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Sample records for total cholesterol systolic

  1. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  2. Total cholesterol and the risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Antikainen, R; Jousilahti, P; Kivipelto, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2008-05-20

    To examine the association between serum total cholesterol at baseline and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Study cohorts included 24,773 Finnish men and 26,153 women aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD and stroke at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident PD were estimated for different levels of total cholesterol. During a mean follow-up period of 18.1 years, 321 men and 304 women developed incident PD. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study years, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee and tea consumption, and history of diabetes), the HRs of PD at different levels of total cholesterol (or=7 mmol/L) were 1.00, 1.33, 1.53, and 1.84 (p for trend = 0.035) in men; 1.00, 1.55, 1.57, and 1.86 (p for trend = 0.113) in women; and 1.00, 1.42, 1.56, and 1.86 (p for trend = 0.002) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex). In both sexes combined, the increased risk of PD associated with increasing levels of serum total cholesterol was present both in subjects aged 25-44 years and in subjects aged 45-54 years at baseline, and in never smokers and smokers; however, no association was found among subjects aged 55 years or older at baseline. This large prospective study suggests that high total cholesterol at baseline is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease.

  3. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  4. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lang; Guo, Mao-Juan; Gao, Qing; Yang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Lin; Pang, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Xi-Juan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Probiotics supplements provide a new nonpharmacological alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The impact of probiotics on the reduction of total cholesterol (TC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to showcase the most updated and comprehensive evaluation of the studies. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database dating from January 2007 to January 2017. The curative effects of probiotics on the reduction of TC were assessed using mean difference (MD), as well as their 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan software (version 5.3) was used to carry out this meta-analysis. Results: Thirty-two RCTs including 1971 patients met the inclusion criteria. Results of this analysis showed that compared with the control group serum TC was significantly reduced in probiotics group [MD = −13.27, 95% CI (−16.74 to 9.80), P  6 weeks: [MD = −22.18, 95% CI (−28.73, −15.63), P probiotics forms and intervention duration might have a significant impact on the results. However, strains and doses of probiotics had no significant influence on curative effects. Conclusion: Available evidence indicates that probiotics supplements can significantly reduce serum TC. Furthermore, higher baseline TC, longer intervention time, and probiotics in capsules form might contribute to a better curative effect. PMID:29384846

  5. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  6. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  7. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  8. Total flying hours and risk of high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Afian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil antara lain akan menyebabkan gangguan kardiovaskular sehingga akan mengganggu kelancaran penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor dominan terhadap tekanan darah sistolik tinggi pada pilot sipil. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada tanggal 18-29 Mei 2015. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, klinis, kebiasaan olahraga, kebiasaan makan, indeks massa tubuh dan riwayat penyakit. Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi ialah tekanan darah sistolik140 mmHg atau lebih. Hasil: Dari 690 pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala, 428 pilot laki-laki bersedia berpartisipasi mengikuti penelitian ini. Usia dan riwayat penyakit hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko dominan yang berhubungan dengan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot usia 19-39 tahun, yang berusia 40-65 tahun mempunyai 15,1 kali lipat lebih besar risiko terkena tekanan darah sistolik tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa= 15,12; p= 0,001]. Pilot dengan riwayat penyakit hipertensi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak ada riwayat memiliki risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi 93,2 kali lipat lebih besar (ORa= 93,21; p= 0,001 Kesimpulan: Usia 40-65 tahun dan memiliki riwayat hipertensi meningkatkan risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil di Indonesia. Kata kunci: tekanan darah sistolik, total jam terbang, pilot sipil, Indonesia.  Abstract Background: Systolic high blood pressure among civilian pilots among others will cause cardiovascular disease and this condition will disrupt the flight.The purpose of this study was to identified the dominant factors related to high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilots. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method on a pilot who performed periodic

  9. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; Pdeath, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  11. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) ( p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.

  12. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  13. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  15. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  16. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest ...

  17. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  2. RED ROSELLA TEA AND AVOCADO AS SIMVASTATIN THERAPY SUPPORT REDUCE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Artini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by high levels of total cholesterol in the blood. Many studies have proven that steeping tea rosella and flesh of an avocado can reduce total cholesterol levels. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of therapy companion rosella tea and  avocado in lowering total cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia clients. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test control group design. The population study was a client with hypercholesterolemia in the working area of menganti health centers. First sample group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and rosella tea consumed as much as 2 g 1x / day. The second group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and avocado meat weighing 330 grams were consumed 1x / day. The control group consisted of 11 respondents have a drug Simvastatin 10 mg oral 1x daily at night before bed. All groups examined total cholesterol levels before treatment and after treatment on day 15. Result: The results of one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between before and after treatment in the first group (p=0,001 and second group (p= 0,005, and there is no significant difference before and after treatment in the control group (p= 0,248. The difference between the three groups showed p= 0.025. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is giving rosella tea and avocado has the same effectiveness in lowering total cholesterol levels so that health workers can suggest the use of rosella tea and avocado as a companion therapy to reduce total cholesterol level.

  3. Extraction and quantitation of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate from mammalian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, D.C.; Carroll, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the determination of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in mammalian liver. It is based on extraction of these compounds into diethyl ether after alkaline saponification of the tissue. Extractability is affected by the length of saponification and concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the saponification mixture. After extraction, total cholesterol and dolichol are quantitated directly by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on C18. Dol-P requires further purification before quantitation by HPLC, this is accomplished by chromatography on silicic acid. These methods gave recoveries of over 90% for cholesterol and dolichol and about 60% for Dol-P, using [4- 14 C]cholesterol, a polyprenol containing 15 isoprene units, and [1- 14 C]Dol-P as recovery standards. Concentrations of total cholesterol, dolichol and Dol-P in livers from one month-old-CBA mice were found to be 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/g, 66.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/g and 3.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/g, respectively

  4. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  5. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  6. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  7. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  8. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited. Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol. Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period. Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no

  9. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (PLDL-cholesterol (Pcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  10. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Asato, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT 4 ), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT 4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  11. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  12. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Treatment of hyperprolactinaemia reduces total cholesterol and LDL in patients with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Librizzi, Rosaria; Trummer, Christian; Theiler, Georg; Stiegler, Claudia; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Pilz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia might have adverse effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether dopamine agonist treatment with cabergoline has significant effects on blood lipids, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with micro- or macroprolactinoma. In this retrospective observational study the main outcome measures are changes in parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism compared at hyperprolactinaemia and after achievement of normoprolactinaemia by cabergoline treatment. We enrolled 53 study participants (22 females; median [interquartile range] age: 40.0 [27.5 to 50.0] years), 22 (41.5 %) with micro-, and 31 (58.5 %) with macroprolactinomas. After a median follow-up of 9 months, prolactin levels decreased from 220.6 (80.7-913.4) to 11.2 (3.5-18.7) ng/mL (p LDL) from 121.6 (±39.4) to 110.6 mg/dl (±37.6, p = 0.005) and total cholesterol from 191 (168.5-241) to 181 mg/dl (162-217, p cholesterol or LDL as dependent, and the change in prolactin, oestradiol, and testosterone as independent variables, no significant predictor of the change in total cholesterol or LDL was identified. In patients with prolactinomas, normalisation of elevated prolactin levels by cabergoline treatment was accompanied by significant reductions in LDL and total cholesterol. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to evaluate the clinical implications of lipid levels in the monitoring and treatment of patients with prolactinomas.

  14. Relationship between birth weight and total cholesterol concentration in adulthood: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Results: A total of 20 studies with 26,122 participants were identified. After adjustment for adult body mass index, the summary regression coefficient for an increment in birth weight of 1 kg was −0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.05 for men without heterogeneity (I2 = 17.2% and −0.08 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.03 for women with low heterogeneity (I2 = 34.0%. Stratified and sensitivity analyses generally confirmed the robustness of the findings in men. However, subgroup analyses by age indicated that the association of birth weight with total cholesterol was statistically significant only in women aged 18 years and in women aged <50 years.

  15. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  17. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  19. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  20. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lang; Guo, Mao-Juan; Gao, Qing; Yang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Lin; Pang, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Xi-Juan

    2018-02-01

    Probiotics supplements provide a new nonpharmacological alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The impact of probiotics on the reduction of total cholesterol (TC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to showcase the most updated and comprehensive evaluation of the studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database dating from January 2007 to January 2017. The curative effects of probiotics on the reduction of TC were assessed using mean difference (MD), as well as their 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan software (version 5.3) was used to carry out this meta-analysis. Thirty-two RCTs including 1971 patients met the inclusion criteria. Results of this analysis showed that compared with the control group serum TC was significantly reduced in probiotics group [MD = -13.27, 95% CI (-16.74 to 9.80), P  6 weeks: [MD = -22.18, 95% CI (-28.73, -15.63), P probiotics forms and intervention duration might have a significant impact on the results. However, strains and doses of probiotics had no significant influence on curative effects. Available evidence indicates that probiotics supplements can significantly reduce serum TC. Furthermore, higher baseline TC, longer intervention time, and probiotics in capsules form might contribute to a better curative effect.

  1. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans C

    2010-02-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (Ppigmentation. In addition, we paired a dark-skinned group with a fair-skinned group according to baseline 25(OH)D levels and found no differences in 25(OH)D increase after identical UVB exposure.

  2. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  3. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  4. Total and HDL cholesterol and risk of stroke. EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.C. Elwood; Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; A. Freire de Concalves; D. Inzitari; J. Sivenius; V. Benetou (Vassiliki); J. Tuomilehto; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Controversy remains on the relation between serum lipids levels and stroke risk. This paper investigated the association of total and HDL cholesterol level to fatal and non-fatal, and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating

  5. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-12-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species.

  7. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  8. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  9. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  10. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  11. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  12. CCQM K6.2 determination of total cholesterol in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Duewer, David L.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Welch, Michael J.; Pabello, Guiomar; Avila Caldero, Marco A.; Qinde, Liu; Kooi, Lee Tong; Rego, Eliane; Garrido, Bruno; Allegri, Gabriella; de La Cruz, Marcia; Barrabin, Juliana; Puglisi, Celia; Lopez, Eduardo; Lee, Hwashim; Kim, Byungjoo; Delatour, Vincent; Heuillet, Maud; Nammoonnoy, Jintana; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most frequently measured substances in human blood/serum to assist in assessing the health status of individuals. Because of its clinical significance, CCQM-K6 determination of cholesterol in serum was completed in 2000 as one of the first key comparison (KC) studies performed within the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The first subsequent KC for cholesterol, CCQM-K6.1, was completed in 2001. Measurements for this second subsequent, CCQM-K6.2, were completed in 2012. These subsequent comparisons were conducted to enable CCQM members that had not participated in earlier studies to demonstrate their capabilities to measure a nonpolar (pKow mass (100 g/mol to 500 g/mol) metabolite in human serum at relatively high concentrations (1 mg/g to 3 mg/g) found in normal populations. Successful participation in CCQM-K6.2 demonstrated capabilities in analysis of complex biological matrices including sample preparation (extraction, derivatization), LC or GC separation, and quantification using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach. Normally in a subsequent KC, no key comparison reference value (KCRV) would be established and assessment of performance would be via the deviation of participants' results to the anchor institute's results, adjusted to account for the anchor's performance in the original comparison versus its KCRV. Due to the very long-time period since the original key comparison, the OAWG decided that this did not represent the best approach to assess performance in what is a relatively complex measurement. Given the excellent agreement between the anchor institute's results and robust consensus summary of the participants' values, the reference value for this study was taken as the anchor institute's result and treated as a 'KCRV'. Seven of the nine participants demonstrated agreement with the reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears

  13. Efficient detection of total cholesterol using (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) bioelectrode based on ZnO matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Neha; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Present study highlights the importance of ZnO matrix prepared by vapour phase transport technique on platinum coated Si platform (ZnO/Pt/Si) as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective bioelectrode for detection of total cholesterol. Bienzymes cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been immobilized onto the surface of ZnO thin film matrix by physical adsorption technique. The prepared bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is utilized for detection of total cholesterol using the cyclic voltammetry technique. The bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is found to exhibit efficient sensing response characteristics with high sensitivity of 190 μA mM −1 cm −2 ; good linearity in the range of 0.5–12 mM total cholesterol concentration, and a very low Michaelis–Menten constant of 0.68 mM which indicates high affinity of bienzymes immobilized on ZnO towards the analyte (total cholesterol). The enhanced response is attributed to the development of ZnO thin film based matrix having good electron transport property and nanoporous morphology for effective loading of enzymes with favourable orientation. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a ZnO nanostructured thin film based efficient matrix • Utilizing prepared matrix for detection of total cholesterol (free + esterified) • Cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase are the corresponding selective enzymes. • Vapour phase transport technique, for the fabrication of nanostructured ZnO matrix • The bioelectrode exhibits enhanced response characteristics towards total cholesterol detection

  14. Efficient detection of total cholesterol using (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) bioelectrode based on ZnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Neha; Sharma, Anjali [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Present study highlights the importance of ZnO matrix prepared by vapour phase transport technique on platinum coated Si platform (ZnO/Pt/Si) as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective bioelectrode for detection of total cholesterol. Bienzymes cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been immobilized onto the surface of ZnO thin film matrix by physical adsorption technique. The prepared bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is utilized for detection of total cholesterol using the cyclic voltammetry technique. The bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is found to exhibit efficient sensing response characteristics with high sensitivity of 190 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}; good linearity in the range of 0.5–12 mM total cholesterol concentration, and a very low Michaelis–Menten constant of 0.68 mM which indicates high affinity of bienzymes immobilized on ZnO towards the analyte (total cholesterol). The enhanced response is attributed to the development of ZnO thin film based matrix having good electron transport property and nanoporous morphology for effective loading of enzymes with favourable orientation. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a ZnO nanostructured thin film based efficient matrix • Utilizing prepared matrix for detection of total cholesterol (free + esterified) • Cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase are the corresponding selective enzymes. • Vapour phase transport technique, for the fabrication of nanostructured ZnO matrix • The bioelectrode exhibits enhanced response characteristics towards total cholesterol detection.

  15. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  16. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  18. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  19. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, improves total cholesterol, and Synergy, a prebiotic, improves calcium utilization, but there were no synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, LeeCole L; Lee, Wang-Hee; Martin, Berdine R; Story, Jon A; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-08-01

    Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women. A 4-week feeding study was conducted in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy (a prebiotic), and genistein and Synergy combined on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism, and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: sham control, OVX control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with 200 ppm genistein, with 5% Synergy or with 200 ppm genistein and 5% Synergy combined. The rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentrations than OVX rats in the control group (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats fed the 5% Synergy diet (19%). Consumption of Synergy improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared with nonconsumption (OVX control). Sham control rats had a significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than did the rats in all of the OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular bone mineral density at the distal femur similar to the levels of sham rats. Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats, but the combination produced no synergistic effects.

  1. Comparing the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on total cholesterol, triglyceride, and weight in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand Ananloo Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some reports on the effects of antidepressants on metabolic syndrome. However, our search in the previously published literature showed a lack of information on the comparison of the effects of different classes of antidepressants on lipid profile. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on serum total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG as well as body weight (BW in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods Fifty one patients, 18 to 70 years of age, with major depressive disorder complied with the criteria of this preliminary, open-label clinical trial. Subjects received either imipramine (75–200 mg/day or fluoxetine (20–40 mg/day for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol and TG levels, as well as BW were compared at baseline with those at weeks 4 and 8. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0. Results In the fluoxetine group, TC levels decreased from 165.71 mg/dL to 156.71 mg/dL at week 4 (P = 0.07, and to 143.94 mg/dL at week 8 (P = 0.16; TG levels decreased from 129.35 mg/dL to 115.88 mg/dL at week 4 (P Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects on both TC and TG levels as well as on BW in all patients receiving imipramine. However, in patients on fluoxetine, repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects of this medication only on TC levels in males. Conclusions Monitoring TC and TG and BW is recommended before starting imipramine in depressed patients with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Fluoxetine may be the preferred agent in those with high or borderline high lipid levels.

  2. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  3. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan causes a transient increase in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterols and hs-CRP in ethnic obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakishun, Nalini; Blokhuis, Charlotte; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Weijer, Olivier; Heymans, Martijn; Beijnen, Jos; Brandjes, Dees; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    The radical change of lifestyle during Ramadan fast has shown to affect cardiometabolic risk variables in adults. In youth, however, no studies are available. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fast on Body Mass Index (BMI) and the cardiometabolic profile of obese adolescents. A prospective cohort study was conducted. We measured weight, height, body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels before, during the last week of and at 6 weeks after Ramadan. Twenty-five obese adolescents were included. BMI and glucose metabolism did not change after Ramadan or at 6 week after cessation of Ramadan. At the end of Ramadan, a significant decrease in body fat percentage was observed, while significant increases in heart rate, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP were found (all P < 0.05). Six weeks after Ramadan, all parameters returned to baseline levels. In this sample of 25 ethnic obese adolescents transient cardiometabolic changes were observed during Ramadan fasting. Since most of these changes were reversible within 6 weeks, there seems no harm or benefit for obese adolescents to participate in Ramadan.

  4. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...

  6. Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Langsted A, Freiberg JJ, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Schnohr P, Jensen GB, Nordestgaard BG (Herlev Hospital, Herlev; University of Copenhagen; Bispebjerg Hospital; and Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark) Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction...... and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02333.x. Objectives. We compared the ability of very high levels of nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides to predict risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality. Design...

  7. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  9. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  10. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women : a need for case-finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, A.J.; Westendorp, R.G.; Frölich, M.; Seidell, J C; Blokstra, A.; Smelt, A.H.M.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine whether screening of thyroid function is justified in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, we determined the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different levels of total plasma cholesterol in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: 1200 participants

  11. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  12. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  13. How much does HDL cholesterol add to risk estimation? A report from the SCORE Investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2009-06-01

    Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), the risk estimation system recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention, estimates 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality based on age, sex, country of origin, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and either total cholesterol (TC) or TC\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. As, counterintuitively, these two systems perform very similarly, we have investigated whether incorporating HDL-C and TC as separate variables improves risk estimation.

  14. Myocardial remodeling in chronic heart failure with overweight and obesity taking into account the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bidzilya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that high lipid content is accompanied with better course and surviving in chronic heart failure (CHF, which was called “the lipids paradox”. There are a very limited number of investigations which studied the relationship of lipid levels and indices of myocardial remodeling. Aim. To study the features of myocardial remodeling in patients with CHF with overweight and obesity depending on the total cholesterol (TCL and triglyceride (TG levels. Materials and methods. 230 patients were examined and analyzed 101 case histories of patients of with CHF of I–III functional class on the background of overweight and obesity I–III degree. CHF FC was determined by the classification of the New York Heart Association (NYHA. Normal, excess body weight and degree of abdominal obesity were detected by calculating the body mass index. Biochemical method was used to determine the blood levels of TCL and TG. The condition of myocardial remodeling was investigated by echocardiography. Results. It has been established, that smallest manifestation of myocardial remodeling was observed in patients with CHF on the background of overweight and obesity with high TCL level. The most severe manifestations of the heart chambers dilatation, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH, and valvular functional changes characterized the patients with a low TCL concentration. High content of TG was also accompanied by a less pronounced cardiac remodeling, and the normal value of TG was characterized by more profound structural changes of theLV and valvular regurgitation. Conclusion. At CHF with overweight and obesity, lower TCL and TG levels are accompanied by more severe dilatation of the heart chambers and LVH, the prevalence of LVH eccentric type frequency, deeper functional valve disorders.

  15. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  16. Total HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in healthy children - Associations with adiposity and dietary intakes of mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H; Murrin, C; O'Reilly, M; Viljoen, K; Segurado, R; O'Brien, J; Somerville, R; McGillicuddy, F; Kelleher, C C

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was determined at age 9 by incubating serum-derived HDL-supernatants with 3 H-cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and percentage efflux determined. Mothers provided dietary information by completing food frequency questionnaires in early pregnancy and then 5 years later on behalf of themselves and their children. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted to confirm independent associations with HDL efflux. There was a negative correlation between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and waist circumference at age 5 (r = -0.3, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and BMI at age 5 (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.19, p = 0.1). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI at age 5 remained significantly associated with reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). HDL-C was negatively correlated with energy-adjusted fat intake (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with energy-adjusted protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.04) and starch (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) intakes during pregnancy. HDL-C was not significantly correlated with children dietary intake at age 5. There were no significant correlations between maternal or children dietary intake and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity. This novel analysis shows that efflux capacity is negatively associated with adiposity in early childhood independent of HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the

  17. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  18. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Some changes of cholesterol, glucose and total proteins in serum of chicken after effect of low dose of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Novakova, J.; Benova, K.; Falis, M.; Sezstakova, E.; Toropila, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of investigate was the effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation on the organism of chicken. We investigated changes of concentration of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in time gap 1, 3, 14 and 25 days after expose with a single whole-body gamma irradiation of 3 Gy. (authors)

  20. Colesterol total e fatores associados: estudo de base escolar no sul do Brasil Colesterol total y factores asociados: estudio de base escolar en el sur del Brasil Associated factors to total cholesterol: school based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann

    2011-07-01

    medidas de colesterol total, de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, de masa corporal y estatura para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal. Para el tratamiento de los datos fueron utilizados los análisis univariado, bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: El análisis multivariado identificó que individuos con nivel socioeconómico alto (OR: 1,70; IC: 1,05-2,75, del sexo femenino (OR: 1,32; IC: 1,03-1,67, y con exceso de peso (OR: 1,40; IC: 1,10-1,77 presentan posibilidades aumentadas de tener colesterol total aumentado (> 3º tercil. CONCLUSIÓN: Elevados niveles de colesterol total en escolares de 7 a 12 años están asociados a nivel socioeconómico alto, al sexo femenino y a exceso de peso. El incentivo a un estilo de vida activo y a hábitos alimenticios adecuados puede auxiliar en el control de los niveles de colesterol y disminuir los factores de riesgo.BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that a significant proportion of children and adolescents has high levels of total cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and associated factors in 07-12 year-old school children. METHODS: School based cross sectional study of a random sample of 1,294 07-12 year-old school children from Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students answered an interview with information on socioeconomic status, food habits, and physical and leisure activities. Total cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass and height were measured to calculate body mass index. For the data treatment, univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyzes were used. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis identified that individuals from high socioeconomic level (OR: 1.70; CI: 1.05-2.75, of female gender (OR: 1.32; CI: 1.03-1.67, and overweight (OR: 1.40; IC: 1.10-1.77 had increased chances of having increased total cholesterol (> 3rd tercile. CONCLUSION: High total cholesterol levels on 07-12 year-old school children are associated with high socioeconomic level, female gender, and overweight

  1. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  2. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective study of total cholesterol amount in the blood of the persons exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobot'ko, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The blood of the men aged 20-59 residing in Kyiv after the accident and that of the participants of the accident clean-up aged 25-55 has been studying for 10 years. The nature of the observed changes in blood cholesterol amount is atherogenic, which should be taken into account when taking preventive and therapeutic measures in the persons exposed to different dosed of ionizing radiation

  4. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  5. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  6. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  7. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  8. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  9. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  10. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  11. A Genome-Wide Screen for Interactions Reveals a New Locus on 4p15 Modifying the Effect of Waist-to-Hip Ratio on Total Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, I.; Isaacs, A.; Karssen, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain similar to 25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened......, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79 x 10(-9). There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes...

