempo. De manera general se acepta que cuando todas las componentes, conocidas o supuestas, del error han sido evaluadas y se han aplicado las correcciones, aún persiste una incertidumbre acerca de la confiabilidad del resultado expresado, esto es, persiste una duda acerca de qué tan bien representa el resultado de la medida, al valor de la cantidad que está siendo medida. Actualmente existe en nuestro país la problemática derivada de la falta de la información fundamental acerca de los procedimientos para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la incertidumbre en los ensayos microbiológicos de coliformes totales y fecales en aguas y aguas residuales mediante la técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación, siguiendo las recomendaciones que aparecen en documentos normalizativos nacionales e internacionales. Se ofrecen los resultados alcanzados en la cuantificación de este importante parámetro. Los componentes de la incertidumbre se organizaron en tablas, lo que permite realizar de una forma rápida una apreciación global.

  20. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Shu Weiqun, E-mail: west2003@sohu.co [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The spreading of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla{sub TEM+CTx-M} was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.