  12. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  13. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  14. Cholecalciferol treatment to reduce blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension: the VitDISH randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Price, Rosemary J G; Struthers, Allan D; Donnan, Peter T; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Ford, Ian; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2013-10-14

    Observational data link low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to both prevalent blood pressure and incident hypertension. No clinical trial has yet examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation in isolated systolic hypertension, the most common pattern of hypertension in older people. To test whether high-dose, intermittent cholecalciferol supplementation lowers blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Primary care clinics and hospital clinics. Patients 70 years and older with isolated systolic hypertension (supine systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and supine diastolic blood pressure blood pressure, 24-hour blood pressure, arterial stiffness, endothelial function, cholesterol level, insulin resistance, and b-type natriuretic peptide level during 12 months. A total of 159 participants were randomized (mean age, 77 years). Mean baseline office systolic blood pressure was 163/78 mm Hg. Mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 18 ng/mL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels increased in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (+8 ng/mL at 1 year, P blood pressure (−1 [−6 to 4]/−2 [−4 to 1] mm Hg at 3 months and 1 [−2 to 4]/0 [−2 to 2] mm Hg overall treatment effect). No significant treatment effect was evident for any of the secondary outcomes (24-hour blood pressure, arterial stiffness, endothelial function, cholesterol level, glucose level, and walking distance). There was no excess of adverse events in the treatment group, and the total number of falls was nonsignificantly lower in the group receiving vitamin D (36 vs 46, P = .24). Vitamin D supplementation did not improve blood pressure or markers of vascular health in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN92186858.

  15. Systolic hypertension in adult nigerians with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ

  16. The systolic blood pressure difference between arms and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ido; Gona, Philimon; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Jaff, Michael R; Murabito, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    An increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical examination finding. The relationship between interarm systolic blood pressure difference and risk of future cardiovascular disease is uncertain. We described the prevalence and risk factor correlates of interarm systolic blood pressure difference in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring cohorts and examined the association between interarm systolic blood pressure difference and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. An increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference was defined as ≥ 10 mm Hg using the average of initial and repeat blood pressure measurements obtained in both arms. Participants were followed through 2010 for incident cardiovascular disease events. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to investigate the effect of interarm systolic blood pressure difference on incident cardiovascular disease. We examined 3390 (56.3% female) participants aged 40 years and older, free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, mean age of 61.1 years, who attended a FHS examination between 1991 and 1994 (original cohort) and from 1995 to 1998 (offspring cohort). The mean absolute interarm systolic blood pressure difference was 4.6 mm Hg (range 0-78). Increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference was present in 317 (9.4%) participants. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years, during which time 598 participants (17.6%) experienced a first cardiovascular event, including 83 (26.2%) participants with interarm systolic blood pressure difference ≥ 10 mm Hg. Compared with those with normal interarm systolic blood pressure difference, participants with an elevated interarm systolic blood pressure difference were older (63.0 years vs 60.9 years), had a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus (13.3% vs 7.5%,), higher systolic blood pressure (136.3 mm Hg vs 129.3 mm Hg), and a higher total cholesterol

  17. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  18. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  19. Relationship between circulating microRNA-30c with total- and LDL-cholesterol, their circulatory transportation and effect of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Ravinder; Eastwood, Jarlath; Caslake, Muriel; Packard, Chris J; Denby, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs (miR) have important regulatory roles and are used as biomarkers of disease. We investigated the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, evaluated how they are transported in circulation and determined whether statins altered the circulating concentration of miR-30c. To determine the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, serum samples from 79 subjects recruited from a lipid clinic were evaluated. Ultracentrifugation and nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to evaluate the transportation of miR-30c in the circulation by lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles in three healthy volunteers. Using archived samples from previous studies, the effects of 40mg rosuvastatin (n=22) and 40mg pravastatin (n=24) on miR-30c expression was also examined. RNA extraction, reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out using standard procedures. When stratified according to total cholesterol concentration, there was increased miR-30c expression in the highest compared to the lowest tertile (p=0.035). There was significant positive correlation between miR-30c and total- (r=0.367; p=0.002) and LDL-cholesterol (r=0.391; p=0.001). We found that miR-30c was transported in both exosomes and on HDL3. There was a 3.8-fold increased expression of circulating miR-30c after pravastatin treatment for 1year (p=0.005) but no significant change with atorvastatin after 8weeks (p=0.145). This study shows for the first-time in humans that circulating miR-30c is significantly, positively correlated with total- and LDL-cholesterol implicating regulatory functions in lipid homeostasis. We show miR-30c is transported in both exosomes and on HDL3 and pravastatin therapy significantly increased circulating miR-30c expression adding to the pleiotropic dimensions of statins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study

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    Rosalind Fallaize

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet-quality scores (DQS, which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL, and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC, total carotenoids, and omega-3 index in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480 were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05, and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05. Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05. We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.

  1. Lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol in HAART-naïve patients infected with circulating recombinant forms of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in Cameroon.

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    Georges Teto

    Full Text Available HIV infection has commonly been found to affect lipid profile and antioxidant defense.To determine the effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and viral subtype on patient's cholesterol and oxidative stress markers, and determine whether in the absence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, these biochemical parameters could be useful in patient's management and monitoring disease progression in Cameroon. For this purpose, we measured total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDLC, HDL cholesterol (HDLC, total antioxidant ability (TAA, lipid peroxidation indices (LPI, and malondialdehyde (MDA in HIV negative persons and HIV positive HAART-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 group M subtypes.We measured serum TC, LDLC, HDLC, plasma MDA, and TAA concentrations, and calculated LPI indices in 151 HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and 134 seronegative controls. We also performed gene sequence analysis on samples from 30 patients to determine the effect of viral genotypes on these biochemical parameters. We also determined the correlation between CD4 cell count and the above biochemical parameters.We obtained the following controls/patients values for TC (1.96±0.54/1. 12±0. 48 g/l, LDLC (0. 67±0. 46/0. 43±0. 36 g/l, HDLC (105. 51±28. 10/46. 54±23. 36 mg/dl TAA (0. 63±0. 17/0. 16±0. 16 mM, MDA (0. 20±0. 07/0. 41±0. 10 µM and LPI (0. 34±0. 14/26. 02±74. 40. In each case, the difference between the controls and patients was statistically significant (p<0.05. There was a positive and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and HDLC (r = +0.272; p<0.01, TAA (r = +0.199; p<0.05 and a negative and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and LPI (r = -0.166; p<0.05. Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and TC, CD4cell count and LDLC was positive but not statistically significant while it was negative but not statistically significant with MDA. The

  2. Hyperbolic isometries of systolic complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prytula, Tomasz Pawel

    The main topics of this thesis are the geometric features of systolic complexesarising from the actions of hyperbolic isometries. The thesis consists ofan introduction followed by two articles.Given a hyperbolic isometry h of a systolic complex X, our central theme isto study the minimal displace......The main topics of this thesis are the geometric features of systolic complexesarising from the actions of hyperbolic isometries. The thesis consists ofan introduction followed by two articles.Given a hyperbolic isometry h of a systolic complex X, our central theme isto study the minimal...... algebraic-topological features of systolic groups. In addition, we provide newexamples of systolic groups.In the first article we show that the minimal displacement set of a hyperbolicisometry of a systolic complex is quasi-isometric to the product of a tree andthe real line. We use this theorem...

  3. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

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    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  4. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  5. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs, and prevalence ratios (PRs to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88 and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08 for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10 and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10, for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03, Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03, and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01. Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while

  6. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  7. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  8. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  9. Using drug sales data to evaluate the epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors and their inequality: an ecological study on atorvastatin and total cholesterol in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Naser; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Statins have been effective medications in lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations across populations over time. The aim of this study was to estimate national and provincial trends in atorvastatin sales in Iran, to systematically quantify its relationship with socioeconomic indicators, and changes in TC level. In this retrospective ecological study, conducted in Iran, we examined trends in atorvastatin sales, the wealth index (WI) as a validly-available socio-economic indicator, and TC level between 2004 and 2011. The main outcome variable was mean atorvastatin sold in defined daily dose per 100,000 people per day (DPD). We analyzed the relationship between WI and DPD and between DPD and mean TC across time and space. At national level, both mean WI and mean DPD showed increasing trend over time, while we observed decreasing trend for TC. Mean WI and DPD in 2011 was nearly 5 and 50 time that of their respective figures in 2004, while the mean TC decreased for nearly 10%. Increases in both WI and DPD had happened in every province, but with different patterns. The maximum and minimum changes in DPD versus WI were seen in Gilan and North Khorasan respectively. A striking increase occurred in the sales for atorvastatin in Iran from 2004-2012 in most provinces examined. The wealthier a province became, the more sales were seen for atorvastatin. TC optimistically decreased from 2005 to 2011 and its decrease was positively correlated with increasing sales for atorvastatin.

  10. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Determine Plasma Total-Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Suto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDD/Sgn mice have significantly higher plasma lipid concentrations than C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for plasma total-cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG concentrations in reciprocal F2 male intercross populations between the two strains. By single-QTL scans, we identified four significant QTL on chromosomes (Chrs 1, 5, 17, and 19 for CHO and two significant QTL on Chrs 1 and 12 for TG. By including cross direction as an interactive covariate, we identified separate significant QTL on Chr 17 for CHO but none for TG. When the large phenotypic effect of QTL on Chr 1 was controlled by composite interval mapping, we identified three additional significant QTL on Chrs 3, 4, and 9 for CHO but none for TG. QTL on Chr 19 was a novel QTL for CHO and the allelic effect of this QTL significantly differed between males and females. Whole-exome sequence analysis in DDD/Sgn mice suggested that Apoa2 and Acads were the plausible candidate genes underlying CHO QTL on Chrs 1 and 5, respectively. Thus, we identified a multifactorial basis for plasma lipid concentrations in male mice. These findings will provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of plasma lipid metabolism.

  11. Mortality in Individuals Aged 80 and Older with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Blood Pressure, and Total Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shota; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and total cholesterol (TC) are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in very old individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Population-based cohort study. Primary care database in the United Kingdom. Individuals aged 80 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 25,966). Associations between baseline HbA1c, BP, and TC and all-cause mortality were evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, lifestyle variables, HbA1c, BP, TC, comorbidities, prescribing of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs, and participants' general practice. There were 4,490 deaths during follow-up (median 2.0 years; mortality 104.7 per 1,000 person-years). Mortality in participants with low (type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further research is required to understand these associations and to identify optimal treatment targets in this population. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Surakka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225. We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102 for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR on total cholesterol (TC with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.

  13. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cholesterol is in this normal range. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. ... to 3.3 mmol/l) are desired. VLDL (Bad) Cholesterol VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. ...

  15. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  16. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  17. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  18. Lipid profiles and determinants of total cholesterol and hypercholesterolaemia among 25-74 year-old urban and rural citizens of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Aung Soe; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Aung, Wai Phyo; Moe Myint, Aye Nyein; Aye, Win Thuzar; Wai, Myint Myint; Nu, Than Than; Hla, Ei Mon; Soe, Pyone Pyone; Tun, Nan Wut Yi; Angela, Naw; Khaing, Mya Mya; Htoo, Aung Kyaw; Tun, Soe; Thitsar, Pai; Lwin, Theeoo; Wai, San San; Aung, Thi Thi; Thant, Khin Aye; Aung Po, Wai Wai; Gauzam, Seng Taung; Naing, Tun Tun; Tun, Thet Min; Myint, Khin San; Oo, Kyi Kyi; Mang, Nang Kee Myu; Naing, Soe Moe; Zaw, Ko Ko; Bjertness, Marius Bergsmark; Sherpa, Lhamo Yangchen; Oo, Win Myint; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen

    2017-11-15

    The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol. Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology. Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded. Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women. The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar

  19. Lipid profiles and determinants of total cholesterol and hypercholesterolaemia among 25–74 year-old urban and rural citizens of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Aung Soe; Aung, Wai Phyo; Moe Myint, Aye Nyein; Aye, Win Thuzar; Wai, Myint Myint; Nu, Than Than; Hla, Ei Mon; Soe, Pyone Pyone; Tun, Nan Wut Yi; Angela, Naw; Khaing, Mya Mya; Htoo, Aung Kyaw; Tun, Soe; Thitsar, Pai; Lwin, Theeoo; Wai, San San; Aung, Thi Thi; Thant, Khin Aye; Aung Po, Wai Wai; Gauzam, Seng Taung; Naing, Tun Tun; Tun, Thet Min; Myint, Khin San; Oo, Kyi Kyi; Mang, Nang Kee Myu; Naing, Soe Moe; Zaw, Ko Ko; Bjertness, Marius Bergsmark; Sherpa, Lhamo Yangchen; Oo, Win Myint; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen

    2017-01-01

    Objective The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol. Design Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology. Setting Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. Participants A total of 1370 men and women aged 25–74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded. Results Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001). Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women. Conclusion The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both

  20. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.S.L.; van Valkengoed, I.G.; Stronks, K.; Agyemang, C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due

  1. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the

  2. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Burke, David; Fasching, Peter; Banach, Maciej; Bruckert, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus ® ) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  3. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrios, Vivencio

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC\\/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  4. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total cholesterol level has been associated with some health problems. Doctors are still trying to find out more about the connection between low cholesterol and health risks. There is no consensus on how to ...

  5. Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütjohann, Dieter; Meyer, Sven; von Bergmann, Klaus; Stellaard, Frans

    2018-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are considered health-promoting; however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigate the link between vegetarian-diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. We study male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption, and fecal sterol excretion are measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols. These serve as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate is estimated. Flux data are related to body weight. Individual vegetarian diet groups are statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorb 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol, and show no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorb 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol, and have a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption are observed. Total cholesterol absorption is lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input is similar under all vegetarian diets. Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol is significantly lower only in vegans. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Systolic trees and systolic language recognition by tree automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinby, M

    1983-01-01

    K. Culik II, J. Gruska, A. Salomaa and D. Wood have studied the language recognition capabilities of certain types of systolically operating networks of processors (see research reports Cs-81-32, Cs-81-36 and Cs-82-01, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). In this paper, their model for systolic VLSI trees is formalised in terms of standard tree automaton theory, and the way in which some known facts about recognisable forests and tree transductions can be applied in VLSI tree theory is demonstrated. 13 references.

  7. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: An ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oggioni

    2015-12-01

    Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

  8. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  9. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with [ 14 C]sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans

  11. Extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in 92,348 Danes without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 2004-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-01-01

    35-100 years recruited from 2004 through 2014 in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Each individual was assigned their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease according to the European SCORE chart based on age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. European...... guidelines recommend cholesterol-lowering therapy definitely at ≥10% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥1.8 mmol/L, definitely at 5-9% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥2.5 mmol/L, possibly at 1-4% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L, but not at ...,131 had 1-4% risk, and 23,104 had Definite undertreatment and overtreatment according to guidelines were found in 19% and 0.2% or in 187,660 and 1570 per million 35...

  12. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of statine side chain building blocks and application in the total synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering compound solistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Oliver; Wolberg, Michael; Foegen, Silke E; Müller, Michael

    2017-09-20

    The synthesis and enzymatic reduction of several 6-substituted dioxohexanoates are presented. Two-step syntheses of tert-butyl 6-bromo-3,5-dioxohexanoate and the corresponding 6-hydroxy compound have been achieved in 89% and 59% yield, respectively. Regio- and enantioselective reduction of these diketones and of the 6-chloro derivative with alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH) gave the (5S)-5-hydroxy-3-oxo products with enantiomeric excesses of 91%, 98.4%, and >99.5%, respectively. Chain elongation of the reduction products by one carbon via cyanide addition, and by more than one carbon by Julia-Kocienski olefination, gave access to well-established statine side-chain building blocks. Application in the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering natural compound solistatin is given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and Systolic Inter-Arm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Choi, Seong Woo; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Oh, Hye Jong; Choi, Cheol Won

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference (sIAD) in Korean adults. This study included 410 adults (235 males, 175 females) who were over 30 years old and had undergone a health check from July to December in 2013. The incidence of high sIAD and metabolic syndrome were 23.4% and 23.2%, respectively. Key study results were as follows: First, the sIAD levels increased significantly with an increase in metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001), shown by sIAD levels after adjusted the variables that affect sIAD levels (age, gender, smoking, drinking, exercising, total cholesterol, and body mass index). These were 4.6±0.7 mmHg for metabolic syndrome score (MSS) 0; 5.8±0.5 mmHg for MSS 1; 6.2±0.6 mmHg for MSS 2, 9.2±0.8 mmHg for MSS 3; and 9.9±1.2 mmHg for MSS ≥4 (p<0.001). Second, the sIAD level of the metabolic syndrome group (9.3±0.7 mmHg) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than for the nonmetabolic syndrome group (5.7±0.3 mmHg). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and an increased number of its components are associated with the sIAD levels in Korean adults.

  14. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  15. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  16. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Thissen, Uwe; Boer, Jolanda M A; Bouwman, Freek G; Feskens, Edith J M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch monitoring project for cardiovascular disease risk factors, men who died of CHD between initial participation (1987-1991) and end of follow-up (January 1, 2000) (N = 44) and matched controls (N = 44) were selected. Baseline plasma concentrations of proteins were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. With the use of PLS, we identified 15 proteins with prognostic value for CHD mortality and sets of proteins associated with the intermediate end points. Subsequently, sets of proteins and intermediate end points were analyzed together by Principal Components Analysis, indicating that proteins involved in inflammation explained most of the variance, followed by proteins involved in metabolism and proteins associated with total-C. This study is one of the first in which the association of a large number of plasma proteins with CHD mortality and intermediate end points is investigated by applying multivariate statistics, providing insight in the relationships among proteins, intermediate end points and CHD mortality, and a set of proteins with prognostic value.

  17. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  18. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index, and blood pressure.Results: Of 336 pilots, there were 16 with systolic pressure  140 mmHg. The pilot who had high vibration than low vibration had 2.8-fold to be high systolic blood pressure [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.83; 95%confidence interval (CI =1.16-22.04. In term of average flight hours, those who had average flight hours of 300-622 hours per year compared to 29-299 hours per year had 5-fold increased risk to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 5.05; 95% CI =1.16-22.04]. Furthermore, those who had high than normal resting pulse rate had 2.4 times to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 2.37; 95 CI =0.81-6.97; P = 0.115.Conclusion:High aircraft vibration, high average flight hours per year, and high resting pulse rate increase risk high systolic blood pressure in air force pilots.Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aircraft vibration, resting pulse rate, pilots

  19. Teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em cortes de carne suína Cholesterol, total lipds and fatty acids in cuts of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neura Bragagnolo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne suína é um alimento considerado rico em colesterol, lipídios e ácidos graxos saturados. De acordo com a AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, para manter baixos níveis de colesterol sangüíneo, a alimentação deve ser pobre em colesterol e lipídios, principalmente gordura saturada. No presente trabalho foram determinados os teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em lombo, pernil, paleta e toucinho, comercializados em açougues da cidade de Campinas, São Paulo. Foi verificado também o efeito da inclusão da gordura externa nos níveis destes componentes. O teor médio de lipídios totais foi de 3 a 5g/100g nos cortes de carne e 83g/100g no toucinho. O colesterol variou, em média, de 42 a 53mg/100g, sendo menor no lombo e maior no toucinho. Não houve diferença significativa (p³0,05 no nível de colesterol entre lombo com e sem gordura externa. Em todos os cortes e no toucinho, foram identificados trinta e seis (36 ácidos graxos, os principais dos quais foram: 18:1ômega9, 16:0, 18:2ômega6, 18:0, 16:1ômega7 e 18:1ômega7. O total de ácidos graxos saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados variou de 33 a 41%, 42 a 48% e 11 a 25%, respectivamente.Pork is a food considered to be rich in cholesterol, lipids and saturated fatty acids. According to the American Heart Association, the diet must be low in cholesterol and lipids, especially saturated fat. In the present work, total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were determined in pork loin, fresh ham, pork shoulder and backfat, commercialized in butchery of Campinas City, São Paulo State, Brazil. The mean total lipids was 3 to 5g/100g in the meat cuts and 83g/100g in backfat. Cholesterol varied, on the average, from 42 to 53mg/100g, being lower in pork loin and higher in backfat. No significant difference (p³0,05 in cholesterol content was seen in pork loin with or without external fat. Thirty-six fatty acids were identified in all cuts and the backfat, with

  20. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  1. to HDL-cholesterol functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

  2. Beneficial effects of TQRF and TQ nano- and conventional emulsions on memory deficit, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble Aβ levels in high fat-cholesterol diet-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus Abu; Yida, Zhang; Stanslas, Johnson; Sani, Dahiru; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2017-09-25

    The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE). The TQRF and TQ conventional emulsions (CE), named as TQRFCE and TQCE, respectively were studied for comparison. Statin (simvastatin) and non-statin (probucol) cholesterol-lowering agents, and a mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease drug (donepezil) were served as control drugs. The Sprague Dawley rats were fed with HFCD for 6 months, and treated with the intervention groups via oral gavage daily for the last 3 months. As a result, HFCD-fed rats exhibited hypercholesterolaemia, accompanied by memory deficit, increment of lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels, decrement of total antioxidant status and down-regulation of antioxidants genes expression levels. TQRFNE demonstrated comparable effects to the other intervention groups and control drugs in serum biomarkers as well as in the learning and memory test. Somehow, TQRFNE was more prominent than those intervention groups and control drugs in brain biomarkers concomitant to gene and protein expression levels. Supplementation of TQRFNE into an HFCD thus could ameliorate memory deficit, lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels as well as improving the total antioxidant status and antioxidants genes expression levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Sauvage Nolting, P.R. de; Dam, M.S. van; Belsey, E.M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Pritchard, P.H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total

  4. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Jacqueline; de Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R. W.; van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Haydn Pritchard, P.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total

  5. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis even during cholesterol

  6. Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking and Impact in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Arenas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a critical component of membrane bilayers where it plays key structural and functional roles by regulating the activity of diverse signaling platforms and pathways. Particularly enriched in brain, cholesterol homeostasis in this organ is singular with respect to other tissues and exhibits a heterogeneous regulation in distinct brain cell populations. Due to the key role of cholesterol in brain physiology and function, alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and levels have been linked to brain diseases and neurodegeneration. In the case of Alzheimer disease (AD, however, this association remains unclear with evidence indicating that either increased or decreased total brain cholesterol levels contribute to this major neurodegenerative disease. Here, rather than analyzing the role of total cholesterol levels in neurodegeneration, we focus on the contribution of intracellular cholesterol pools, particularly in endolysosomes and mitochondria through its trafficking via specialized membrane domains delineated by the contacts between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, in the onset of prevalent neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease as well as in lysosomal disorders like Niemann-Pick type C disease. We dissect molecular events associated with intracellular cholesterol accumulation, especially in mitochondria, an event that results in impaired mitochondrial antioxidant defense and function. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the distribution of cholesterol in intracellular compartments may shed light on the role of cholesterol homeostasis disruption in neurodegeneration and may pave the way for specific intervention opportunities.

  7. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The cholesterol space of the rat; L'espace cholesterol du rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The experiments consisted in feeding daily to rats the same mass of radioactive cholesterol, over variable time intervals. From the evolution of the specific radioactivity of cholesterol carbon-14 in the organs as a function of time, information relative to the transport of cholesterol in the organism may be obtained. 1) The cholesterol space, defined as the group of molecules capable of being transferred from the organs into the serum and vice versa, represents at the most 50 per cent of the total cholesterol of the adult rat. 2) The incessant interchange between the tissual and the serum cholesterol renews entirely or for the most part the cholesterol molecules contained in the following organs: spleen, heart, adipose tissue, suprarenal glands, lungs, bone marrow, liver, erythrocytes. For a second group of organs: skin, testicles, kidneys, colon, bones, muscles, only a fraction of their cholesterol is renewable by this process. No transfer can be detected at the level of the brain. 3) The relative speeds of the various means of appearance (absorption, synthesis) and disappearance (excretion, transformation) of the cholesterol from its space are such that a stationary isotopic state is established around the eighth day, when the animal absorbs 5 milligrams of radioactive cholesterol daily. (author) [French] Les experiences ont consiste a faire ingerer quotidiennement une meme masse de cholesterol radioactif a des rats, durant des laps de temps variables. L'evolution de la radioactivite specifique du carbone-14 du cholesterol des organes en fonction du temps permet d'obtenir des renseignements relatifs au transport du cholesterol dans l'organisme. 1) L'espace cholesterol defini comme l'ensemble des molecules susceptibles d'etre transferees des organes dans le serum, et vice-versa, represente au plus 50 pour cent du cholesterol total du rat adulte. 2) Le va et vient incessant entre le cholesterol tissulaire et le cholesterol serique renouvelle en totalite ou en

  9. The cholesterol space of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, F.

    1959-01-01

    The experiments consisted in feeding daily to rats the same mass of radioactive cholesterol, over variable time intervals. From the evolution of the specific radioactivity of cholesterol carbon-14 in the organs as a function of time, information relative to the transport of cholesterol in the organism may be obtained. 1) The cholesterol space, defined as the group of molecules capable of being transferred from the organs into the serum and vice versa, represents at the most 50 per cent of the total cholesterol of the adult rat. 2) The incessant interchange between the tissual and the serum cholesterol renews entirely or for the most part the cholesterol molecules contained in the following organs: spleen, heart, adipose tissue, suprarenal glands, lungs, bone marrow, liver, erythrocytes. For a second group of organs: skin, testicles, kidneys, colon, bones, muscles, only a fraction of their cholesterol is renewable by this process. No transfer can be detected at the level of the brain. 3) The relative speeds of the various means of appearance (absorption, synthesis) and disappearance (excretion, transformation) of the cholesterol from its space are such that a stationary isotopic state is established around the eighth day, when the animal absorbs 5 milligrams of radioactive cholesterol daily. (author) [fr

  10. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and ... of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low ... birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments.

  11. The impact of high total cholesterol and high low-density lipoprotein on avascular necrosis of the femoral head in low-energy femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianshang; Zhan, Ke; Zhang, Lili; Zeng, Dan; Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao; Zhao, Mingdong; Lai, Zhicheng; Chen, Runzhen

    2017-02-17

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) typically constitutes 5 to 15% of all complications of low-energy femoral neck fractures, and due to an increasingly ageing population and a rising prevalence of femoral neck fractures, the number of patients who develop AVNFH is increasing. However, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and postoperative AVNFH. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and AVNFH following the femoral neck fracture operation among an elderly population. A retrospective, comparative study was performed at our institution. Between June 2005 and November 2009, 653 elderly patients (653 hips) with low-energy femoral neck fractures underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with cancellous screws (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee). Follow-up occurred at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after surgery. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors of AVNFH and to determine the effect of blood lipid levels on AVNFH development. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predetermined to focus on isolated freshly closed femoral neck fractures in the elderly population. The primary outcome was the blood lipid levels. The secondary outcome was the logistic multi-factor regression analysis. A total of 325 elderly patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures (AVNFH, n = 160; control, n = 165) were assessed. In the AVNFH group, the average TC, TG, LDL, and Apo-B values were 7.11 ± 3.16 mmol/L, 2.15 ± 0.89 mmol/L, 4.49 ± 1.38 mmol/L, and 79.69 ± 17.29 mg/dL, respectively; all of which were significantly higher than the values in the control group. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis showed that both TC and LDL were the independent factors influencing the postoperative AVNFH within femoral neck fractures. This evidence indicates that AVNFH was significantly

  12. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  14. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  15. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets, revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure

  16. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  17. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  18. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...

  19. A school-based health education program can improve cholesterol values for middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotts, T B; Goldberg, C S; Palma Davis, L M; Durussel-Weston, J E; Aaronson, S M; Lin, K; Eagle, K A

    2008-09-01

    This prospective study aimed to measure the impact of a school-based multidisciplinary education program on risk factors for atherosclerosis in sixth-grade students. A prospective study was performed in which patients served as their own controls. Healthy sixth-grade students from three middle schools in a city of approximately 100,000 were exposed to an educational program promoting healthful habits through behavioral and environmental change. Risk factors including body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cholesterol panel, and random blood glucose were measured before program initiation, then 5 months afterward. Of 711 sixth-graders at three middle schools, 287 (47% boys; mean age, 11.5 +/- 0.37 years) consented to participate in the study. The mean total cholesterol value decreased from 169 +/- 26 to 154 +/- 26 mg/dl (p value decreased from 86 +/- 25 to 84 +/- 23 mg/dl (p = 0.01), and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value decreased from 56 +/- 13 to 50 +/- 13 mg/dl (p value decreased from 96 +/- 13 to 93 +/- 15 mm/dl (p = 0.01). The mean SBP did not change, showing 109 +/- 12.5 mmHg before the program and 108 +/- 11.5 mmHg afterward. The DBP decreased from 63.6 +/- 8.6 to 62.3 +/- 7.8 mmHg (p = 0.01). The Project Healthy Schools program is feasible and appears to be effective. The results showed significant improvement in risk factors for early atherosclerosis among sixth-grade students including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, random glucose levels, and diastolic blood pressure. Further study with a larger group and a longer follow-up period would be valuable.

  20. The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Stellaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Cholesterol balance derived synthesis data increase during both therapies. We hypothesize the following. (1 The cholesterol balance data must be applied to the hepatobiliary cholesterol pool. (2 The calculated cholesterol synthesis value is the sum of hepatic de novo synthesis and the net plasma—liver cholesterol exchange rate. (3 The reduced rate of biliary cholesterol absorption is the major trigger for the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism under ezetimibe treatment. Supportive experimental and literature data are presented that describe changes of cholesterol fluxes under ezetimibe, statin, and combined treatments in omnivores and vegans, link plasma R_Lath to liver function, and define hepatic de novo synthesis as target for regulation of synthesis. An ezetimibe dependent direct hepatic drug effect cannot be excluded.

  1. Survival of adult neurons lacking cholesterol synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfschilling, Ursula; Saher, Gesine; Xiao, Le; Möbius, Wiebke; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2007-01-02

    Cholesterol, an essential component of all mammalian plasma membranes, is highly enriched in the brain. Both during development and in the adult, brain cholesterol is derived from local cholesterol synthesis and not taken up from the circulation. However, the contribution of neurons and glial cells to total brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. Using conditional gene inactivation in the mouse, we disrupted the squalene synthase gene (fdft1), which is critical for cholesterol synthesis, in cerebellar granule cells and some precerebellar nuclei. Mutant mice showed no histological signs of neuronal degeneration, displayed ultrastructurally normal synapses, and exhibited normal motor coordination. This revealed that these adult neurons do not require cell-autonomous cholesterol synthesis for survival or function. We conclude that at least some adult neurons no longer require endogenous cholesterol synthesis and can fully meet their cholesterol needs by uptake from their surrounding. Glia are a likely source of cholesterol in the central nervous system.

  2. Survival of adult neurons lacking cholesterol synthesis in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möbius Wiebke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol, an essential component of all mammalian plasma membranes, is highly enriched in the brain. Both during development and in the adult, brain cholesterol is derived from local cholesterol synthesis and not taken up from the circulation. However, the contribution of neurons and glial cells to total brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. Results Using conditional gene inactivation in the mouse, we disrupted the squalene synthase gene (fdft1, which is critical for cholesterol synthesis, in cerebellar granule cells and some precerebellar nuclei. Mutant mice showed no histological signs of neuronal degeneration, displayed ultrastructurally normal synapses, and exhibited normal motor coordination. This revealed that these adult neurons do not require cell-autonomous cholesterol synthesis for survival or function. Conclusion We conclude that at least some adult neurons no longer require endogenous cholesterol synthesis and can fully meet their cholesterol needs by uptake from their surrounding. Glia are a likely source of cholesterol in the central nervous system.

  3. Cholesterol metabolism in blood cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Potekhina, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism in blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes of irradiated rats has been investigated. It has been found that at all terms and doses of irradiation, a suppression of the synthesis of erythrocyte cholesterol is observed. The increase of cholesterol quantiy in erythrocytes upon total gamma irradiation in the 10 Gr dose possibly is the result of growth of cholesterol transfer from plasma into erythrocyte cells. The study of the cholesterol synthesis in suspension of lymphocytes elminated from peripheral blood of control and irradiated rats has shown that at irradiation doses of 4 and 10 Gr in an hour acivation of cholesterol synthesis in vitro takes places

  4. Reducing maternal mortality: Systolic blood pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-21

    Mar 21, 2006 ... While deaths due to fluid overload have ... of better fluid balance management, we have made .... systolic blood pressure plays a significant role in the .... one looks at the work of Martin et al.5 ... Promoting Healthy Life.

  5. Systolic automata for VLSI on balanced trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culik, K Ii; Gruska, J; Salomaa, A

    1983-01-01

    Systolic tree automata with a binary (or, more generally, balanced) underlying tree are investigated. The main emphasis is on input conditions, decidability, and characterization of acceptable languages. 4 references.

  6. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  7. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  9. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  10. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  11. The Arg59Trp variant in ANGPTL8 (betatrophin) is associated with total and HDL-cholesterol in American Indians and Mexican Americans and differentially affects cleavage of ANGPTL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert L; Leti, Fatjon; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Kobes, Sayuko; Puppala, Sobha; Curran, Joanne E; Almasy, Laura; Lehman, Donna M; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2016-06-01

    We previously identified a locus linked to total cholesterol (TC) concentration in Pima Indians on chromosome 19p. To characterize this locus, we genotyped >2000 SNPs in 1838 Pimas and assessed association with log(TC). We observed evidence for association with log(TC) with rs2278426 (3.5% decrease/copy of the T allele; P=5.045×10(-6)) in the ANGPTL8 (angiopoietin-like 8) gene. We replicated this association in 2413 participants of the San Antonio Mexican American Family Study (SAMAFS: 2.0% decrease per copy of the T allele; P=0.005842). In a meta-analysis of the combined data, we found the strongest estimated effect with rs2278426 (P=2.563×10(-7)). The variant T allele at rs2278426 predicts an Arg59Trp substitution and has previously been associated with LDL-C and HDL-C. In Pimas and SAMAFS participants, the T allele of rs2278426 was associated with reduced HDL-C levels (P=0.000741 and 0.00002, respectively), and the combined estimated effect for the two cohorts was -3.8% (P=8.526×10(-8)). ANGPTL8 transcript and protein levels increased in response to both glucose and insulin. The variant allele was associated with increased levels of cleaved ANGPTL3. We conclude that individuals with the variant allele may have lower TC and HDL-C levels due to increased activation of ANGPTL3 by ANGPTL8. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Left Atrial Systolic Force in Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Giovanni; Cramariuc, Dana; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    LASF in the total study population was 21 ± 14 kdynes/cm(2) . The determinants of LASF were higher age, heart rate, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) mass, mitral peak early velocity, maximal LA volume, and longer mitral deceleration time (multiple R(2) = 0.37, P ...Background: There is a limited knowledge about left atrial (LA) systolic force (LASF) and its key determinants in patients with asymptomatic mild-moderate aortic stenosis (AS). Methods: We used baseline clinic and echocardiographic data from 1,566 patients recruited in the simvastatin ezetimibe...... in aortic stenosis study evaluating the effect of placebo-controlled combined simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment in asymptomatic AS. The LASF was calculated by Manning's method. Low and high LASF were defined as 95th percentile of the distribution within the study population, respectively. Results: Mean...

  13. Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure as Mediators From Obesity to Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because...

  14. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  15. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  16. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  17. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  18. Efficacy of a classical antiobesity Unani pharmacopial formulation (Safoof-e-Muhazzil in systolic and diastolic blood pressure: A randomized, open-labeled, controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a Unani formulation in hypertension. A total of 90 patients with total cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl with associated conditions were included in this study. A total of 30 patients having a mean systolic blood pressure (BP of 133.86 mmHg comprising Group A received Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil (SM in its classical powder form in the dose of 5 g twice a day orally. Group B comprising of 30 patients with a mean systolic BP of 133.13 mmHg received same drug, but in compressed tablet form in the same dosage, whereas, 30 patients comprising Group C with a mean systolic BP of 129.45 mmHg, received Atorvastatin 10 mg as a standard control. Patients were evaluated on each follow-up at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week. The mean systolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 133.86 ± 3.028 mmHg and 133.13 ± 2.852 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 119.33 ± 1.922 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 119 ± 1.760 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively. In the control Group C before treatment BP was 129.45 ± 2.499 mmHg and after treatment it significantly decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The percentage change after treatment was 10.85%, 10.61% and 3.94% respectively in each group. Mean diastolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 85.06 ± 2.11 mmHg and 84.56 ± 1.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 79.06 ± 1.56 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 79.96 ± 1.15 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively, BP before treatment in Group C was 83.23 ± 1.588 mmHg, which was decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The study results indicate that the test drug was quite effective in reducing both systolic as well as diastolic BP.

  19. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  20. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  1. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  2. Searching Algorithms Implemented on Probabilistic Systolic Arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (1996), s. 7-45 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/93/0781 Keywords : searching algorithms * probabilistic algorithms * systolic arrays * parallel algorithms Impact factor: 0.214, year: 1996

  3. Cholesterol asymmetry in synaptic plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2011-03-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: (i) chronic ethanol consumption; (ii) statins; (iii) aging; and (iv) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, P-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were used for haematological and parasitological analyses and determination of serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). All animals in the infected group showed parasitaemia by day ...

  5. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  6. How to Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes high triglyceride levels, low HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and being overweight with a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women). Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes ...

  7. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fats and oil in the diet on the other hand. Gallstones result from ... such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain ... protein with an inner core of cholesterol and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are ...

  8. Relation between chronic periodontal disease and plasmatic levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions Relação entre doença periodontal crônica e os níveis plasmáticos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Posch Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been connected to several systemic health changes, including an altered lipid metabolism. Transient and recurrent bacteremias, which may be caused by periodontal infection, induce an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to changes in the whole body. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between severe and moderate periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Sixty individuals seen at the clinics of the University of Taubaté, São Paulo, over 20 years old, were divided into two groups, with and without periodontitis, and paired according to sex and age. Their levels of total cholesterol, tryglicerides and fractions were determined. Variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, sex and body mass index, were evaluated. The values recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology were considered to classify lipidemia. The results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (192.1 mg/dl ± 40.9 and triglycerides (153.5 mg/dl ± 105.6 in individuals with periodontitis were higher than, but not statistically different from, those of individuals without periodontitis (186.1 mg/dl ± 35.4 and 117.5 mg/dl ± 68, respectively. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless of its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population.A doença periodontal crônica, bastante prevalente na população adulta, tem sido relacionada com diversas alterações sistêmicas, entre elas as dislipidemias, que são fatores de risco conhecidos para a aterosclerose. Bacteremias transitórias e recorrentes, que podem ser causadas pela infecção periodontal, levam a uma intensa resposta inflamatória local e sistêmica, promovendo modificações ao longo do corpo

  9. Cholesterol in unusual places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  10. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  11. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  12. Plasma cholesterol and endogenous cholesterol synthesis during refeeding in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, F; Feillet-Coudray, C; Bard, J M; Parra, H J; Favre, E; Kabuth, B; Fruchart, J C; Vidailhet, M

    2000-04-01

    Normal or high levels of cholesterol have been measured in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Given that cholesterol intake in AN is usually very low, the reasons for this anomaly are not clearly understood. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles and endogenous cholesterol synthesis, estimated by serum lathosterol, in a population of 14 girls with AN, before and during a period of 30 days refeeding. The initial body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 13.41+/-1.62 kg/m(2). No changes were observed during refeeding in endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol and estradiol). At Day 0 the lipids data measured here showed normal levels of triglycerides, and total cholesterol at the upper limits of the normal range (5.44+/-1 mmol/l). At this time, total and LDL cholesterol were negatively correlated with transthyretin and BMI. Serum lathosterol (a precursor in cholesterol synthesis pathway) increased significantly (5.99+/-1.75 (Day 0) vs. 8.39+/-2.96 (Day 30); P=0.02) while there was a significant decrease in apo B (0.79+/-0.33 (Day 0) vs. 0. 60+/-0.17 g/l (Day 30), P=0.02) with refeeding. Thus, patients with initial high cholesterol levels have the worst nutritional status and high cholesterol levels are not related to a de novo synthesis. This profile returns to normal with refeeding. An increase of cellular cholesterol uptake may be responsible for this apparently paradoxical evolution with increase of cholesterol synthesis and decrease of apo B during renutrition.

  13. Total lipid profile with aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...

  14. Adding serial N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide measurements to optimal clinical management in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Videbaek, Lars

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: This study was designed to evaluate a new NT-proBNP monitoring concept in outpatients with systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a multicentre, prospective randomized open-label blinded endpoint study. A total of 407 systolic HF patients were allocated to either clinical...

  15. SYSTOLIC HYPERTENSION. IMPACT ON CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eloy Cruz Quesada

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is a multifactor process in which several risk factors are involved. It is the leading cause of death and morbidity in hospital admitted patients, and it may cause a marked decrease in blood flow to all organs of the body.Objective: To determine the impact of systolic hypertension on cerebrovascular disease.Methods: A cross-sectional, observational and analytical study was conducted in 59 death patients who suffered from hypertension. Cerebral arteries were analyzed and atherosclerotic lesion and its variety were quantified by using the atherometric system. The different types of hypertension were considered. Statistical (central tendency measures and comparative (comparison test based on Student’s arithmetic t-test procedures were used.Results: Recent strokes were more frequent in systodiastolic hypertensive patients. There was no significant difference in the injury onset age for both sexes, but women with systolic hypertension were significantly more damaged (from a morphometric point of view. Significant correlation for both groups of hypertensive patients was observed between type of stroke and atherometric system variables.Conclusions: Systolic hypertension is an important factor in the genesis of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with the progression of atherosclerotic plaque.

  16. Iron deficiency in chronic systolic heart failure(indic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic systolic heart failure (HF is characterized by the left ventricular dysfunction, exercise intolerance and is associated with neurohormonal activation that affects several organs such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Anemia is common in HF and may worsen symptoms. Iron deficiency (ID is also common in HF patients with or without anemia. Iron is the key cofactor in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and the Krebs cycle. There is a paucity of data regarding iron metabolism in chronic systolic HF in India. Methods: IroN Deficiency In CHF study (INDIC is an observational study that investigated forty chronic heart failure patients for the presence of ID. Serum ferritin (micrograms per liter, serum iron (micrograms per liter, total iron binding capacity (micrograms per liter, transferring (milligrams per deciliter, and transferrin saturation were measured to assess iron status. Results: There were 67.5% (27/40 patients who had ID with a mean serum ferritin level of 76.4 μg/L. Of the 27 iron deficient patients, 22 (55% had an absolute ID, and 5 had a functional ID. Eight out of 27 of the iron deficient patients were anemic (20% of the total cohort, 30% of the iron deficient patients. Anemia was seen in 6 other patients, which was possibly anemia of chronic disease. There was a trend for more advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA class (NYHA III and NYHA IV patients with ID (37.4% vs. 30.77%, P = 0.697. Conclusion: In our study, ID was very common, affecting more than half of the patients with systolic HF. Absolute ID was the most common cause of ID and patients with ID had a tendency to have advanced NYHA class. Our study also demonstrated that ID can occur in the absence of anemia (iron depletion.

  17. Cholesterol turnover and metabolism in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, D.S.; Deckelbaum, R.J.; Palmer, R.H.; Dell, R.B.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Delpre, G.; Beigel, Y.; Cooper, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total body turnover of cholesterol was studied in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia, a 32-year-old man and a 31-year-old woman. The patients received [14C]cholesterol intravenously, and the resulting specific activity-time curves (for 40 and 30 weeks, respectively) were fitted with a three-pool model. Parameters were compared with those from studies of cholesterol turnover in 82 normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. A three-pool model gave the best fit for the abetalipoproteinemic patients, as well as for the 82 previously studied subjects, suggesting general applicability of this model. Cholesterol production rates in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects (0.82 and 0.89 g/day) were close to values predicted for persons of their body weight. Thus, total body turnover rate of cholesterol was quite normal in abetalipoproteinemia, confirming previous reports. Very low values (9.2 and 8.4 g) were found for M1, the size of the rapidly exchanging compartment pool 1, in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects. These values were well below the values predicted (from the comparison study population) for normal persons of this size with low plasma cholesterol levels. For one patient, total body exchangeable cholesterol was very low, although not significantly below the predicted values for a person of his size. In the second patient, the observed estimate for total body exchangeable cholesterol was well within the range of values predicted for persons of her size with low to extremely low cholesterol levels

  18. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Schneider

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl. Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively. Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58% and butter (43% are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.Se realizó un estudio transversal en 107 mujeres, habitantes del pueblo de Cabildo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, sobre el consumo de alimentos entre mujeres de 20 a 69 años de edad, analizando su relación con la educación, colesterol total y niveles de triglicéridos. Se encuestó a las participantes sobre el tipo y frecuencia de consumo alimentario y

  19. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  20. Potassium-doped carbon nanotubes toward the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and its application in highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Jingjuan, E-mail: xujj@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Hongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-30

    We demonstrate herein a newly developed serum total cholesterol biosensor by using the direct electron transfer of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), which is based on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) on potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs) modified electrodes. The KMWNTs accelerate the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx and maintaining its bioactivity. As a new platform in cholesterol analysis, the resulting electrode (ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) exhibits a sensitive response to free cholesterol, with a linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and a detection limit of 5.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3). Coimmobilization of ChEt and ChOx (ChEt/ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) allows the determination of both free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. The resulting biosensor shows the same linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate, with the detection limit of 10.0 and 12.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The concentrations of total (free and esterified) cholesterol in human serum samples, determined by using the techniques developed in the present study, are in good agreement with those determined by the well-established techniques using the spectrophotometry.

  1. Mitral annular systolic velocity as a marker of preclinical systolic dysfunction among patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Ivaylo Rilkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate early changes in left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with hypertension (HTN with and without concomitant diastolic dysfunction (DD and the clinical implications of these findings. Method We enrolled 299 patients with HTN and 297 age-matched patients with HTN and DD and compared both groups with an age-matched control group consisting of 100 healthy subjects. The long axis systolic function was investigated by determining the average peak systolic velocity of the septal and lateral mitral sites (Smavg using spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI. Results We found a strong negative trend toward the reduction of velocity, which is dependent on the grade of HTN, on the magnitude of DD, and also on the gender and age of the subjects (r=−0.891/-0.580; p Conclusion The strength of the study is the analysis of incremental changes in longitudinal contraction in patients with different stage of HTN but not so many the classification of the degree of systolic dysfunction. The importance of our results lies in the fact that these initial changes in systolic contraction could be used as an early sign that should prompt optimization of the treatment of HTN.

  2. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  3. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia.......Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....

  4. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in a Cohort of Saudi Women with Heart Failure and Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGhalayini, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of Saudi women with heart failure; to define the demographic variables associated with heart failure; and the impact of hypothyroidism on systolic function in relation to non-hypothyroidism group. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised all women diagnosed with heart failure who were seen in the Cardiology outpatients clinic between February 2010 and March 2013. All of them were subjected to complete medical history and clinical examination, including complete cardiac clinical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, blood pressure reading as well as thyroid examination. Laboratory tests were performed for thyroid stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Results: Of the 111 patients, 37 (33.3 percent) had hypothyroidism (p<0.001), and 16(14.4 percent) of them showed subclinical hypothyroidism. The mean value for thyroid stimulating hormone was 4.79+/-4.98U/L. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroid stimulating hormone and ejection fraction. Conclusion: There was close relation between hypothyroidism and heart failure. Further large-scale studies are recommended for early detection of hypothyroidism. (author)

  5. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible

  6. A Population-Based Study of Cholesterol Measurements in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Christensen, Kaare; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effect of lipid-lowering treatment in the oldest old is a matter of debate as there is no unequivocal evidence of statins being beneficial among the oldest. The need for cholesterol measurements is therefore also questionable, but the frequency of cholesterol measurements in the oldest......+ living on the Island of Funen. The development in trends for cholesterol measurements was analysed in age groups of 5-years interval using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 30,424 persons with a cholesterol measurement entered the study. The total number of cholesterol measurements...... increased by 246% during the observation period. The percentage of people having a cholesterol measurement increased significantly (p

  7. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  8. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  9. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  10. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E G; Vader, H L; Pop, V.J.

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  11. Blood cholesterol : a public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, W.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in total cholesterol levels (TC) were studied using data from three epidemiological studies: about 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 were examined between 1974 and 1980 (CB Project), about 80,000 men aged 33-37 between 1981 and 1986 (RIFOH Project) and 42,000 men and women aged 20-59 from 1987

  12. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting [ 14 C]cholesterol 186 days and [ 3 H]cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates

  13. Long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Valentino; Masha, Andi; Gigliardi, Valentina Ramella; Brocato, Loredana; Manzato, Enzo; Berchio, Arrigo; Massarenti, Paola; Settanni, Fabio; Della Casa, Lara; Bergamini, Stefania; Iannone, Anna

    2008-05-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitric oxide (NO) have recently been considered to be involved in the cardiovascular complications of patients with type 2 diabetes, as NO is thought to lose its beneficial physiological effects in the presence of oxygen radicals. For this reason, we tested the effects of l-arginine (ARG) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration in increasing NO bioavailability by reducing free radical formation. A double-blind study was performed on 24 male patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension divided into two groups of 12 patients that randomly received either an oral supplementation of placebo or NAC + ARG for 6 months. The NAC + ARG treatment caused a reduction of both systolic (P < 0.05) and diastolic (P < 0.05) mean arterial blood pressure, total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.005), oxidized LDL (P < 0.05), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), intracellular adhesion molecule (P < 0.05), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P < 0.01), nitrotyrosine (P < 0.01), fibrinogen (P < 0.01), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.05), and an improvement of the intima-media thickness during endothelial postischemic vasodilation (P < 0.02). HDL cholesterol increased (P < 0.05). No changes in other parameters studied were observed. NAC + ARG administration seems to be a potential well-tolerated antiatherogenic therapy because it improves endothelial function in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes by improving NO bioavailability via reduction of oxidative stress and increase of NO production. Our study's results give prominence to its potential use in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in these patients.

  14. Systolic hypertension: an increasing clinical challenge in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kario, Kazuomi; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Systolic hypertension, the predominant form of hypertension in patients aged over 50–60 years, is a growing health issue as the Asian population ages. Elevated systolic blood pressure is mainly caused by arterial stiffening, resulting from age-related vascular changes. Elevated systolic pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality and renal function decline, and this risk may increase at lower systolic pressure levels in Asian than Western subjects. Hence, effective systolic pressure lowering is particularly important in Asians yet blood pressure control remains inadequate despite the availability of numerous antihypertensive medications. Reasons for poor blood pressure control include low awareness of hypertension among health-care professionals and patients, under-treatment, and tolerability problems with antihypertensive drugs. Current antihypertensive treatments also lack effects on the underlying vascular pathology of systolic hypertension, so novel drugs that address the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening are needed for optimal management of systolic hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. PMID:25503845

  15. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  16. Phospholipase A2-treated human high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol movements: exchange processes and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, F; Perret, B P; Chap, H; Douste-Blazy, L

    1986-02-12

    Human HDL3 (d 1.125-1.21 g/ml) were treated by an exogenous phospholipase A2 from Crotalus adamenteus in the presence of albumin. Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis ranged between 30 and 90% and the reisolated particle was essentially devoid of lipolysis products. (1) An exchange of free cholesterol was recorded between radiolabelled erythrocytes at 5-10% haematocrit and HDL3 (0.6 mM total cholesterol) from 0 to 12-15 h. Isotopic equilibration was reached. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated a constant rate of free cholesterol exchange of 13.0 microM/h with a half-time of equilibration around 3 h. Very similar values of cholesterol exchange, specific radioactivities and kinetic parameters were measured when phospholipase-treated HDL replaced control HDL. (2) The lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3, containing different amounts of phosphatidylcholine, as achieved by various degrees of phospholipase A2 treatment, was measured using a crude preparation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (the d 1.21-1.25 g/ml plasma fraction). The rate of esterification was determined between 0 and 12 h. Following a 15-30% lipolysis, the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3 was reduced about 30-40%, and then continued to decrease, though more slowly, as the phospholipid content was further lowered in the particle. (3) The addition of the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase preparation into an incubation medium made of labelled erythrocytes and HDL3 promoted a movement of radioactive cholesterol out of cells, above the values of exchange, and an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in HDL. This reflected a mass consumption of free cholesterol, from both the cellular and the lipoprotein compartments upon the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase action. As a consequence of a decreased reactivity, phospholipase-treated HDL (with 2/3 of phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed) proved much less effective in the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

  17. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  18. The prognosis of impaired left ventricular systolic function and heart failure in a middle-aged and elderly population in an urban population segment of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Ilan; Mehlsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Frants

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample.......To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample....

  19. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1) overexpression alters cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, E E; Srivastava, K; Traub, L M; Schaffer, J E; Ory, D S

    2000-12-08

    The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is a key participant in intracellular trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but its role in regulation of sterol homeostasis is not well understood. To characterize further the function of NPC1, we generated stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines overexpressing the human NPC1 protein (CHO/NPC1). NPC1 overexpression increases the rate of trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum and the rate of delivery of endosomal cholesterol to the plasma membrane (PM). CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit a 1.5-fold increase in total cellular cholesterol and up to a 2.9-fold increase in PM cholesterol. This increase in PM cholesterol is closely paralleled by a 3-fold increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis results in marked redistribution of PM cholesterol to intracellular sites, suggesting an unsuspected role for NPC1 in internalization of PM cholesterol. Despite elevated total cellular cholesterol, CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit increased cholesterol synthesis, which may be attributable to both resistance to oxysterol suppression of sterol-regulated gene expression and to reduced endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol levels under basal conditions. Taken together, these studies provide important new insights into the role of NPC1 in the determination of the levels and distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  1. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  2. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE -/- Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of age on pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvan C Kane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. Subjects and methods: A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18–85 years underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results: There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25 ± 5 mmHg and 33 ± 9 mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30 ± 5 mmHg and 41 ± 12 mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

  4. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from...... was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...... in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length...

  5. Etiology and diagnosis of systolic murmurs in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Steven

    2010-10-01

    It is unknown whether echocardiography can provide insights into the origin of systolic murmurs and the modern value of bedside cardiovascular diagnosis. The author examined 376 inpatients and compared their physical findings to transthoracic echocardiography, exploring the associations between echocardiography and systolic murmurs and investigating the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination for pathologic murmurs. Four echocardiographic variables predict the presence of systolic murmurs: peak aortic velocity (P onomatopoeia and classifying systolic murmurs into 1 of 6 patterns is diagnostically helpful. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A comparison between brachial and echocardiographic systolic time intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available Systolic time interval (STI is an established noninvasive technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Brachial STIs can be automatically determined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI-form device. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether the STIs measured from ABI-form device can represent those measured from echocardiography and to compare the diagnostic values of brachial and echocardiographic STIs in the prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <50%. A total of 849 patients were included in the study. Brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP and brachial ejection time (bET were measured using an ABI-form device and pre-ejection period (PEP and ejection time (ET were measured from echocardiography. Agreement was assessed by correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot. Brachial STIs had a significant correlation with echocardiographic STIs (r = 0.644, P<0.001 for bPEP and PEP; r  = 0.850, P<0.001 for bET and ET; r = 0.708, P<0.001 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The disagreement between brachial and echocardiographic STIs (brachial STIs minus echocardiographic STIs was 28.55 ms for bPEP and PEP, -4.15 ms for bET and ET and -0.11 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The areas under the curve for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET in the prediction of LVEF <50% were 0.771 and 0.765, respectively. Brachial STIs were good alternatives to STIs obtained from echocardiography and also helpful in prediction of LVEF <50%. Brachial STIs automatically obtained from an ABI-form device may be helpful for evaluation of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  7. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  8. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily MT; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas MS; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Methods: Adults aged 30–70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. Results: In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P < 0.001), neither HDS nor LDS had a significant effect on LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, −0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, −0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score

  9. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily Mt; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas Ms; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-12-01

    Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Adults aged 30-70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, -0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, -0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score. Consuming 12.5 or 25 g protein from defatted soy flour incorporated into muffins does not reduce LDL

  10. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively......) and with myocardial infarction in patients without diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12] and 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10], respectively). In models including both BP measurements, aortic BP lost statistical significance and aortic BP did not confer improvement...

  11. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  12. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on cholesterol in aqueous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakritz, L.; Maerker, G.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous sodium stearate dispersions of cholesterol were irradiated at 0-2 degrees C with absorbed doses ranging from 2.5 to 50 kGy. The resulting mixture of cholesterol derivatives was isolated and examined for 7-ketocholesterol and cholesterol 5 alpha, 6 alpha-epoxide and 5 beta, 6 beta-epoxide content. Concentrations of all three compounds increased with dose, while the ratio of 7-ketocholesterol to total epoxides decreased with increasing dose. The ratio of 7-ketocholestrol to the epoxides was approximately 1 or below at all dose levels while the same ratio in autoxidations of cholesterol in dispersions was normally 6 or greater. The change in the keto/epoxide ratio may be a means for determining whether meat or other foods containing cholesterol have been subjected to ionizing radiation

  14. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  15. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Anthropometric characteristics, total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), Vit. E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and trace metals (Se, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) were determined in 40 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ...

  16. Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a mother with severe pre-eclampsia at 32 weeks' gestation and non-immune fetal hydrops without obvious cause. Since the. MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) was ... Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity .... [7] found MCA PSV of value in 9 women with chronic abruption, but in 5.

  17. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  18. Remnant cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure as mediators from obesity to ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-02-13

    Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. The increased IHD risk because of obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest that there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Systolic array processing of the sequential decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Yao, K.

    1989-01-01

    A systolic array processing technique is applied to implementing the stack algorithm form of the sequential decoding algorithm. It is shown that sorting, a key function in the stack algorithm, can be efficiently realized by a special type of systolic arrays known as systolic priority queues. Compared to the stack-bucket algorithm, this approach is shown to have the advantages that the decoding always moves along the optimal path, that it has a fast and constant decoding speed and that its simple and regular hardware architecture is suitable for VLSI implementation. Three types of systolic priority queues are discussed: random access scheme, shift register scheme and ripple register scheme. The property of the entries stored in the systolic priority queue is also investigated. The results are applicable to many other basic sorting type problems.

  20. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  1. Right ventricular systolic function in hypertensive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oketona OA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available OA Oketona,1 MO Balogun,2 AO Akintomide,2 OE Ajayi,2 RA Adebayo,2 TO Mene-Afejuku,3 OT Oketona,1 OJ Bamikole2 1Fort Nelson General Hospital, Fort Nelson, BC, Canada; 2Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA Background: Heart failure (HF is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters.Methodology: One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls. All study participants gave written informed consent, and had a full physical examination, blood investigations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography. RV systolic function was assessed in all subjects using different methods based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults. This included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, RV myocardial performance index (MPI, and RV systolic excursion velocity by tissue Doppler (S′.Results: RV systolic dysfunction was found in 53% of subjects with HHF by TAPSE, 56% by RV MPI, and 48% by tissue Doppler systolic excursion S′. RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in subjects with HHF.Conclusion: A high proportion of subjects with HHF were found to have RV systolic functional abnormalities using TAPSE, RV MPI, and RV S′. Prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing LVEF. Keywords: right ventricle

  2. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; Grunseit, Anne; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid L; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Population based cross-sectional study. Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides were measured in 48,882 adults aged 20 years or older from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Adjusted multiple regression models were used to test for associations between these biomarkers and self-reported total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use in the whole sample and by cardiometabolic disease status sub-groups. In the whole sample, reporting total sitting time ≥10 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, GGT and triglyceride levels compared to those reporting total sitting time Leisure-time computer use ≥1 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, total cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared with those reporting no leisure-time computing. Sub-group analyses by cardiometabolic disease status showed similar patterns in participants free of cardiometabolic disease, while similar albeit non-significant patterns were observed in those with cardiometabolic disease. Total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use are associated with poorer cardiometabolic risk profiles in adults. Reducing sedentary behaviour throughout the day and limiting TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use may have health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  4. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-09-15

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 Degree-Sign C.

  5. THE REDUCTION OF CHOLESTEROL WITH CUPPING THERAPY ON CHOLESTEROL REDUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Fikri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor causes of death at younger ages. Hypercholesterolemia may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, pancreatitis (pancreas inflammation in organs, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, liver disease and kidney disease. Many patients with hypercholesterolemia using cupping therapy. Cupping therapy is alternative treatment process of throwing dirty blood from the body through the skin surface. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cupping therapy to decrease cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Method: Design used in this study was quasy experimental design. The population is all patients with hypercholesterolemia in the health center plaza Gresik. The total sample is 18 respondents, taken according to inclusion criteria. Independent variable is the cupping therapy. The dependent variable was the decrease in cholesterol levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire and observation of cholesterol. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and paired t tests with signi fi cance level α < 0.05. Result: The results show that cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated groups decreased majority. Independent statistical analysis using t-test showed p = 0.001 and with the Paired t-test p value = 0.003. Discussion: This result means that there are significant effects of cupping therapy on cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia aged 45 years and over. Further research needs to be done in control diet, lifestyle and daily activities for the success of cupping therapy.

  6. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5–700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 °C

  7. Statistical analysis of simulation-generated time series : Systolic vs. semi-systolic correlation on the Connection Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, T.; Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Schilling, K.

    1992-01-01

    Autocorrelation becomes an increasingly important tool to verify improvements in the state of the simulational art in Latice Gauge Theory. Semi-systolic and full-systolic algorithms are presented which are intensively used for correlation computations on the Connection Machine CM-2. The

  8. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  9. Cholesterol Transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tavoosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes encode the cholesterol transporter proteins that play a key role in cholesterol and phospholipids homeostasis. This study was aimed at evaluating and comparing ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes expression in metabolic syndrome patients and healthy individuals. This case-control study was performed on 36 patients with metabolic syndrome and the same number of healthy individuals in Hamadan (west of Iran during 2013-2014. Total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells and purified using RNeasy Mini Kit column. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes was performed by qRT-PCR. Lipid profile and fasting blood glucose were measured using colorimetric procedures. ABCG1 expression in metabolic syndrome patients was significantly lower (about 75% compared to that of control group, while for ABCA1 expression, there was no significant difference between the two studied groups. Comparison of other parameters such as HDL-C, FBS, BMI, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between metabolic syndrome patients and healthy individuals showed significant differences (P<0.05. Decrease in ABCG1 expression in metabolic syndrome patients compared to healthy individuals suggests that hyperglycemia, related metabolites, and hyperlipidemia over the transporter capacity resulted in decreased expression of ABCG1. Absence of a significant change in ABCA1 gene expression between two groups can indicate a different regulation mechanism for ABCA1 expression.

  10. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  11. The relationships of markers of cholesterol homeostasis with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Weingärtner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship of cholesterol homeostasis and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT is unknown. To address this, we assessed markers of cholesterol homeostasis (serum plant sterols and cholesterol precursor concentrations as surrogate measures of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, respectively and cIMT in a middle-aged, statin-naive population. METHODS: In this prospective study of primary prevention cIMT was measured by ultrasound in 583 hospital employees aged 25-60 years without prevalent cardiovascular disease or lipid-modifying medication. The serum concentrations of plant sterols (as markers of cholesterol absorption were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Lathosterol serum concentrations were quantitated to assess hepatic cholesterol synthesis. RESULTS: cIMT correlated positively with serum cholesterol (r = 0.22, P<0.0005 and lathosterol-to-cholesterol (r = 0.18, P<0.001. In contrast, plant sterols, as markers of cholesterol absorption, showed a weak negative correlation to cIMT measurements (r = -0.18; P<0.001 for campesterol-to-cholesterol. Stratifying subjects by serum sterol levels, we found that cIMT increased continuously over quintiles of serum cholesterol (P<0.0005 and was positively associated to serum lathosterol-to-cholesterol levels (P = 0.007, on the other hand, plant sterol levels showed a weak negative association to cIMT (P<0.001 for campesterol-to-cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: In this population without prevalent cardiovascular diseases or lipid-modifying medication, markers of increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis correlated positively with cIMT, while markers of cholesterol absorption showed a weakly negative correlation. These data suggest that not only total serum cholesterol levels but also differences in cholesterol homeostasis are associated with cIMT.

  12. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  13. Effect of cholesterol deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Ozkan, Jerome; Xu, Banglao; Borazjani, Roya; Willcox, Mark D P

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effect of cholesterol on the adhesion of bacteria to silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Contact lenses, collected from subjects wearing Acuvue Oasys or PureVision lenses, were extracted in chloroform:methanol (1:1, v/v) and amount of cholesterol was estimated by thin-layer chromatography. Unworn lenses were soaked in cholesterol, and the numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains or Staphylococcus aureus strains that adhered to the lenses were measured. Cholesterol was tested for effects on bacterial growth by incubating bacteria in medium containing cholesterol. From ex vivo PureVision lenses, 3.4 ± 0.3 μg/lens cholesterol was recovered, and from Acuvue Oasys lenses, 2.4 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 μg/lens cholesterol was extracted. Cholesterol did not alter the total or viable adhesion of any strain of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). However, worn PureVision lenses reduced the numbers of viable cells of P. aeruginosa (5.8 ± 0.4 log units) compared with unworn lenses (6.4 ± 0.2 log units, p = 0.001). Similarly, there were fewer numbers of S. aureus 031 adherent to worn PureVision (3.05 ± 0.8 log units) compared with unworn PureVision (4.6 ± 0.3 log units, p = 0.0001). Worn Acuvue Oasys lenses did not affect bacterial adhesion. Cholesterol showed no effect on the growth of any test strain. Although cholesterol has been shown to adsorb to contact lenses during wear, this lipid does not appear to modulate bacterial adhesion to a lens surface.

  14. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BM...

  15. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the ... doctor about medicines that can help. What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are the most common type of fat ...

  16. Cholesterol remnants and triglycerides are associated with decreased myocardial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Biering-Sørensen, Tor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive echocardiogra......BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive...... secondary care centers. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, triglycerides and cholesterol remnants were not associated with left ventricular ejection fraction, but with subtle measures of systolic function, including global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking and longitudinal displacement by tissue...... Doppler echocardiography: global longitudinal strain [0.33 % (0.14), p = 0.02 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and 0.28 % (0.13), p = 0.03 per doubling in triglyceride levels] and with longitudinal displacement [-0.25 mm (0.10), p = 0.01 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and -0.25 mm (0.09), p = 0...

  17. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K C , the thickness D HH , and the orientational order parameter S xray of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K C when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains

  18. Dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption in rats. Effect of dietary cholesterol level and cholesterol saturation of bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if cholesterol introduced into the duodenum of rats in a micellar form as occurs with bile, is absorbed more efficiently than cholesterol presented in a nonmicellar form, as occurs with dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption was measured during the constant intraduodenal infusion of liquid diets ([ 14 C] cholesterol) and artificial biles ([ 3 H] cholesterol) in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Percentage absorption was calculated by dividing the rate of appearance of radiolabeled cholesterol in lymph by its rate of infusion when lymph cholesterol specific activity was constant. Results provide strong evidence that under certain conditions biliary cholesterol is more efficiently absorbed than is dietary cholesterol, and that this differential must be considered when evaluating the influence of diet or drug therapy on cholesterol absorption

  19. Diastolic effects of chronic digitalization in systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapoyannes, C A; Bergh, M E; Movahed, M R; Easterling, B M; Omoigui, N A

    1998-10-01

    The efficacy of short-term digitalization on exercise tolerance may, in part, reflect enhanced diastolic performance. However, cardiac glycosides can impair ventricular relaxation from cytosolic Ca++ overload. To detect any time-dependent adverse effect, we assessed the diastolic function after long-term use of digitalis in patients with mild to moderate systolic left ventricular failure. From a cohort of 80 patients who received long-term, randomized, double-blind treatment with digitalis versus placebo at the WJB Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 38 survivors were evaluated at the end of follow-up (mean 48.4 months) with evaluators blinded to treatment used. Each survivor underwent equilibrium scintigraphic and echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function. Peak and mean filling rates normalized with filling volume (FV), diastolic phase durations normalized with duration of diastole, and filling fractions were measured from the time-activity curve. The isovolumic relaxation period and ventricular dimensions were computed echocardiographically. By actual-treatment-received analysis, treated versus untreated patients manifested a trend toward longer isovolumic relaxation (80.76 ms vs 61.54 ms, P = .06) but a markedly lower peak rapid filling rate (6.39 FV/sec vs 10.56 FV/sec, P = .02) despite comparable loading conditions. In addition, treated patients exhibited a lower mean rate of rapid filling (2.75 FV/sec vs 3.78 FV/sec, P = .05) in the absence of a longer rapid filling duration. However, the end-diastolic ventricular dimension did not differ between the 2 groups. Similar results were obtained by intention-to-treat analysis. Importantly, the mortality rate from worsening heart failure in the inception cohort was lower in the digitalis group versus the placebo group (P = .05) with no difference in total cardiac or all-cause mortality. After long-term digitalization for systolic left ventricular failure, cross-sectional comparison with a control group

  20. Break the fast? Update on patient preparation for cholesterol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-10-01

    To provide an update on the clinical usefulness of nonfasting versus fasting lipid testing to improve patient compliance, patient safety, and clinical assessment in cholesterol testing. Recommendations are identified as supported by good, fair, and poor (conflicting or insufficient) evidence, according to the classifications adopted by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Screening for dyslipidemia as a risk factor for coronary artery disease and management of lipid-lowering medications are key parts of primary care. Recent evidence has questioned the fasting requirement for lipid testing. In population-based studies, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol all varied by an average of 2% with fasting status. For routine screening, nonfasting cholesterol measurement is now a reasonable alternative to a fasting cholesterol measurement. For patients with diabetes, the fasting requirement might be an important safety issue because of problems with hypoglycemia. For the monitoring of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients taking lipid-lowering medications, fasting becomes more important. Fasting for routine lipid level determinations is largely unnecessary and unlikely to affect patient clinical risk stratification, while nonfasting measurement might improve patient compliance and safety. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  1. Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Thune, Jens J; Nielsen, Jens C

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure caused by coronary artery disease has been well documented. However, the evidence for a benefit of prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic heart failure that is not due...... to coronary artery disease has been based primarily on subgroup analyses. The management of heart failure has improved since the landmark ICD trials, and many patients now receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 556 patients with symptomatic systolic heart.......6%) in the control group (P=0.29). Conclusions In this trial, prophylactic ICD implantation in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure not caused by coronary artery disease was not associated with a significantly lower long-term rate of death from any cause than was usual clinical care. (Funded by Medtronic...

  2. Risk following hospitalization in stable chronic systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Putte; Swedberg, Karl; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF).......We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF)....

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  4. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  6. Cholesterol and related sterols autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, Chiara; Iuliano, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Cholesterol is a unique lipid molecule providing the building block for membranes, hormones, vitamin D and bile acid synthesis. Metabolism of cholesterol involves several enzymes acting on the sterol nucleus or the isooctyl tail. In the recent years, research interest has been focused on oxysterols, cholesterol derivatives generated by the addition of oxygen to the cholesterol backbone. Oxysterols can be produced enzymatically or by autoxidation. Autoxidation of cholesterol proceeds through type I or type II mechanisms. Type I autoxidation is initiated by free radical species, such as those arising from the superoxide/hydrogen peroxide/hydroxyl radical system. Type II autoxidation occurs stoichiometrically by non-radical highly reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, HOCl, and ozone. The vulnerability of cholesterol towards high reactive species has raised considerable interest for mechanistic studies and for the potential biological activity of oxysterols, as well as for the use of oxysterols as biomarkers for the non-invasive study of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube probes for monitoring blood cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somenath; Vedala, Harindra; Choi, Wonbong

    2006-02-01

    Detection of blood cholesterol is of great clinical significance. The amperometric detection technique was used for the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), vertically aligned on a silicon platform, promote heterogeneous electron transfer between the enzyme and the working electrode. Surface modification of the MWNT with a biocompatible polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), converted the hydrophobic nanotube surface into a highly hydrophilic one, which facilitates efficient attachment of biomolecules. The fabricated working electrodes showed a linear relationship between cholesterol concentration and the output signal. The efficacy of the multiwall carbon nanotubes in promoting heterogeneous electron transfer was evident by distinct electrochemical peaks and higher signal-to-noise ratio as compared to the Au electrode with identical enzyme immobilization protocol. The selectivity of the cholesterol sensor in the presence of common interferents present in human blood, e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid and glucose, is also reported.

  8. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  9. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  10. Arterial wave reflection and subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell Sv; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2011-03-01

    Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left-ventricular (LV) systolic function in individuals without heart failure is not clear. Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using two-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF less than 50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Mean age of the study population was 68.3 ± 10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (P values from 0.05 to 0.002). In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship.

  11. High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...

  12. Cholesterol Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart diseases . There are two main types of cholesterol. LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in ... 75 years old, you have diabetes, and your LDL cholesterol level is 70 mg/dL or higher You ...

  13. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  14. Valuation of Normal Range of Ankle Systolic Blood Pressure in Subjects with Normal Arm Systolic Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Cao, Kai-wu; Xu, Jin-song; Li, Ju-xiang; Hong, Kui; Cheng, Xiao-shu; Su, Hai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a normal range for ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP). A total of 948 subjects who had normal brachial SBP (90-139 mmHg) at investigation were enrolled. Supine BP of four limbs was simultaneously measured using four automatic BP measurement devices. The ankle-arm difference (An-a) on SBP of both sides was calculated. Two methods were used for establishing normal range of ankle SBP: the 99% method was decided on the 99% reference range of actual ankle BP, and the An-a method was the sum of An-a and the low or up limits of normal arm SBP (90-139 mmHg). Whether in the right or left side, the ankle SBP was significantly higher than the arm SBP (right: 137.1 ± 16.9 vs 119.7 ± 11.4 mmHg, P<0.05). Based on the 99% method, the normal range of ankle SBP was 94~181 mmHg for the total population, 84~166 mmHg for the young (18-44 y), 107~176 mmHg for the middle-aged(45-59 y) and 113~179 mmHg for the elderly (≥ 60 y) group. As the An-a on SBP was 13 mmHg in the young group and 20 mmHg in both middle-aged and elderly groups, the normal range of ankle SBP on the An-a method was 103-153 mmHg for young and 110-160 mmHg for middle-elderly subjects. A primary reference for normal ankle SBP was suggested as 100-165 mmHg in the young and 110-170 mmHg in the middle-elderly subjects.

  15. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.

    2004-01-01

    -utilizing bacteria (LNGB), which were rich in PE. The group with 0% LNGB was fed a diet for which the lipid content was 100% soybean oil. The total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol of animals consuming a diet with 67% LNGB (67LNGB-diet), were significantly lowered by 35, 49, and 29%, respectively......, and unesterified cholesterol increased by 17% compared with the animals fed a diet of 100% lipids from soybean oil (SB-diet). In addition, the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was 27% lower in mink fed the 67LNGB-diet than those fed the S13-cliet. When the mink were fed the 67LNGB-diet, plasma PC, total...... phospholipids, lysoPC, and PI were lowered significantly compared with the mink fed a SB-diet. Plasma total cholesterol was correlated with total phospholipids as well as with PC (R = 0.8, P

  16. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extract Capsule on Total Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LDL-C levels was influenced by factors, such as age, BMI, exercise, diet, and smoking habits. In MCC group ... body mass index, and compliance of all the subjects with ..... Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of The Asia-Pasific: Drugs for. The Future?

  18. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    were handpicked at the Eagle Cement area of the New Calabar River and subjected to different levels ... groups when compared to the control in both the muscle and the viscera of the periwinkle. ... In Nigeria, oil industry operations are both offshore and onshore. ... This acts as a means of assessing the hazard or potential ...

  19. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Bakiza Kamal; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2016-01-01

    to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration

  20. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  1. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P K; Dasgupta, D J; Prashar, B S; Kaushal, S S

    1994-03-01

    A herbal powder containing guar gum, methi, tundika and meshasringi was administered to 30 control and 30 type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus patients for a month. Total serum cholesterol and its fractions eg, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and serum triglyceride were determined before and after the trial period. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols were reduced significantly after the therapy. There were no significant changes in high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) or triglyceride levels. Side-effects eg, mild flatulence and looseness of bowel were noticed in less than 40% cases.

  2. Assessment of myocardial bridge by cardiac CT: Intracoronary transluminal attenuation gradient derived from diastolic phase predicts systolic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Li, Ming Hua; Zhang, Jiayin [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shangha (China)

    2017-08-01

    To study the predictive value of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) derived from diastolic phase of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for identifying systolic compression of myocardial bridge (MB). Consecutive patients diagnosed with MB based on CCTA findings and without obstructive coronary artery disease were retrospectively enrolled. In total, 143 patients with 144 MBs were included in the study. Patients were classified into three groups: without systolic compression, with systolic compression < 50%, and with systolic compression ≥ 50%. TAG was defined as the linear regression coefficient between intraluminal attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) and length from the vessel ostium. Other indices such as the length and depth of the MB were also recorded. TAG was the lowest in MB patients with systolic compression ≥ 50% (-19.9 ± 8.7 HU/10 mm). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff values for identifying systolic compression ≥ 50%. The result indicated an optimal cutoff value of TAG as -18.8 HU/10 mm (area under curve = 0.778, p < 0.001), which yielded higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy (54.1, 80.5, 72.8, and 75.0%, respectively). In addition, the TAG of MB with diastolic compression was significantly lower than the TAG of MB without diastolic compression (-21.4 ± 4.8 HU/10 mm vs. -12.7 ± 8 HU/10 mm, p < 0.001). TAG was a better predictor of MB with systolic compression ≥ 50%, compared to the length or depth of the MB. The TAG of MB with persistent diastolic compression was significantly lower than the TAG without diastolic compression.

  3. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.

  4. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle Km

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable...... blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11).Conclusion The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing...

  5. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol

  6. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  7. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  8. Simultaneous measurement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using both endogenous and exogenous [4-14C]cholesterol as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylemon, P.B.; Studer, E.J.; Pandak, W.M.; Heuman, D.M.; Vlahcevic, Z.R.; Chiang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The HPLC-spectrophotometric method for measuring cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was modified by using a C-18 reverse-phase column to separate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3-one and by adding 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol to each reaction mixture as an internal recovery standard. With this method, we were able to simultaneously measure cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity using endogenous cholesterol and exogenous [4- 14 C]cholesterol as substrate. Rat liver cytosol differentially stimulated (286%) the 7 alpha-hydroxylation of exogenous [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. In contrast, total cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was stimulated only 35% by cytosol. This method should prove useful for studying mechanisms of cholesterol delivery to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

  9. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Michael A.; Pardee, Keith; Liu, Suya; King-Jones, Kirst; Lajoie, Gilles; Edwards, Aled; Krause, Henry M.; Thummel, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is required to maintain normal cellular function and avoid the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia. Here we show that the Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and is required for the coordinate transcriptional response of genes that are regulated by cholesterol and involved in cholesterol uptake, trafficking, and storage. DHR96 mutants die when grown on low levels of cholesterol and accumulate excess cholesterol when maintained on a high-choleste...

  11. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  12. Significance of White-Coat Hypertension in Older Persons With Isolated Systolic Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W.; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79–1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43–2.79]; Phypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, “treated normalized hypertension.” Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term “white-coat hypertension” to persons receiving antihypertensive treatment. PMID:22252396

  13. BMI and waist circumference; cross-sectional and prospective associations with blood pressure and cholesterol in 12-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. STUDY DESIGN: Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90(th percentile and BP and cholesterol. RESULTS: Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2 in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5 in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1 and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8. Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. CONCLUSION: A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

  14. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  15. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plösch, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  16. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  17. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  18. Observation of the pulse oximeter trace to estimate systolic blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia is co-published by Medpharm .... a clinically relevant amount of time when compared with NIBP ... at the time of recruitment to the study. ... Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, ASA Class 1 to 3 and .... measured systolic blood pressure values (mean [SD], mmHg) per.

  19. Observation of the pulse oximeter trace to estimate systolic blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The estimation of systolic blood pressure by disappearance and reappearance of the pulse oximeter trace during cuff inflation and deflation was compared with non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement, across the range of body mass index (BMI), during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section.

  20. Characterizations and computational complexity of systolic trellis automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, O H; Kim, S M

    1984-03-01

    Systolic trellis automata are simple models for VLSI. The authors characterize the computing power of these models in terms of turing machines. The characterizations are useful in proving new results as well as giving simpler proofs of known results. They also derive lower and upper bounds on the computational complexity of the models. 18 references.

  1. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study, we measured insulin sensitivity (M/I) using the euglycemic clamp technique in 1073 healthy European adults (587 women, 486 men) aged 30 to 60 years followed up 3 years later. Systolic BP (SBP) at baseline was higher in insulin-resistant women (ie, those in the low sex...

  2. Decomposition of cholesterol by some organisms isolated from certain Egyptian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Some soil microorganisms exhibit a good growth on cholesterol mineral salts agar medium with a uniform distribution of cholesterol as a sole carbon study, 74 strains succeeded to grow on mineral salts agar medium supplied with 0.1% (w/v) cholesterol as the sole source of carbon. Out of these microorganisms, only 43 strains of actinomyces formed zones of translucency on the cholesterol agar medium. Colorimetric determination showed that the total cholesterol decomposition ranges between (74.0-99.0%) for the different actinomyces. One strain was considered a new variety and proved to be the most potent cholesterol decomposer according to its ability to decompose the highest amount of cholesterol as the sole source of carbon, and hence was chosen for further study. It was identified to the species level as pseudo nocardia compact var. nov, chole-rugosa, S-39 B B II. The influence of temperature, incubation period, shaking and buffers on cholesterol decomposition were also investigated. Optimum temperature and buffer were 30 degree C(at ph 7.0-7.2) after 8 days at 120 r.p.m. in a medium containing 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 m (w/v) cholesterol. The maximum cholesterol decomposition at an incubation temperature of 30 degree C was detected in the presence of L-glutamine

  3. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation

  4. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  5. [Age and characteristics of cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver under normal conditions and during atherogenic loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaialo, P P

    1977-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of C14CH3COONa to normal rats aged 6--8 and 28--32 months revealed a slower dynamics of cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of old rats at the maximum of the tracer incorporation was lower than in the young ones. Atherogenic diet (0.25 g of cholesterol per 100 g of animal weight for a period of 20 days) was accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content and depressio of its biosynthesis in the liver, more pronounced in the young rats. Continued cholesterol administration caused further depression of its biosynthesis, most pronounced (in this case) in the old animals.

  6. Apolipoprotein B knockdown by AAV-delivered shRNA lowers plasma cholesterol in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Annemart; Maczuga, Piotr; van Logtenstein, Richard; Borel, Florie; Blits, Bas; Ritsema, Tita; van Deventer, Sander; Petry, Harald; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are proportionate to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In order to reduce serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in mice, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit expression of the structural protein of LDL-C,

  7. Plasma-Serum Cholesterol Differences in Children and Use of Measurements from Different Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.; Wijga, A.H.; Rossem, van L.; Jongste, de J.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess absolute plasma-serum differences and differences in ranking of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and TC/HDLC ratio in children. Methods: We analysed data of 412 children participating in a Dutch birth cohort. TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC

  8. Serum cholesterol, apolipoprotein E genotype and depressive symptoms in elderly European men: The FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Dortland, A.K.B.V.R.; Nissinen, A.; Giampaoli, S.; Veen, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Bots, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cohort and case-control studies found that lower serum total cholesterol is associated with depression. It is, however, unclear whether low cholesterol or its lipoprotein fractions are causally related to depression. Using a Mendelian randomization design, the potential association

  9. Covalent immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase on polyaniline films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suman [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Solanki, Pratima R. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Pandey, M.K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi@mail.nplindia.ernet.in

    2006-05-24

    Cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been covalently immobilized on electrochemically prepared polyaniline (PANI) films. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films have been characterized using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical behavior of these films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques, respectively. The PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films show broad oxidation peak from 0.2 to 0.5 V. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx biosensing electrodes have a response time of about 40 s, linearity from 50 to 500 mg/dl of cholesterol oleate concentration. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx films are thermally stable up to 46 deg. C. This polyaniline based cholesterol biosensor has optimum pH in the range of 6.5-7.5, sensitivity as 7.5 x 10{sup -4} nA/mg dl and a lifetime of about 6 weeks.

  10. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic...... dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets....... The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  11. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende

  12. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  13. Emotional eating as a mediator between anxiety and cholesterol in population with overweight and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensorio, Marinna S; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Palomar, Gonzalo; Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-01

    Although the relationship between cholesterol and mood states (especially anxiety) has been well studied, few researches have included the role of eating styles in this relationship. This study explored the associations among eating styles, negative emotional symptoms, and levels of cholesterol (and other medical variables) in a population with hypertension and overweight or obesity, analyzing the possible mediation mechanisms involved. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 68 adults with hypertension and overweight/obesity, and stepwise multiple regression analysis and mediation analyses were carried out to test the hypothesis that eating styles mediate the relationship between negative emotional symptoms and cholesterol. Several significant correlations among age, anthropometric, medical, and psychological variables (eating styles and negative emotional symptoms) were found. There was a significant indirect effect of anxiety on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol through emotional eating. Results suggest that emotional eating has a relevant role in the rise in total and LDL cholesterol, acting as a mediator in the relationship between anxiety and cholesterol. This finding could have important implications, since it introduces a new variable in the relationship between emotions and cholesterol and, therefore, changes the way of understanding this relationship, and of treating high cholesterol in a hypertensive sample.

  14. Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1 is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR. Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXRα without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/- exhibit increased hepatic LXRα protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

  15. Dietary Wheat Bran Oil Is Equally as Effective as Rice Bran Oil in Reducing Plasma Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Chen, Jingnan; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Guohua; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2018-03-21

    Rice bran oil (RBO) possesses a plasma cholesterol-lowering activity, while effect of wheat bran oil (WBO) on plasma cholesterol remains unknown. The present study compared the cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO with that of RBO in hamsters. Fifty-four male hamsters were divided into seven groups fed either a noncholesterol diet (NCD) or one of six high-cholesterol diets, namely HCD diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard), HCD+C diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard +0.5% cholestyramine), WL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% WBO), WH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% WBO), RL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% RBO), and RH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% RBO). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in HCD group was 327.4 ± 31.8 mg/dL, while plasma TC in two WBO and two RBO groups was 242.2 ± 20.8, 243.1 ± 31.7, 257.1 ± 16.3, and 243.4 ± 46.0 mg/dL, respectively, leading to a decrease in plasma TC by 22-26% ( P cholesterol-lowering potency was seen between WBO and RBO. Plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO and RBO was accompanied by down-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase, while up-regulation of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. WL, WH, RL, and RH diets increased the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols by 72.8%, 106.9%, 5.4%, and 36.8% ( P cholesterol absorption via down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein, acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2, and ATP binding cassette transporter 5. In summary, WBO was equally effective as RBO in decreasing plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia hamsters.

  16. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  17. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series ...

  18. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  19. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  20. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  1. Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05 controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

  2. Peak systolic pressure-volume relationships in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Haruhiko; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Katsume, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Masakazu; Ijichi, Hamao

    1985-01-01

    We determined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) peak systolic pressure (PSP) and end-systolic volume, non-invasively using cuff sphygmomanometry and radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in the arm was substituted for PSP. LV enddiastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were determined by a non-geometric method of gated RNA and recorded in three different hemodynamic states: at rest (basal state), during increased SBP after angiotensin administration (initial dose, 1-2 μg/min) and during decreased SBP after nitrate (sublingual nitroglycerin, 0.3-0.6 mg, or intravenous isosorbide dinitrate, 0.5-1.0 mg/min). The reproducibility of this method, tested in six subjects, proved to be good. Fifty-five subjects were divided into four groups based on EF at rest. The EDV and ESV were increased by angiotensin, and decreased by nitrate in all groups. EF was decreased by angiotensin and increased by nitrate. In contrast, the changes in PSP/ESVI due to these drugs remained in a narrow range in all groups. The regression lines of the PSP/ESVI relationship were almost linear and were steeper in the group with higher EF. Esub(max), the slope of the lines, was 5.75 +- 3.48 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 1 (EF>50%), 3.16 +- 1.83 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 2 (EF 49-40%), 2.27 +- 0.86 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 3 (EF 39-30%) and 0.59 +- 0.50 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 4 (EF<29%). The theoretical volume at zero pressure (VoI) did not meet in a definite value and was not related to EF at rest. Thus, the left ventricular peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relationship can be assessed non-invasively from radionuclide angiocardiography, which can be widely used for the evaluation of ventricular contractility, even in patients with asynergic ventricular contraction for whom echocardiography is unsuitable in measuring ventricular volume. (author)

  3. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  4. Blood cholesterol level in Sudanese females with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N. M.

    2004-08-01

    In view to high incidence of thyroid dis function among Sudanese females, this study was conducted, essentially to study the effect of thyroid disorders on lipids metabolism, mainly on total cholesterol. In this study samples were collected from RIA laboratory in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. 50 hyperthyroidism females were selected as a study group of age range (20-55) years. In addition 47 samples were collected with same age of study group used as control group. Thyroid related hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH using the sensitive radioimmunoassay method and cholesterol were measured for the two groups using enzymatic-calorimetric test. Statistical analysis were done with SPSS computer program to compare the cholesterol levels in the control subjects with the patients levels. The results showed significantly decreased cholesterol level of patient group when compared with the control group (p<0.01). At the end of this study the result was agreed well with previous results concerning cholesterol level as affected by thyroid disorder. (Author)

  5. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  6. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. PMID:20109519

  7. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  9. Cholesterol, Cholesterol-Lowering Medication Use, and Breast Cancer Outcome in the BIG 1-98 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgquist, Signe; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Ahern, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    on cholesterol levels and hypercholesterolemia per se may counteract the intended effect of aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods The Breast International Group (BIG) conducted a randomized, phase III, double-blind trial, BIG 1-98, which enrolled 8,010 postmenopausal women with early-stage, hormone receptor......-positive invasive breast cancer from 1998 to 2003. Systemic levels of total cholesterol and use of CLM were measured at study entry and every 6 months up to 5.5 years. Cumulative incidence functions were used to describe the initiation of CLM in the presence of competing risks. Marginal structural Cox proportional...

  10. Lack of Cholesterol Awareness among Physicians Who Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Scranton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of cholesterol knowledge would indicate an aversion to a prevention-oriented lifestyle. Thus, our goal was to determine the association between tobacco use and knowledge of self-reported cholesterol among male physicians. Using the 1982 and follow-up questionnaires from the physician health study, we report the changes in the frequencies of awareness of self-reported total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among the 22,067 participants. We classified physicians as being aware of their cholesterol if they reported a cholesterol level and unaware if the question was left unanswered. In 1997, 207 physicians were excluded, as the recorded cholesterol was not interpretable, leaving 21,860 for our follow up analyses. Using unadjusted logistic models, we determined the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of not reporting a cholesterol level in either 1982 or 1997 for each specified risk factor. We then evaluated whether the lack of cholesterol awareness at both time points was associated with the use of tobacco throughout the study. After 14-years of follow up, cholesterol awareness increased from 35.9 to 58.6 percent. During this period, the frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia treatment increased (13.5 to 40.5% and 0.57% to 19.6% respectively, as did the diagnosis of diabetes (2.40 to 7.79%. Behavioral characteristics such as a sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increased (27.8 to 42% and 43.5 to 53.5%, respectively, however the proportion of current smokers deceased from 11.1 to 4.05%. The percentages of individuals being unaware of their cholesterol decreased in all risk factor groups. However, individuals were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol

  11. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  13. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, A.E.

    2006-03-01

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  14. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussien, A E [Coordination Council of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-03-15

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  15. Systolic pocessing and an implementation for signal and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.V.; Yen, D.W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Many signal and image processing applications impose a severe demand on the I/O bandwidth and computation power of general-purpose computers. The systolic concept offers guidelines in building cost-effective systems that balance I/O with computation. The resulting simplicity and regularity of such systems leads to modular designs suitable for VLSI implementation. The authors describe a linear systolic array capable of evaluating a large class of inner-product functions used in signal and image processing. These include matrix multiplications, multidimensional convolutions using fixed or time-varying kernels, as well as various nonlinear functions of vectors. The system organization of a working prototype is also described. 11 references.

  16. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  17. Effect of obesity and being overweight on long-term mortality in congestive heart failure: influence of left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Kragelund, Charlotte B; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an improved outcome in congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the studies addressing this problem have not included enough patients with non-systolic heart failure to evaluate how left ventricular systolic...... function interacts with obesity on prognosis in CHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate how BMI influences mortality in patients hospitalized with CHF, and to address in particular whether the effect of BMI is influenced by left ventricular (LV) systolic function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective...... analysis of baseline and survival data for 4700 hospitalized CHF patients for whom BMI was available. LV systolic function, as assessed by wall motion index was available for 95% of the patients. Follow-up time ranged from 5 to 8 years. In the total population, the risk of death decreased steadily...

  18. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  19. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.F. de; Schonewille, M.; Boesjes, M.; Wolters, H.; Bloks, V.W.; Bos, T.; Dijk, T.H. van; Jurdzinski, A.; Boverhof, R.; Wolters, J.C.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Elferink, R.P.; Moschetta, A.; Kremoser, C.; Verkade, H.J.; Kuipers, F.; Groen, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE)

  20. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of [ 3 H]cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth

  1. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, ... goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating ...

  2. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers......, at least initially, an intralayer cholesterol rearrangement in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transition. The preferred nucleation of the monoclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O followed by transformation to the stable monohydrate phase may be associated with an energetically more stable cholesterol...... bilayer arrangement of the former and a more favorable hydrogen-bonding arrangement of the latter. The relevance of this nucleation process of cholesterol monohydrate to pathological crystallization of cholesterol from cell biomembranes is discussed....

  3. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Myat Khine K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4 and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293 cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1 levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells.

  4. Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Humaira; Sultan, Fateh Ali Tipoo; Iqbal, Romaina; Gilani, Anwar Hassan

    2015-10-01

    More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial. A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol

  5. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-11-01

    The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with S(I) and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve S(I) and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons.

  6. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  7. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2005-01-01

    a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered......, antioxidant enzymes, protein and lipid oxidation were not affected by any of the anthocyanin treatments. Adverse effects of purified anthocyanins were observed on plasma- and LDL-cholesterol. These effects were not observed with black currant juice, suggesting that black currants may contain components...

  9. Circulating PCSK9 affects serum LDL and cholesterol levels more than SREBP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asghar; Shabani, Mohamad; Naseri, Faezeh; Hosseni, Bita; Soltanmohammadi, Elham; Piran, Sadegh; Najafi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is dependent upon the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) regulatory system and the functioning of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Many studies have also reported that low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cellular membranes are related to the functioning of these proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lipid profiles with circulating PCSK9 protein values and SREBP-2 expression levels in normal subjects. The study involved 120 randomly chosen healthy subjects. Their lipid profiles were measured using routine laboratory techniques, and the plasma PCSK9 protein and SREBP-2 expression levels were determined by ELISA and real time quantitative PCR methods, respectively. A statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between total cholesterol and PCSK9 (3.54 ± 1.31 ng/mL), as well as between total cholesterol and SREBP-2 (0.1-35.38) (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses showed strict correlations between PCSK9 and cholesterol-related parameters especially the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (β = 3.53, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between circulating PCSK9 and SREBP-2 expression levels (r = 1.2, p = 0.3). The study results revealed that serum cholesterol-related parameters are strictly associated with plasma PCSK9 values, suggesting that PCSK9 function has a greater effect on serum total cholesterol levels than SREBP-2 expression does. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator for evaluating PCSK9 level than total cholesterol.

  10. Exome Sequencing and Directed Clinical Phenotyping Diagnose Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease Presenting as Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J. P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia not

  11. A comparative research on obesity hypertension by the comparisons and associations between waist circumference, body mass index with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the clinical laboratory data between four special Chinese adult groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Leng, Jian-Hang; Yang, Fen-Fang; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Hu; Li, Zeng-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Yuan, Cheng-Da; Li, Jia-Jia; Pan, Qi; Liu, Wei; Ren, Yan-Jun; Liu, Bing; Liu, Qing-Min; Cao, Cheng-Jian

    2018-01-01

    The obesity-hypertension pathogenesis is complex. From the phenotype to molecular mechanism, there is a long way to clarify the mechanism. To explore the association between obesity and hypertension, we correlate the phenotypes such as the waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SB), and diastolic blood pressure (DB) with the clinical laboratory data between four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group), and the results may show something. To explore the mechanisms from obesity to hypertension by analyzing the correlations and differences between WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data indices in four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to July 2014, and 153 adult subjects, 34 women and 119 men, from 21 to 69 years, were taken from four characteristic Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group). The study was approved by the ethics committee of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Serum levels of albumin (ALB),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (Ua), and TC/HDLC (odds ratio) were statistically significantly different between the four groups. WC statistically significantly positively correlated with BMI, ALT, Ua, and serum levels of glucose (GLU), and TC/HDLC, and negatively with ALB, HDLC, and serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB). BMI

  12. Systolic Blood Pressure Accuracy Enhancement in the Electronic Palpation Method Using Pulse Waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorvoja, H

    2001-01-01

    .... Systolic pressure errors were defined and correlations with other specific values, like pressure rise time, pulse wave velocity, systolic pressure, augmentation, arm circumference and body mass index were calculated...

  13. HDL cholesterol response to GH replacement is associated with common cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene variation (-629C>A) and modified by glucocorticoid treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Zelissen, Peter M. J.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Beek, André P.

    2010-01-01

    GH replacement lowers total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in GH-deficient adults, but effects on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) are variable. Both GH and glucocorticoids decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, which is important

  14. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  15. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  16. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Systolic Dysfunction: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasso Julio Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF often coexist in a deleterious cycle. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and AF treated with radiofrequency (RF ablation. Methods: Patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF <50%] and AF refractory to drug therapy underwent stepwise RF ablation in the same session with pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of AF nests and of residual atrial tachycardia, named "background tachycardia". Clinical (NYHA functional class and echocardiographic (EF, left atrial diameter data were compared (McNemar test and t test before and after ablation. Results: 31 patients (6 women, 25 men, aged 37 to 77 years (mean, 59.8±10.6, underwent RF ablation. The etiology was mainly idiopathic (19 p, 61%. During a mean follow-up of 20.3±17 months, 24 patients (77% were in sinus rhythm, 11 (35% being on amiodarone. Eight patients (26% underwent more than one procedure (6 underwent 2 procedures, and 2 underwent 3 procedures. Significant NYHA functional class improvement was observed (pre-ablation: 2.23±0.56; postablation: 1.13±0.35; p<0.0001. The echocardiographic outcome also showed significant ventricular function improvement (EF pre: 44.68%±6.02%, post: 59%±13.2%, p=0.0005 and a significant left atrial diameter reduction (pre: 46.61±7.3 mm; post: 43.59±6.6 mm; p=0.026. No major complications occurred. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AF ablation in patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction is a safe and highly effective procedure. Arrhythmia control has a great impact on ventricular function recovery and functional class improvement.

  17. Phytosterol stearate esters elicit similar responses on plasma lipids and cholesterol absorption but different responses on fecal neutral sterol excretion and hepatic free cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-07-01

    The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg). The phytosterol stearates produced no decrease in cholesterol absorption or plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite a reduction in liver free cholesterol in hamsters fed both sitosterol and sitostanol stearate diets. In addition, sitosterol stearate significantly increased fecal esterified and total neutral sterol excretion. Stigmasterol stearate did not differ from control in neutral sterol excretion, plasma lipids, or hepatic lipid concentration. Sitosterol stearate demonstrated the highest level of net intestinal hydrolysis, whereas sitostanol and stigmasterol stearate equivalently demonstrated the lowest. The cholesterol-lowering effect in liver-but not plasma-and the limited presence of fecal free sterols indicate that intact (unhydrolyzed) phytosterol stearates may impact cholesterol metabolism by mechanisms unrelated to the role of free phytosterols. The consumption of phytosterol esters at 2.5% of the diet elicited only modest impacts on cholesterol metabolism, although sitosterol stearate had a slightly greater therapeutic impact by lowering liver free cholesterol and increasing esterified and total neutral sterol fecal excretion, possibly due to a greater level of intestinal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  19. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  20. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  1. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary pomegranate extract and inulin in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Zhang, Song; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that both polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) and the polysaccharide inulin, ameliorate metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. This study evaluated the effect of PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets supplemented with PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination for 4 weeks. At the end of intervention, serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride levels, hepatic gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion were determined. Dietary supplementation of the HF/HS diet with PomX and inulin decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol. Supplementation with PomX and inulin together resulted in lower hepatic and serum total cholesterol compared to individual treatments. Compared to HF/HS control, PomX increased gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1, key regulators of bile acid synthesis pathways. Inulin decreased gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol de novo synthesis Srebf2 and Hmgcr and significantly increased fecal elimination of total bile acids and neutral sterols. Only PomX in combination with inulin reduced liver and lipid weight significantly compared to the HF/HS control group. PomX showed a trend to decrease liver triglyceride (TG) levels, while inulin or PomX-inulin combination had no effect on either serum or liver TG levels. Dietary PomX and inulin supplementation decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol by different mechanisms and the combination leading to a significant enhancement of the cholesterol-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of serum FGF21 level to the identification of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun; Zhang, Xueli; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Lu, Zhigang; Ma, Xiaojing; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-08-18

    The relationship between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and cardiovascular disease has been well established in recent studies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF21 and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to estimate left ventricular systolic function. The optimal cutoff of FGF21 for identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction at baseline was analyzed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The identification of different serum levels of FGF21 and their association with cardiac death was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Serum FGF21 level was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) level was determined by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 253 patients were recruited for this study at baseline. Patients were excluded if they lacked echocardiography or laboratory measurement data, and there were 218 patients enrolled in the final analysis. The average age was 66.32 ± 10.10 years. The optimal cutoff values of FGF21 and NT-pro-BNP for identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction at baseline were 321.5 pg/mL and 131.3 ng/L, respectively, determined separately via ROC analysis. The areas under the curves were non-significant among FGF21, NT-pro-BNP and FGF21 + NT-pro-BNP as determined by pairwise comparisons. Both a higher serum level of FGF21 and a higher serum level of NT-pro-BNP were independent risk factors for left ventricular systolic dysfunction at baseline (odd ratio (OR) 3.138 [1.037-9.500], P = 0.043, OR 9.207 [2.036-41.643], P = 0.004, separately). Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated an association between both a higher serum level of FGF21 and a higher serum level of NT-pro-BNP with cardiac death in 5 years [RR 5.000 (1.326-18.861), P = 0.026; RR 9.643 (2

  3. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.J.; Okada, R.D.; Ewy, G.A.; Hellman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle

  4. Effect of Right Heart Systolic Function on Outcomes in Patients with Constrictive Pericarditis Undergoing Pericardiectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the influence of right ventricular function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP undergoing surgery and to compare the outcomes of patients who received surgery with those managed medically. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of CP and healthy volunteers were recruited from January 2006 to November 2011. Patients with CP chose to either receive pericardiectomy or medical management. Echocardiographic measurements were performed to evaluate heart function, and survival was recorded. Results: A total of 58 patients with CP (36 received pericardiectomy, 22 managed medically, and 43 healthy volunteers were included. CP patients who received surgery had a higher survival rate than those managed medically (P = 0.003, and higher survival was also seen in the subgroup of CP patients with severely impaired right systolic function. Albumin level, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were associated with survival in CP patients who received surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative right heart function does not affect surgical outcomes. Patients with severely impaired preoperative right systolic function obtain a greater survival advantage with surgery than with medical treatment.

  5. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups. Independent of the age-related changes in phospholipid composition, the physical properties of phospholipid-Chol domains remain the same for all age groups and are practically identical for cortical and nuclear membranes. The presence of Chol bilayer domains in these membranes provides a buffering capacity for cholesterol concentration in the surrounding phospholipid-Chol domains, keeping it at a constant saturating level and thus keeping the physical properties of the membrane consistent with and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. It seems that the presence of Chol bilayer domains plays an integral role in the regulation of cholesterol-dependent processes in fiber cell plasm membranes and in the maintenance of fiber cell membrane homeostasis.

  6. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa. Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h. Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.

  7. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  8. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  9. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A.M.; Vonk, R.J.; Niezen-Koning, K.; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  10. From blood to gut: Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  11. Cholesterol Transport Revisited : A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  12. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  13. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received approximately 300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4-5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6+/-4.8% (Pphytosterol esters 30.6+/-3.9% (P=0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content.

  14. Nuclear receptors in control of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Jelske Nynke

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol is een structurele component van celmembranen en een grondstof voor de aanmaak van steroïde hormonen en galzouten en vervult dus een aantal essentiële fysiologische functies. Een goede balans van cholesterol opname, synthese, afbraak en uitscheiding is noodzakelijk, omdat verhoogde

  15. Decreased systolic blood pressure is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment: A nationwide longitudinal observational study of 27,732 patients based on the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria K; Afghahi, Henri; Franzen, Stefan; Björk, Staffan; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Eliasson, Björn

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a U-shaped relationship between systolic blood pressure and risk of all-cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. To evaluate the associations between time-updated systolic blood pressure and time-updated change in systolic blood pressure during the follow-up period and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. A total of 27,732 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment in the Swedish National Diabetes Register were followed for 4.7 years. Time-dependent Cox models were used to estimate risk of all-cause mortality. Time-updated mean systolic blood pressure is the average of the baseline and the reported post-baseline systolic blood pressures. A time-updated systolic blood pressure blood pressure > 10 mmHg between the last two observations was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (-10 to -25 mmHg; hazard ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.32). Both low systolic blood pressure and a decrease in systolic blood pressure during the follow-up are associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment.

  16. [Clinical characteristics and medium-term prognosis of patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function. Do they differ in systolic dysfunction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Soledad; Anguita, Manuel; Muñoz, Juan F; Rodríguez, Marcos T; Mesa, Dolores; Franco, Manuel; Ureña, Isabel; Vallés, Federico

    2003-11-01

    To assess the prevalence, clinical profile and medium-term prognosis in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic ventricular function compared to those with systolic dysfunction. 153 patients were included, 62 with preserved systolic ventricular function (left ventricular ejection fraction > or = 45%) and 91 with impaired systolic ventricular function (left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%). The mean follow-up period was 25 10 months. Mean age was similar (66 10 vs. 65 10; p = 0.54). There was a higher proportion of women among patients with preserved systolic function (53% vs. 28%; p < 0.01). Ischemic and idiopathic cardiomyopathy were the most common causes of heart failure in patients with systolic dysfunction, whereas valvular disease and hypertensive cardiopathy were the most common in patients with preserved systolic function. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers were more often prescribed in patients with impaired systolic ventricular function (86% vs. 52%; p < 0.01 and 33% vs. 11%; p < 0.01, respectively). There were no differences between the groups in terms of mortality rate (37% vs. 29%), readmission rate for other causes (29% vs. 23%), readmission rate for heart failure (45% vs. 45%), cumulative survival (51% vs. 62%) and the likelihood of not being readmitted for heart failure (50% vs. 52%). In the multivariate analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction was not a predictor of death or readmission because of heart failure. In a large proportion of patients with heart failure, systolic ventricular function is preserved. Despite the clinical differences between patients with preserved and impaired systolic ventricular function, the medium-term prognosis was similar in both groups.

  17. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  18. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Fatty Acids at Different Positions in the Triglycerides on Cholesterol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, S.S.; Voon, P.T.; Ng, Y.T.; Ong, S.H.; Augustine, S.H.O.; Choo, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies established a series of regression equations for predicting the risk factor effects from serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of saturation was solely based on total fatty acid composition in triglycerides. Our article is focused on the relationships between the published human nutrition studies and predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acid compositions and at sn-2 position in triglycerides. Twenty-two published human nutrition studies were chosen to assess the effects of palm olein, olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, grape seed oil, groundnut oil and rice bran oil diets on serum cholesterol levels. There were no statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on fatty acids at sn-2 position and the published human nutrition studies as proven by the statistical analyses with p values more than 0.05. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acids and the published human nutritional studies with p values less than 0.05. Fatty acids at sn-2 position appear to influence the cholesterol levels rather than total fatty acids of the triglyceride. (author)

  20. Changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and cardiorenal anemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylenko V.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature of chronic heart failure (CHF in elderly people is increasing incidence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is associated with age. Such patients account for almost half of the total number of patients with heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with CHF. The impact of CRS on the structural and functional condition of the heart in these patients is studied insufficiently. The study involved 103 patients with CHF II-IV NYHA with preserved LVEF (>45% and CRS (hemoglobin <120 g/l and systolic function, namely by the increase of end-systolic volume and decrease in the degree of LV fractional shortening size.

  1. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremer Werner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons. Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02. Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD.

  2. High Performance Systolic Array Core Architecture Design for DNA Sequencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Nurdin Dayana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high performance systolic array (SA core architecture design for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA sequencer. The core implements the affine gap penalty score Smith-Waterman (SW algorithm. This time-consuming local alignment algorithm guarantees optimal alignment between DNA sequences, but it requires quadratic computation time when performed on standard desktop computers. The use of linear SA decreases the time complexity from quadratic to linear. In addition, with the exponential growth of DNA databases, the SA architecture is used to overcome the timing issue. In this work, the SW algorithm has been captured using Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL and simulated using Xilinx ISIM simulator. The proposed design has been implemented in Xilinx Virtex -6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and improved in the core area by 90% reduction.

  3. Systolic Compression of Epicardial Coronary and Intramural Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, Saidi A.; Fananapazir, Lameh

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that systolic compression of epicardial coronary arteries is an important cause of myocardial ischemia and sudden death in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We examined the associations between sudden death, systolic coronary compression of intra- and epicardial arteries, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and severity of hypertrophy in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We reviewed the angiograms from 57 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for the presence of coronary and septal artery compression; coronary compression was present in 23 (40%). The left anterior descending artery was most often affected, and multiple sites were found in 4 children. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities were more frequently present in children with coronary compression than in those without (94% vs 47%, P = 0.002). Coronary compression was also associated with more severe septal hypertrophy and greater left ventricular outflow gradient. Septal branch compression was present in 65% of the children and was significantly associated with coronary compression, severity of septal hypertrophy, and outflow obstruction. Multivariate analysis showed that septal thickness and septal branch compression, but not coronary compression, were independent predictors of perfusion abnormalities. Coronary compression was not associated with symptom severity, ventricular tachycardia, or a worse prognosis. We conclude that compression of coronary arteries and their septal branches is common in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is related to the magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that coronary compression does not make an important contribution to myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; however, left ventricular hypertrophy and compression of intramural arteries may contribute significantly. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:290–8) PMID:12484613

  4. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  5. [Beclobrate (Turec) in the treatment of primary hyperlipoproteinemia. I. Effect on cholesterol, lipid and apoprotein levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J; Idzior-Waluś, B; Zabiński, J; Wybrańska, I; Korzus, G; Iwanejko, J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a new fibric acid derivative--beclobrate (Turec, Zyma) on serum lipid and apoprotein concentrations in 63 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia were examined. Beclobrate was given in the evening, 100 mg, once daily. After 3 months of beclobrate treatment mean total cholesterol concentration in serum decreased from 9.35 to 7.73 mmol/l (17.3%), mean LDL-cholesterol concentration from 6.32 to 5.38 mmol/l (14.9%), mean HDL-cholesterol concentration increased by 0.21 mmol/l (15.3% of initial value). The greatest decrease was observed in triglyceride concentration--by 50% of the initial value. Apoprotein B concentration decreased by 19.7%, apoprotein A1 and A2 concentration increased by 20.3% and 26.8% respectively. Higher initial values of total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum were associated with greater concentration decrease after beclobrate treatment.

  6. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol in acetonitrile leads to the formation of cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yu-Ya; Hakamata, Hideki; Murakami, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Sakae; Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Ito, Ayumi; Morosawa, Sayaka; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol was shown to be oxidized at the glassy carbon electrode in an acetonitrile-2-propanol mixture and this oxidation reaction was applied to the determination of serum total cholesterol by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (K. Hojo, H. Hakamata, A. Ito, A. Kotani, C. Furukawa, Y.Y. Hosokawa, F. Kusu, J. Chromatogr. A 1166 (2007) 135-141). To gain insight into the detection mechanisms of cholesterol, an electrolytic product of cholesterol was collected and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The three techniques, together with comparisons of literature spectral data, confirmed the formation of cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one. The conversion of cholesterol to cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, a four-electron, four-proton electrochemical process, has been proposed as an electrochemical oxidation mechanism of cholesterol in acetonitrile.

  8. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    body size, and thereby the total effect, of size and changes in size on later outcomes. Using data on childhood body size and adult systolic blood pressure from a sample of 1,284 Danish men born between 1936 and 1970, the authors compared results from path analysis with results from 3 standard...... regression methods. Path analysis produced easily interpretable results, and compared with standard regression methods it produced a noteworthy gain in statistical power. The effect of change in relative body size on adult blood pressure was more pronounced after age 11 years than in earlier childhood....... These results suggest that increases in body size prior to age 11 years are less harmful to adult blood pressure than increases occurring after this age....

  9. Lecithin hydrophobicity modulates the process of cholesterol crystal nucleation and growth in supersaturated model bile systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi, H; Tazuma, S; Kajiyama, G

    1996-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether the degree of lecithin hydrophobicity regulates bile metastability and, therefore, affects the process of cholesterol crystallization. Supersaturated model bile (MB) solutions were prepared with an identical composition on a molar basis (taurocholate/lecithin/cholesterol, 73:19.5:7.5; total lipid concentration 9 g/dl) except for the lecithin species; egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-phosp...

  10. Mucins and calcium phosphate precipitates additively stimulate cholesterol crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A. A.; van Buul, J. D.; Tytgat, G. N.; Groen, A. K.; Ostrow, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Human biliary mucin and calcium binding protein (CBP) influence formation of both calcium salt precipitates and cholesterol crystals and colocalize in the center of cholesterol gallstones. We investigated how physiological concentrations of these proteins regulate cholesterol crystallization in

  11. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  12. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol.......65-0.68]), and a sixth (0.83 [0.81-0.85]) lower IHD mortality in both sexes at ages 40-49, 50-69, and 70-89 years, respectively, throughout the main range of cholesterol in most developed countries, with no apparent threshold. The proportional risk reduction decreased with increasing blood pressure, since the absolute......). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only...

  13. Interaction of pathogens with host cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Pathogens of different taxa, from prions to protozoa, target cellular cholesterol metabolism to advance their own development and to impair host immune responses, but also causing metabolic complications, for example, atherosclerosis. This review describes recent findings of how pathogens do it. A common theme in interaction between pathogens and host cholesterol metabolism is pathogens targeting lipid rafts of the host plasma membrane. Many intracellular pathogens use rafts as an entry gate, taking advantage of the endocytic machinery and high abundance of outward-looking molecules that can be used as receptors. At the same time, disruption of the rafts' functional capacity, achieved by the pathogens through a number of various means, impairs the ability of the host to generate immune response, thus helping pathogen to thrive. Pathogens cannot synthesize cholesterol, and salvaging host cholesterol helps pathogens build advanced cholesterol-containing membranes and assembly platforms. Impact on cholesterol metabolism is not limited to the infected cells; proteins and microRNAs secreted by infected cells affect lipid metabolism systemically. Given an essential role that host cholesterol metabolism plays in pathogen development, targeting this interaction may be a viable strategy to fight infections, as well as metabolic complications of the infections.

  14. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  15. [Cholesterol reducing food certainly is useful].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenhoef, A F

    1997-12-27

    The effect of a low-cholesterol diet in open intervention studies depends in the long run on motivation, knowledge and dedication. The mean decrease of the serum cholesterol level is 10% (range: 0-20). Epidemiological and cohort studies clearly prove a connection between the intake of saturated fat, the serum cholesterol level and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. High-fat food slows down the clearance of the degradation products rich in cholesterol which appear in the blood after a meal and which are highly atherogenic (these products are not found at a fasting cholesterol assay). Cholesterol-reducing nutrition has additional useful effects, for instance on the blood pressure and the coagulation. The recommendations for healthy, low-cholesterol nutrition for the population as a whole apply particularly to patients with a high risk of coronary heart disease. Although advice given to individuals often has a disappointing effect, influencing the life pattern should be included in the strategy to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  16. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol status in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Tabassum, H.; Shahzad, S.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the differences of lipids including total cholesterol and triglycerides among subjects with or without GDM. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out between Dec 2010 to Jun 2012 at the department of gynecology and obstetrics Pakistan Naval Ship (PNS) Shifa and department of pathology, PNS Rahat. Material and Methods: Pregnant women who presented in outpatient department of gynaecology between 24-34 weeks of gestation were randomly selected, and were requested to undergo 100 Gm oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 93 pregnant women were included in the study. Afterwards they were divided in 2 groups on basis of presence and absence of GDM. Later all the patients were analyzed for total cholesterol and triglycerides. Results of triglycerides and total cholesterol were compared among subjects with or without GDM. Results: The differences for serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were not found to be significant among subject with or without gestational diabetes mellitus, where 0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: There was no difference between serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels among subjects with or without gestational diabetes mellitus. (author)

  17. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  18. Structured triglycerides containing caprylic (8:0) and oleic (18:1) fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Kritchevsky, David; Kotyla, Timothy; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of structured triglycerides containing one long chain fatty acid (oleic acid, C18:1) and one short chain saturated fatty acid (caprylic acid, 8:0) on lipidemia, liver and aortic cholesterol, and fecal neutral sterol excretion were investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic regimen consisting of 89.9% commercial ration to which was added 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol (w/w). After 2 weeks on the HCD diet, the hamsters were bled, following an overnight fast (16 h) and placed into one of three dietary treatments of eight animals each based on similar plasma cholesterol levels. The hamsters either continued on the HCD diet or were placed on diets in which the coconut oil was replaced by one of two structured triglycerides, namely, 1(3),2-dicaproyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (OCC) or 1,3-dicaproyl-2-oleoylglycerol (COC) at 10% by weight. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hamsters fed the OCC and COC compared to the HCD were reduced 40% and 49%, respectively (Pstructured triglyceride oils had lower blood cholesterol levels and lower aortic accumulation of cholesterol compared to the control fed hamsters.

  19. Analysis of the progression of systolic blood pressure using imputation of missing phenotype values

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitsiakhovich, Tatsiana; Drichel, Dmitriy; Angisch, Marina; Becker, Tim; Herold, Christine; Lacour, André

    2014-01-01

    We present a genome-wide association study of a quantitative trait, "progression of systolic blood pressure in time," in which 142 unrelated individuals of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 real genotype data were analyzed. Information on systolic blood pressure and other phenotypic covariates was missing at certain time points for a considerable part of the sample. We observed that the dropout process causing missingness is not independent of the initial systolic blood pressure; that is, the ...

  20. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  1. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhang

    Full Text Available The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19 and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19. Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression.

  2. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  3. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  4. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  5. Central aortic systolic blood pressure can predict prolonged QTc duration better than brachial artery systolic blood pressure in rural community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Tang, Songtao; Chen, Ji-Yan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jie; Cai, An-Ping; Feng, Yingqing

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prolonged electrocardiogram QTc duration was independent risk factor for both increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but there was no dating about the relationship between central aortic systolic blood pressure (CASP) and QTc duration. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between CASP and QTc duration, and assess whether CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP. A total of 500 patients were enrolled in this study, central and brachial aortic blood pressure and electrocardiogram QTc duration were measured. Pearson correlation was assessed for determining the associations of QTc duration with clinical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor of prolonged QTc duration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the utility of blood pressure for prolonged QTc duration. We found QTc durations were significantly positive with CASP (r = 0.308, p AUC: 0.771 vs. 0.646, p < 0.001) BSBP. Our results suggested that the non-invasive CASP is independently correlated with QTc duration, and CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP.

  6. Reliability of Doppler and stethoscope methods of determining systolic blood pressures: considerations for calculating an ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesbro, Steven B; Asongwed, Elmira T; Brown, Jamesha; John, Emmanuel B

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the interrater and intrarater reliability of systolic blood pressures using a stethoscope and Doppler to determine an ankle-brachial index (ABI), and (2) to determine the correlation between the 2 methods. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States, and nearly half of those with this disease are asymptomatic. Early detection and prompt treatment of PAD will improve health outcomes. It is important that clinicians perform tests that determine the presence of PAD. Two individual raters trained in ABI procedure measured the systolic blood pressures of 20 individuals' upper and lower extremities. Standard ABI measurement protocols were observed. Raters individually recorded the systolic blood pressures of each extremity using a stethoscope and a Doppler, for a total of 640 independent measures. Interrater reliability of Doppler measurements to determine SBP at the ankle was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93-0.99) compared to moderate to strong reliability using a stethoscope (ICC, 0.64-0.87). Agreement between the 2 devices to determine SBP was moderate to very weak (ICC, 0.13-0.61). Comparisons of the use of Doppler and stethoscope to determine ABI showed weak to very weak intrarater correlation (ICC, 0.17-0.35). Linear regression analysis of the 2 methods to determine ABI showed positive but weak to very weak correlations (r2 = .013, P = .184). A Doppler ultrasound is recommended over a stethoscope for accuracy in systolic pressure readings for ABI measurements.

  7. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  8. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Cholesterol-Lowering Medications? How Statins Work Medication Tracker Personal ... or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  9. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version ... Cholesterol and triglycerides are important ...

  10. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  11. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  12. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-01-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...

  13. Impact of a public cholesterol screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P M; Guinan, K H; Burke, J J; Karp, W B; Richards, J W

    1990-12-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has endorsed physician case finding as the primary method to detect individuals with elevated cholesterol levels. Despite this recommendation, promotional and for-profit public screening programs have flourished. We surveyed participants of a mall-based cholesterol screening program 1 year after their screening. Sixty-four percent of those screened had not previously known their cholesterol levels. Those who were newly screened were less likely to benefit from this testing than the general public, since they were older (mean age, 55.3 years), more likely to be female (67.4%), and nonsmokers (88%). Screenees had excellent recall of their cholesterol level (mean absolute reporting error, 0.24 mmol/L [9 mg/dL]) and a good understanding of cholesterol as a coronary heart disease risk. Those with elevated cholesterol levels reported high distress from screening but no reduction in overall psychosocial well-being and an actual decrease in absenteeism. Only 53.7% of all who were advised to seek follow-up because of an elevated screening value had done so within the year following the screening program. However, of those with values greater than 6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL), 68% had sought follow-up. Many of those who participate in public screening programs have been previously tested, fall into low-benefit groups, or fail to comply with recommended follow-up. We therefore conclude that cholesterol screening programs of the type now commonly offered are unlikely to contribute greatly to the national efforts to further reduce coronary heart disease.

  14. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  15. Reduced absorption and enhanced synthesis of cholesterol in patients with cystic fibrosis: a preliminary study of plasma sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzo, Monica; Sica, Concetta; Elce, Ausilia; Dello Russo, Antonio; Iacotucci, Paola; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Raia, Valeria; Salvatore, Donatello; Corso, Gaetano; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Low cholesterol is typically observed in the plasma of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) contrasting with the subcellular accumulation of cholesterol demonstrated in CF cells and in mice models. However, the homeostasis of cholesterol has not been well investigated in patients with CF. We studied the plasma of 26 patients with CF and 33 unaffected controls campesterol and β-sitosterol as markers of intestinal absorption and lathosterol as a marker of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis by gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS). Plasma campesterol and β-sitosterol results were significantly (p=0.01) lower while plasma lathosterol was significantly higher (p=0.001) in patients with CF as compared to control subjects. Plasma cholesterol results were significantly lower (p=0.01) in CF patients. Our data suggest that the impaired intestinal absorption of exogenous sterols in patients with CF stimulates the endogenous synthesis of cholesterol, but the levels of total cholesterol in plasma remain lower. This may be due to the CFTR dysfunction that reduces cholesterol blood excretion causing the accumulation of cholesterol in liver cells and in other tissues contributing to trigger CF chronic inflammation.

  16. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  17. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. Objective: We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Design: Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. Results: The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol–cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with SI and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Conclusions: Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve SI and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons. PMID:21940599

  18. Cholesterol-lowing effect of taurine in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Gao, Ya; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-16

    A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively. The protein expressions of CYP7A1, MEK1/2, c-Jun, p-c-Jun and HNF-4α were detected. Taurine significantly reduced cellular TC and FC in dose -and time-dependent ways, and obviously increased intracellular/medium TBA and CYP7A1 expressions. There was no change in c-Jun expression, but the protein expressions of MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun were increased at 24 h and inhibited at 48 h by 20 mM taurine while HNF4α was induced after both of the 24 h and 48 h treatment. Taurine could enhance CYP7A1 expression by inducing HNF4α and inhibiting MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun expressions to promote intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

  19. Impaired cholesterol esterification in primary brain cultures of the lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.C.; Suresh, S.; Weintroub, H.; Brady, R.O.; Pentchev, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Esterification of cholesterol was investigated in primary neuroglial cultures obtained from newborn lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutants. An impairment in 3 H-oleic acid incorporation into cholesteryl esters was demonstrated in cultures of homozygous LCSD brain. Primary cultures derived from other phenotypically normal pups of the carrier breeders esterified cholesterol at normal levels or at levels which were intermediary between normal and deficient indicating a phenotypic expression of the LCSD heterozygote genotype. These observations on LCSD mutant brain cells indicate that the defect in cholesterol esterification is closely related to the primary genetic defect and is expressed in neuroglial cells in culture

  20. On the cholesterol transfer rates in the rat. The search for a slow component (1961); Sur les vitesses de transfert du cholesterol chez le rat. Recherche d'une composante lente (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The ingestion of cholesterol 4-{sup 14}C during 7, 27 and 43 weeks enables one to find that the size of the cholesterol transfer space in rats is not modified by the duration of the experiment. In male rats, the results obtained confirm on the one hand that 50 to 60 per cent of the total cholesterol of the animal is renewed by transfer, and on the other hand that 40 to 60 per cent of the cholesterol of the rat is inert as regards this process. In female rats, the size of the transfer space is 10 per cent larger than in the males, but the general conclusions are the same. (author) [French] L'ingestion de cholesterol 4-{sup 14}C durant 7, 27 et 43 semaines permet de constater que la grandeur de l'espace de transfert du cholesterol chez les rats n'est pas modifie par la duree de l'experience. Pour les rats males, les resultats, d'une part, confirment que 50 a 60 pour cent du cholesterol total de l'animal est renouvele par transfert, et d'autre part, que 40 a 50 pour cent du cholesterol du rat est inerte en regard de ce processus. Pour les rats femelles, la grandeur de l'espace de transfert est superieure de 10 pour cent a celle de l'espace de transfert des males, mais les conclusions d'ensemble restent les memes. (auteur)

  1. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  2. Target blood pressure for treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: valsartan in elderly isolated systolic hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao; Rakugi, Hiromi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Ito, Sadayoshi; Eto, Tanenao; Kimura, Genjiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Takishita, Shuichi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study, we aimed to establish whether strict blood pressure control ( or =140 mm Hg to or =2 years. The strict control (1545 patients) and moderate control (1534 patients) groups were well matched (mean age: 76.1 years; mean blood pressure: 169.5/81.5 mm Hg). Median follow-up was 3.07 years. At 3 years, blood pressure reached 136.6/74.8 mm Hg and 142.0/76.5 mm Hg, respectively. The blood pressure difference between the 2 groups was 5.4/1.7 mm Hg. The overall rate of the primary composite end point was 10.6 per 1000 patient-years in the strict control group and 12.0 per 1000 patient-years in the moderate control group (hazard ratio: 0.89; [95% CI: 0.60 to 1.34]; P=0.38). In summary, blood pressure targets of or = 70 years of age with isolated systolic hypertension, although our trial was underpowered to definitively determine whether strict control was superior to less stringent blood pressure targets.

  3. The effects of amoxicillin and vancomycin on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Reijnders, D; Konings, M C J M; Groen, A K; Lütjohann, D; Goossens, G H; Blaak, E E; Plat, J

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in which 55 obese, pre-diabetic men received oral amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (antibiotic directed against Gram-positive bacteria) or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) capsules for 7days (1500mg/day). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein, non-cholesterol sterol, bile acid and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations were determined at baseline and after 1-week intervention. Plasma secondary bile acids correlated negatively with cholestanol (marker for cholesterol absorption, r=-0.367; Pcholesterol synthesis, r=0.430; Pcholesterol metabolism, plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C concentrations as compared to placebo. In addition, both antibiotic treatments did not affect individual isoforms or total plasma oxyphytosterol or oxycholesterol concentrations. Despite strong correlations between plasma bile acid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism (synthesis and absorption), amoxicillin and vancomycin treatment for 7days did not affect plasma lipid and lipoprotein, plasma non-cholesterol sterol and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations in obese, pre-diabetic men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tariq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.. Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  5. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Hinderliter, Alan L; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A; Paine, Nicola J; Sherwood, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events, and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared with men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between nighttime SBP and endothelial function, as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP ≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared with women with normal nighttime SBP. One hundred postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [7.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [4.7] kg/m; hypertension, 47%; coronary artery disease, 51%; mean [SD] clinic SBP, 137 [17] mm Hg; mean [SD] clinic diastolic blood pressure, 67 [11] mm Hg; nighttime hypertension, 34 women) underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessment. Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjustment for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower mean (SD) FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95% [0.65%] vs 5.52% [0.46%], P = 0.002). Nighttime hypertension is associated with reduced endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of nighttime hypertension treatment on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted.

  6. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-12-04

    The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  7. Reference values of fetal peak systolic blood flow Velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlate peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to ...

  8. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Ghio, Stefano; St John Sutton, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as a predictor of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling and clinical benefit of cardiac synchronization therapy (CRT) and to evaluate the effect of CRT on TAPSE in patients with mildly symptomatic systol...

  9. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  10. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null

  11. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Binge Eating, Urine Free Cortisol, and Metabolic Characteristics in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    circumference, fasting insulin and glucose used to calculate the homeostatic model of insulin resistance ( HOMA - IR ), triglycerides and total cholesterol...resistance, or HOMA - IR ), serum triglycerides (mg/dL), serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in mg/dL), and... HOMA - IR ), serum triglycerides (mg/dL), serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in mg/dL), and systolic and diastolic

  13. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  14. Fordelinger af serum total kolesterol i befolkninger med varierende risiko for hjerte-karsygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, P; Voss, A; Hørder, M

    1990-01-01

    , it was found that serum total cholesterol increases with age in all groups. A distinct sex difference was observed in the majority of investigations: in the age groups under 25 years and over 50 years, women have higher serum total cholesterol values than men while, in the age group 25-50 years, men have......By means of search in the literature and subsequent meta-analysis, the authors have described the serum total cholesterol values in three different risk groups for cardiovascular disease. High total serum cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition...

  15. The Role of Macrophage Lipophagy in Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage cholesterol efflux is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport, which helps to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and to reduce atherosclerosis. Lipophagy has recently been identified as a new step in cholesterol ester hydrolysis that regulates cholesterol efflux, since it mobilizes cholesterol from lipid droplets of macrophages via autophagy and lysosomes. In this review, we briefly discuss recent advances regarding the mechanisms of the cholesterol efflux pathway in macrophage foam cells, and present lipophagy as a therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  16. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  17. Gender difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol in young adults with comparable routine physical exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. Aims: To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. Settings and Design: This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Results: Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84% in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7% of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  18. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  19. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S.; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Temel, Ryan E.; Brown, J. Mark

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the non-biliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI

  20. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Orth; Stefano Bellosta

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein...

  1. Melanocortin signaling in the CNS directly regulates circulating cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Hofmann, Susanna M; Basford, Joshua; Nogueiras, Ruben; Pfluger, Paul T; Patterson, James T; Grant, Erin; Wilson-Perez, Hilary E; Granholm, Norman A; Arnold, Myrtha; Trevaskis, James L; Butler, Andrew A; Davidson, William S; Woods, Stephen C; Benoit, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol circulates in the blood in association with triglycerides and other lipids, and elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol carries a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood is thought to be beneficial. Circulating cholesterol is the balance among dietary cholesterol absorption, hepatic synthesis and secretion, and the metabolism of lipoproteins by various tissues. We found that the CNS is also an impo...

  2. The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang V T; Sievenpiper, John L; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Jovanovski, Elena; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using the generic inverse-variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified by the I 2-statistic. In total, fifty-eight trials (n 3974) were included. A median dose of 3·5 g/d of oat β-glucan significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol (-0·19; 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14 mmol/l, Pcholesterol (-0·20; 95 % CI -0·26, -0·15 mmol/l, PLDL-cholesterol (I 2=79 %) and non-HDL-cholesterol (I 2=99 %). Pooled analyses showed that oat β-glucan has a lowering effect on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Inclusion of oat-containing foods may be a strategy for achieving targets in CVD reduction.

  3. Effect of different fat-enriched meats on non-cholesterol sterols and oxysterols as markers of cholesterol metabolism: Results of a randomized and cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baila-Rueda, L; Mateo-Gallego, R; Pérez-Calahorra, S; Lamiquiz-Moneo, I; de Castro-Orós, I; Cenarro, A; Civeira, F

    2015-09-01

    Different kinds of fatty acids can affect the synthesis, absorption, and elimination of cholesterol. This study was carried out to assess the associations of cholesterol metabolism with the intake of two meats with different fatty acid composition in healthy volunteers. The study group was composed of 20 subjects (12 males and eight females; age, 34.4 ± 11.6 years; body mass index (BMI), 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2); low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 2.97 ± 0.55 mmol/l; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 1.61 ± 0.31 mmol/l; triglycerides (TG), 1.06 ± 0.41 mmol/l) who completed a 30-day randomized and cross-over study to compare the cholesterol metabolism effect of 250 g of low-fat lamb versus 250 g of high-fat lamb per day in their usual diet. Cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and elimination were estimated from the serum non-cholesterol sterol and oxysterol concentrations analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). No changes in weight, plasma lipids, or physical activity were observed across the study. Cholesterol intestinal absorption was decreased with both diets. Cholesterol synthesis and elimination decreased during the low-fat lamb dietary intervention (ρ = 0.048 and ρ = 0.005, respectively). Acute changes in the diet fat content modify the synthesis, absorption, and biliary elimination of cholesterol. These changes were observed even in the absence of total and LDL cholesterol changes in plasma. ClinicalTrials.gov PRS, NCT02259153. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  5. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. The Ratio of Unesterified/esterified Cholesterol is the Major Determinant of Atherogenicity of Lipoprotein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Babak; Alikhani, Asal; Mokhtari, Hossein; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the atherogenicity of lipoporotein fractions is correlated with the content of unesterified cholesterol. To evaluate the role and prognostic values of unesterified and esterified cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions for coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 400 patients who were divided to CAD controls and cases according to the data of coronary angiography. Fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were determined. Total cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD patients (196.3 ± 52.3 mg/dL vs. 185.7 ± 48.0, p≤ 0.049) and the increment occurred totally in unesterified portion (77.2 ± 28.4 mg/dL vs. 71.1 ± 24.4, p≤ 0.031). HDL cholesterol showed a significant decrease in CAD group (39.9 ± 9.5 mg/dL vs. 44.6 ± 10.5, p≤ 0.001), but the decrement occurred wholly in the esterified portion (26.2 ± 9.2 mg/dL vs. 31.1 ± 8.1, p≤ 0.001). NonHDL cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD group (156.8 ± 48.3 mg/dL vs. 140.3 ± 43.6, p≤ 0.001), and the changes occurred in both un- and esterified portions. FCE in HDL was diminished significantly in CAD patients (64.8 ± 13.9% vs. 69.3 ± 7.9, p≤ 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, unesterified cholesterol in NonHDL (UeNonHDLc) and esterified cholesterol in HDL (EsHDLc) excluded total cholesterol and HDLc respectively from the regression equation. In ROC analysis, the ratio of UeNonHDLc/EsHDLc was the strongest predictor for CAD among cholesterol subfractions. The results confirm that UeNonHDLc is atherogenic and EsHDLc is antiatherogenic and are independent risk factors for CAD.

  7. Evaluation of Cholesterol as a Biomarker for Suicidality in a Veteran Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Chuck; Caldwell, Barbara; Basehore, Heather

    2017-08-01

    A reduction in total cholesterol may alter the microviscosity of the brain-cell-membrane, reducing serotonin receptor exposure. The resulting imbalance between serotonin and dopamine may lead to an increased risk for suicidality. The objective of this research was to evaluate total cholesterol as a biological marker for suicidality in a sample of US military veterans. The study population consisted of veterans who received care at the Coatesville Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and were included in the Suicide Prevention Coordinator's database for having suicidal ideation with evidence of escalating intent, a documented suicide attempt, or committed suicide between 2009 and 2015. The veterans' medical data were obtained from the facility's computerized patient record system. The final sample was 188 observations from 128 unique veterans. Veterans with total cholesterol levels below 168 mg/dl appeared to have a higher suicide risk than those with higher levels. The cholesterol levels of veterans reporting suicidal ideation or attempt were significantly lower than the group reporting neither [F(2, 185) = 30.19, p cholesterol levels from an earlier visit in which they did not report suicidality. A latent class analysis revealed that among other differences, suicidal veterans were younger, leaner, and had more anxiety, sleep problems, and higher education than those being seen for an issue unrelated to suicidality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of non-compaction cardiomyopathy in patients with or without left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviggiano, A.; Deschle, H.; Lewkowicz, J.M.; Tajer, C.D.; Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Vallejos, J.; Stewart Harris, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is a genetic disorder characterized by deep trabeculations in the ventricular wall, which define recesses communicating with the main ventricular chamber. The prevalence of NCC is greater in symptomatic populations with left ventricular dysfunction; yet, it may also be detected in asymptomatic patients with normal left ventricular function using novel diagnostic tools. However, this condition is under-diagnosed due to a low index of clinical suspicion and to the use of echocardiography classifications based on different diagnostic criteria. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has established two diagnostic criteria that clearly recognize this disease. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and morphological characteristics of patients with NCC with and without systolic dysfunction undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Material and Methods: A total of 20 patients with NCC were retrospectively included. The following parameters were determined: left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD); left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD); cardiac mass and left ventricular trabeculations. The distribution of NC myocardium was evaluated according to the model of 17 myocardial segments. Results: Mean myocardial thickness was 13.1 ± 3.3 mm and 3.6 ± 0.6 mm in NC versus normal myocardium, respectively. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction presented increased LVEDD, LVEDV, total cardiac mass, and LV non-compaction and trabeculations. We found a positive correlation and a linear relationship between LVEDD and TLVM (g/m 2 ): r=0.76; r 2 =0.59; p [es

  9. Influence of Water Quality on Cholesterol-Induced Tau Pathology: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Larry Sparks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies employed the cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease (AD to investigate the relationship between AD-like neurofibrillary tangle (NFT neuropathology and tau protein levels as the main component of NFT. We measured brain and plasma tau levels and semiquantified NFT-like neuropathology in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered drinking water of varying quality (distilled, tap, and distilled+copper compared to animals receiving normal chow and local tap water. Total tau levels in plasma were increased in all cholesterol-fed rabbits compared to animals on normal chow, regardless of quality of water. In contrast, increased tau in brain and increased AT8 immunoreactive NFT-like lesions were greatest in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered distilled water. A substantial decrease in brain tau and incidence and density of AT8 immunoreactive NFT-like lesions occurred in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered copper water, and an even greater decrease was observed in cholesterol-fed animals on local tap water. These studies suggest the possibility that circulating tau could be the source of the tau accumulating in the brain.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  12. Evaluation of probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria to reduce in vitro cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Cueto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily consumption of probiotics reduce levels of serum cholesterol by up to 3%, which is significant to prevent hypercholesterolemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cause of mortality. The genus Lactobacillus is used in industry as a probiotic and some species reduce serum cholesterol by two mechanisms, the adsorption of cholesterol and the production of the enzyme bile salt hydrolase, which vary according to species. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of probiotic bacteria group isolated from coast serum. 53 strains were isolated from nine coastal serum sample; the sensitivity to cefoxitin and vancomycin, and the tolerance to pH 2.0 and 0.3% bile salts were evaluated to determine its probiotic potential. Five microorganisms were selected and molecularly identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. The ability to absorb cholesterol measured by the method of Kimoto, showed a reduction of 53.06 ± 2.69 µg.mL-1 for strain K73 and 7.23 ± 2.69 µg. mL-1 for K75. These same strains showed the highest total and specific activity of the enzyme. The results didn´t show a relationship between the production of enzyme and adsorption of cholesterol. The strain with the greatest probiotic potential was K73. This hypocholesterolemic property will give strains added value to start the search for food matrices that allow decreasing serum cholesterol levels.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cholesterol oxidative stability of raw and processed eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Marliz Klaumann Julca

    2005-01-01

    The egg have being studied due its nutritional wealth, for show industrial interest as a raw material, e due its higher cholesterol content. At the same time, due its susceptibility to contamination mainly with salmonella, it is being proposed the ionizing radiation as a hygienic measure. Cholesterol is subject to oxidation, that it is facilitated by several factors, among them ionizing radiation. Formed cholesterol oxides, by its turn, show harmful biological properties to human health, as atherogenicity, cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, among others. The objectives of this work were evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation over pH, viscosity and color, besides the oxidative stability of cholesterol, in stored and processed crude eggs. With the increase of used doses (1, 2 and 3 KGy), there was an reduction in the viscosity of the egg white and in the color yolk egg, besides the increase in lipidic oxidation, measured through tiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Specifications as humidity, total lipids and egg yolk cholesterol were not influenced. In the subject of humidity and of cholesterol, there was an meaningful alteration due storage (30 days in 4 deg C). The sum of the analyzed oxides didn't variate with the irradiation, only individually, although it did vary with storage. The thermal processing caused an meaningful increase of TBARS, but despite this, the oxides sum didn't differed between treatments. (author)

  14. Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk, but the association is controversial and inconclusive. A meta-analysis of case-control studies and cohort studies was conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and lung cancer risk in this study. A relevant literature search up to October 2017 was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sinomed, and VIP Journal Integration Platform. Ten case-control studies and six cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the risk estimates were pooled using either fixed or random effects models. The case-control studies with a total of 6894 lung cancer cases and 29,736 controls showed that dietary cholesterol intake was positively associated with lung cancer risk (Odds Ratio = 1.70, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.43–2.03. However, there was no evidence of an association between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of lung cancer among the 241,920 participants and 1769 lung cancer cases in the cohort studies (Relative Risk = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.94–1.25. Due to inconsistent results from case-control and cohort studies, it is difficult to draw any conclusion regarding the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on lung cancer risk. Carefully designed and well-conducted cohort studies are needed to identify the association between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk.

  15. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  16. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  17. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  18. C282Y-HFE gene variant affects cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Huang, Michael A; Schengrund, C-L; Connor, James R; Lee, Sang Y

    2014-01-01

    Although disruptions in the maintenance of iron and cholesterol metabolism have been implicated in several cancers, the association between variants in the HFE gene that is associated with cellular iron uptake and cholesterol metabolism has not been studied. The C282Y-HFE variant is a risk factor for different cancers, is known to affect sphingolipid metabolism, and to result in increased cellular iron uptake. The effect of this variant on cholesterol metabolism and its possible relevance to cancer phenotype was investigated using wild type (WT) and C282Y-HFE transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of C282Y-HFE in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant increase in total cholesterol as well as increased transcription of a number of genes involved in its metabolism compared to cells expressing WT-HFE. The marked increase in expression of NPC1L1 relative to that of most other genes, was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of NPC1, a protein that functions in cholesterol uptake by cells. Because inhibitors of cholesterol metabolism have been proposed to be beneficial for treating certain cancers, their effect on the viability of C282Y-HFE neuroblastoma cells was ascertained. C282Y-HFE cells were significantly more sensitive than WT-HFE cells to U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol Δ24-reductase the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. This was not seen for simvastatin, ezetimibe, or a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. These studies indicate that cancers presenting in carriers of the C282Y-HFE allele might be responsive to treatment designed to selectively reduce cholesterol content in their tumor cells.

  19. [Screening and optimization of cholesterol conversion strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Pang, Cuiping; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2014-10-04

    Bacterial strain SE-1 capable of transforming cholesterol was isolated from soil and characterized. The transformation products were identified. Fermentation conditions were optimized for conversion. Cholesterol was used as sole carbon source to isolate strain SE-1. Morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain SE-1 were studied. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation supernatants were extracted with chloroform, the transformation products were analyzed by silica gel thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH20. Their structures were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Fermentation medium including carbon and nitrogen, methods of adding substrates and fermentation conditions for Strain SE-1 were optimized. Strain SE-1 was a Gram-negative bacterium, exhibiting the highest homologs to Burkholderia cepacia based on the physiological analysis. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of SE-1 strain and comparison with related Burkholderia show that SE-1 strain was very close to B. cepacia (Genbank No. U96927). The similarity was 99%. The result of silica gel thin layer chromatography shows that strain SE-1 transformed cholesterol to two products, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and the minor product was 7-oxocholesterol. The optimum culture conditions were: molasses 5%, (NH4 )2SO4 0.3%, 4% of inoculation, pH 7.5 and 36 degrees C. Under the optimum culture condition, the conversion rate reached 34.4% when concentration of cholesterol-Tween 80 was 1 g/L. Cholesterol 7beta-hydroxylation conversion rate under optimal conditions was improved by 20.8%. Strain SE-1 isolated from soil is capable of converting cholesterol at lab-scale.

  20. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Nijstad, Niels; de Boer, Jan Freark; Out, Ruud; Hogewerf, Wytse; Van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: The ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been implicated in cholesterol efflux towards HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Biliary cholesterol secretion is considered as an important step in RCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1

  2. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-28

    May 28, 2012 ... PSA assay could reduce the associated cost of care and give timely attention to prostate cancer patients ... Prostate cancer (Pca) and benign prostate hyperplasia ..... triglyceride and total cholesterol values in benign prostatic.

  3. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  4. Lysosomal regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in tuberous sclerosis complex is mediated via NPC1 and LDL-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakis, Harilaos; Alesi, Nicola; Ogorek, Barbara; Nijmeh, Julie; Khabibullin, Damir; Gutierrez, Catherine; Valvezan, Alexander J; Cunningham, James; Priolo, Carmen; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2017-06-13

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease associated with hyperactive mTORC1. The impact of TSC1/2 deficiency on lysosome-mediated processes is not fully understood. We report here that inhibition of lysosomal function using chloroquine (CQ) upregulates cholesterol homeostasis genes in TSC2-deficient cells. This TSC2-dependent transcriptional signature is associated with increased accumulation and intracellular levels of both total cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Unexpectedly, engaging this CQ-induced cholesterol uptake pathway together with inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis allows survival of TSC2-deficient, but not TSC2-expressing cells. The underlying mechanism of TSC2-deficient cell survival is dependent on exogenous cholesterol uptake via LDL-R, and endosomal trafficking mediated by Vps34. Simultaneous inhibition of lysosomal and endosomal trafficking inhibits uptake of esterified cholesterol and cell growth in TSC2-deficient, but not TSC2-expressing cells, highlighting the TSC-dependent lysosome-mediated regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and pointing toward the translational potential of these pathways for the therapy of TSC.

  5. Sex specific response in cholesterol level in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after long-term exposure of difenoconazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiyan; Wang, Kai; Chai, Tingting; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Pang, Sen; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide, its extensive application may potentially cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. To investigate the effect of difenoconazole on cholesterol content and related mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to environmental related dosage (0.1, 10 and 500 μg/L) difenoconazole. The body weight and hepatic total cholesterol (TCHO) level was tested at 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure (dpe). The expressions of eight cholesterol synthesis genes and one cholesterol metabolism gene were assessed via Quantitative PCR method. The significant decrease of TCHO level in male zebrafish liver was observed at 15 and 30 dpe, which was accompanied by apparent hepatic cholesterol-genesis genes expression decline. In comparison with males, female zebrafish showed different transcription modification of tested genes, and the cholesterol content maintain normal level during the whole exposure. - Highlights: • Difenoconazle could reduce TCHO level in male zebrafish liver. • Difenoconazole could inhibit sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. • Female zebrafish didn't show obvious change of TCHO level after exposure. • Difenoconazole could inhibit body weight of both male and female zebrafish. - Difenoconazle could reduce cholesterol level and sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. While female zebrafish showed no obvious cholesterol content change during exposure

  6. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kausik K; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P T; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L J; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R Scott; Kastelein, John J P

    2017-04-13

    In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial of inclisiran administered as a subcutaneous injection in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of placebo or 200, 300, or 500 mg of inclisiran or two doses (at days 1 and 90) of placebo or 100, 200, or 300 mg of inclisiran. The primary end point was the change from baseline in LDL cholesterol level at 180 days. Safety data were available through day 210, and data on LDL cholesterol and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels were available through day 240. A total of 501 patients underwent randomization. Patients who received inclisiran had dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels. At day 180, the least-squares mean reductions in LDL cholesterol levels were 27.9 to 41.9% after a single dose of inclisiran and 35.5 to 52.6% after two doses (PLDL cholesterol levels: 48% of the patients who received the regimen had an LDL cholesterol level below 50 mg per deciliter (1.3 mmol per liter) at day 180. At day 240, PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels remained significantly lower than at baseline in association with all inclisiran regimens. Serious adverse events occurred in 11% of the patients who received inclisiran and in 8% of the patients who received placebo. Injection-site reactions occurred in 5% of the patients who received injections of inclisiran. In our trial, inclisiran was found to lower PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels among patients at high cardiovascular risk who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. (Funded by the Medicines Company

  7. 2013 Cholesterol Guidelines Revisited: Percent LDL Cholesterol Reduction or Attained LDL Cholesterol Level or Both for Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Kastelein, John J.; Laskey, Rachel; Amarenco, Pierre; Demicco, David A.; Waters, David D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends moderate- to high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but departs from the traditional treat-to-target approach. Whether

  8. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  9. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  10. Role of rs1501299 variant in the adiponectin gene on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-11-14

    Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A Caucasian population of 82 obese patients was analyzed, before and after 3 months on a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. After dietary treatment and in wild type group, weight, BMI, fat mass, leptin levels, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreases were similar to the mutant type group. In wild type group, the decrease in total cholesterol was -28.1±15.3 mg/dl (mutant group: -12.6±16.7 mg/dl:p=0.009), LDL- cholesterol was -31.8±20.5 mg/dl (-12.2±11.5 mg/dl:p=0.006), fasting glucose plasma -4.8±2.5 mg/dL (-0.5±0.1 mg/dL:p=0.02), insulin -3.6±1.5 mUI/L (+0.6±1.1 mUI/L:p=0.02) and HOMA-IR -1.2±0.9 (-0.1±1.1:p=0.03). The present study suggests that T allele of ADIPO (rs1501299) could be a predictor of a lack of response of HOMA-IR, insulin, fasting glucose and LDL cholesterol secondary to a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac systolic function in cirrhotic patients’ candidate of liver trans-plantation compared with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Sattarzadeh-Badkoubeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed different systolic cardiac indices to describe left and right ventricular dysfunction in cirrhotic patients before liver transplantation. Methods: In this case-control study, eighty-one consecutive individuals with the confirmed hepatic cirrhosis and candidate for liver transplantation in the Imam Khomeini Hospital between March 2008 and March 2010 were selected. Thirty-two age and gender cross-matched healthy volunteers were also selected as the control group. A detailed two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography was obtained in all patients and controls performed by the same operator on the day of admission. Results: Dimensions of both left and right atriums as well as left ventricular end-diastolic volume and basal right ventricular dimension in the cirrhotic group were significantly higher than control group. Left ventricular end-systolic dimensions as well as aortic annulus diameter were not different between the two study groups. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral, isovolumic pre-ejection time, isovolumic relaxation time, stroke volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, IVCT+IVRT+ET, systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus, systolic velocity of basal segment of RV free wall, systolic velocity of basal segment of septal wall, peak strain of septal margin (base, peak strain of septal margin (midpoint, peak strain of lateral margin (midpoint, strain rate of septal margin (base, strain rate of septal margin (midpoint, strain rate of lateral margin (base, strain rate of lateral margin (midpoint, Tei index (left and right ventricles, systolic time interval and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were higher in cirrhotic group, significantly, (P< 0.05. Left ventricular ejection time and systolic velocity of mid segment of lateral wall were lower in cirrhotic group, significantly, (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In this study, the effects of liver on heart were volume overload, hyperdynamic state and

  12. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  13. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  14. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  15. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Rytter, Dorte [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Bech, Bodil Hammer [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Henriksen, Tine Brink [Pediatric Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Olsen, Sjurdur F. [Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: tih@hi.is [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  16. Phytosterol capsules and serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottestad, Inger; Ose, Leiv; Wennersberg, Marianne H; Granlund, Linda; Kirkhus, Bente; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2013-06-01

    Phytosterols are recommended in combination with diet therapy to reduce elevated LDL-cholesterol level. Meta-analyses indicate a 10% reduction in LDL-cholesterol from intake of approximately 2 g phytosterols/d incorporated into fat-based foods. However, the cholesterol lowering effect from capsules containing phytosterols is less documented. The pre-specified primary endpoint of the present study was to investigate the effect of capsules with phytosterols on circulating LDL-cholesterol in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 41 men and women were randomized into two four-weeks intervention periods with softgel capsules containing either phytosterols (2.0 g/d) or sunflower oil. There was a three-weeks washout period between the intervention periods. No significant difference in total- or LDL-cholesterol between the phytosterol and the placebo period were observed after four weeks intervention (0.0 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.3 to 0.2), P = 0.74 and -0.1 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.3 to 0.1), P = 0.32, respectively). Daily intake of capsules containing 2 g phytosterols did not reduce total- or LDL-cholesterol significantly in a highly relevant target group for the use of phytosterol products. The present results may emphasize the importance of choosing a suitable dosage-delivery system in order to achieve optimal cholesterol lowering effect. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, IDno:NCT00485095. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  18. Assessment of sustained effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on left ventricular systolic functions by using novel tissue Doppler derived indices in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ender; Erturk, Mehmet; Birant, Ali; Kurtar Mansıroglu, Aslı; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Karakurt, Huseyin; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Uzun, Fatih; Somuncu, Mustafa Umut; Yildirim, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies comparing levosimendan vs. dobutamine have revealed that levosimendan is better in relieving symptoms. Echocardiographic studies have been done using second measurements immediately following a dobutamine infusion or while it was still being administered. The aim of our study was assessment of sustained effects of 24 h levosimendan and dobutamine infusions on left ventricular systolic functions. A total of 61 patients with acutely decompensated heart failure with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV symptoms were randomized to receive either levosimendan or dobutamine 2:1 in an open label fashion. Before and 5 days after the initiation of infusions, functional class was assessed, N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mitral inflow peak E and A wave velocity, and E/A ratios were measured; using tissue Doppler imaging, isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA), peak myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction (IVV), peak systolic velocity during ejection period (Sa), early (E') and late (A') diastolic velocities, and E'/A' and E/E' ratios were measured. The NYHA class improved in both groups, but improvements were prominent in the levosimendan group. NT-proBNP levels were significantly reduced in the levosimendan group. Improvements in LVEF and diastolic indices were significant in the levosimendan group. Tissue Doppler-derived systolic indices of IVV and IVA increased significantly in the levosimendan group. Improvements in left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions continue after a levosimendan infusion.

  19. High Cholesterol/Low Cholesterol: Effects in Biological Membranes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    Lipid composition determines membrane properties, and cholesterol plays a major role in this determination as it regulates membrane fluidity and permeability, as well as induces the formation of coexisting phases and domains in the membrane. Biological membranes display a very diverse lipid composition, the lateral organization of which plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of membrane functions. We hypothesize that, during biological evolution, membranes with a particular cholesterol content were selected to perform certain functions in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the major membrane properties induced by cholesterol, and their relationship to certain membrane functions.

  20. Near patient cholesterol testing in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, S D; Jones, A; Wilmink, A B; Bradbury, A W

    2003-09-01

    To assess the bias, precision and utility of the Bioscanner 2000 for near patient testing of total cholesterol (NPTC) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). One hundred consecutive patients attending a hospital-based clinic with symptomatic PAD underwent non-fasting NPTC using finger prick blood sample and a laboratory total cholesterol (TC) using blood drawn from an antecubital fossa vein. The Bioscanner 2000 showed good precision with a coefficient of variation of 1.8-3.8%. NPTC was significantly lower than laboratory TC (mean (S.D.) 4.67 (1.1) vs. 5.12 (1.2) mmol/l), p Bioscanner 2000 compared to laboratory testing, which was demonstrated to be a systematic bias using a Bland-Altman plot. Almost half (46%) of the readings differed by > 0.5 mmol/l, 16% by > 1.0 mmol/l and 3% by > 2 mmol/l. This means that if the cut-off for statin treatment were taken as a TC of 5.0 or 3.5 mmol/l then, based on NPTC, alone 18 and 6% of patients, respectively, would not have received a statin. In the present study, NPTC significantly under-estimated TC when compared to laboratory testing. However, in the majority of cases, this would not have affected the decision to prescribe a statin and NPTC testing allows the immediate institution or titration of statin treatment.

  1. Statins, PCSK9 inhibitors and cholesterol homeostasis: a view from within the hepatocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniderman, Allan D; Kiss, Robert Scott; Reid, Thomas; Thanassoulis, George; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-05-01

    Statins and PCSK9 inhibitors dramatically lower plasma LDL levels and dramatically increase LDL receptor number within hepatocyte cell membranes. It seems self-evident that total clearance of LDL particles from plasma and total delivery of cholesterol to the liver must increase in consequence. However, based on the results of stable isotope tracer studies, this analysis demonstrates the contrary to be the case. Statins do not change the production rate of LDL particles. Accordingly, at steady state, the clearance rate cannot change. Because LDL particles contain less cholesterol on statin therapy, the delivery of cholesterol to the liver must, therefore, be reduced. PCSK9 inhibitors reduce the production of LDL particles and this further reduces cholesterol delivery to the liver. With both agents, a larger fraction of a smaller pool is removed per unit time. These findings are inconsistent with the conventional model of cholesterol homeostasis within the liver, but are consistent with a new model of regulation, the multi-channel model, which postulates that different lipoprotein particles enter the hepatocyte by different routes and have different metabolic fates within the hepatocyte. The multi-channel model, but not the conventional model, may explain how statins and PCSK9 inhibitors can produce sustained increases in LDL receptor number. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased maternal and fetal cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1 expression in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mansour, Yosef T; Zurkinden, Line; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples ( P preeclampsia ( P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia ( P preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.R.; Fielding, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of human skin fibroblasts were labeled to high cholesterol specific activity with [ 3 H]cholesterol and incubated briefly (1-3 min) with normal human plasma. The plasma was fractionated by two-dimensional agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the early appearance of cholesterol label among plasma lipoproteins determined. A major part of the label at 1-min incubation was in a pre-beta-migrating apo A-I lipoprotein fraction with a molecular weight of ca. 70,000. Label was enriched about 30-fold in this fraction relative to its content of apo A-I (1-2% of total apo A-I). The proportion of label in this lipoprotein was strongly correlated with its concentration in plasma. Further incubation (2 min) in the presence of unlabeled cells demonstrated transfer of label from this fraction to a higher molecular weight pre-beta apo A-I species, to low-density lipoprotein, and to the alpha-migrating apo A-I that made up the bulk (96%) of total apo A-I in plasma. The data suggest that a significant part of cell-derived cholesterol is transferred specifically to a pre-beta-migrating lipoprotein A-I species as part of a cholesterol transport transfer sequence in plasma

  5. The Success Story of LDL Cholesterol Lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Terje R

    2016-02-19

    We can look back at >100 years of cholesterol research that has brought medicine to a stage where people at risk of severe or fatal coronary heart disease have a much better prognosis than before. This progress has not come about without resistance. Perhaps one of the most debated topics in medicine, the cholesterol controversy, could only be brought to rest through the development of new clinical research methods that were capable of taking advantage of the amazing achievements in basic and pharmacological science after the second World War. It was only after understanding the biochemistry and physiology of cholesterol synthesis, transport and clearance from the blood that medicine could take advantage of drugs and diets to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. This review points to the highlights of the history of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering, with the discovery of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and its physiology and not only the development of statins as the stellar moments but also the development of clinical trial methodology as an effective tool to provide scientifically convincing evidence. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, P.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, Sep (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols * biological membranes * biophysical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  7. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  8. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-12-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addition to plasmenylethanolamine, five other lipids which contain an alkenyl ether residue supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403 in a lecithin-cholesterol base medium. Of six steroids tested, cholesterol, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholest-4-en-3 beta-ol (allocholesterol), and androst-5-en-3 beta-ol-17-one supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403. All four steroids were reduced to the 3 beta-ol, 5 beta-H products. The delta 5 steroids cholest-5-en-3 alpha-ol (epicholesterol) and 22,23-bisnor-5-cholenic acid-3-beta-ol were not reduced and did not support growth of the Eubacterium strain.

  9. Stroke secondary to multiple spontaneous cholesterol emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, M; Baumgartner, J M; Bounameaux, H

    1991-01-01

    We describe one male, 49-year-old diabetic patient in whom regressive stroke with aphasia and right-sided hemiparesia was related to multiple small emboli in the left paraventricular cortex. Simultaneous presence of several cholesterol emboli in the left eye ground and detection of an atheromatous plaque at the homolateral carotid bifurcation let assume that the cerebral emboli originated from that plaque and also consisted of cholesterol crystals. The patient was discharged on low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) after neurologic improvement. Follow-up at one year revealed clinical stability, recurrence of the cholesterol emboli at the eye ground examination and no change of the carotid plaque. Cholesterol embolization with renal failure, hypertension and peripheral arterial occlusions causing skin ulcerations is classical in case of atheromatous aortic disease but stroke has rarely been reported in this syndrome. However, more frequent use of invasive procedures (arteriography, transluminal angioplasty, vascular surgery) or thrombolytic treatment might increase its incidence in the near future.

  10. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, SI (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  11. estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: eiadeyeye@yahoo.com. ESTIMATIONS OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDES AND FRACTIONATION OF. LIPOPROTEINS IN SERUM SAMPLES OF SOME NIGERIAN FEMALE SUBJECTS. E.I. Adeyeye1* and I. Oluwadare2. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Ado Ekiti, P.M.B. 5363, ...

  12. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Rigamonti, Elena; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2013-10-01

    Many functional foods and dietary supplements have been reported to be beneficial for the management of dyslipidaemia, one of the major risk factors for CVD. Soluble fibres and legume proteins are known to be a safe and practical approach for cholesterol reduction. The present study aimed at investigating the hypocholesterolaemic effect of the combinations of these bioactive vegetable ingredients and their possible effects on the expression of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis. A total of six groups of twelve rats each were fed, for 28 d, Nath's hypercholesterolaemic diets, differing in protein and fibre sources, being, respectively, casein and cellulose (control), pea proteins and cellulose (pea), casein and oat fibres (oat), casein and apple pectin (pectin), pea proteins and oat fibres (pea+oat) and pea proteins and apple pectin (pea+pectin). Administration of each vegetable-containing diet was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations compared with the control. The combinations (pea+oat and pea+pectin) were more efficacious than fibres alone in modulating cholesterolaemia ( - 53 and - 54%, respectively, at 28 d; Ppea proteins, a lower hepatic cholesterol content (Ppea proteins and oat fibres or apple pectin are extremely effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats and affect cellular cholesterol homeostasis by up-regulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol turnover.

  13. Association of Interarm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference with Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI and baPWV were also obtained from the same device. Clinical data, ABIdifference ≥10 mmHg were compared and analyzed. We performed two multivariate forward analyses for determining the factors associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg [model 1: significant variables in univariate analysis except left ventricular mass index (LVMI); model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis except ABIdifference ≥10 mmHg. Female, hypertension, and high body mass index were also associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Our study demonstrated that ABIdifference of 10 mmHg or more. Detection of an interarm SBP difference may provide a simple method of detecting patients at increased risk of atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:22927905

  14. Evaluation of Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Chronic Asymptomatic Alcoholics by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murathan Kucuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, we aimed to investigate the structural and functional changes on myocardium in chronic asymptomatic alcoholics without any cardiovascular disease. Forty-one consecutive asymptomatic male alcoholics who were admitted to the outpatient alcoholism unit and 30 age matched healthy male volunteers selected as the control group were enrolled in the study. The study group were investigated by using standard two-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography. The left ventricular (LV global longitudinal strain and LV global circumferential strain were significantly lower in alcoholics when compared with control subjects. There was no difference in global radial strain between the two groups. To demonstrate the effect of total life time dose of ethanol (TLDE on echocardiographic abnormalities, we assessed the correlation analysis. There was a nonsignificant weak correlation between global LV circumferential strain and TLDE (r=0.27, p=0.083. Speckle tracking echocardiography derived left ventricular systolic function was impaired in chronic alcoholic patients when compared with healthy controls.

  15. Resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa; Abrahin, Odilon; Ferreira, Ana Lorena Lima; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training alone on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Our meta-analysis, followed the guidelines of PRISMA. The search for articles was realized by November 2016 using the following electronic databases: BIREME, PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS and SciELO and a search strategy that included the combination of titles of medical affairs and terms of free text to the key concepts: 'hypertension' 'hypertensive', 'prehypertensive', 'resistance training', 'strength training', and 'weight-lifting'. These terms were combined with a search strategy to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and identified a total of 1608 articles: 644 articles BIREME, 53 SciELO, 722 PubMed, 122 Cochrane Library and 67 LILACS. Of these, five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and provided data on 201 individuals. The results showed significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (-8.2 mm Hg CI -10.9 to -5.5;I 2 : 22.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.271 and effect size=-0.97) and diastolic blood pressure (-4.1 mm Hg CI -6.3 to -1.9; I 2 : 46.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.113 and effect size=-0.60) when compared to group control. In conclusion, resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The RCTs studies that investigated the effects of resistance training alone in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients support the recommendation of resistance training as a tool for management of systemic hypertension.

  16. Effect of percutaneous coronary intervention on ventricular systolic synchrony and brain natriuretic peptide in acute myocardial infarction patients with aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Ling; Fu Xianghua; Liu Jun; Wu Weili; Li Liang; Miao Qing; Jiang Yunfa; Gu Xinshun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reversed effect on the left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) formation and influence on systolic performance and synchrony using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at different time intervals equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA). Methods: A total of 326 patients with primary anterior AMI accompanied LVA diagnosed by left ventricular graphy were enrolled in this study from January 2001 to July 2004. They were divided into 4 groups according to the time accepting PCI. Group A ( 1 week, n=76). The parameters of the paradox volume image of ventricular movement on the dynamic cine of cardiac blood pool, and the paradox volume index (PVI) as well as the parameters of left ventricular systolic function (LVSF), left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) and left ventricular systolic synchrony (LVSS) were measured by ERNA with the ventricular phase analysis (PA) at 1st week and 6th month after AMI. The plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured in 18th hour, 5th day and 24th week after AMI. During 3-year follow-up, the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded.Analysis of variance and χ 2 -test were used. Results: At 6th month post AMI, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in group A, B and C was increased than that in group D, hut phase shift (PS) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were decreased (F=5.90, 6.80, all P 2 =10.05, P<0.05). Conclusion: The early, fully and permanently opening of infarction related artery can effectively inhibit the left ventricular remodeling process, improve its function, prevent LVA formation, and finally improve the prognosis. (authors)

  17. Systolic time intervals vs invasive predictors of fluid responsiveness after coronary artery bypass surgery(dagger)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenberg, A.; Lust, E.J.; Beishuizen, A.; Meijer, J.H.; Verdaasdonk, R.M.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Haemodynamic parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness in intensive care patients are invasive, technically challenging or not universally applicable. We compared the initial systolic time interval (ISTI), a non-invasive measure of the time interval between the electrical and

  18. Safety and effect of high dose allopurinol in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mostafa Ansari-Ramandi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Allopurinol could be of benefit in non-hyperuricemic patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction without significant adverse effects. Randomized clinical trials are needed in future to confirm the results.

  19. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (H