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Sample records for total cellular pool

  1. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  2. Introduction of transplantation tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation: cellular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; King, D.P.; Gottlieb, M.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    High-dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a safe, routine regimen used to treat patients with lymphoid malignancies. Although few side effects are associated with the regimen, a profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity is observed for several years after therapy, as judged by both in vivo and in vitro assays. A profound immunosuppression has also been observed in mice and rats given TLI. Recently, we have achieved similar results using TLI in nonmatched bone marrow transplantation in outbred dogs. The experimental work in animals and underlying cellular mechanisms are reviewed here

  3. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM 125 I-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37 0 , followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 0 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4 0 . Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations

  4. Physical-chemical model for cellular uptake of fatty acids: prediction of intracellular pool sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.; Noy, N.; Zakim, D.

    1987-01-01

    If the uptake of fatty acids by liver is a physical, not a biological, process, then the size and location of the intrahepatic pool of fatty acids can be predicted from uptake rates and thermodynamic data. The purpose of the experiments in this paper was to test the accuracy of this idea. Rat livers were perfused with [ 3 H] palmitate bound to [ 14 C] albumin, and the total amounts of palmitate removed from the perfusate were measured at 3-s intervals. The intrahepatic pools of palmitate calculated from these data were 13.8 and 23.0 nmol/g of liver at ratios of palmitate/albumin (mol/mol) (afferent side) of 2/1 and 4/1, respectively, in the steady state. The intrahepatic pools of palmitate calculated from the distributions of palmitate between membranes, H 2 O, albumin, and fatty acid binding protein and the measured first-order rate constants for acyl-CoA ligases in mitochondria and microsomes were 12.1 and 34.6 nmol/g for perfusate ratios of palmitate/albumin of 2/1 and 4/1, in the steady state. Intrahepatic pools of palmitate measured after establishment of a steady-state rate of uptake were 15.0 and 31.8 nmol/g for these ratios of palmitate/albumin of 2/1 and 4/1

  5. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Degener, Jan; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Yeruult, Yolk; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha(-1) , compared with 215 Mg C ha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia

    OpenAIRE

    Schons,Carina Daniele; Tavares,Rejane Giacomelli

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laboratório é garantida pela realização do controle de qualidade, que tem como funções básicas análise, pesquisa e prevenção da ocorrência de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padronização de utilização de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com ácido etilenod...

  7. Analysis of a total loss of pool water accident in MTR-type research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yavuz, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the transient in which the pool water is lost throughout one or more of the main coolant pipes which are supposed to be broken guillotine-like is investigated for the TR-2 research reactor in Istanbul. The applicability of the methods used for other similar types of research reactors is shown. Decrease of the pool water level until the top of the core, and from the top to the bottom of the core are examined as two successive phases of the accident. Finite difference scheme and integral methods are employed to solve energy equations and the results of both methods are compared. The finite difference solution uses an explicit form for the analysis of the first phase, and a moving boundary approach for the second phase. The integral method is based on the assumption that the temperatures appearing in the energy equations have the same profiles during the transient as the steady state ones. Analyses are done both for nominal and hot channel, and the results of both methods are observed to be in agreement. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of a total loss of pool water accident in MTR-type research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmazer, A. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Nuclear Engineering Department; Yavuz, H. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Energy Institute

    2004-08-01

    In this study, the transient in which the pool water is lost throughout one or more of the main coolant pipes which are supposed to be broken guillotine-like is investigated for the TR-2 research reactor in Istanbul. The applicability of the methods used for other similar types of research reactors is shown. Decrease of the pool water level until the top of the core, and from the top to the bottom of the core are examined as two successive phases of the accident. Finite difference scheme and integral methods are employed to solve energy equations and the results of both methods are compared. The finite difference solution uses an explicit form for the analysis of the first phase, and a moving boundary approach for the second phase. The integral method is based on the assumption that the temperatures appearing in the energy equations have the same profiles during the transient as the steady state ones. Analyses are done both for nominal and hot channel, and the results of both methods are observed to be in agreement. (orig.)

  9. Using Electromagnetic Algorithm for Total Costs of Sub-contractor Optimization in the Cellular Manufacturing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahriari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.

  10. Investigation on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Cellular Lattice Strut: Molten Pool Morphology, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.

  11. Investigation on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Cellular Lattice Strut: Molten Pool Morphology, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Wang, Guoqing; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-07

    AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.

  12. Impact of uranium (U) on the cellular glutathione pool and resultant consequences for the redox status of U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehweger, Katrin; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2011-12-01

    Uranium (U) as a redox-active heavy metal can cause various redox imbalances in plant cells. Measurements of the cellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) by HPLC after cellular U contact revealed an interference with this essential redox couple. The GSH content remained unaffected by 10 μM U whereas the GSSG level immediately increased. In contrast, higher U concentrations (50 μM) drastically raised both forms. Using the Nernst equation, it was possible to calculate the half-cell reduction potential of 2GSH/GSSG. In case of lower U contents the cellular redox environment shifted towards more oxidizing conditions whereas the opposite effect was obtained by higher U contents. This indicates that U contact causes a consumption of reduced redox equivalents. Artificial depletion of GSH by chlorodinitrobenzene and measuring the cellular reducing capacity by tetrazolium salt reduction underlined the strong requirement of reduced redox equivalents. An additional element of cellular U detoxification mechanisms is the complex formation between the heavy metal and carboxylic functionalities of GSH. Because two GSH molecules catalyze electron transfers each with one electron forming a dimer (GSSG) two UO(2) (2+) are reduced to each UO(2) (+) by unbound redox sensitive sulfhydryl moieties. UO(2) (+) subsequently disproportionates to UO(2) (2+) and U(4+). This explains that in vitro experiments revealed a reduction to U(IV) of only around 33% of initial U(VI). Cellular U(IV) was transiently detected with the highest level after 2 h of U contact. Hence, it can be proposed that these reducing processes are an important element of defense reactions induced by this heavy metal.

  13. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  14. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  15. Cellular Automaton Study of Hydrogen Porosity Evolution Coupled with Dendrite Growth During Solidification in the Molten Pool of Al-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Wei, Yanhong; Yu, Fengyi; Liu, Xiangbo; She, Lvbo

    2017-09-01

    Welding porosity defects significantly reduce the mechanical properties of welded joints. In this paper, the hydrogen porosity evolution coupled with dendrite growth during solidification in the molten pool of Al-4.0 wt pct Cu alloy was modeled and simulated. Three phases, including a liquid phase, a solid phase, and a gas phase, were considered in this model. The growth of dendrites and hydrogen gas pores was reproduced using a cellular automaton (CA) approach. The diffusion of solute and hydrogen was calculated using the finite difference method (FDM). Columnar and equiaxed dendrite growth with porosity evolution were simulated. Competitive growth between different dendrites and porosities was observed. Dendrite morphology was influenced by porosity formation near dendrites. After solidification, when the porosities were surrounded by dendrites, they could not escape from the liquid, and they made pores that existed in the welded joints. With the increase in the cooling rate, the average diameter of porosities decreased, and the average number of porosities increased. The average diameter of porosities and the number of porosities in the simulation results had the same trend as the experimental results.

  16. The success of assisted reproduction technologies in relation to composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and different Treg subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberger, V; Schober, L; Rehnitz, J; Schaier, M; Zeier, M; Meuer, S; Schmitt, E; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Steinborn, A

    2013-11-01

    Are there differences in composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and distinct Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) between successfully and non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women? Non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women have a decreased percentage of naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs and an increased percentage of HLA-DR(-)-memory Tregs within the total Treg pool. Immunosuppressive Tregs play a significant role in human reproduction and studies have shown that their number and function are reduced in reproductive failure and complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. However, no data exist concerning the importance of Tregs for a successful outcome following assisted reproduction technologies. Blood samples were obtained from 210 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, where 14 patients were excluded due to biochemical pregnancy or missed abortion. Age control blood samples were collected from 20 neonates and 176 healthy female volunteers. The study was performed between October 2010 and March 2012. In this study, we determined prospectively the quantity and composition of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)-Treg pool and three different Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) in all women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We examined whether there were differences between those who became pregnant (n = 36) and those who did not (n = 160). The blood samples were collected within 1 h before the embryo transfer and analyzed by six-color flow cytometry. In order to evaluate these results with regard to the normal age-related changes in composition of the total Treg pool, the same analysis was performed using samples of umbilical cord blood and from healthy female volunteers aged between 17 and 76 years. The composition of the total Treg pool was documented for successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women (n = 5) throughout their pregnancy and we assessed the

  17. Determination of human and Sprague-Dawley rat trimethylseleonium ion and total selenium urine concentrations from endogenous body selenium pool by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Claassen, J.P.; Rack, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined trimethylselenonium ion [TMSe,(CH 3 ) 3 Se + ] and total organic selenium cationic species urinary excretion values for healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed regular diets. The only source of TMSe was from the endogenous selenium body pool. Total selenium concentration in urine was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. TMSe and total selenium cationic species concentrations and percent of total selenium urine excretion were determined by chemical neutron activation analysis and coupled anion-cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, respectively. Within experimental error, mean values for TMSe and cationic species as percent selenium were comparable for both human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats. This study suggested that TMSe excreated in urine by healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal diet is not a minor but a general metabolite of selenium ingested in a normal diet. (author) 27 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  18. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia Proposal for the use of a pool of whole blood as internal quality control in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Daniele Schons

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laboratório é garantida pela realização do controle de qualidade, que tem como funções básicas análise, pesquisa e prevenção da ocorrência de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padronização de utilização de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA, de mesmos grupo sanguíneo e fator Rh, livres de interferentes, como hemólise, lipemia e icterícia. De um total de 30 ml de sangue total, obtiveram-se três alíquotas de 10 ml cada, às quais foram adicionados, respectivamente, 0 ml (sem adição, 1 ml e 5 ml de glicerol (conservante. As amostras foram avaliadas em contador automático ADVIA® 60. Após determinação dos valores de média e DP, todas as amostras foram avaliadas por um período de 45 dias úteis para confecção do gráfico de Levey-Jennings e verificação da estabilidade da amostra. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: Podemos verificar que o pool de sangue total, preparado de acordo com a metodologia proposta, não apresenta estabilidade necessária para sua utilização, como controle interno alternativo no setor de hematologia.INTRODUCTION: The reliability of laboratory results is ensured by the implementation of quality control, which has basic functions, such as analysis, research and prevention of laboratory errors through programs that encompass both internal and external control. OBJECTIVE: To propose a standard method to use pooled whole blood as internal quality control in the Hematology division. METHOD: The selected whole blood samples were collected with EDTA, belonged to the same blood group and Rh factor and did not present interfering factors, such as hemolysis, lipemia and icterus. From a total of 30 ml of whole blood it was obtained 3

  19. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  20. Live Imaging of Cellular Internalization of Single Colloidal Particle by Combined Label-Free and Fluorescence Total Internal Reflection Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gerard D; Vllasaliu, Driton; Falcone, Franco H; Somekh, Michael G; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2015-11-02

    In this work we utilize the combination of label-free total internal reflection microscopy and total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRM/TIRF) microscopy to achieve a simultaneous, live imaging of single, label-free colloidal particle endocytosis by individual cells. The TIRM arm of the microscope enables label free imaging of the colloid and cell membrane features, while the TIRF arm images the dynamics of fluorescent-labeled clathrin (protein involved in endocytosis via clathrin pathway), expressed in transfected 3T3 fibroblasts cells. Using a model polymeric colloid and cells with a fluorescently tagged clathrin endocytosis pathway, we demonstrate that wide field TIRM/TIRF coimaging enables live visualization of the process of colloidal particle interaction with the labeled cell structure, which is valuable for discerning the membrane events and route of colloid internalization by the cell. We further show that 500 nm in diameter model polystyrene colloid associates with clathrin, prior to and during its cellular internalization. This association is not apparent with larger, 1 μm in diameter colloids, indicating an upper particle size limit for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  1. Cash pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lozovaya, Karina

    2009-01-01

    This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  4. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells by which total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris protects against artherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengquan; Guan, Yue; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhai, Fengguo; Zhang, Xiuping; Guan, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The influence of preoperative determinants on quality of life, functioning and pain after total knee and hip replacement: a pooled analysis of Dutch cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N; Gademan, Maaike G J; Stijnen, Theo; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J

    2018-03-02

    Previous research has identified preoperative determinants that predict health related quality of life (HRQoL), functioning and pain after total knee or hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA), but these differed between studies and had opposite directions. This may be due to lack of power and not adjusting for confounders. The present study aims to identify the preoperative determinants that influence health related quality of life (HRQoL), functioning and pain after total knee or hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA). We pooled individual patient from 20 cohorts with OA patients data (n = 1783 TKA and n = 2400 THA) in the Netherlands. We examined the influence of age, gender, BMI and preoperative values of HRQoL, functioning and pain on postoperative status and total improvement. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of each preoperative variable on a particular outcome for each cohort separately. These effects were pooled across cohorts using a random effects model. For each increase in preoperative point in HRQoL, the postoperative HRQoL increased by 0.51 points in TKA and 0.37 points in THA (SF-36 scale). Similarly, each point increase in preoperative functioning, resulted in a higher postoperative functioning of 0.31 (TKA) and 0.21 (THA) points (KOOS/HOOS-ADL scale). For pain this was 0.18 (TKA) and 0.15 (THA) points higher (KOOS/HOOS-pain scale) (higher means less pain). Even though patients with better preoperative values achieved better postoperative outcomes, their improvement was smaller. Women and patients with a higher BMI had more pain after a TKA and THA. Higher age and higher BMI was associated with lower postoperative HRQoL and functioning and more pain after a THA. Patients with a better preoperative health status have better outcomes, but less improvement. Even though the independent effects may seem small, combined results of preoperative variables may result in larger effects on postoperative outcomes.

  6. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  7. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an open clinical study and pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamstrup, Maria R., E-mail: mkam0004@bbh.regionh.dk [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gniadecki, Robert [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, Lars [Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Skov, Lone [Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter Meidahl [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Annika [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  9. Solar swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar collectors to heat the water in a previously unheated outdoor swimming pool. The solar system is used in conjunction with a pool blanket, to conserve heat when the pool is not in use. Energy losses through evaporation can be reduced by as much as 70% by a pool blanket. A total of 130 m{sup 2} of highly durable black synthetic collectors were installed on a support structure at a 30{degree} angle from the horizontal, oriented to the south. Circulation of pool water though the collectors, which is controlled by a differential thermostat, was done with the existing pool pump. Before installation the pool temperature averaged 16{degree}C; after installation it ranged from 20{degree} to 26{degree}C. It was hard to distinguish how much pool heating was due to the solar system and how much heat was retained by the pool blanket. However, the pool season was extended by five weeks and attendance tripled. 2 figs.

  10. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥ 45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51 and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58 elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2% and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0% of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700. Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y.Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for

  11. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  12. Determination of total ribonucleotide pool in plant materials by high-pH anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography following extraction with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondet, Christophe; Morel, Sylvain; Alcaraz, Gérard

    2005-06-10

    A new, improved method that only requires a potassium hydroxide extraction procedure is presented for the analysis of a full nucleotide pool in plant materials. Quantification was performed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with UV detection after a potassium hydroxide extraction, and allowed the quantification of 13 linear ribonucleotides in a single run. The method has been validated by comparison of six extraction methods and also by measurement of the intracellular nucleotide levels of three plant species (cell cultures and leaves). The evolution of the nucleotide pool of Nicotiana tabacum cell culture during growth has also been measured, and showed an increase in the pool until the fifth day, where the growth rate reaches a maximum, after which a decrease was observed.

  13. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  14. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Does adjustment for total bacterial load or human cellular content improve diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E L; Garland, S M; Bradshaw, C S; Law, M G; Vodstrcil, L A; Hocking, J S; Fairley, C K; Tabrizi, S N

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the utility of quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and found that while the best model utilized bacterial copy number adjusted for total bacterial load (sensitivity=98%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.95[95%CI=0.93,0.97]), adjusting for total bacterial or human cell load did not consistently increase the diagnostic performance of the assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A numerical investigation into the influence of the properties of cobalt chrome cellular structures on the load transfer to the periprosthetic femur following total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Kevin Brian; Wang, Chang Jiang; Stanford, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Stress shielding of the periprosthetic femur following total hip arthroplasty is a problem that can promote the premature loosening of femoral stems. In order to reduce the need for revision surgery it is thought that more flexible implant designs need to be considered. In this work, the mechanical properties of laser melted square pore cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures have been incorporated into the design of a traditional monoblock femoral stem. The influence of incorporating the properties of cellular structures on the load transfer to the periprosthetic femur was investigated using a three dimensional finite element model. Eleven different stiffness configurations were investigated by using fully porous and functionally graded approaches. This investigation confirms that the periprosthetic stress values depend on the stiffness configuration of the stem. The numerical results showed that stress shielding is reduced in the periprosthetic Gruen zones when the mechanical properties of cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures are used. This work identifies that monoblock femoral stems manufactured using a laser melting process, which are designed for reduced stiffness, have the potential to contribute towards reducing stress shielding. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  17. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  18. Contribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria to total organic carbon pool in aquatic system of subtropical karst catchments, Southwest China: evidence from hydrochemical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Song, Ang; Peng, Wenjie; Jin, Zhenjiang; Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria may play a particular role in carbon cycling of aquatic systems. However, little is known about the interaction between aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and hydrochemistry in groundwater-surface water exchange systems of subtropical karst catchments. We carried out a detailed study on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and bacterioplankton, hydrochemistry and taxonomy of bacterioplankton in the Maocun watershed, Southwest China, an area with karst geological background. Our results revealed that bacteria are the important contributors to total organic carbon source/sequestration in the groundwater-surface water of this area. The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including β-Proteobacteria, also appear in the studied water system. In addition to that, the genus Polynucleobacter of the phototropic β-Proteobacteria shows a close link with those sampling sites by presenting bacterial origin organic carbon on CCA biplot and is found to be positively correlated with total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen and pH (r = 0.860, 0.747 and 0.813, respectively) in the Maocun watershed. The results suggest that Polynucleobacter might be involved in the production of organic carbon and might act as the negative feedback on global warming. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  20. Total synthesis of [2-11C]thymidine from [11C]urea: A tracer of choice for measurement of cellular proliferation using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labar, D.; Vander Borght, T.

    1990-01-01

    In preliminary studies of cellular proliferation with [methyl- 11 C]thymidine, the labelled degradative products mask the progressive incorporation of the tracer into DNA. The authors have developed a procedure for the synthesis of [2- 11 C]thymidine to circumvent this difficulty, using a [ 11 C]urea precursor

  1. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  2. Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Roth, Doris; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator. However, the total cellular pools of thiols and disulfides and their relative abundance have never been...... determined. In this study, we have assembled a global picture of the cellular thiol-disulfide status in cultured mammalian cells. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated protein (PSSG) in all cellular protein, including membrane proteins. These data...... cell types. However, when cells are exposed to a sublethal dose of the thiol-specific oxidant diamide, PSSG levels increase to >15% of all protein cysteine. Glutathione is typically characterized as the "cellular redox buffer"; nevertheless, our data show that protein thiols represent a larger active...

  3. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  4. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  5. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  6. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  7. Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Faber, P; Gibney, E R; Lobley, G E; Elia, M; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M

    2010-05-01

    The cellular model of body composition divides the body in body cell mass (BCM), extracellular solids and extracellular fluids. This model has been infrequently applied for the evaluation of weight loss (WL) programmes. (1) To assess changes in body compartments in obese men undergoing fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD) and low calorie diet (LCD); (2) to evaluate two cellular models for the determination of changes in BCM, fat mass (FM) and body fluids. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast (F) for 6 days, a VLCD (2.5 MJ per day) for 3 weeks or an LCD (5.2 MJ per day) for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured at baseline and after small ( approximately 5%) and moderate ( approximately 10%) WL. FM was measured using a four-compartment model. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were, respectively, measured by deuterium and sodium bromide dilution and intracellular water (ICW) calculated by difference. Two cellular models were used to measure BCM, FM and body fluids distribution. After about 5%WL changes in TBW were F=-3.2+/-1.2 kg (Pfasting (+1.5+/-3.1 kg, n.s.), decreased during the VLCD (-2.0+/-1.5 kg, Pfasting (-4.7+/-3.9 kg, Pfasting group and it was directly associated with changes in ICW. After a 6-day period of fasting we observed more ICW losses and less fat mobilization compared with VLCD and LCD. The cellular model of body composition is suitable for the characterization of changes in body fluids distribution during WL.

  8. 31P-NMR differentiation between intracellular phosphate pools in Cosmarium (chlorophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgavish, A.; Elgavish, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of intact Cosmarium sp. cells is presented as a suitable tool for the differentiation of intracellular accumulation pools of polyphosphates. The cold trichloroacetic acid (TCA) insoluble fraction is shown to contain most of the total cellular phosphate in the phosphate rich Cosmarium cells. Moreover, evidence from a 31 P-NMR study and electron microscopic observations of cold TCA treated Cosmarium cells indicate that this fraction consists mostly of polyphosphates which seem to retain the native morphological structure observed in the untreated cells. The determination of orthophosphate in the hot water extract of Cosmarium cells did not measure the polyphosphate pools. Determination of total phosphorus content in the hot water extract rendered a value three times higher than the frequently used orthophosphate determination procedure. However, as revealed by the 31 P-NMR spectra and the chemical analyses of the extract and of the treated cells, even total phosphorus in the extract measured only 30% of the total cellular phosphorus. 31 P-NMR enabled the unequivocal chemical identification of the major phosphate compounds in the hot water extract (Surplus P) as orthophosphate and polyphosphates of about 10 phosphate units chainlength. More than 70% of the accumulation pool of polyphosphates was still in the cells after extraction. However, the electron microscopy study revealed that the native granular structure of polyphosphates had been destroyed by the hot water extraction procedure

  9. Swimming-pool piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioulaire, M.

    1959-01-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10 13 . This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [fr

  10. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  11. Two types of T helper cells in mice: Differences in cellular immune functions and cytokine secretion - selective reduction of one type after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.Z.

    1989-01-01

    As observed from a large panel of mouse T helper clones, there are at least two subsets of CD4 + T cells that both differ in function and demonstrate distinct patterns of cytokine secretion after antigen or mitogen stimulation. Th1 cells synthesize IL-2, INF-γ and lymphotoxin. They produce a DTH reaction in the footpads of naive mice. In addition, Th1 cells are required for the generation of CTL, and they appear to augment IgG2a antibody production. In contrast, by secreting IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, Th2 cells play an essential role in humoral immunity. TLI consists of high dose, fractionated irradiation delivered selectively to the major lymphoid tissues. Four to six weeks after TLI, the CD4 + cells of the treated mice (counted as a percentage of the total spleen lymphocytes) recover to the similar levels as those in normal BALB/c mice. These CD4 + cells can help normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP-KLH in adoptive cell transfer experiments, but the same cells are inactive in the MLR, and they fail to transfer DTH in TNP-KLH primed syngeneic BALB/c mice

  12. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Naoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

  13. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  14. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  15. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  16. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  17. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  18. Swimming pool special; Zwembadspecial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This issue includes a few articles and messages on the use of heat pump systems in swimming pools. [Dutch] Dit nummer bevat onder meer een paar artikelen over het gebruik van warmtepompsystemen in zwembaden.

  19. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  20. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  1. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  2. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  3. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  4. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  5. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  6. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebert, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  7. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  9. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  10. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  11. Pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a pool nuclear reactor fitted with a perfected system to raise the buckets into a vertical position at the bottom of a channel. This reactor has an inclined channel to guide a bucket containing a fuel assembly to introduce it into the reactor jacket or extract it therefrom and a damper at the bottom of the channel to stop the drop of the bucket. An upright vertically movable rod has a horizontally articulated arm with a hook. This can pivot to touch a radial lug on the bucket and pivot the bucket around its base in a vertical position, when the rod moves up [fr

  12. Structure of pool in reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shigeki.

    1997-01-01

    Shielding walls made of iron-reinforced concrete having a metal liner including two body walls rigidly combined to the upper surface of a reactor container are disposed at least to one of an equipment pool or spent fuel storage pool in a reactor building. A rack for temporarily placing an upper lattice plate is detachably attached at least above one of a steam dryer or a gas/liquid separator temporarily placed in the temporary pool, and the height from the bottom portion to the upper end of the shielding wall is determined based on the height of an upper lattice plate temporary placed on the rack and the water depth required for shielding radiation from the upper lattice plate. An operator's exposure on the operation floor can be reduced by the shielding wall, and radiation dose from the spent fuels is reduced. The increase of the height of a pool guarder enhances bending resistance as a ceiling. In addition, the total height of them is made identical with the depth of the spent fuel storage pool thereby enabling to increase storage area for spent fuels. (N.H.)

  13. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  14. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta : model and forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Central Region

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented a reserve growth study that was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada. Historical oil reserve data were evaluated to assess the potential for future reserve growth in both pools and fields, and reserve growth models and functions were developed to better forecast hydrocarbon volumes. The study also considered the sensitivity of reserve growth to such factors as pool size, porosity, and oil gravity. From 1960 to 2005, the reported known recoverable oil in Alberta, excluding the Athabasca oil sands and including only pools with adequate data, increased from 4.2 to 13.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO). New discoveries contributed 3.7 BBO and reserve growth added 6 BBO. Most reserve growth occurred in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of oil. Light-oil pools account for most of the total known oil volume and consequently showed the lowest growth. Pools with greater than 30 percent porosity grew more than pools with lower porosity reservoirs. Oil field growth was found to be almost twice that of pool growth, possibly because the analysis evaluated fields with two or more pools discovered in different years. The growth in oil volumes in Alberta pools is projected to be about 454 million barrels of oil in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over a 25-year period, the cumulative reserve growth in Alberta oil pools was substantially lower than other major petroleum-producing regions, but the growth at the field level compares well. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  16. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  17. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  18. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land.

  19. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  20. Environmental controls of C, N and P biogeochemistry in peatland pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julien; Talbot, Julie; Moore, Tim R

    2018-08-01

    Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81.9%) and the surrounding vegetation type (14.8%), but not by pool area or shape. Shallow pools had larger dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and lower pH than deep pools, while pools surrounded by coniferous trees had more recalcitrant DOC than pools where vegetation was dominated by mosses. The influence of depth on pool biogeochemistry was confirmed by the seasonal survey of pools of different sizes with 47.1% of the variation in pool water chemistry over time significantly explained. Of this, 67.3% was explained by the interaction between time and pool size and 32.7% by pool size alone. P concentrations were small in all pools all summer long and combined with high N:P ratios, are indicative of P-limitation. Our results show that pool biogeochemistry is influenced by internal processes and highlight the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of nutrient biogeochemistry in ombrotrophic peatlands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Levine, Lyle E.; Ricker, Richard E.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Heigel, Jarred C.; Guyer, Jonathan E.

    2018-02-01

    We use single-track laser melting experiments and simulations on Inconel 625 to estimate the dimensions and microstructure of the resulting melt pool. Our work is based on a design-of-experiments approach which uses multiple laser power and scan speed combinations. Single-track experiments generated melt pools of certain dimensions that showed reasonable agreement with our finite-element calculations. Phase-field simulations were used to predict the size and segregation of the cellular microstructure that formed along the melt-pool boundaries for the solidification conditions that changed as a function of melt-pool dimensions.

  2. Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Levine, Lyle E.; Ricker, Richard E.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Heigel, Jarred C.; Guyer, Jonathan E.

    2018-06-01

    We use single-track laser melting experiments and simulations on Inconel 625 to estimate the dimensions and microstructure of the resulting melt pool. Our work is based on a design-of-experiments approach which uses multiple laser power and scan speed combinations. Single-track experiments generated melt pools of certain dimensions that showed reasonable agreement with our finite-element calculations. Phase-field simulations were used to predict the size and segregation of the cellular microstructure that formed along the melt-pool boundaries for the solidification conditions that changed as a function of melt-pool dimensions.

  3. Cellular Angiofibroma of the Nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Zülküf Burak; Yener, Haydar Murat; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karaaltin, Ayşegül Batioğlu; Inan, Hakki Caner; Alaskarov, Elvin; Gozen, Emine Deniz

    2017-11-01

    Angiofibroma is a common tumor of the nasopharynx region but cellular type is extremely rare in head and neck. A 13-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for 6 months. According to the clinical symptoms and imaging studies juvenile angiofibroma was suspected. Following angiographic embolization total excision of the lesion by midfacial degloving approach was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of staghorn blood vessels and irregular fibrous stroma. Stellate fibroblasts with small pyknotic to large vesicular nuclei were seen in a highly cellular stroma. These findings identified cellular angiofibroma mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This article is about a very rare patient of cellular angiofibroma of nasopharynx.

  4. Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Farson, Dave F [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Hollis, Kendall; Milewski, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Volume of fluid (VOF) numerical simulation was used to investigate melt flow and volumetric oscillation of conduction-mode pulsed laser weld pools. The result is compared to high speed video stream of titanium laser spot welding experiment. The total simulation time is 10ms with the first 5 ms being heating and melting under constant laser irradiation and the remaining 5 ms corresponding to resolidification of the weld pool. During the melting process, the liquid pool did not exhibit periodic oscillation but was continually depressed by the evaporation recoil pressure. After the laser pulse, the weld pool was excited into volumetric oscillation by the release of pressure on its surface and oscillation of the weld pool surface was analyzed. The simulation model suggested adjusting thermal diffusivity to match cooling rate and puddle diameter during solidification which is distinguishable from previous weld pool simulation. The frequency continuously increased from several thousand cycles per second to tens of thousands of cycles per second as the weld pool solidified and its diameter decreased. The result is the first trial of investigation of small weld pool oscillation in laser welding although there have been several reports about arc welding.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  6. Pooling and correlated neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations between cells in a population can be amplified and distorted in signals that reflect their collective activity. The structure of the underlying neuronal response can significantly impact correlations between such pooled signals. Therefore care needs to be taken when interpreting pooled recordings, or modeling networks of cells that receive inputs from large presynaptic populations. We also show that the frequently observed runaway synchrony in feedforward chains is primarily due to the pooling of correlated inputs.

  7. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  8. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  9. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  10. RNA precursor pool metabolism and RNA synthesis in X-irradiated Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, R.E.; Paul, I.J.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of a radioactive RNA precursor ( 3 H-uridine) has been used in many studies as an index for measuring the synthesis of RNA, yet there is a distinct possibility that the results so obtained were significantly influenced by radiation-induced effects on the metabolism of this precursor into UTP (the primary immediate precursor of RNA) before its incorporation into RNA. A direct examination was therefore undertaken of the effects of X-irradiation on the metabolism of 3 H-uridine and its relationship to RNA synthesis as determined by incorporation. X-irradiation of logarithmically growing Tetrahymena pyriformis caused a dose-dependent depression of total cellular RNA synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (which comprises about 80 per cent of total cellular RNA) synthesis was also depressed by X-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Measurements of the levels of radioactivity present in the UTP precursor pool of both irradiated and unirradiated cells were obtained by means of DEAE-cellulose column chromatography of the extracted free nucleotides. Metabolism of 3 H-uridine into UMP, UDP and UTP was depressed by 40%, 26% and 27% respectively, whereas incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was depressed by 77%. The results show that about one-third of the observed (apparent) depression in RNA synthesis was due to radiation-induced effects on the precursor pool, and the remaining two-thirds due to some definite effect of radiation at the transcription level leading to depressed synthesis of RNA. (U.K.)

  11. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  12. 3D finite element simulation of TIG weld pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Asserin, O.; Gounand, S.; Gilles, P.; Bergheau, J. M.; Medale, M.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional weld pool model for the moving gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in order to understand the main factors that limit the weld quality and improve the productivity, especially with respect to the welding speed. Simulation is a very powerful tool to help in understanding the physical phenomena in the weld process. A 3D finite element model of heat and fluid flow in weld pool considering free surface of the pool and traveling speed has been developed for the GTAW process. Cast3M software is used to compute all the governing equations. The free surface of the weld pool is calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. The combined effects of surface tension gradient, buoyancy force, arc pressure, arc drag force to drive the fluid flow is included in our model. The deformation of the weld pool surface and the welding speed affect fluid flow, heat flow and thus temperature gradients and molten pool dimensions. Welding trials study is presented to compare our numerical results with macrograph of the molten pool.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the energy consumption of heated swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bel, C.; Millette, J. [LTE Shawinigan, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool. The model can compare 2 different situations and, if local climatic conditions are known, it can accurately predict energy costs of the pool relative to the total energy consumption of the house. When used with the appropriate energy transfer coefficient and weather file, the model can estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool having specific characteristics, such as in-ground, above-ground, heated or non-heated. The model is suitable for determining residential loads. It can be applied to different pool types and sizes, for different water heating scenarios and different climatic regions. Data obtained from the monitoring of water temperature and electricity use of 57 residential swimming pools was used to validate the model. In addition, 5 above-ground pools were installed on the property of LTE Shawinigan to allow for a more detailed study of the parameters involved in the thermal balance of a pool. The mathematical model, based on a global heat transfer coefficient, can determine the effect of a solar blanket and the effect of water volume. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Detection of 41Ar diffusion from a TRIGA pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Scott; Nelson, George

    1990-01-01

    Argon-41 levels in very low concentrations in the reactor room air can be inferred from the rate of escape from the pool water surface. The rate of Argon-41 diffusion from pool water to room air was determined by the measurement of the activity buildup in containers of air in contact with the pool surface. The Argon-41 concentration in each container was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with a calibrated GeLi detector. At 100 KW power with the water temperature at 10 deg. Celsius the total release of Argon-41 was determined to be 3.5e10±15% atoms for 80 minutes of operation. The corresponding activity released from the pool was 98.6 microcuries, while the total activity produced in the pool was 4900 microcuries. The diffusion coefficient of Argon-41 from the pool water surface to the air at this temperature was measured to be 3.14e-14 sec-cm 2 . (author)

  15. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  16. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  17. The splenomegaly of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders: splenic cellularity and vascularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B (Capital Hospital, Peking University Medical College, Beijing (China)); Lewis, S.M. (Department of Haematology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1989-01-01

    Employing radionuclide scanning, the volume of the spleen, its red cell pool and plasma pool have been measured in vivo, and the relative proportions of cellularity and vascularity of the spleen have been calcualted in 51 patients with myeloproliferactive and lymphoproliferative disorders. In primary proliferative polycythaemia (polycythaemia vera), the increase of spleen size was attributed mainly to the increase of splenic vascularity; in myelofibrosis and in hairy cell leukaemia, the increase of spleen size was associated with increase in both splenic vascularity and cellularity, whilst in size was associated with increase in both splenic vascularity and cellularity, whilst in CGL and CLL the increase was attributed more to cellularity than to vascularity. (author).

  18. Estoques totais de carbono orgânico e seus compartimentos em argissolo sob floresta e sob milho cultivado com adubação mineral e orgânica Total stocks of organic carbon and its pools in acrisols under forest and under maize cultivated with mineral and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. C. Leite

    2003-10-01

    were: a to evaluate the effect of maize production systems under organic and mineral fertilization on total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks and on organic carbon pools (C in an Acrisol; and b to estimate the contribution of these systems in the atmospheric CO2 sequestration or emission. The production systems included two levels of organic compost: level 0 (control and level 1 (40 m³ ha-1; and three levels of mineral fertilizer (0, 1 and 2, which correspond to 0,250 (AM1, and 500 kg ha-1 (AM2 of the 4-14-8 formula. Organic and mineral fertilizer were combined and applied during 16 years. As a reference of the steady state, soil samples were collected from an adjacent area of the same soil type, under secondary Atlantic Forest (AF. Where organic compost was added, the production systems presented higher organic C and N soil storage, light fraction carbon (C LF and labile carbon (C L than production systems without fertilization or with mineral fertilizer only. This confirms the importance of organic fertilizer utilization as a management strategy to improve soil quality. However, the soil under AF showed higher values of organic C and N storage and carbon pools than soils under production systems. Due to their higher sensitivity, the stocks of the C LF and C L were more severely decreased than the TOC stocks and thus, may be used as indicators of the anthropogenic impact or the influence of management alterations on the soil organic matter.

  19. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  20. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  1. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  3. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  4. Regional variation in the biogeochemical and physical characteristics of natural peatland pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T Edward; Billett, Michael F; Baird, Andy J; Chapman, Pippa J; Dinsmore, Kerry J; Holden, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Natural open-water pools are a common feature of northern peatlands and are known to be an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Pool environmental variables, particularly water chemistry, vegetation community and physical characteristics, have the potential to exert strong controls on carbon cycling in pools. A total of 66 peatland pools were studied across three regions of the UK (northern Scotland, south-west Scotland, and Northern Ireland). We found that within-region variability of pool water chemistry was low; however, for many pool variables measured there were significant differences between regions. PCA analysis showed that pools in SW Scotland were strongly associated with greater vegetative cover and shallower water depth which is likely to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mineralisation rates, whereas pools in N Scotland were more open and deeper. Pool water DOC, particulate organic carbon and dissolved CH4 concentrations were significantly different between regions. Pools in Northern Ireland had the highest concentrations of DOC (mean=14.5 mg L(-1)) and CH4 (mean=20.6 μg C L(-1)). Chloride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in the pools in N Scotland (mean values 26.3 and 2.40 mg L(-1), respectively) than elsewhere, due to a stronger marine influence. The ratio of UV absorbance at 465 nm to absorbance at 665 nm for pools in Northern Ireland indicated that DOC was sourced from poorly humified peat, potentially increasing the bioavailability and mineralisation of organic carbon in pools compared to the pools elsewhere. This study, which specifically aims to address a lack of basic biogeochemical knowledge about pool water chemistry, clearly shows that peatland pools are highly regionally variable. This is likely to be a reflection of significant regional-scale differences in peatland C cycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. (Microbiological studies of small hot-bath-pools and hot-whirl-pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, M; Havenith, N

    1981-01-01

    Hot small bathing pools and hot whirl-pools have the following characteristics: small watervolume, thick squeeze of swimmers, high water temperature (37-40 degrees C) and small dimension of filters. By this, the quality of bathing-water is influenced detrimentally. To elaborate the hygienic problems, bathing-water samples were taken before, during and after the visiting-hours and were tested for facultative-pathogenic microorganisms. During this investigation E. coli was isolated in 25 degrees, Coliforms and Proteus species in 37.3%, P. aeruginosa in 36%, S. aureus in 26.3%, Enterococci in 42.3 %, Candida albicans in 3.6% and yeast totally in 8.3%.

  6. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  7. Lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Katharina; Connert, Thomas; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first-aid measures. A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90.2%). The attendants were interviewed retrospectively about accident occurrences in 2014 by a standardized questionnaire. Responses to the provision of first aid and choice of storage medium for avulsed teeth were subsequently evaluated. The frequency of lip injuries was 19.0%, and tooth injuries were 11.3%. Male bathers (P < .05) and children under 12 years (P < .001) most frequently suffered injuries. The waterslide was the most common accident site. The most common cause of lip injuries was slipping on wet surfaces (39.0%), and for tooth injuries it was collisions with other persons or objects (each 28.1%). The pool attendants' responses were predominantly good or sufficient on first aid, with the exception of what storage medium to choose. Tooth rescue boxes were available in only 8.6% of all pool facilities. Orofacial injuries are a frequently occurring problem in swimming pool facilities. The pool attendants' knowledge on first-aid care of tooth injuries could still be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Zalud, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  9. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  10. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  11. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  12. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  13. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  14. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  15. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  16. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  17. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  18. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  19. Comparison of fecal pooling strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S L B; Ritter, C; Dohoo, I; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W

    2018-05-23

    In herds with typical moderate to low within-herd prevalence, testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the infectious agent of Johne's disease, will be more cost-effective if individual fecal samples are cultured in composite pools. However, sensitivity to classify a pool containing 1 or more positive individual samples as positive may depend on pool size and number of individual positive samples within a pool. Fecal samples collected from 994 dairy cows sampled at slaughter were cultured to detect MAP. Culturing was done both individually and as composite pooled samples using the TREK ESP Culture System II broth medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Composite samples consisted of pools containing feces from 3, 5, 8, 10, or 15 cows. The number of individual fecal culture-positive cows within each pool ranged from 0 to 4. Culture of individual fecal samples detected MAP in 36 (3.6%) of the 994 cows. Individual samples that were detected within the first 50 d by TREK ESP Culture System II were more likely to lead to a positive pool result. In total, 840 pooled fecal samples were examined for presence of MAP, and of those, 272 pools actually contained feces from fecal culture-positive cows. The crude sensitivity (proportion of pools that contained at least 1 fecal-positive cow that tested positive) for pools of 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 was 47, 67, 44, 59, and 39%, respectively. Across pools, an increase of the number of fecal culture-positive samples from 1 to 2 enhanced overall crude sensitivity from 44 to 71%. However, sensitivity did not further increase for pools with 3 or 4 fecal culture-positive samples (63 and 60%, respectively). Additionally, a simulation analysis assessing probability of pooled fecal samples being positive in herds of 50 and 100 cows was conducted. The simulation assumed that 1, 2, or 5 cows per herd were MAP fecal culture-positive and that pools of 5 and 10 were used. This low

  20. Clinical blood pool MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Tim [Maastrich University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Goyen, Martin [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Rohrer, Mathias [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany). European Business Unit Diagnostic Imaging; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (eds.) [University Hospital Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2008-07-01

    Clinical Blood Pool MR Imaging - This excellent treatise on Vasovist {sup registered} created by a team of exceptional faculty who are pioneers in MR Angiography covers the basic techniques, safety, efficacy, image processing and pharmaco-economic details to successfully implement a new level of MRA image quality with this new contrast agent. Martin Prince, Cornell University, New York The editors and authors have made groundbreaking contributions towards establishing MR angiography in various investigative settings, rendering it more precise and applying it for diverse indications. The work presented here is founded upon the extensive experience of the editors, as well as the broad range of experience from other scientific working groups. Maximilian Reiser, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich Vasovist {sup registered} (Gadofosveset), worldwide the first blood pool agent, has only recently become available for clinical use, but has already gained wide acceptance as a tool to improve magnetic resonance angiography. This book presents the first in-depth introduction to the basic physicochemical aspects of the agent, the application of Vasovist {sup registered} in clinical MRA, as well as potential clinical applications beyond MRA and patient management-related aspects. The first part of the book explains basic and technical properties of the agent and the differences of Vasovist {sup registered} compared to currently available extracellular agents. The second part contains detailed chapters on safety and efficacy. In the third part the focus is on MR angiographic applications, and in the fourth part of the book potential clinical fields beyond MRA are explored. All clinical chapters feature ready-to-use clinical protocols and a series of take home messages that concisely summarize the current role of blood pool imaging for each specific indication. (orig.)

  1. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  2. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  3. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  4. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  5. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  6. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  7. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  8. Pool swell sub-scale testing and code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisson, K.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of the experiment was to investigate the pool swell dynamics in general and the forces on the lowered central part of the diaphragm between drywell and wetwell in particular. Apart from the high speed camera pressure transducers and strain gauges were used to monitor the transient. Data was recorded on a 14 channel FM recorder and then digitalised and plotted. In total more than one hundred tests were performed including parametric variations of for example geometry, break flow, initial drywell pressure and initial water level. In parallel to this experiment pool swell calculations have been performed with the computer codes COPTA and STEALTH. COPTA which is a lumped mass code for pressure suppression containment analysis has a slug pool swell mode. STEALTH which is a general purpose lagrangian hydrodynamics code has been used in a 2-D axisymmetric version. The STEALTH code has been used to calculate the radial variations in the vertical displacement and velocity of the pool surface and to predict the load on the lowered central part of the diaphragm. A comparison between the calculations and the experimental data indicates that both codes are sufficiently correct in their description of the pool swell transient. (orig.)

  9. Gene Pools and the Genetic Architecture of Domesticated Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Lam Huynh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [ (L. Walp.] is a major tropical legume crop grown in warm to hot areas throughout the world and especially important to the people of sub-Saharan Africa where the crop was domesticated. To date, relatively little is understood about its domestication origins and patterns of genetic variation. In this study, a worldwide collection of cowpea landraces and African ancestral wild cowpea was genotyped with more than 1200 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Bayesian inference revealed the presence of two major gene pools in cultivated cowpea in Africa. Landraces from gene pool 1 are mostly distributed in western Africa while the majority of gene pool 2 are located in eastern Africa. Each gene pool is most closely related to wild cowpea in the same geographic region, indicating divergent domestication processes leading to the formation of two gene pools. The total genetic variation within landraces from countries outside Africa was slightly greater than within African landraces. Accessions from Asia and Europe were more related to those from western Africa while accessions from the Americas appeared more closely related to those from eastern Africa. This delineation of cowpea germplasm into groups of genetic relatedness will be valuable for guiding introgression efforts in breeding programs and for improving the efficiency of germplasm management.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1990-02-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  11. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  12. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  15. Cellular MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  16. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  17. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  18. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  19. Carbon dynamics in peatland pool systems: the role of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Amy; Heal, Kate; McLeod, Andy; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Open-water pools are widespread in peatlands and are considered to represent biogeochemical hotspots within the peatland landscape. However the contribution of pool systems to wider peatland C cycling has not been quantified fully and there is a lack of knowledge of the role of photochemical processes in such environments. In this study, light exposure experiments were conducted in two contrasting pools to test the reactivity of aquatic C. The first study site was located at Cross Lochs (CL), Forsinard, in the Flow Country of Northern Scotland, in a 412 m2 pool characterised by low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (˜15 mg C L-1). The second site was located at Red Moss of Balerno (RM), a raised bog in central Scotland, in a 48 m2 pool with high DOC concentrations (˜35 mg C L-1). Experiments took place over 9 days in situ at each pool in mid-summer 2015, with 500 mL water samples contained in bags transparent to sunlight and in opaque control bags. After field exposure, optical, chemical and stable C isotope analyses were conducted on the samples. Significant differences in biogeochemical cycling of DOC were detected between the two systems, with DOC losses as a percentage of the total C pool 15% higher at RM than at CL after light exposure. The mean DOC concentration of light exposed samples at RM declined steeply initially, with 83% observed DOC degradation occurring by day 3 of the experiment. Total losses of 7.9 mg DOC L-1were observed in light exposed samples at RM, along with decreasing E4:E6 ratios, suggesting that material remaining at the end of the experiment was humified. Depletion of DOC was positively correlated with production of CO2 at both sites, with concentrations of up to 4.3 mg CO2-C L-1 recorded at RM. Stable C isotope signatures at both sites were altered under light treatment, as demonstrated by the production of enriched δ13C-DOC (+0.46 ‰ relative to opaque bags) and depleted δ13C-DIC (-0.97 ‰ relative to opaque bags) at

  20. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow......-up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number...... expected in the Danish population. RESULTS: A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary...

  1. Dynamics of inorganic nutrients in intertidal sediments: porewater, exchangeable and intracellular pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eGarcia-Robledo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: the porewater (PW nutrients and the exchangeable (EX ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC, highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC and EX and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance and organic matter (OM contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain. MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an

  2. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  4. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  5. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-15

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  6. Structure for nuclear fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae; Nichiei, Shinji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable leak detection in nuclear fuel storage pools, as well as prevent external leakages while keeping the strength of the constructional structures. Constitution: Protection plates are provided around pool linear plates and a leak reception is provided to the bottom. Leakages are detected by leak detecting pipeways and the external leakages are prevented by collecting them in a detection area provided in the intermediate layer. Since ferro-reinforcements at the bottom wall of the pool are disconnected by the protection plate making it impossible to form the constructional body, body hunches are provided to the bottom wall of the pool for processing the ferro-reinforcements. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  8. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  9. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  10. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  11. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  12. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  13. Pooled inventory management: a unique cost-sharing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromenschenkel, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    A totally fresh approach to stocking an inventory of costly, long-lead-time nuclear plant equipment became a reality in January, 1981, after three years of effort to form the program. The program, known as Pooled Inventory Management (PIM), is now procuring the first equipment to be stocked in its inventory. This report describes the formation of PIM, how the program works, PIM accomplishments, equipment included in PIM stockpiles, and economics, implementation, and future plans of the program

  14. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  15. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  16. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  17. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  18. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  20. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipaun, Susan, E-mail: susan@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Industrial Technology Division, Blok 29T, Bangi 43200, Selangor (Malaysia); Usman, Shoaib, E-mail: usmans@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Nuclear Engineering, 222 Fulton Hall 301 W.14th St., Rolla 64509 MO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  1. Reracking Possibilities of the NPP Krsko Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    1998-01-01

    Using the SCALE-4 code package reracking possibilities of the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool were analyzed. Two cases were considered: the first case assuming the 40 years lifetime of the plant, and the second case assuming the 50 years lifetime of the plant. It was shown that it is possible to design the additional racks in free space of the spent fuel pool with the sufficient total capacity to store all the spent fuel generated during the 40 years lifetime of the plant. In the case of 50 years plant lifetime, completely new racks (capacity of 1890 spent fuel assemblies), containing 4mm boral in storage cell walls, were proposed for the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool. The effective multiplication factor of the spent fuel pool fully loaded with new racks containing spent fuel assemblies of initial enrichment 4.3 w/o, burned to 40 GWd/tU and cooled 2 years is lower than the value required by standard. It showed the possibility of the safe disposal of all spent fuel accumulated during more than 50 years lifetime of the plant. (author)

  2. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U3Si2Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system's performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm-3. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR's nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s-1 from the 4" pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  3. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States. (c) SBA purchase of a Loan Interest. SBA will determine whether to purchase a Loan... reserves the right to purchase a Loan Interest from a Pool at any time. (d) Self-liquidating. A Pool... market conditions and program experience, and will publish any such change in the Federal Register. (h...

  4. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  5. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  6. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  7. Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.

  8. Big city consultants shut down our pool : a shocking community pool gets checked for stray voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P. [Power Line Systems Engineering Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This article discussed an investigation conducted at a community pool where swimmers complained of receiving electrical shocks both in the pool and on the pool's deck area. Electrical measurements taken at the pool revealed current flows from the pool water to various points around the deck area. Measured current flow in the pool area was 30 amps even when the main pool service breaker was opened to shut off power to the entire facility. Thirty amps of primary neutral current was then measured on the primary side aerial neutral in front of the pool. A 10 amp primary feeder from the pool joined up with the complex's primary neutral wire to increase the neutral current to 40 amps. The combined 40 amps current then returned to the secondary side of a nearby utility transformer substation. The study showed that the underground wet low-resistance grounded surface area of the pool was attracting the 30 amps of utility current from the surrounding ground area. The local utility disconnected the primary and secondary neutral interconnection at the pool's main 600-volt step-down transformer. The pool deck was removed in order to install additional copper bonding grounds. In order to avert serious injuries, many experts propose that all electric utilities should be required by law to reconfigure their power systems to prevent primary power neutral currents from entering private buildings. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  10. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door.

  11. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door

  12. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  13. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  14. Designing cellular manufacturing system under risk conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper develops a mathematical modeling to design a cellular manufacturing system. In addition some of the total or portion of the demand of the part types can be subcontracted.. In order to designing the optimal CMS, we needs to detrmined a plan to produce and subcontract parts at a minimum cost and to mitigate the ...

  15. Titanium distribution in swimming pool water is dominated by dissolved species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Holbrook, R.; Motabar, Donna; Quiñones, Oscar; Stanford, Benjamin; Vanderford, Brett; Moss, Donna

    2013-01-01

    The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) in consumer products such as sunscreen has raised concerns about their possible risk to human and environmental health. In this work, we report the occurrence, size fractionation and behavior of titanium (Ti) in a children's swimming pool. Size-fractionated samples were analyzed for Ti using ICP-MS. Total titanium concentrations ([Ti]) in the pool water ranged between 21 μg/L and 60 μg/L and increased throughout the 101-day sampling period while [Ti] in tap water remained relatively constant. The majority of [Ti] was found in the dissolved phase (<1 kDa), with only a minor fraction of total [Ti] being considered either particulate or microparticulate. Simple models suggest that evaporation may account for the observed variation in [Ti], while sunscreen may be a relevant source of particulate and microparticule Ti. Compared to diet, incidental ingestion of nano-Ti from swimming pool water is minimal. -- Highlights: •Total titanium concentrations in unfiltered swimming pool water ranged between 21 and 60 μg/L. •Evaporation of the swimming pool water is suspected of causing a temporal increase in [Ti]. •The vast majority of Ti is found in the dissolved phase (<1 kD). •Swimming pools are not a significant Ti source for human exposure via ingestion. -- In children's swimming pool water, the majority of titanium is found in the dissolved phase

  16. Pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1997-07-01

    This pool critical assembly (PCA) pressure vessel wall facility benchmark (PCA benchmark) is described and analyzed in this report. Analysis of the PCA benchmark can be used for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the qualification of the methodology for pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations, as required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guide DG-1053. Section 1 of this report describes the PCA benchmark and provides all data necessary for the benchmark analysis. The measured quantities, to be compared with the calculated values, are the equivalent fission fluxes. In Section 2 the analysis of the PCA benchmark is described. Calculations with the computer code DORT, based on the discrete-ordinates method, were performed for three ENDF/B-VI-based multigroup libraries: BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95, and BUGLE-96. An excellent agreement of the calculated (C) and measures (M) equivalent fission fluxes was obtained. The arithmetic average C/M for all the dosimeters (total of 31) was 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.92 ± 0.03 for the SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96 libraries, respectively. The average C/M ratio, obtained with the BUGLE-93 library, for the 28 measurements was 0.93 ± 0.03 (the neptunium measurements in the water and air regions were overpredicted and excluded from the average). No systematic decrease in the C/M ratios with increasing distance from the core was observed for any of the libraries used

  17. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  19. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  20. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  1. Swimming pool hydraulics and their significance for public pools. Bedeutung der Beckenhydraulik in oeffentlichen Schwimmbaedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gansloser, G

    1989-11-01

    The term of swimming pool hydraulics means the process of letting in and drawing off water to and from the pool while ensuring that no inadmissible water-borne contaminant concentrations will occur anywhere within the pool. Measurements were performed on a pool to study the significance of correct pool hydraulics. The author points out that a wrong water recirculation design will bring to nought the effects of an elaborate water treatment system; by contrast, poor pool water quality can be greatly improved by redesigning the pool water hydraulics approach. In principle, systems with with water inlet at one side and water outlet at the far side will fall short of hygienic requirements. (BWI).

  2. Eco-engineered rock pools: a concrete solution to biodiversity loss and urban sprawl in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Louise B.; Browne, Keith A.; Knights, Antony M.; Hawkins, Stephen J.; Nash, Róisín

    2016-09-01

    In coastal habitats artificial structures typically support lower biodiversity and can support greater numbers of non-native and opportunistic species than natural rocky reefs. Eco-engineering experiments are typically trialed to succeed; but arguably as much is learnt from failure than from success. Our goal was to trial a generic, cost effective, eco-engineering technique that could be incorporated into rock armouring anywhere in the world. Artificial rock pools were created from manipulated concrete between boulders on the exposed and sheltered sides of a causeway. Experimental treatments were installed in locations where they were expected to fail and compared to controls installed in locations in which they were expected to succeed. Control pools were created lower on the structure where they were immersed on every tidal cycle; experimental pools were created above mean high water spring tide which were only immersed on spring tides. We hypothesised that lower and exposed pools would support significantly higher taxon and functional diversity than upper and sheltered pools. The concrete pools survived the severe winter storms of 2013/14. After 12 months, non-destructive sampling revealed significantly higher mean taxon and functional richness in lower pools than upper pools on the exposed side only. After 24 months the sheltered pools had become inundated with sediments, thus failing to function as rock pools as intended. Destructive sampling on the exposed side revealed significantly higher mean functional richness in lower than upper pools. However, a surprisingly high number of taxa colonised the upper pools leading to no significant difference in mean taxon richness among shore heights. A high number of rare taxa in the lower pools led to total taxon richness being almost twice that of upper pools. These findings highlight that even when expected to fail concrete pools supported diverse assemblages, thus representing an affordable, replicable means of

  3. Pooling, meta-analysis, and the evaluation of drug safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizorovicz Alain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.

  4. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  5. Studies of thermal stratification in water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Large water pools are used as a heat sink for various cooling systems used in industry. In context of advance nuclear reactors like AHWR, it is used as ultimate heat sink for passive systems for decay heat removal and containment cooling. This system incorporates heat exchangers submerged in the large water pool. However, heat transfer by natural convection in pool poses a problem of thermal stratification. Due to thermal stratification hot layers of water accumulate over the relatively cold one. The heat transfer performance of heat exchanger gets deteriorated as a hot fluid envelops it. In the nuclear reactors, the walls of the pool are made of concrete and it may subject to high temperature due to thermal stratification which is not desirable. In this paper, a concept of employing shrouds around the heat source is studied. These shrouds provide a bulk flow in the water pool, thereby facilitating mixing of hot and cold fluid, which eliminate stratification. The concept has been applied to the a scaled model of Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) of AHWR in which Isolation Condensers (IC) tubes are submerged for decay heat removal of AHWR using ICS and thermal stratification phenomenon was predicted with and without shrouds. To demonstrate the adequacy of the effectiveness of shroud arrangement and to validate the simulation methodology of RELAP5/Mod3.2, experiments has been conducted on a scaled model of the pool with and without shroud. (author)

  6. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  7. Predictability in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.

  8. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

  9. Wavefront cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  10. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Wavefront cellular learning automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  12. Distributed Technologies in a Data Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Smith, M.

    2004-12-01

    A Data Pool is an on-line repository providing interactive and programmatic access to data products through a variety of services. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed and deployed such a Data Pool in conjunction with the DISCOVER project, a collaboration with NASA and Remote Sensing Systems. DISCOVER provides long-term ocean and climate data from a variety of passive microwave satellite instruments, including such products as sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water and rain rate. The Data Pool provides multiple methods to access and visualize these products, including conventional HTTP and FTP access, as well as data services that provide for enhanced usability and interoperability, such as GridFTP, OPeNDAP, OpenGIS-compliant web mapping and coverage services, and custom subsetting and packaging services. This paper will focus on the distributed service technologies used in the Data Pool, which spans heterogeneous machines at multiple locations. For example, in order to provide seamless access to data at multiple sites, the Data Pool provides catalog services for all data products at the various data server locations. Under development is an automated metadata generation tool that crawls the online data repositories regularly to dynamically update the Data Pool catalog with information about newly generated data files. For efficient handling of data orders across distributed repositories, the Data Pool also implements distributed data processing services on the file servers where the data resides. Ontologies are planned to support automated service chaining for custom user requests. The UAH Data Pool is based on a configurable technology framework that integrates distributed data services with a web interface and a set of centralized database services for catalogs and order tracking. While this instantiation of the Data Pool was implemented to meet the needs of the DISCOVER project, the framework was

  13. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J. [Universidad Miguel Hernandez - Edificio Torreblanca, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  14. Modal analysis of pool door in water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Park, Chan Gook; Koo, In Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A pool door is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. The pool door consists of stainless steel plates supported by structural steel frames and sealing components. The pool door is equipped with double inflatable gaskets. The configuration of the pool door is shown in Figure 1. The FEM analysis and theoretical calculation by the formula were performed to evaluate the natural frequency for the pool door in the water. The results from the two methods were compared.

  15. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  16. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  17. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  18. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m −2 and averaged 14.5 mg m −2 , indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  19. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  20. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  1. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  2. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  3. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  4. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  7. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  8. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  9. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  10. Evaluation of Structural Cellular Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. A.; Zwissler, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary design information presented. First report discusses state of structural-cellular-glass programs as of June 1979. Second report gives further details of program to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize properties of glasses and commercially available materials.

  11. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  12. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  13. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  14. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  15. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  16. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  17. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  18. Decommissioning the Dresden Unit 1 Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Bargelt, R.J.; Panozzo, J.B.; Christensen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) (Exelon Generation Co.) was decommissioned using a new underwater coating strategy developed in cooperation with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This was the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating approach. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and in safer, more cost effective deactivation. The process was pioneered at the INL and used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. The INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by the INL and Exelon on the pathway for this activity. The rationale used to select the underwater coating option and the advantages and disadvantages are shown. Special circumstances, such as the use of a remotely operated underwater vehicle to map (visually and radiologically) the pool areas that were not readily accessible, are discussed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are given and a lessons learned evaluation is included. (authors)

  19. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  20. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  1. Modeling and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage

  2. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  3. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  4. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima after the nuclear accident in March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, J; Kurikami, H; Yasuda, R; Kurihara, K; Arai, S; Kuroki, R; Matsuhashi, S; Ozawa, T; Goto, H; Takano, T; Mitamura, H; Nagano, T; Naganawa, H; Yoshida, Z; Funaki, H; Tokizawa, T; Nakayama, S

    2013-03-01

    Because of radioactive fallout resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, water discharge from many outdoor swimming pools in Fukushima was suspended out of concern that radiocesium in the pool water would flow into farmlands. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has reviewed the existing flocculation method for decontaminating pool water and established a practical decontamination method by demonstrating the process at eight pools in Fukushima. In this method, zeolite powder and a flocculant are used for capturing radiocesium present in pool water. The supernatant is discharged if the radiocesium concentration is less than the targeted level. The radioactive residue is collected and stored in a temporary storage space. Radioactivity concentration in water is measured with a NaI(Tl) or Ge detector installed near the pool. The demonstration results showed that the pool water in which the radiocesium concentration was more than a few hundred Bq L was readily purified by the method, and the radiocesium concentration was reduced to less than 100 Bq L. The ambient dose rates around the temporary storage space were slightly elevated; however, the total increase was up to 30% of the background dose rates when the residue was shielded with sandbags.

  5. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan...

  6. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...... of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  7. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  8. Mercury concentrations and pools in four adjacent coniferous and deciduous upland forests in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Gao, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Understanding of forest mercury (Hg) pools is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg removal. We studied gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations, litterfall Hg depositions, and pool sizes in four adjacent stands at Mount Dongling to assess Hg dynamics in the forested catchment and the potential of Hg release during wildfires. The average GEM concentration was 2.5 ± 0.5 ng m-3, about 1.5 times of the background levels in the Northern Hemisphere. In all four stands, Hg concentrations increase in the following order: bole wood mineral soil litter < Oe soil < Oa organic soil. The Hg pools of aboveground biomass were comparable in the forests of larch, oak, and Chinese pine, which were much greater than that of mixed broadleaf stands due to lower biomass. The total Hg pools in ecosystems were similar in the four stands, because of the comparable Hg pool in the soil horizons (0-40 cm), which accounted for over 97% of the total ecosystem Hg storage in the four stands. Although Hg pools of the forest ecosystem in north China were comparable to North America and North Europe, Hg storage in forests constituted a high threat for large Hg emission pulses to the atmosphere by wildfires. The potential Hg emissions from the combustion at the four stands were ranged from 0.675 to 1.696 mg m-2.

  9. Applications of pooled DNA samples to the assessment of population affinities: short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Banerjee, P; Demarchi, D A; Zlojutro, M; McComb, J; Livshits, G; Henneberg, M; Mosher, M J; Schanfield, M S; Knowles, J A

    2005-12-01

    Pooled DNA samples have been used in association studies of Mendelian disease genes. This method involves combining equal quantities of DNA from patients and control subjects into separate pools and comparing the pools for distributions of genetic markers. In this study identical quantities of DNA from 300 individuals representing 6 populations were pooled and amplified for 296 loci using the touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of pooled DNA markers in the reconstruction of the genetic structure of human populations. The populations sampled included Chuvash, Buryats, Kizhi, Native Americans, South Africans, and New York City whites. To test the accuracy of the allele-frequency distributions, we genotyped the Buryats and New York samples individually for six microsatellite markers and compared their frequencies to the allele frequencies derived from the electropherogram peak heights for the pooled DNA, producing a correlation of 0.9811 with a variance of less than 0.04. Two-dimensional scaling of genetic distances among the six populations produced clusters that reflected known historical relationships. A distance matrix was created using all 296 loci, and matrices based on individual chromosomes were correlated against the total matrix. As expected, the largest chromosomes had the highest correlations with the total matrix, whereas one of the smallest chromosomes, chromosome 22, had the lowest correlation and differed most from the combined STR distance matrix.

  10. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  11. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  12. Statistical mechanics of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, S.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed

  13. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  14. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  15. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. SBA may adjust the Pool characteristics periodically based on program experience and market... a Pool involving a Pool Loan it does not own, it must purchase the Loan Interest it proposes to pool... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  16. Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Cord, Anna F; Kessler, Michael; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Pompe, Sven; Sandel, Brody; Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Smith, Adam B; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Tuomisto, Hanna; Weigelt, Patrick; Wesche, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide a mechanistic and probabilistic framework for defining the species pool based on species-specific probabilities of dispersal, environmental suitability and biotic interactions within a specific temporal extent, and to show how probabilistic species pools can help disentangle the geographical structure of different community assembly processes. Innovation Probabilistic species pools provide an improved species pool definition based on probabilities in conjuncti...

  17. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  18. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Pool 26 Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The 1993-1996 water quality data for the Pool 26 area show long-term declines in the concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and soluble reactive phosphorus after the large flood in 1993...

  19. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets...

  20. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  2. Stein's neuronal model with pooled renewal input

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajdl, K.; Lánský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2015), s. 389-399 ISSN 0340-1200 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Stein’s model * Poisson process * pooled renewal processes * first-passage time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2015

  3. Phase analysis in gated blood pool tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Nanbu, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of gated blood pool study has been applied to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) in the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome; however, there was a limitation to detect the precise location of ACP by phase analysis alone. In this study, we applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography using seven pin hole tomography (7PT) and gated emission computed tomography (GECT) in 21 patients with WPW syndrome and 3 normal subjects. In 17 patients, the sites of ACPs were confirmed by epicardial mapping and the result of the surgical division of ACP. In 7PT, the site of ACP grossly agreed to the abnormal initial phase in phase image in 5 out of 6 patients with left cardiac type. In GECT, phase images were generated in short axial, vertical and horizontal long axial sections. In 8 out of 9 patients, the site of ACP was correctly identified by phase images, and in a patient who had two ACPs, initial phase corresponded to one of the two locations. Phase analysis of gated blood pool tomography has advantages for avoiding overlap of blood pools and for estimating three-dimensional propagation of the contraction, and can be a good adjunctive method in patients with WPW syndrome. (author)

  4. Swimming-pool piles; Piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trioulaire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10{sup 13}. This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [French] En France, deux piles piscines, Melusine et Triton, viennent d'entrer en service. La pile piscine est l'outil de recherche ideal pour des flux de neutrons de l'ordre de 10{sup 13}. Ce type de pile peut interesser des maintenant de nombreux centres de recherches mais il faut reduire son prix de revient et rompre avec le conformisme de sa conception. Il y a avantage: - a enterrer la piscine; - a supprimer les canaux experimentaux; - a concentrer le circuit de refrigeration dans la piscine; - a effectuer toutes les manipulations dans l'eau; - a doubler le coeur. (auteur)

  5. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...

  6. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  7. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  8. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  9. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  10. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  11. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association and it fulfills the following conditions: (1) The aggregate monthly quantity supplied by all... or aseptically-processed fluid milk products. (c) A supply plant from which the quantity of bulk... operator of a supply plant located within the marketing area may include deliveries to pool distributing...

  12. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  13. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pociask

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement, segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects.

  14. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  16. Radioimmunological measurements of total LH in sheep pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, R.P.; McIntosh, J.E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures commonly used to extract LH from pituitary cells in order to measure total cell content were compared in four cell preparations. It was shown in 81 samples of cells suspended in 1 mM EDTA or 50 mM NaHCO 3 that after freezing and thawing folloqwed by any of a variety of treatments, there were no significant differences in the amounts of LH measured by RIA relative to the arbitrarily chosen reference treatment of vigorous pipetting. The additional treatments were multiple freezing and thawing, homogenisation, sonication, homogenisation in 25-100 mM Na 2 CO 3 folloqwed by rapid neutralisation, or none. The consistency of the results suggested that the same cellular pools of LH were being made accessible for measurement with all treatments. However, use of the more vigorous conditions of 1-2.5 M urea, 1% Triton X-100, or sonication on ice in 100 mM Na 2 CO 3 decreased the amount of measurable hormone presumably due to its modification. In two cell preparations, homogenisation of cells in 100 mM Na 2 CO 3 produced and additional 45% of measurable LH not accessible using other treatments nor from the source material in two other preparations. (author)

  17. NAD(H) and NADP(H) Redox Couples and Cellular Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wusheng; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2018-01-20

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )/reduced NAD + (NADH) and NADP + /reduced NADP + (NADPH) redox couples are essential for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and for modulating numerous biological events, including cellular metabolism. Deficiency or imbalance of these two redox couples has been associated with many pathological disorders. Recent Advances: Newly identified biosynthetic enzymes and newly developed genetically encoded biosensors enable us to understand better how cells maintain compartmentalized NAD(H) and NADP(H) pools. The concept of redox stress (oxidative and reductive stress) reflected by changes in NAD(H)/NADP(H) has increasingly gained attention. The emerging roles of NAD + -consuming proteins in regulating cellular redox and metabolic homeostasis are active research topics. The biosynthesis and distribution of cellular NAD(H) and NADP(H) are highly compartmentalized. It is critical to understand how cells maintain the steady levels of these redox couple pools to ensure their normal functions and simultaneously avoid inducing redox stress. In addition, it is essential to understand how NAD(H)- and NADP(H)-utilizing enzymes interact with other signaling pathways, such as those regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and energy metabolism. Additional studies are needed to investigate the inter-relationships among compartmentalized NAD(H)/NADP(H) pools and how these two dinucleotide redox couples collaboratively regulate cellular redox states and cellular metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, recent studies suggest the utility of using pharmacological interventions or nutrient-based bioactive NAD + precursors as therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases. Thus, a better understanding of the cellular functions of NAD(H) and NADP(H) may facilitate efforts to address a host of pathological disorders effectively. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 251-272.

  18. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  19. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  20. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  1. Finding determinants of audit delay by pooled OLS regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate determinants of audit delay. Audit delay is measured as the length of time (i.e. the number of calendar days from the fiscal year-end to the audit report date. It is important to understand factors that influence audit delay since it directly affects the timeliness of financial reporting. The research is conducted on a sample of Croatian listed companies, covering the period of four years (from 2008 to 2011. We use pooled OLS regression analysis, modelling audit delay as a function of the following explanatory variables: audit firm type, audit opinion, profitability, leverage, inventory and receivables to total assets, absolute value of total accruals, company size and audit committee existence. Our results indicate that audit committee existence, profitability and leverage are statistically significant determinants of audit delay in Croatia.

  2. Cellular and humoral immunity after vaccination or natural mumps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Hagihara, Kimiko; Oishi, Tomohiro; Miyata, Ippei; Akaike, Hiroto; Ogita, Satoko; Ohno, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2017-08-01

    This study measured cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and serum antibody to clarify the basis of breakthrough after vaccination and reinfection after mumps. From a pool of 54 college students, 17 seronegative subjects and 14 subjects with intermediate level of antibodies against mumps were vaccinated with a monovalent mumps vaccine, and CMI was assessed using interferon-γ release assay. CMI positivity according to pre-existing antibody level, defined as titer  0.05), respectively. Vaccination or even natural mumps infection did not always induce both cellular and humoral immunity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  4. CO{sub 2} flooding performance prediction for Alberta oil pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    An advanced technical screening program was used to successfully screen and rank a very large number of Alberta oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. This paper is a continuation paper describing the results of using the Microsoft Excel program with VBA to estimate production forecasts for several candidate pools in Alberta. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provides a technical ranking of approximately 8,000 Alberta pools. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools are also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Research program on the feasibility of pool type LMFBR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1982-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has started the feasibility study to evaluate the possiblity of existence of large pool type FBR plants in Japan as the three-year project from fiscal 1981. The development of FBRs is indispensable for the effective use of nuclear fuel and the establishment of energy security. The knowledge on the characteristics of FBR core, sodium technology and others has advanced rapidly in Japan. At the stage of the practical reactors with large capacity, the pool type is naturally considered as the object of selection, but the aseismatic capability and safety of the large containment vessels for the pool type and the qualitative and quantitative acceptability of the research and development for the pool type are the problems. The difference between the loop type and the pool type is only the structural change arising from the difference in the arrangement of equipment. The pool type reactors have been operated already in the UK and France. The objective of the research and main subjects, the total plan and research organization, the fundamental condition of investigation, the research procedure for respective subjects, and the outline of model test are discribed. The change of design and safety standards in the future must be predicted and taken in consideration in the research. (Kako, I.)

  6. Chin Shan analyses show advantages of whole pool multi-rack approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Soler, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel storage racks are essentially thin-walled, cellular structures of prismatic cross-section. Although the details of design vary from one supplier to another, certain key physical attributes are common to all designs. For example, all racks feature square cells of sufficient opening size and height to enable insertion and withdrawal of the fuel assembly. The array of cells is positioned in a vertical orientation and is supported off the pool slab surface by four or more support legs. The spent fuel pool is filled with the individual fuel racks. The plenum created by the support legs is essential for proper cooling of the fuel assemblies stored in the rack, which relies on natural convective cooling to extract the heat emitted by the spent fuel. However, it has the insalutary effect of making it kinematically less stable. Regulatory authorities require careful and comprehensive analysis of the response of the racks under the seismic motions postulated for the pool slab. Results from whole pool multi-rack (WPMR) analyses at the Chin Shan and Oyster Creek nuclear plants point up the potential inadequacies of single rack 3D analyses, and show just how important it is to carry out WPMR simulations, despite their abstruseness and high cost. (author)

  7. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  8. Horizontal above-rack pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes a unique method for storing spent, six year out of core, fuel at a prototypical PWR nuclear power station. The study describes a conceptual design, with favorable structural, thermal and criticality technical evaluations. However, economic considerations and licensing risks are judged to be less favorable. The concept study prescribes a fuel over fuel arrangement in an existing Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) with full maintenance of ALARA principles. This concept study is specific to a prototypical pool design, but may easily be projected to other nuclear facilities with other SFP conditions. For the prototypical PWR, the conceptual fuel bridge design will store over 200 additional fuel assemblies without significant facility modifications and for an indefinite time period

  9. Sodium pool fire model for CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The modeling of sodium pool fires constitutes an important ingredient in conducting LMFBR accident analysis. Such modeling capability has recently come under scrutiny at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) within the context of developing CONACS, the Containment Analysis Code System. One of the efforts in the CONACS program is to model various combustion processes anticipated to occur during postulated accident paths. This effort includes the selection or modification of an existing model and development of a new model if it clearly contributes to the program purpose. As part of this effort, a new sodium pool fire model has been developed that is directed at removing some of the deficiencies in the existing models, such as SOFIRE-II and FEUNA

  10. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  11. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC andBUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B.As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have beenassessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified.(Author) 73 refs

  12. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs

  13. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  14. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  15. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  16. Effect of turbulent natural convection on sodium pool combustion in the steam generator building of a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikeyan, S.; Sundararajan, T.; Shet, U.S.P.; Selvaraj, P.

    2009-01-01

    A computational model is proposed to simulate sodium pool combustion considering the effect of turbulent natural convection in a vented enclosure of the steam generator building (SGB) of a fast breeder reactor. The model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental results available in literature for sodium pool combustion in a CSTF vessel. After validation, the effects of vents and the location of the pool on the burning rate of sodium and the associated heat transfer to the walls are studied in an enclosure comparable in size to one floor of the steam generator building. In the presence of ventilation, the burning rate of sodium increases, but the total heat transferred to the walls of the enclosure is reduced. It is also found that the burning rate of sodium pool and the heat transfer to the walls of the enclosures vary significantly with the location of sodium pool.

  17. NblA1/A2-Dependent Homeostasis of Amino Acid Pools during Nitrogen Starvation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Hiroshi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2014-06-30

    Nutrient balance is important for photosynthetic growth and biomass production in microalgae. Here, we investigated and compared metabolic responses of amino acid pools to nitrogen and sulfur starvation in a unicellular model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and its mutant nblA1/A2. It is known that NblA1/A2-dependent and -independent breakdown of abundant photosynthetic phycobiliproteins and other cellular proteins supply nutrients to the organism. However, the contribution of the NblA1/A2-dependent nutrient supply to amino acid pool homeostasis has not been studied. Our study demonstrates that changes in the pool size of many amino acids during nitrogen starvation can be categorized as NblA1/A2-dependent (Gln, Glu, glutathione, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Tyr and Val) and NblA1/A2-independent (Ala, Asn, Lys, and Trp). We also report unique changes in amino acid pool sizes during sulfur starvation in wild type and the mutant and found a generally marked increase in the Lys pool in cyanobacteria during nutrient starvation. In conclusion, the NblA1/A2-dependent protein turnover contributes to the maintenance of many amino acid pools during nitrogen starvation.

  18. NblA1/A2-Dependent Homeostasis of Amino Acid Pools during Nitrogen Starvation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kiyota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance is important for photosynthetic growth and biomass production in microalgae. Here, we investigated and compared metabolic responses of amino acid pools to nitrogen and sulfur starvation in a unicellular model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and its mutant nblA1/A2. It is known that NblA1/A2-dependent and -independent breakdown of abundant photosynthetic phycobiliproteins and other cellular proteins supply nutrients to the organism. However, the contribution of the NblA1/A2-dependent nutrient supply to amino acid pool homeostasis has not been studied. Our study demonstrates that changes in the pool size of many amino acids during nitrogen starvation can be categorized as NblA1/A2-dependent (Gln, Glu, glutathione, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Tyr and Val and NblA1/A2-independent (Ala, Asn, Lys, and Trp. We also report unique changes in amino acid pool sizes during sulfur starvation in wild type and the mutant and found a generally marked increase in the Lys pool in cyanobacteria during nutrient starvation. In conclusion, the NblA1/A2-dependent protein turnover contributes to the maintenance of many amino acid pools during nitrogen starvation.

  19. Top-down cellular pyramids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A Y; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-10-01

    A cellular pyramid is an exponentially tapering stack of arrays of processors (cells), where each cell is connected to its neighbors (siblings) on its own level, to a parent on the level above, and to its children on the level below. It is shown that in some situations, if information flows top-down only, from fathers to sons, then a cellular pyramid may be no faster than a one-level cellular array; but it may be possible to use simpler cells in the pyramid case. 23 references.

  20. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  1. Gene pool conservation of teak in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Tun

    1995-01-01

    Myanmar with an area of 261, 228 Sq. miles is endowed with various types of forests which occupied nearly 50% of the country. Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) is one of the most valuable timber species for its excellent wood quality and properties which are not observed with other timbers. Gene pool can be defined as a group of individual trees growing over a wide range of environmental conditions, and constituting different genetic complexes which can be transmitted to the offsprings. Topics such as: objectives of gene pool conservation, genetically improved seeds for large scale forest plantations, methodology of conservation, are discussed in the article. Myanmar teak dominates the world's teak market, and thus it is crucial to maintain the superiority in the conservation of gene complexes of teak. To some extent, the conservation of gene pools of teak and tree improvements are being undertaken by the Forest Research Institute of Myanmar. It is felt that the dissemination of the philosophy and concept of gene conservation to the personal involved in the forestry activities of the country are still inadequate

  2. Aspects of DNA repair and nucleotide pool imbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence that optimum repair depends on adequate pools of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) comes from the study of pyrimidine auxotrophs of Ustilago maydis. These strains are sensitive to UV light and X-rays, and for pyr1-1 it has been shown that the intracellular concentration of dTTP is reduced about 7-fold. The survival curve of pyr1-1 after UV-treatment, and split dose experiments with wild-type cells, provide evidence for an inducible repair mechanism, which probably depends on genetic recombination. Although inducible repair saves cellular resources, it has the disadvantage of becoming ineffective at doses which are high enough to inactivate the repressed structural gene(s) for repair enzymes. It is clear that a wide variety of repair mechanisms have evolved to remove lesions which arise either spontaneously or as a result of damage from external agents. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to assume that all species require all possible pathways of repair. It is now well established that the accuracy of DNA and protein synthesis depends on proof-reading or editing mechanisms. Optimum accuracy levels will evolve from the balance between error avoidance in macromolecular synthesis and physiological efficiency in growth and propagation.

  3. Pooled-matrix protein interaction screens using Barcode Fusion Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachie, Nozomu; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Mellor, Joseph C; Weile, Jochen; Jacob, Yves; Verby, Marta; Ozturk, Sedide B; Li, Siyang; Cote, Atina G; Mosca, Roberto; Knapp, Jennifer J; Ko, Minjeong; Yu, Analyn; Gebbia, Marinella; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Tyagi, Tanya; Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Roth, Jonathan F; Wong, Cassandra; Musa, Louai; Snider, Jamie; Liu, Yi-Chun; Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Stagljar, Igor; Hao, Tong; Calderwood, Michael A; Pelletier, Laurence; Aloy, Patrick; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Roth, Frederick P

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput binary protein interaction mapping is continuing to extend our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms. However, we remain one or two orders of magnitude away from a complete interaction map for humans and other major model organisms. Completion will require screening at substantially larger scales with many complementary assays, requiring further efficiency gains in proteome-scale interaction mapping. Here, we report Barcode Fusion Genetics-Yeast Two-Hybrid (BFG-Y2H), by which a full matrix of protein pairs can be screened in a single multiplexed strain pool. BFG-Y2H uses Cre recombination to fuse DNA barcodes from distinct plasmids, generating chimeric protein-pair barcodes that can be quantified via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-Y2H to four different matrices ranging in scale from ~25 K to 2.5 M protein pairs. The results show that BFG-Y2H increases the efficiency of protein matrix screening, with quality that is on par with state-of-the-art Y2H methods. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  5. Symposium cellular response to DNA damage the role of poly(ADP-ribose) poly(ADP-ribose) in the cellular response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a chromatin-bound enzyme which, on activation by DNA strand breaks, catalyzes the successive transfer of ADP-ribose units from NAD to nuclear proteins. Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is stimulated by DNA strand breaks, and the polymer may alter the structure and/or function of chromosomal proteins to facilitate the DNA repair process. Inhibitors of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase or deficiencies of the substrate, NAD, lead to retardation of the DNA repair process. When DNA strand breaks are extensive or when breaks fail to be repaired, the stimulus for activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) persists and the activated enzyme is capable of totaly consuming cellular pools of NAD. Depletion of NAD and consequent lowering of cellular ATP pools, due to activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, may account for rapid cell death before DNA repair takes place and before the genetic effects of DNA damage become manifest

  6. Cellular senescence and organismal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Sedivy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Cellular senescence, first observed and defined using in vitro cell culture studies, is an irreversible cell cycle arrest which can be triggered by a variety of factors. Emerging evidence suggests that cellular senescence acts as an in vivo tumor suppression mechanism by limiting aberrant proliferation. It has also been postulated that cellular senescence can occur independently of cancer and contribute to the physiological processes of normal organismal aging. Recent data have demonstrated the in vivo accumulation of senescent cells with advancing age. Some characteristics of senescent cells, such as the ability to modify their extracellular environment, could play a role in aging and age-related pathology. In this review, we examine current evidence that links cellular senescence and organismal aging.

  7. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  8. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  9. Decommissioning of the pool reactor Thetis in Ghent, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortenbosch, Geert; Mommaert, Chantal [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Tierens, Hubert; Monsieurs, Myriam; Meierlaen, Isabelle; Strijckmans, Karel [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The Thetis research pool reactor (with a nominal power of 150 kW) of the Ghent University was operational from 1967 till December 2003. The first phase of the decommissioning of the reactor, the removal of the spent fuel from the site, took place in 2010. The cumulative dose received was only 404 man . μSv. During the second phase, the transition period between the removal of the spent fuel in 2010 and the start of the decommissioning phase in March 2013, 3-monthly internal inspections and inspections by Bel V, were performed. The third and final decommissioning phase started on March 18, 2013. The total dose received between March 2013 and August 2013 was 1561 man . μSv. The declassification from a Class I installation to a Class II installation was possible by the end of 2015. The activated concrete in the reactor pool will remain under regulatory control until the activation levels are lower than the limits for free release.

  10. Use of Sugammadex in Patients With Obesity: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Terri G; Rietbergen, Henk; Woo, Tiffany; Fennema, Hein

    A growing proportion of patients undergoing surgical procedures are obese, providing anesthesiologists with numerous challenges for patient management. The current pooled analysis evaluated recovery times following sugammadex reversal of neuromuscular blockade by body mass index (BMI) in general, and in particular, in patients with BMIs ≥30 kg/m (defined as obese) and sugammadex doses for reversal of moderate [reappearance of the second twitch of the train-of-four (TOF); sugammadex 2 mg/kg] or deep (1-2 post-tetanic counts or 15 minutes after rocuronium; sugammadex 4 mg/kg) rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. All doses of sugammadex were administered based on actual body weight. The recovery time from sugammadex administration to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was the primary efficacy variable in all individual studies and in the pooled analysis. This analysis comprised a total of 1418 adult patients treated with sugammadex; 267 (18.8%) of these patients had a BMI ≥30 kg/m. The average time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.9 minutes for rocuronium-induced blockade and 3.0 minutes for vecuronium-induced blockade. No clinically relevant correlation was observed between BMI and recovery time. The recommended sugammadex doses based on actual body weight provide rapid recovery from neuromuscular blockade in both obese and non-obese patients; no dose adjustments are required in the obese patient.

  11. Predicting the emissive power of hydrocarbon pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Miguel; Planas, Eulalia; Ferrero, Fabio; Casal, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    The emissive power (E) of a flame depends on the size of the fire and the type of fuel. In fact, it changes significantly over the flame surface: the zones of luminous flame have high emittance, while those covered by smoke have low E values. The emissive power of each zone (that is, the luminous or clear flame and the non-luminous or smoky flame) and the portion of total flame area they occupy must be assessed when a two-zone model is used. In this study, data obtained from an experimental set-up were used to estimate the emissive power of fires and its behaviour as a function of pool size. The experiments were performed using gasoline and diesel oil as fuel. Five concentric circular pools (1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 m in diameter) were used. Appropriate instruments were employed to determine the main features of the fires. By superimposing IR and VHS images it was possible to accurately identify the luminous and non-luminous zones of the fire. Mathematical expressions were obtained that give a more accurate prediction of E lum , E soot and the average emissive power of a fire as a function of its luminous and smoky zones. These expressions can be used in a two-zone model to obtain a better prediction of the thermal radiation. The value of the radiative fraction was determined from the thermal flux measured with radiometers. An expression is also proposed for estimating the radiative fraction

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  13. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Home Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... included below. Infections Unlikely to be Spread by Swimming Pools Head Lice Head lice are unlikely to ...

  14. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  15. Indirect control of the intracellular nitrate pool of intertidal sediment by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Kamp, Anja; Schramm, Angela T.

    2012-01-01

    for anaerobic respiration processes. The origin and some of the ecological controls of this intracellular nitrate pool were investigated in a laboratory experiment. Sediment microcosms were set up with and without the abundant polychaete Hediste diversicolor that is known to stim- ulate nitrate production...... that of the photopigments chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin, strongly suggesting that diatoms were the main nitrate-storing organisms. Intra- cellular nitrate formation is thus stimulated by the interaction of phylogenetically distant groups of organisms: worms enhance nitrification by feeding on particulate organic matter...

  16. Analysis of sodium pool fire in SFEF for assessing the limiting pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Ramesh, S.S.; Nashine, B.K.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental sodium leaks and resultant sodium fires in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems can create a threat to the safe operation of the plant. To avoid this defence-in depth approach is implemented from the design stage of reactor itself. Rapid detection of sodium leak and fast dumping of the sodium into the storage tank of a defective circuit, leak collection trays, adequate lining of load bearing structural concrete and extinguishment of the sodium fire are the important defensive measures in the design, construction and operation of a LMFBR for protection against sodium leaks and their resultant fires. Evaluation of sodium leak events and their consequences by conducting large scale engineering experiments is very essential for effective implementation of the above protection measures for sodium fire safety. For this purpose a Sodium Fire Experimental Facility (SFEF) is constructed at SED, IGCAR. SFEF is having an experimental hall of size 9 m x 6 m x 10 m with 540 m 3 volume and its design pressure is 50 kPa. It is a concrete structure and provided with SS 304 liner, which is fixed to the inside surfaces of walls, ceiling and floor. A leak tight door of size (1.8 m x 2.0 m) is provided to the experimental hall and the facility is provided with a sodium equipment hall and a control room. Experimental evaluation of sodium pool fire consequences is an important activity in the LMFBR sodium fire safety related studies. An experimental program has been planned for different types of sodium fire studies in SFEF. A prior to that numerical analysis have been carried out for enclosed sodium pool fires using SOFIRE-II sodium pool fire code for SFEF experimental hall configuration to evaluate the limiting pool fire. This paper brings out results of the analysis carried out for this purpose. Limiting pool fire of SFEF depends on the exposed surface area of the pool, amount of sodium in the pool, oxygen concentration and initial sodium temperature. Limiting

  17. (Important hygienic aspects for swimming pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somosi, G

    1981-01-01

    The major epidemics which occurred in Hungary and originated from water in swimming pools are reported. The difficulties encountered in producing epidemiological evidence and in monitoring infections originating from water in swimming pools are mentioned. The possibilities of controlling the water quality in swimming pools and of preventing infections are discussed. Reference is made to the existing bacteriological limit values in Hungary to be observed in the recirculation of water in swimming pools.

  18. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  19. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  20. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  1. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the financial statements are not required to include consolidated information for all series. (7) For... event that the International Financial Reporting Standards require consolidated financial statements for... reporting pool's consolidated financial statements. (ii) The commodity pool operator of a pool that meets...

  2. 48 CFR 873.114 - Best value pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Best value pool. 873.114... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.114 Best value pool... solicitation. These vendors constitute the best value pool. This determination is within the sole discretion of...

  3. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in nonstationary metabolic flux analysis: The case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHeise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014. Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labelling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from nonstationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  4. Measurements in large JP-4 pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a number of large pool fire tests to evaluate the design of radioactive material (RAM) shipping containers. Some of these tests have been designed to define the thermal environment and some have been used for certification testing. In each test there have been a number of fire diagnostic measurements. The simplest sets of diagnostics have involved measurements of temperature at several elevations on arrays of towers, measurements of hot wall heat flux with small calorimeters suspended from the towers, the average fuel recession rate, and the wind speed and direction. The most complex sets of diagnostics have included the above and in various tests added radiometers in the lower flame zone, centerline velocity measurements at a number of elevations, radiometers and calorimeters at the fuel surface, large cylindrical and flat plate calorimeters, infrared imaging, time resolved fuel recession rates, and a variety of soot particle concentration and size measurements made in the plume with a tethered balloon and an instrumented airplane. All of the large fires have been conducted in a 9.1 m by 18.3 m pool using JP-4 as the fuel. Typical duration is one-half hour. Covering all of the results is beyond the scope of a single paper. Conditionally sampled temperature and velocity measurements from one fire will be presented; for this fire, a 20 cm layer of fuel was floated on 61 cm of water. Pool surface heat flux, fuel recession rate data, and smoke emission data from a second fire are given. Because the wind has a strong effect on the temperature and velocity measurements, conditional sampling has been used to try to obtain data during periods of low winds. 10 refs., 3 figs

  5. Gated cardiac blood pool studies in arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Casset, D.; Philippe, L.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Biventricular phase analysis a gated blood pool studies may help to solve two fundamental questions raised by patients suffering from arrhythmias: localization of an electrical cardiac activation abnormality by means of contraction mapping and assesment of an underlying organic disease using the phase histograms and their standard deviations. Three groups of patients have been evaluated to demonstrate the usefulness of radioisotopic techniques in arrhythmias: 36 patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, 27 patients studied during a ventricular tachycardia attack and 32 patients suspected of arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia. Correlations with invasive electrophysiologic studies are presented and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results are discussed [fr

  6. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  7. Simulation of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andre Felipe da Silva de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic is used to simulate natural circulation condition after a research reactor shutdown. A benchmark problem was used to test the viability of usage such code to simulate the reactor model. A model which contains the core, the pool, the reflector tank, the circulation pipes and chimney was simulated. The reactor core contained in the full scale model was represented by a porous media. The parameters of porous media were obtained from a separate CFD analysis of the full core model. Results demonstrate that such studies can be carried out for research and test of reactors design. (author)

  8. Gated cardiac blood pool studies in arrhythmias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, R.; Casset, D.; Philippe, L.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Biventricular phase analysis a gated blood pool studies may help to solve two fundamental questions raised by patients suffering from arrhythmias: localization of an electrical cardiac activation abnormality by means of contraction mapping and assesment of an underlying organic disease using the phase histograms and their standard deviations. Three groups of patients have been evaluated to demonstrate the usefulness of radioisotopic techniques in arrhythmias: 36 patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, 27 patients studied during a ventricular tachycardia attack and 32 patients suspected of arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia. Correlations with invasive electrophysiologic studies are presented and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Pool film boiling heat transfer, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, A.; Shiotsu, M.; Hata, K.

    1981-01-01

    Steady minimum film boiling heat flux and temperature were experimentally studied for a horizontal cylinder test heater in a pool of saturated water under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 2 MPa. Minimum temperature of film boiling may be determined by hydrodynamic Taylor instability for the pressures lower than around 1.0 MPa and by homogeneous nucleation temperature for the higher pressures. However, conventional correlations of minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability cannot at all predict the pressure dependency of the experimental data in the lower pressure region. Semi-empirical equation of the minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability was given. (author)

  10. Swimming pool reactor reliability and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaohuan

    1997-01-01

    A reliability and safety analysis of Swimming Pool Reactor in China Institute of Atomic Energy is done by use of event/fault tree technique. The paper briefly describes the analysis model, analysis code and main results. Meanwhile it also describes the impact of unassigned operation status on safety, the estimation of effectiveness of defense tactics in maintenance against common cause failure, the effectiveness of recovering actions on the system reliability, the comparison of occurrence frequencies of the core damage by use of generic and specific data

  11. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  12. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  13. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  14. Titanium distribution in swimming pool water is dominated by dissolved species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Holbrook, R; Motabar, Donna; Quiñones, Oscar; Stanford, Benjamin; Vanderford, Brett; Moss, Donna

    2013-10-01

    The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in consumer products such as sunscreen has raised concerns about their possible risk to human and environmental health. In this work, we report the occurrence, size fractionation and behavior of titanium (Ti) in a children's swimming pool. Size-fractionated samples were analyzed for Ti using ICP-MS. Total titanium concentrations ([Ti]) in the pool water ranged between 21 μg/L and 60 μg/L and increased throughout the 101-day sampling period while [Ti] in tap water remained relatively constant. The majority of [Ti] was found in the dissolved phase (microparticulate. Simple models suggest that evaporation may account for the observed variation in [Ti], while sunscreen may be a relevant source of particulate and microparticule Ti. Compared to diet, incidental ingestion of nano-Ti from swimming pool water is minimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan

    1995-01-01

    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  16. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  17. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  18. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  19. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  20. Life cycle environmental implications of residential swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Nigel; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-15

    Ownership of private swimming pools in the U.S. grew 2 to 4% per annum from 1997 to 2007. The environmental implications of pool ownership are analyzed by hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) for nine U.S. cities. An operational model is constructed estimating consumption of chemicals, water, and energy for a typical residential pool. The model incorporates geographical climatic variations and upstream water and energy use from electricity and water supply networks. Results vary considerably by city: a factor of 5-6 for both water and energy use. Water use is driven by aridness and length of the swimming season, while energy use is mainly driven by length of the swimming season. Water and energy impacts of pools are significant, particularly in arid climates. In Phoenix for example pools account for 22% and 13% of a household's electricity and water use, respectively. Measures to reduce water and energy use in pools such as optimizing the pump schedule and covering the pool in winter can realize greater savings than many common household efficiency improvements. Private versus community pools are also compared. Community pools in Phoenix use 60% less swimming pool water and energy per household than subdivisions without community pools.

  1. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San

    1999-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  2. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  3. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Storage of irradiated nuclear fuel in water pools (basins) has been standard practice since nuclear reactors first began operation approximately 34 years ago. Pool storage is the starting point for all other fuel storage candidate processes and is a candidate for extended interim fuel storage until policy questions regarding reprocessing and ultimate disposal have been resolved. This report assesses the current performance of nuclear fuel in pool storage, the range of storage conditions, and the prospects for extending residence times. The assessment is based on visits to five U.S. and Canadian fuel storage sites, representing nine storage pools, and on discussions with operators of an additional 21 storage pools. Spent fuel storage experience from British pools at Winfrith and Windscale and from a German pool at Karlsruhe (WAK) also is summarized

  4. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts

  5. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake, many school swimming pools in Fukushima have suspended water discharge, due to concerns that pool water which contains radioactive fallout is discharged into a river or waterway for agricultural use. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted researches and examinations on the existing absorbent method and the flocculation method as ways for decontaminating pool water. By reviewing and improving these methods through decontamination demonstrations at eight pools in Fukushima, a practical decontamination method for outdoor pools has been established. This report summarizes the methods and results of the decontamination demonstrations carried out at the schools. Also, the surface density of fallout estimated at one of the pools is also presented and discussed in connection with the overall collection ratio of radiocesium at the pool. (author)

  6. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  7. Screening and ranking Alberta oil pools for CO{sub 2} flooding and sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented the results of a technical screening program using Excel VBA to successfully screen and rank a very large number of oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provided a technical ranking of approximately 8,800 Alberta pools in less than 2 minutes. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools were also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton Diversity across Temporary Pools in a Semiarid Intermittent River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís X. Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the richness and density of zooplankton across temporary pools in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and evaluates the partitioning of diversity across different spatial scales during the wet and dry periods. Given the highly patchy nature of these pools it is hypothesized that the diversity is not homogeneously distributed across different spatial scales but concentrated at lower levels. The plankton fauna was composed of 37 species. Of these 28 were Rotifera, 5 were Cladocera, and 4 were Copepoda (nauplii of Copepoda were also recorded. We showed that the zooplankton presents a spatially segregated pattern of species composition across river reaches and that at low spatial scales (among pools or different habitats within pools the diversity of species is likely to be affected by temporal changes in physical and chemical characteristics. As a consequence of the drying of pool habitats, the spatial heterogeneity within the study river reaches has the potential to increase β diversity during the dry season by creating patchier assemblages. This spatial segregation in community composition and the patterns of partition of the diversity across the spatial scales leads to a higher total diversity in intermittent streams, compared to less variable environments.

  9. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  10. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  11. Global properties of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence

  12. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  13. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  14. Environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool; Uimahallin ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    used the average information of the making of Finland's 1998 energy. The source information can vary according to the locality. The calculations were also sensitivity tested. The calculations of the environmental loads of the indoor swimming pool were most sensitive to changes in the hall usage. For example a two-degree (+/-) change in the water temperature of the indoor swimming halls pool changed the total amount of environmental emissions by 8 % (+/-). Other presumptions to which the calculations were relatively sensitive were the shell's thermal insulation capacity, capacity of the ventilation units and the condensate heat recovery. Changes in all these factors had at least a 2,5 % effect on the result of the calculations. (orig.)

  15. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  16. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions

  17. Suppression of the E. coli SOS response by dNTP pool changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowska, Katarzyna H; Makiela-Dzbenska, Karolina; Fijalkowska, Iwona J; Schaaper, Roel M

    2015-04-30

    The Escherichia coli SOS system is a well-established model for the cellular response to DNA damage. Control of SOS depends largely on the RecA protein. When RecA is activated by single-stranded DNA in the presence of a nucleotide triphosphate cofactor, it mediates cleavage of the LexA repressor, leading to expression of the 30(+)-member SOS regulon. RecA activation generally requires the introduction of DNA damage. However, certain recA mutants, like recA730, bypass this requirement and display constitutive SOS expression as well as a spontaneous (SOS) mutator effect. Presently, we investigated the possible interaction between SOS and the cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. We found that dNTP pool changes caused by deficiencies in the ndk or dcd genes, encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase and dCTP deaminase, respectively, had a strongly suppressive effect on constitutive SOS expression in recA730 strains. The suppression of the recA730 mutator effect was alleviated in a lexA-deficient background. Overall, the findings suggest a model in which the dNTP alterations in the ndk and dcd strains interfere with the activation of RecA, thereby preventing LexA cleavage and SOS induction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Mandatory pooling as a supplement to risk-adjusted capitation payments in a competitive health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Barneveld, E M; Lamers, L M; van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

    1998-07-01

    Risk-adjusted capitation payments (RACPs) to competing health insurers are an essential element of market-oriented health care reforms in many countries. RACPs based on demographic variables only are insufficient, because they leave ample room for cream skimming. However, the implementation of improved RACPs does not appear to be straightforward. A solution might be to supplement imperfect RACPs with a form of mandatory pooling that reduces the incentives for cream skimming. In a previous paper it was concluded that high-risk pooling (HRP), is a promising supplement to RACPs. The purpose of this paper is to compare HRP with two other main variants of mandatory pooling. These variants are called excess-of-loss (EOL) and proportional pooling (PP). Each variant includes ex post compensations to insurers for some members which depend to various degrees on actually incurred costs. Therefore, these pooling variants reduce the incentives for cream skimming which are inherent in imperfect RACPs, but they also reduce the incentives for efficiency and cost containment. As a rough measure of the latter incentives we use the percentage of total costs for which an insurer is at risk. This paper analyzes which of the three main pooling variants yields the greatest reduction of incentives for cream skimming given such a percentage. The results show that HRP is the most effective of the three pooling variants.

  19. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  20. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  1. Cellular automaton for surface reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechatnikov, E L [AN SSSR, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Otdelenie Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Frankowicz, A; Danielak, R [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-06-01

    A new algorithm which overcomes some specific difficulties arising in modeling of heterogeneous catalytic processes by cellular automata (CA) technique is proposed. The algorithm was tested with scheme introduced by Ziff, Gulari and Barshad and showed a good agreement with their results. The problem of the physical adequacy and interpretation of the algorithm was discussed. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs.

  2. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ernest

    1994-01-01

    The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

  3. Cellular buckling in long structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, G.W.; Peletier, M.A.; Champneys, A.R.; Woods, P.D.; Wadee, M.A.; Budd, C.J.; Lord, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    A long structural system with an unstable (subcritical)post-buckling response that subsequently restabilizes typically deformsin a cellular manner, with localized buckles first forming and thenlocking up in sequence. As buckling continues over a growing number ofcells, the response can be described

  4. Technical specification for fabrication of HANARO pool cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Woo, Sang Ik

    2001-06-01

    This technical specification details the requirements and the acceptance criteria for design, seismic analysis, function test, installation and quality assurance for HANARO pool cover which will be installed at the top of reactor pool. The pool cover is classified as non-nuclear safety, seismic category II and quality class T. The basic design of the pool cover for increasing HANARO applications has been carried out for supporting the driving devices which can load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets in the in-core and out-core vertical irradiation holes under on-power operation. The comments of HANARO user group related with irradiation tests have optimally considered in the process of design. The interference between fuel handling and control absorber units in the reactor pool and activities to load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets at the top of the reactor pool have been minimized. The pool cover can be moved for maintenance and can protect the reactor pool from unexpected drop of foreign materials. It provides the space to vertical access of driving devices for NTD, CT/IR and OR4/OR5 under on-power operation. And the pool cover assembly must maintain its structural integrity under seismic load. Based on the above design concept, the HANARO pool cover has been proposed as supporting structure of driving devices for NTD, fission moly and RI production under on-power operation.

  5. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  6. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  7. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  8. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  9. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  10. Cellular zinc fluxes and the regulation of apoptosis/gene-directed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Tran, A Q; Ho, L H; Chai, F; Zalewski, P D

    2000-05-01

    The maintenance of discrete subcellular pools of zinc (Zn) is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells. Among the important biological processes influenced by Zn is apoptosis, a process that is important in cellular homeostasis (an important cellular homeostatic process). It has also been identified as a major mechanism contributing to cell death in response to toxins and in disease, offering hope that novel therapies that target apoptotic pathways may be developed. Because Zn levels in the body can be increased in a relatively nontoxic manner, it may be possible to prevent or ameliorate degenerative disorders that are associated with high rates of apoptotic cell death. This review begins with brief introductions that address, first, the cellular biology of Zn, especially the critical labile Zn pools, and, second, the phenomenon of apoptosis. We then review the evidence relating Zn to apoptosis and address three major hypotheses: (1) that a specific pool or pools of intracellular labile Zn regulates apoptosis; (2) that systemic changes in Zn levels in the body, due to dietary factors, altered physiological states or disease, can influence cell susceptibility to apoptosis, and (3) that this altered susceptibility to apoptosis contributes to pathophysiological changes in the body. Other key issues are the identity of the molecular targets of Zn in the apoptotic cascade, the types of cells and tissues most susceptible to Zn-regulated apoptosis, the role of Zn as a coordinate regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and the apparent release of tightly bound intracellular pools of Zn during the later stages of apoptosis. This review concludes with a section highlighting areas of priority for future studies.

  11. Slower lower limb blood pooling in young women with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Orthostatic stress is mostly caused by venous blood pooling in the lower limbs. Venous distension elicits sympathetic responses, and increased distension speed enhances the cardiovascular response. We examine whether lower limb blood pooling rate during lower body negative pressure is linked to orthostatic intolerance. What is the main finding and its importance? A similar amount of blood was pooled in the lower limb, but at a slower rate in women who developed signs of orthostatic intolerance. The difference in blood pooling rate increased with orthostatic stress and was most prominent at a presyncope-inducing level of lower body negative pressure. The findings have implications for the pathophysiology as well as treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Vasovagal syncope is common in young women, but its aetiology remains elusive. Orthostatic stress-induced lower limb blood pooling is linked with central hypovolaemia and baroreceptor unloading. Venous distension in the arm elicits a sympathetic response, which is enhanced with more rapid distension. Our aim was to study both the amount and the speed of lower limb pooling during orthostatic stress and its effects on compensatory mechanisms to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis in women with orthostatic intolerance. Twenty-seven healthy women, aged 20-27 years, were subjected to a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 11-44 mmHg. Five women developed symptoms of vasovagal syncope (orthostatic intolerant) and were compared with the remaining women, who tolerated LBNP well (orthostatic tolerant). Lower limb blood pooling, blood flow and compensatory mobilization of venous capacitance blood were measured. Lower body negative pressure induced equal lower limb blood pooling in both groups, but at a slower rate in orthostatic intolerant women (e.g. time to 50% of total blood pooling, orthostatic intolerant 44 ± 7 s and orthostatic tolerant 26 ± 2 s; P intolerant women (P = 0

  12. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Receptors and Cellular Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enrico Rovati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs exert a range of proinflammatory effects, such as constriction of airways and vascular smooth muscle, increase of endothelial cell permeability leading to plasma exudation and edema, and enhanced mucus secretion. They have proved to be important mediators in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. The classification into subtypes of the cysteinyl-LT receptors (CysLTRs was based initially on binding and functional data, obtained using the natural agonists and a wide range of antagonists. CysLTRs have proved remarkably resistant to cloning. However, in 1999 and 2000, the CysLT1R and CysLT2R were successfully cloned and both shown to be members of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs superfamily. Molecular cloning has confirmed most of the previous pharmacological characterization and identified distinct expression patterns only partially overlapping. Recombinant CysLTRs couple to the Gq/11 pathway that modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, whereas in native systems, they often activate a pertussis toxin-insensitive Gi/o-protein, or are coupled promiscuously to both G-proteins. Interestingly, recent data provide evidence for the existence of an additional receptor subtype that seems to respond to both cysteinyl-LTs and uracil nucleosides, and of an intracellular pool of CysLTRs that may have roles different from those of plasma membrane receptors. Finally, a cross-talk between the cysteinyl-LT and the purine systems is being delineated. This review will summarize recent data derived from studies on the molecular and cellular pharmacology of CysLTRs.

  13. “Pulling the plug” on cellular copper: The role of mitochondria in copper export

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria contain two enzymes, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), that require copper as a cofactor for their biological activity. The copper used for their metallation originates from a conserved, bioactive pool contained within the mitochondrial matrix, the size of which changes in response to either genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cellular copper status. Its dynamic nature implies molecular mechanisms exist that functionally couple mitochondria...

  14. On Optimal Geographical Caching in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbetci, Berksan; Goseling, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate optimal geographical caching in heterogeneous cellular networks where different types of base stations (BSs) have different cache capacities. Users request files from a content library according to a known probability distribution. The performance metric is the total hit

  15. Indoor swimming pools. Humidity caused problems and suggested solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Reports have been received from across Canada on premature deterioration and other problems of indoor swimming pool buildings. This technical paper has been prepared to assist pool managers to solve these problems, which typically include leaking roofs, condensation on inside walls, peeling paint, efflorescence, rusting of metal elements, deterioration of concrete block structures, and high costs for pool heating. An effective insulation and vapor barrier system for a swimming pool roof is described, and the high relative humidity of the typical pool building is discussed as the primary cause of most problems. Proper sealing to cut down air infiltration is recommended, along with proper maintenance and painting. High energy costs are often due to low insulation values and to excessive ventilation used for decreasing the humidity. By using dehumidifiers capable of heat recovery, and by placing an insulating blanket on the pool after operating hours, it is shown that substantial cost savings are possible. 10 figs.

  16. Turbulence model for melt pool natural convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, K.M.; Patankar, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    Under severe reactor accident scenarios, pools of molten core material may form in the reactor core or in the hemispherically shaped lower plenum of the reactor vessel. Such molten pools are internally heated due to the radioactive decay heat that gives rise to buoyant flows in the molten pool. The flow in such pools is strongly influenced by the turbulent mixing because the expected Rayleigh numbers under accidents scenarios are very high. The variation of the local heat flux over the boundaries of the molten pools are important in determining the subsequent melt progression behavior. This study reports results of an ongoing effort towards providing a well validated mathematical model for the prediction of buoyant flow and heat transfer in internally heated pool under conditions expected in severe accident scenarios

  17. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  18. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.

    1976-10-01

    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  19. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  20. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  1. The atmospheric wet pool: definition and comparison with the oceanic warm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; CHEN Ge

    2008-01-01

    The oceanic warm pool (OWP) defined by sea surface temperature (SST) is known as the "heat reservoir" in the ocean. The warmest portion in the ocean mirrors the fact that the wettest region with the largest accumulation of water vapor (WV) in the atmosphere, termed atmospheric wet pool (AWP), should be identified because of the well-known Clausius-Clapeyron relationship between SST and WV. In this study, we used 14-year simultaneous observations of WV and SST from January 1988 to December 2001 to define the AWP and investigate its coupling and co-variations with the OWP. The joint examination of the area variations, centroid locations, and zonal migrations of the AWP and OWP lead to a number of interesting findings. The results hopefully can contribute to our understanding of the air-sea interaction in general and characterization of El Nifio/La Nina events in particular.

  2. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  3. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  4. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  5. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  6. Steam blowdown experiments with the condensation pool test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purhonen, H.; Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    2005-01-01

    During a possible loss-of-coolant accident (Local) a large amount of non-condensable (nitrogen) and condensable (steam) gas is blown from the upper drywell of the containment to the condensation pool through the blowdown pipes at the boiling water reactors (BWRs). The wet well pool serves as the major heat sink for condensation of steam. The blowdown causes both dynamic and structural loads to the condensation pool. There might also be a risk that the gas discharging to the pool could push its way to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and undermine their performance. (author)

  7. Evaporation-preventive device for nuclear reactor pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurusu, Yoshihisa; Akabori, Shiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent pool water from evaporating by a great amount in a reactor pool such as a spent fuel storing pool. Constitution: Air discharge and in-take ports are disposed just above the surface of the pool water and charge and discharge of airs are forcively carried out to form air curtains above the pool water. Water vapor evaporated from the surface of the pool water does not diffuse above the air curtains due to the air stream of the curtains, but is intaken into the intake port and then condensated into water by a steam condensator and re-supplied to the pool. Since diffusion of water vapor and radioactive materials are suppressed above the air curtains, the working circumstance in the pool chamber can be maintained desirably thereby keeping the radioactivity dose in the atmosphere. Further, incorporation of dusts from above into the pool can also be prevented by the air curtains to provide an effect for the prevention of radioactive contamination. Further, since covers are not used, visual observation can be insured. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Evaporation rate measurement in the pool of IEAR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo; Cegalla, Miriam A.; Baptista Filho, Benedito Dias

    2000-01-01

    The surface water evaporation in pool type reactors affects the ventilation system operation and the ambient conditions and dose rates in the operation room. This paper shows the results of evaporation rate experiment in the pool of IEA-R1 research reactor. The experiment is based on the demineralized water mass variation inside cylindrical metallic recipients during a time interval. Other parameters were measured, such as: barometric pressure, relative humidity, environmental temperature, water temperature inside the recipients and water temperature in the reactor pool. The pool level variation due to water contraction/expansion was calculated. (author)

  9. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  10. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  11. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  12. Simulating physics with cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichniac, G Y

    1984-01-01

    Cellular automata are dynamical systems where space, time, and variables are discrete. They are shown on two-dimensional examples to be capable of non-numerical simulations of physics. They are useful for faithful parallel processing of lattice models. At another level, they exhibit behaviours and illustrate concepts that are unmistakably physical, such as non-ergodicity and order parameters, frustration, relaxation to chaos through period doublings, a conspicuous arrow of time in reversible microscopic dynamics, causality and light-cone, and non-separability. In general, they constitute exactly computable models for complex phenomena and large-scale correlations that result from very simple short-range interactions. The author studies their space, time, and intrinsic symmetries and the corresponding conservation laws, with an emphasis on the conservation of information obeyed by reversible cellular automata. 60 references.

  13. Anthropogenic impact on amorphous silica pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human land use changes perturb biogeochemical silica (Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This directly affects Si mobilisation and Si storage and influences Si export from the continents, although the magnitude of the impact is unknown. A major reason for our lack of understanding is that very little information exists on how land use affects amorphous silica (ASi storage in soils. We have quantified and compared total alkali-extracted (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in southern Sweden. Land use clearly affects ASi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p < 0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced ASi replenishment, as well as changes in ecosystem specific pedogenic processes and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. We have also made a first, though rough, estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental ASi pools due to human disturbance. Assuming that our data are representative, we estimate that total ASi storage in soils has declined by ca. 10 % since the onset of agricultural development (3000 BCE

  14. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  15. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  16. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  17. Vortex-induced buckling of a viscous drop impacting a pool

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2017-07-20

    We study the intricate buckling patterns which can form when a viscous drop impacts a much lower viscosity miscible pool. The drop enters the pool by its impact inertia, flattens, and sinks by its own weight while stretching into a hemispheric bowl. Upward motion along the outer bottom surface of this bowl produces a vortical boundary layer which separates along its top and rolls up into a vortex ring. The vorticity is therefore produced in a fundamentally different way than for a drop impacting a pool of the same liquid. The vortex ring subsequently advects into the bowl, thereby stretching the drop liquid into ever thinner sheets, reaching the micron level. The rotating motion around the vortex pulls in folds to form multiple windings of double-walled toroidal viscous sheets. The axisymmetric velocity field thereby stretches the drop liquid into progressively finer sheets, which are susceptible to both axial and azimuthal compression-induced buckling. The azimuthal buckling of the sheets tends to occur on the inner side of the vortex ring, while their folds can be stretched and straightened on the outside edge. We characterize the total stretching from high-speed video imaging and use particle image velocimetry to track the formation and evolution of the vortex ring. The total interfacial area between the drop and the pool liquid can grow over 40-fold during the first 50 ms after impact. Increasing pool viscosity shows entrapment of a large bubble on top of the drop, while lowering the drop viscosity produces intricate buckled shapes, appearing at the earliest stage and being promoted by the crater motions. We also present an image collage of the most intriguing and convoluted structures observed. Finally, a simple point-vortex model reproduces some features from the experiments and shows variable stretching along the wrapping sheets.

  18. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  19. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  20. Swimming pools as heat sinks for air conditioners: Model design and experimental validation for natural thermal behavior of the pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Jonathan; Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark [University of California Davis, Western Cooling Efficiency Center, 1450 Drew Avenue, Suite 100, Davis, CA 95618 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Swimming pools as thermal sinks for air conditioners could save approximately 40% on peak cooling power and 30% of overall cooling energy, compared to standard residential air conditioning. Heat dissipation from pools in semi-arid climates with large diurnal temperature shifts is such that pool heating and space cooling may occur concurrently; in which case heat rejected from cooling equipment could directly displace pool heating energy, while also improving space cooling efficiency. The performance of such a system relies on the natural temperature regulation of swimming pools governed by evaporative and convective heat exchange with the air, radiative heat exchange with the sky, and conductive heat exchange with the ground. This paper describes and validates a model that uses meteorological data to accurately predict the hourly temperature of a swimming pool to within 1.1 C maximum error over the period of observation. A thorough review of literature guided our choice of the most appropriate set of equations to describe the natural mass and energy exchange between a swimming pool and the environment. Monitoring of a pool in Davis, CA, was used to confirm the resulting simulations. Comparison of predicted and observed pool temperature for all hours over a 56 day experimental period shows an R-squared relatedness of 0.967. (author)

  1. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  2. Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont U.S. IV. Soil Surface Nitrogen Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of nitrogen (N applied in forage-based agricultural systems is important for understanding the long-term production and environmental impacts of a particular management strategy. We evaluated the factorial combination of three types of N fertilization (inorganic, crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.] cover crop plus inorganic, and chicken [Gallus gallus] broiler litter pressure and four types of harvest strategy (unharvested forage, low and high cattle [Bos Taurus] grazing pressure, and monthly haying in summer on surface residue and soil N pools during the first 5 years of ̒Coastal̓ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. management. The type of N fertilization used resulted in small changes in soil N pools, except at a depth of 0 to 2 cm, where total soil N was sequestered at a rate 0.2 g ‧ kg–1‧ year–11 greater with inorganic fertilization than with other fertilization strategies. We could account for more of the applied N under grazed systems (76–82% than under ungrazed systems (35–71%. As a percentage of applied N, 32 and 48% were sequestered as total soil N at a depth of 0 to 6 cm when averaged across fertilization strategies under low and high grazing pressures, respectively, which was equivalent to 6.8 and 10.3 g ‧ m–2 ‧ year–1. Sequestration rates of total soil N under the unharvested-forage and haying strategies were negligible. Most of the increase in total soil N was at a depth of 0 to 2 cm and was due to changes in the particulate organic N (PON pool. The greater cycling of applied N into the soil organic N pool with grazed compared with ungrazed systems suggests an increase in the long-term fertility of soil.

  3. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... manufacturers, warehouse them, and then resell the products to pool retail stores, pool service companies and.... ADDRESSES: Interested parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the... 0115'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc...

  4. Solar collectors for swimming pools still going strong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    According to the opinion of the experts, solar energy heating may be technically 'mature' but the profitability is by no means that far. However, solar systems are a good alternative for heating the water in swimming pools. Four solar collector systems developed by different firms to heat swimming pools, including prices, are presented.

  5. Microscopic bubble behaviour in suppression pool during wetwell venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablackaite, G.; Nagasaka, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    During a severe accident PCV failure should be avoided and fission products inside PCV should be confined as much as possible. In order to minimize FPs release, Wetwell venting is conducted by releasing steam-non-condensable gas mixture carrying FPs from the Drywell to Suppression Pool. Steam is condensed by subcooled water in the pool, and most of FPs are retained into water. The removal of FP in the water pool is referred to as “Pool Scrubbing effect”. Hydrodynamic parameters of bubbles have impact on pool scrubbing effect. However, there is only few data available to evaluate quantitatively the bubble behaviour under depressurization and/or thermal stratification conditions. Series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of temperature distribution, non-condensable gas content and pressure in the Wetwell on bubble behaviour. Bubbles were visualized using High Speed Camera and adopting shadowgraphy technique. Applying Particle Tracking Velocimetry, bubble velocity and size distribution were obtained from recorded images. Experimental results show that with increasing suppression pool temperature, bubbles reaching the pool surface decreased in size and traveling velocity became slower. In pressurized wetwell, bubble behaviour was similar to that in the heated up suppression pool case, although bubble parameters were similar to the low temperature case. Higher air content induced water surface movement and bubbles were smaller due to break up.

  6. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The agency...

  7. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  8. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  9. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  10. Anticipated corrosion in the Vermont Yankee spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1977-06-01

    The report provides additional information relating to a proposed modification to the spent fuel pool at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) and addresses corrosion of spent fuel pool storage materials and zircaloy, and provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the Boral sealing

  11. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates. 120.1709 Section 120.1709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709...

  12. 13 CFR 120.1714 - Seller's Pool Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan servicing. 120.1714 Section 120.1714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1714 Seller...

  13. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan liquidation. 120.1715 Section 120.1715 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller...

  14. 13 CFR 120.1713 - Seller's Pool Loan origination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan origination. 120.1713 Section 120.1713 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1713 Seller...

  15. 13 CFR 120.1717 - Seller's Pool Loan deferments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan deferments. 120.1717 Section 120.1717 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1717 Seller...

  16. AUS burnup module CHAR and the associated data pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    The CHAR module of the AUS reactor neutronics scheme solves the multiregion nuclide depletion equations using an analytic method. The module obtains cross section, flux and geometry data from AUS data pools, and uses the STATUS data pool which has been designed for the storage of nuclide compositions, spatial smearing factors and other miscellaneous information. (author)

  17. Phytomass carbon pool of trees and forests in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports estimates of above ground phytomass carbon pools in Indian forests for 1992 and 2002 using two different methodologies. The first estimate was derived from remote sensing based forest area and crown density estimates, and growing stock data for 1992 and 2002 and the estimated pool

  18. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  19. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  20. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such rock pools were studied in the Drakensberg region, in the eastern Free State and in south-eastern Botswana. Common features ... While short-range dispersal of floating eggs by overflows is common, long-range dispersal (e.g. by wind) seems to be rare and to be restricted to shallow pools with little vegetation. Limited ...

  1. The cellular approach to band structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwoerd, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A short introduction to the cellular approach in band structure calculations is given. The linear cellular approach and its potantial applicability in surface structure calculations is given some consideration in particular

  2. Characteristics of fission product release from a molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    The volatile fission products are released from the debris pool, while the less volatile fission products tend to remain as condensed phases because of their low vapor pressure. The release of noble gases and the volatile fission products is dominated by bubble dynamics. The release of the less volatile fission products from the pool can be analyzed based on mass transport through a liquid with the convection flow. The physico-numerical models were orchestrated from existing submodels in various disciplines of engineering to estimate the released fraction of fission products from a molten pool. It was assumed that the pool has partially filled hemispherical geometry. For the high pool pressure, the diameter of the bubbles at detachment was calculated utilizing the Cole and Shulman correlation with the effect of system pressure. Sensitivity analyses were performed and results of the numerical calculations were compared with analysis results for the TMI-2 accident. (author)

  3. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  4. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  5. Parametric tomography of the cardiac blood pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Schwartz, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In nuclear cardiology image processing is performed usually in 3 of 4 dimensions. ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT) would make it possible to obtain all 4 dimensions of space and time during one examination, but its duration as well as radiation dose is limited resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive feature extractions from the amount of data are necessary, e.g. Fourier filtering or extracting isovolumetric intervals. The relatively large amount of calculations and storage requirements often handicaps tomographic ventriculography because a high number of sections have to be processed and the temporal resolution is limited. A new list-mode oriented tomographic algorithm demands less storage and fewer calculations: The Fourier coefficient extraction and the filtered back projection, both of which are linear operations, could be interchanged in the case of thoracic SPECT. The feature extraction algorithm process internal list-mode heart cycles for discrimination of invalid cycles, for end-diastolic and end-systolic synthesis as well as for Fourier analysis of the first harmonic in 10 ms steps. Reconstruction operations are applied also to modified distribution matrices of Fourier coefficients. By only processing 4 spatial matrix sequences (end-diastolic and end-systolic images, amplitude and phase values) parametric tomography becomes practicable and could be also performed by a minicomputer with 64 KByte memory in addition to the possibilities of the planar left ventricular gated imaging. If there are 3 or more processors available a complete feature extraction on-the-fly will be possible. The numerical algorithms were tested with respect to stable reconstructions by phantoms. First results of a patient examination are used to explore effective display techniques, and preliminary modes are demonstrated. It is the purpose of this study to obtain additional information about the gated planar cardiac blood pool imaging in the field of SPECT. (author)

  6. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  7. Genomic analyses of tropical beef cattle fertility based on genotyping pools of Brahman cows with unknown pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Fortes, M R S; McCulloch, R; Lyons, R E; Moore, S; Nicol, D; Henshall, J; Lehnert, S A

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to lowering the overall cost of obtaining genomic EBV (GEBV) and encourage their use in commercial extensive herds of Brahman beef cattle. In our approach, the DNA genotyping of cow herds from 2 independent properties was performed using a high-density bovine SNP chip on DNA from pooled blood samples, grouped according to the result of a pregnancy test following their first and second joining opportunities. For the DNA pooling strategy, 15 to 28 blood samples from the same phenotype and contemporary group were allocated to pools. Across the 2 properties, a total of 183 pools were created representing 4,164 cows. In addition, blood samples from 309 bulls from the same properties were also taken. After genotyping and quality control, 74,584 remaining SNP were used for analyses. Pools and individual DNA samples were related by means of a "hybrid" genomic relationship matrix. The pooled genotyping analysis of 2 large and independent commercial populations of tropical beef cattle was able to recover significant and plausible associations between SNP and pregnancy test outcome. We discuss 24 SNP with significant association ( < 1.0 × 10) and mapped within 40 kb of an annotated gene. We have established a method to estimate the GEBV in young herd bulls for a trait that is currently unable to be predicted at all. In summary, our novel approach allowed us to conduct genomic analyses of fertility in 2 large commercial Brahman herds managed under extensive pastoral conditions.

  8. Conjugated heat transfer of natural convection in pool with internal heat sources and convection in the tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Longjian; Liu Hongtao; Cui Wenzhi

    2007-01-01

    The conjugated heat transfer of natural convection in pool with internal heat source and the forced convection in the tube was analyzed, and the corresponding three-dimensional physical and mathematical model was proposed. A control volume based finite element method was employed to solve numerically the problem. The computations were performed for different internal heat source intensity of the pool and the different flow velocity in the tube. The computed heat transfer coefficients on the inner and outer wall showed well consistency of those calculated with the empirical correlations. Compared with the measured total heat transfer coefficients between the fluids in and out of the tube, the computed ones showed also the well consistency, which implied that the numerical model proposed in this paper was reliable. The research results revealed that the total heat transfer coefficients between the fluids were strongly affected by the internal heat source intensity of the pool liquid and the flow velocity in the tube. (authors)

  9. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)

  10. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessing, G [Atominst. der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Zeilinger, A [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)

    1991-07-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.).

  11. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  12. 'Biomoleculas': cellular metabolism didactic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghi, M L; Novella, L P; Siebenlist, M R

    2007-01-01

    'Biomoleculas' is a software that deals with topics such as the digestion, cellular metabolism and excretion of nutrients. It is a pleasant, simple and didactic guide, made by and for students. In this program, each biomolecule (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) is accompanied until its degradation and assimilation by crossing and interrelating the different metabolic channels to finally show the destination of the different metabolites formed and the way in which these are excreted. It is used at present as a teaching-learning process tool by the chair of Physiology and Biophysics at the Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios

  13. Symmetry analysis of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2013-01-01

    By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.

  14. On two integrable cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobenko, A [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik; Bordemann, M [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Gunn, C [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik; Pinkall, U [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik

    1993-11-01

    We describe two simple cellular automata (CA) models which exhibit the essential attributes of soliton systems. The first one is an invertible, 2-state, 1-dimensional CA or, in other words, a nonlinear Z[sub 2]-valued dynamical system with discrete space and time. Against a vacuum state of 0, the system exhibits light cone particles in both spatial directions, which interact in a soliton-like fashion. A complete solution of this system is obtained. We also consider another CA, which is described by the Hirota equation over a finite field, and present a Lax representation for it. (orig.)

  15. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  19. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  20. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J.; Brey, R.F.; Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10 3 and 6 x 10 4 rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10 4 rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10 5 rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance

  1. Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydration–dehydration cycles can frequently cause stress to seeds, but can also be used to improve germination. However, the molecular basis of the stress caused is poorly understood. Herein, we examine the effects of hydration–dehydration cycles on seed viability and profile the membrane glycerolipid molecular species. We find that seed viability was not affected during the first two cycles, but significantly decreased as further cycles were applied, until all viability was lost. The abundances of seven glycerolipid classes increased and decreased through hydration and dehydration, respectively, but the phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol abundances changed in the opposite sense, while total glycerolipid contents remained constant. This suggests that during hydration–dehydration cycles, turnover of glycerolipid metabolite pools take place, while no significant lipid synthesis or degradation is involved. As further hydration–dehydration cycles occurred, lipid unsaturation increased, plastidic lipids decreased, and phosphatidylserine acyl chains lengthened. The latter two could be lethal for seeds. Our findings reveal a novel model of membrane lipid changes, and provide new insights into the responses of seeds to hydration–dehydration cycles.

  2. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  3. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  4. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A; Stott, Matthew B; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  5. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  6. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  7. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  8. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  9. Impact of holistic review on student interview pool diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Christina J

    2017-12-29

    Diversity in the physician workforce lags behind the rapidly changing US population. Since the gateway to becoming a physician is medical school, diversity must be addressed in the admissions process. The Association of American Medical Colleges has implemented a Holistic Review Initiative aimed at assisting medical schools with broadening admission criteria to include relevant, mission-driven attributes and experiences in addition to academic preparation to identify applicants poised to meet the needs of a diverse patient population. More evidence is needed to determine whether holistic review results in a more diverse selection process. One of the keys to holistic review is to apply holistic principles in all stages of the selection process to ensure qualified applicants are not overlooked. This study examines whether the use of holistic review during application screening at a new medical school increased the diversity of applicants selected for interview. Using retrospective data from the first five application cycles at the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine (OUWB), the author compared demographic and experiential differences between the applicants selected using holistic review, including experiences, attributes and academic metrics, to a test sample selected solely using academic metrics. The dataset consisted of the total group of applicants selected for interview in 2011 through 2015 using holistic review (n = 2773) and the same number of applicants who would have been selected for an interview using an academic-only selection model (n = 2773), which included 1204 applicants who were selected using both methods (final n = 4342). The author used a combination of cross-tabulation and analysis of variance to identify differences between applicants selected using holistic review and applicants in the test sample selected using only academics. The holistic review process yielded a significantly higher than expected percent of female

  10. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  11. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other than Class I use) into ultra-pasteurized or aseptically-processed fluid milk products. (c) A... for raw milk provided that 25 percent or more of the total quantity of fluid milk products physically... require handlers to pay minimum prices for raw milk. Subject to the following exclusions: (i) The plant is...

  12. A Mechanistic Model of Waterfall Plunge Pool Erosion into Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-11-01

    Landscapes often respond to changes in climate and tectonics through the formation and upstream propagation of knickzones composed of waterfalls. Little work has been done on the mechanics of waterfall erosion, and instead most landscape-scale models neglect waterfalls or use rules for river erosion, such as stream power, that may not be applicable to waterfalls. Here we develop a physically based model to predict waterfall plunge pool erosion into rock by abrasion from particle impacts and test the model against flume experiments. Both the model and experiments show that evolving plunge pools have initially high vertical erosion rates due to energetic particle impacts, and erosion slows and eventually ceases as pools deepen and deposition protects the pool floor from further erosion. Lateral erosion can continue after deposition on the pool floor, but it occurs at slow rates that become negligible as pools widen. Our work points to the importance of vertical drilling of successive plunge pools to drive upstream knickzone propagation in homogenous rock, rather than the classic mechanism of headwall undercutting. For a series of vertically drilling waterfalls, we find that upstream knickzone propagation is faster under higher combined water and sediment fluxes and for knickzones composed of many waterfalls that are closely spaced. Our model differs significantly from stream-power-based erosion rules in that steeper knickzones can retreat faster or more slowly depending on the number and spacing of waterfalls within a knickzone, which has implications for interpreting climatic and tectonic history through analysis of river longitudinal profiles.

  13. Addressing data privacy in matched studies via virtual pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha-Chaudhuri, P; Weinberg, C R

    2017-09-07

    Data confidentiality and shared use of research data are two desirable but sometimes conflicting goals in research with multi-center studies and distributed data. While ideal for straightforward analysis, confidentiality restrictions forbid creation of a single dataset that includes covariate information of all participants. Current approaches such as aggregate data sharing, distributed regression, meta-analysis and score-based methods can have important limitations. We propose a novel application of an existing epidemiologic tool, specimen pooling, to enable confidentiality-preserving analysis of data arising from a matched case-control, multi-center design. Instead of pooling specimens prior to assay, we apply the methodology to virtually pool (aggregate) covariates within nodes. Such virtual pooling retains most of the information used in an analysis with individual data and since individual participant data is not shared externally, within-node virtual pooling preserves data confidentiality. We show that aggregated covariate levels can be used in a conditional logistic regression model to estimate individual-level odds ratios of interest. The parameter estimates from the standard conditional logistic regression are compared to the estimates based on a conditional logistic regression model with aggregated data. The parameter estimates are shown to be similar to those without pooling and to have comparable standard errors and confidence interval coverage. Virtual data pooling can be used to maintain confidentiality of data from multi-center study and can be particularly useful in research with large-scale distributed data.

  14. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeźnik Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C. According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  15. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  17. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; Lu, X N; Chen, B; Jiang, H

    2012-01-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  18. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  19. Rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee arthroplasty. Pooled analysis of four studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turpie, A G G; Lassen, M R; Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Four phase III studies compared oral rivaroxaban with subcutaneous enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). A pooled analysis of these studies compared the effect of rivaroxaban with enoxaparin on symptomatic VTE plus all-cau...

  20. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  1. PPOOLEX experiments on stratification and mixing in the wet well pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A.; Tanskanen, V. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the thermal stratification and mixing experiments carried out in 2010 with the scaled down, two compartment PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at LUT. Steam was blown into the thermally insulated dry well compartment and from there through the DN200 vertical blowdown pipe to the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The main purpose of the experiment series was to generate verification data for evaluating the capability of GOTHIC and APROS codes to predict stratification and mixing phenomena. Another objective was to test the sound velocity measurement system. Altogether five experiments were carried out. The experiments consisted of a small steam flow rate stratification period and of a mixing period with continuously or stepwise increasing flow rate. The dry well structures were heated up to the level of approximately 90 deg. C before the actual experiments. The initial water bulk temperature was 20 deg. C. When the steam flow rate was low enough (typically approx100-150 g/s) temperatures below the blowdown pipe outlet remained constant while increasing heat-up occurred towards the pool surface layers indicating strong thermal stratification of the wet well pool water. During the stratification period the highest measured temperature difference between pool bottom and surface was approximately 40 deg. C. During the mixing period total mixing of the pool volume was not achieved in any of the experiments. The bottom layers heated up significantly but never reached the same temperature as the topmost layers. The lowest measured temperature difference between the pool bottom and surface was 7-8 deg. C. According to the test results, it seems that a small void fraction doesn't have an effect on the speed of sound in water and that the acquired sound velocity measurement system cannot be used for the estimation of void fraction in the wet well water pool. However, more tests on this issue have to be

  2. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  3. PPOOLEX experiments on stratification and mixing in the wet well pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A.; Tanskanen, V.

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the thermal stratification and mixing experiments carried out in 2010 with the scaled down, two compartment PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at LUT. Steam was blown into the thermally insulated dry well compartment and from there through the DN200 vertical blowdown pipe to the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The main purpose of the experiment series was to generate verification data for evaluating the capability of GOTHIC and APROS codes to predict stratification and mixing phenomena. Another objective was to test the sound velocity measurement system. Altogether five experiments were carried out. The experiments consisted of a small steam flow rate stratification period and of a mixing period with continuously or stepwise increasing flow rate. The dry well structures were heated up to the level of approximately 90 deg. C before the actual experiments. The initial water bulk temperature was 20 deg. C. When the steam flow rate was low enough (typically ∼100-150 g/s) temperatures below the blowdown pipe outlet remained constant while increasing heat-up occurred towards the pool surface layers indicating strong thermal stratification of the wet well pool water. During the stratification period the highest measured temperature difference between pool bottom and surface was approximately 40 deg. C. During the mixing period total mixing of the pool volume was not achieved in any of the experiments. The bottom layers heated up significantly but never reached the same temperature as the topmost layers. The lowest measured temperature difference between the pool bottom and surface was 7-8 deg. C. According to the test results, it seems that a small void fraction doesn't have an effect on the speed of sound in water and that the acquired sound velocity measurement system cannot be used for the estimation of void fraction in the wet well water pool. However, more tests on this issue have to be executed

  4. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  5. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  6. Pools and rapids as spawning and nursery areas for fish in a river stretch without floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine de Ávila-Simas

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of two environments situated in the main channel of the Peixe River (a tributary of the upper Uruguay River on fish reproduction and initial growth. Ichthyoplankton, macrozooplankton, and zoobenthos collections were taken on a monthly basis from October 2011 to March 2012, sampling a rapids and a pool environment. The instrument used for the capture of the ichthyoplankton in both environments was a light trap. In total, 795 eggs and 274 larvae were captured. The species that presented higher abundance and occurrence frequency out of the total captured in both environments were Leporinus obtusidens, Bryconamericus iheringii, and Bryconamericus stramineus. The evaluation of the feeding activity reveals a major repletion degree of the larvae in more advanced stages in the pool. The pool environment presented a higher abundance of larvae in more advanced development stages. We conclude that the channel of the Peixe River is important for the reproduction and initial growth of fish and that each river environment seems to fulfill a different role in the life cycle of the ichthyoplankton community.

  7. An approach to optimised control of HVAC systems in indoor swimming pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eliseu M. A.; Jorge, Humberto M. M.; Quintela, Divo A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indoor swimming pools are recognised as having a high level of energy consumption and present a great potential for energy saving. The energy is spent in several ways such as evaporation heat loss from the pool, high rates of ventilation required to guarantee the indoor air quality, and ambient temperatures with expressive values (typically 28-30°C) required to maintain conditions of comfort. This paper presents an approach to optimising control of heat ventilation and air conditioning systems that could be implemented in a building energy management system. It is easily adapted to any kind of pool and results in significant energy consumption reduction. The development and validation of the control model were carried out with a building thermal simulation software. The use of this control model in the case study building could reduce the energy efficiency index by 7.14 points (7.4% of total) which adds up to an energy cost saving of 15,609€ (7.5% of total).

  8. Flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C.; Chen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Safety analyses of fast breeder reactors require understanding of the two-phase fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of volume-heated boiling pool systems. Design of direct contact three-phase boilers, of practical interest in the chemical industries also requires understanding of the fundamental two-phase flow and heat transfer behavior of volume boiling systems. Several experiments have been recently reported relevant to the boundary heat-loss mechanisms of boiling pool systems. Considerably less is known about the two-phase fluid dynamic behavior of such systems. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the steady-state flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pool systems

  9. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Ann; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Zyslin, Rivka; Miller, Chaya; Mandel, Hanna; Elpeleg, Orly

    2003-10-24

    Deficiency of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and manifests by severe skeletal myopathy in infancy. In order to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition, mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools were determined in patients' fibroblasts. Despite normal mtDNA content and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, mitochondrial dNTP pools were imbalanced. Specifically, deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) content was markedly decreased, resulting in reduced dTTP:deoxycytidine triphosphate ratio. These findings underline the importance of balanced mitochondrial dNTP pools for mtDNA synthesis and may serve as the basis for future therapeutic interventions.

  10. Non-electric applications of pool-type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.; Romenkov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper recommends the use of pool-type light water reactors for thermal energy production. Safety and reliability of these reactors were already demonstrated to the public by the long-term operation of swimming pool research reactors. The paper presents the design experience of two projects: Apatity Underground Nuclear Heating Plant and Nuclear Sea-Water Desalination Plant. The simplicity of pool-type reactors, the ease of their manufacturing and maintenance make this type of a heat source attractive to the countries without a developed nuclear industry. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab

  11. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  12. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  13. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  14. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  15. Modeling of the Temperature Field Recovery in the Oil Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibullin, I. L.; Davtetbaev, A. Ya.; Mar'in, D. F.; Khisamov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the problem on mathematical modeling of the temperature field recovery in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water into the pool. The problem is broken down into two stages: injection of water and temperature and pressure recovery upon termination of injection. A review of the existing mathematical models is presented, analytical solutions for a number of cases have been constructed, and a comparison of the analytical solutions of different models has been made. In the general form, the expression has been obtained that permits determining the temperature change in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water (recovery of the temperature field).

  16. Core-concrete molten pool dynamics and interfacial heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models are derived for the heat transfer from molten oxide pools to an underlying concrete surface and from molten steel pools to a general concrete containment. To accomplish this, two separate effects models are first developed, one emphasizing the vigorous agitation of the molten pool by gases evolving from the concrete and the other considering the insulating effect of a slag layer produced by concrete melting. The resulting algebraic expressions, combined into a general core-concrete heat transfer representation, are shown to provide very good agreement with experiments involving molten steel pours into concrete crucibles

  17. 47 CFR 22.970 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. 22.970 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.970 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. (a) Definition...

  18. Experimental validation of thermal design of top shield for a pool type SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aithal, Sriramachandra; Babu, V. Rajan; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Velusamy, K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall thermal design of top shield in a SFR is experimentally verified. • Air jet cooling is effective in ensuring the temperatures limits for top shield. • Convection patterns in narrow annulus are in line with published CFD results. • Wire mesh insulation ensures gradual thermal gradient at top portion of main vessel. • Under loss of cooling scenario, sufficient time is available for corrective action. - Abstract: An Integrated Top Shield Test Facility towards validation of thermal design of top shield for a pool type SFR has been conceived, constructed & commissioned. Detailed experiments were performed in this experimental facility having full-scale features. Steady state temperature distribution within the facility is measured for various heater plate temperatures in addition to simulating different operating states of the reactor. Following are the important observations (i) jet cooling system is effective in regulating the roof slab bottom plate temperature and thermal gradient across roof slab simulating normal operation of reactor, (ii) wire mesh insulation provided in roof slab-main vessel annulus is effective in obtaining gradual thermal gradient along main vessel top portion and inhibiting the setting up of cellular convection within annulus and (iii) cellular convection with four distinct convective cells sets in the annular gap between roof slab and small rotatable plug measuring ∼ϕ4 m in diameter & gap width varying from 16 mm to 30 mm. Repeatability of results is also ensured during all the above tests. The results presented in this paper is expected to provide reference data for validation of thermal hydraulic models in addition to serving as design validation of jet cooling system for pool type SFR.

  19. Molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering, the fourth volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in molecular biology, transport phenomena, physiological modeling, tissue engineering, stem cells, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, and personalized medicine. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including DNA vaccines, biomimetic systems, cardiovascular dynamics, biomaterial scaffolds, cell mechanobiology, synthetic biomaterials, pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, nanobiomaterials for tissue engineering, biomedical imaging of engineered tissues, gene therapy, noninvasive targeted protein and peptide drug deliver...

  20. Pressure-actuated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagitz, M; Hol, J M A M; Lamacchia, E

    2012-01-01

    Shape changing structures will play an important role in future engineering designs since rigid structures are usually only optimal for a small range of service conditions. Hence, a concept for reliable and energy-efficient morphing structures that possess a large strength to self-weight ratio would be widely applicable. We propose a novel concept for morphing structures that is inspired by the nastic movement of plants. The idea is to connect prismatic cells with tailored pentagonal and/or hexagonal cross sections such that the resulting cellular structure morphs into given target shapes for certain cell pressures. An efficient algorithm for computing equilibrium shapes as well as cross-sectional geometries is presented. The potential of this novel concept is demonstrated by several examples that range from a flagellum like propulsion device to a morphing aircraft wing.

  1. Cellular automata in cytoskeletal lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S A; Watt, R C; Hameroff, S R

    1984-01-01

    Cellular automata (CA) activities could mediate biological regulation and information processing via nonlinear electrodynamic effects in cytoskeletal lattice arrays. Frohlich coherent oscillations and other nonlinear mechanisms may effect discrete 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -11/ s interval events which result in dynamic patterns in biolattices such as cylindrical protein polymers: microtubules (MT). Structural geometry and electrostatic forces of MT subunit dipole oscillations suggest neighbor rules among the hexagonally packed protein subunits. Computer simulations using these suggested rules and MT structural geometry demonstrate CA activities including dynamical and stable self-organizing patterns, oscillators, and traveling gliders. CA activities in MT and other cytoskeletal lattices may have important biological regulatory functions. 23 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  2. Sensing Phosphatidylserine in Cellular Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Kay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid with a negatively charged head-group, is an important constituent of eukaryotic cellular membranes. On the plasma membrane, rather than being evenly distributed, phosphatidylserine is found preferentially in the inner leaflet. Disruption of this asymmetry, leading to the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the surface of the cell, is known to play a central role in both apoptosis and blood clotting. Despite its importance, comparatively little is known about phosphatidylserine in cells: its precise subcellular localization, transmembrane topology and intracellular dynamics are poorly characterized. The recent development of new, genetically-encoded probes able to detect phosphatidylserine within live cells, however, is leading to a more in-depth understanding of the biology of this phospholipid. This review aims to give an overview of the current methods for phosphatidylserine detection within cells, and some of the recent realizations derived from their use.

  3. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with Venous Pool Arising in the Lower Lip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanobu Yonezawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a benign nonneoplastic vascular lesion that consists of endothelial cells with abundant vascular tissue with papillary proliferation. An adult female had a painless growing dark red nodule on the left side of the lower lip and often touched and gnawed at it for more than 4 years. The lesion was a tender, smooth mass approximately 1 cm in diameter without discoloration reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion showed specific findings. She was diagnosed clinically as having mimicked hemangioma, and the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that papillary proliferated endothelial cells with venous pool, and the lesion was diagnosed as intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia associated with venous pool. There has been no recurrence for more than 1 year. Despite the benign nature of this lesion, it could have been mistaken for a malignant tumor because of its clinical course and radiologic findings.

  4. The filtering of raw water with partition system in pool row water for the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harahap, Sentot Alibasya; Djunaidi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of filtering raw water in the pool is decreasing soluble dirty in the water from Puspiptek PAM also the dirty from the environments. The monitoring of raw water since 1998 that the raw water is not so good in the quality. This partition system use tree type of screen a.i. the opened 10 mm, Mesh 60 and Mesh 100. The down position use a plat with 400 mm higher from the floor of the pool that given support frame from the L profile and strip plate by stainless steel (SS-304), use for deposited the impurities. The filter capability from the monitoring that the filtering result is a good quality, the TDS drop (Total Dissolved Solvent) is 2,5 gram/liter and the water filtering static type is (4 - 8,5) gram/liter

  5. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...... measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content...

  6. Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections using the Kato-Katz technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Ashenafi; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Dana, Daniel; Bajiro, Mitiku; Ayana, Mio; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-24

    Our group has recently provided a proof-of-principle for the examination of pooled stool samples using McMaster technique as a strategy for the rapid assessment of intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). In the present study we evaluated this pooling strategy for the assessment of intensity of both STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections using the Kato-Katz technique. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 360 children aged 5-18 years from six schools in Jimma Zone (southwest Ethiopia). We performed faecal egg counts (FECs) in both individual and pooled samples (pools sizes of 5, 10 and 20) to estimate the number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) using the Kato-Katz technique. We also assessed the time to screen both individual and pooled samples. Except for hookworms, there was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.53-0.95) between the mean of individual FECs and the FECs of pooled samples for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni, regardless of the pool size. Mean FEC were 2,596 EPG, 125 EPG, 47 EPG, and 41 EPG for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, S. mansoni and hookworm, respectively. There was no significant difference in FECs between the examination of individual and pooled stool samples, except for hookworms. For this STH, pools of 10 resulted in a significant underestimation of infection intensity. The total time to obtain individual FECs was 65 h 5 min. For pooled FECs, this was 19 h 12 min for pools of 5, 14 h 39 min for pools of 10 and 12 h 42 min for pools of 20. The results indicate that pooling of stool sample holds also promise as a rapid assessment of infections intensity for STH and S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. In this setting, the time in the laboratory was reduced by 70 % when pools of 5 instead of individual stool samples were screened.

  7. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  8. Gene expression changes in blood RNA after swimming in a chlorinated pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Lucas A; Font-Ribera, Laia; Bustamante, Mariona; Sumoy, Lauro; Grimalt, Joan O; Bonnin, Sarah; Aguilar, Maria; Mattlin, Heidi; Hummel, Manuela; Ferrer, Anna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Intensity of physical activity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Gene expression in whole blood mRNA was evaluated using IlluminaHumanHT-12v3 Expression-BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression changes and THM exposure. Thirty-seven before-after pairs were analyzed. The median increase from baseline to after swimming were: 0.7 to 2.3 for MET, and 1.4 to 7.1μg/m 3 for exhaled total THM (sum of the four THM). Exhaled THM increased on average 0.94μg/m 3 per 1 MET. While 1643 probes were differentially expressed post-exposure. Of them, 189 were also associated with exhaled levels of individual/total THM or MET after False Discovery Rate. The observed associations with the exhaled THM were low to moderate (Log-fold change range: -0.17 to 0.15). In conclusion, we identified short-term gene expression changes associated with swimming in a pool that were minor in magnitude and their biological meaning was unspecific. The high collinearity between exhaled THM levels and intensity of physical activity precluded mutually adjusted models with both covariates. These exploratory results should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  10. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.109-2 - Equipment pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number and location of equipment pools, consideration shall be given to economy of operation, mobility of... available for sharing or loan. Information concerning the availability of this equipment can be maintained...

  12. Open Architecture, Inventory Pooling and Spare Maintenance Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrer, Geraldo

    2007-01-01

    .... This article focuses on the benefits provided by pooling together the inventory necessary to meet the demand of many users into a small number of storage sites with reduced product variety obtained...

  13. Investigation to radioactive contamination of pool water in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    The pool (3x6x10) in irradiated materials examination facility is usually used for the purpose of taking the specimen out of cask loaded into the pool, and carrying in/out the specimen to/ from the hot cell. Always, it must be cared for the water into the pool to be fine condition because all operation are worked with the naked eye during taking an irradiated materials out of the cask and plunging them in the bucket-elevator. In the aspects of the radioactive remained substances in the water must be controlled so that the amount of substances to be lower than the standard amount prescribed by RCA Korea Activity in a part of radioactive contamination control. In consequence, an expertness of status and a practical use of skill make possible the prevention of radioactive material's diffusion or the radioactive contamination of pool water and safety work

  14. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information for the asset pool, including statistical information regarding delinquencies and losses. (d.... Present statistical information in tabular or graphical format, if such presentation will aid understanding. Present statistical information in appropriate distributional groups or incremental ranges in...

  16. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  17. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  19. More to NAD+ than meets the eye: A regulator of metabolic pools and gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakière, Bertrand; Fernie, Alisdair R; Pétriacq, Pierre

    2018-01-05

    Since its discovery more than a century ago, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is recognised as a fascinating cornerstone of cellular metabolism. This ubiquitous energy cofactor plays vital roles in metabolic pathways and regulatory processes, a fact emphasised by the essentiality of a balanced NAD + metabolism for normal plant growth and development. Research on the role of NAD in plants has been predominantly carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with emphasis on the redox properties and cellular signalling functions of the metabolite. This review examines the current state of knowledge concerning how NAD can regulate both metabolic pools and gene expression in Arabidopsis. Particular focus is placed on recent studies highlighting the complexity of metabolic regulations involving NAD, more particularly in the mitochondrial compartment, and of signalling roles with respect to interactions with environmental fluctuations most specifically those involving plant immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  2. Condensation pool experiments with steam using DN200 blowdown pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.

    2005-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the condensation pool experiments with steam using a DN200 blowdown pipe. Altogether five experiment series, each consisting of several steam blows, were carried out in December 2004 with a scaled-down test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The main purpose of the experiments was to increase the understanding of different phenomena in the condensation pool during steam discharge. (au)

  3. Optimization of spent fuel pool weir gate driving mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Du, Lin; Tao, Xinlei; Wang, Shijie; Shang, Ertao; Yu, Jianjiang

    2018-04-01

    Spent fuel pool is crucial facility for fuel storage and nuclear safety, and the spent fuel pool weir gate is the key related equipment. In order to achieve a goal of more efficient driving force transfer, loading during the opening/closing process is analyzed and an optimized calculation method for dimensions of driving mechanism is proposed. The result of optimizing example shows that the method can be applied to weir gates' design with similar driving mechanism.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OFBENTHIC FISH COMMUNITY OF DNIEPER STORAGE POOL LITTORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskiy R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition of bull-calves is analyzed together with their quantitative and quality parameters in the littoral zone of the Dnepr storage pool. The structural-functional features of organization of littoral communities of bull-calves were studied. The patterns of spatial distribution of Bull-calf (Gobiidae representatives were analyzed for the storage pool; their role in the littoral fish communities was clarified.

  5. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kumar; V. Bhutani; P. Khatak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated s...

  6. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.

  8. A swimming pool array for ultra high energy showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.; Shoup, Anthony; Barwick, Steve; Goodman, Jordan A.

    1992-11-01

    A very preliminary design concept for an array using water Cherenkov counters, built out of commercially available backyard swimming pools, to sample the electromagnetic and muonic components of ultra high energy showers at large lateral distances is presented. The expected performance of the pools is estimated using the observed lateral distributions by scintillator and water Cherenkov arrays at energies above 1019 eV and simulations.

  9. A hierarchic sustainability dashboard to evaluate logistics pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Morana, Joëlle; Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Logistics pooling is now a major challenge in supply chain management, though it remains a little known activity in which the different actors involved use different approaches whose objectives are not always the same and with sometimes conflicting standpoints. This purpose of this article is to define, on the basis of a detailed analysis of the literature, a grid for interpreting and a dashboard for evaluating the sustainable performance of pooled delivery systems. Firstly, an analysis of th...

  10. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  11. Competition and power pooling in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, P.; Yarrow, G.; Fusaro, P.

    1995-01-01

    Two contributions to the debate on power pooling and competition in the electricity supply industry are presented. In the first, the situation in England and Wales where power pooling was introduced shortly before privatization is analysed. Pooling has existed for many years in the USA but as an inter-generator arrangement designed to optimize production and costs. The British system sought in addition to establish a spot market in which bulk buyers as well as bulk suppliers could participate. There are however obvious weaknesses in the pool as a competitive market and it is argued that a combination of pooling arrangements and longer-term bilateral supply contracts are more likely to offer the prospect of workably competitive and efficient outcomes. The second contribution discusses how competitive markets will evolve in the USA under the new regime of less onerous regulation heralded by the Energy Policy Act if 1992 and the emergence of electricity trading markets which followed. In particular, the proposal by the California Public Utility commission favouring a mandatory Poolco is examined. Poolco would operate the transmission grid and dispatch generating plants while the utilities would retain ownership of transmission facilities and be required to supply the pool. This is seen as representing only partial deregulation and not to be consistent with moves to further competition and encourage free markets. (U.K.)

  12. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  13. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  14. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  15. Review of steam jet condensation in a water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jeon, H. G.; Yoon, Y. J.

    2002-01-01

    In the advanced nuclear power plants including APR1400, the SDVS is adopted to increase the plant safety using the concept of feed-and-bleed operation. In the case of the TLOFW, the POSRV located at the top of the pressurizer is expected to open due to the pressurization of the reactor coolant system and discharges steam and/or water mixture into the water pool, where the mixture is condensed. During the condensation of the mixture, thermal-hydraulic loads such as pressure and temperature variations are induced to the pool structure. For the pool structure design, such thermal-hydraulic aspects should be considered. Understanding the phenomena of the submerged steam jet condensation in a water pool is helpful for system designers to design proper pool structure, sparger, and supports etc. This paper reviews and evaluates the steam jet condensation in a water pool on the physical phenomena of the steam condensation including condensation regime map, heat transfer coefficient, steam plume, steam jet condensation load, and steam jet induced flow

  16. Natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.; Choi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical studies using the FLOW-3D computer program have been performed on natural convection heat transfer of a high density molten metal pool, in order to evaluate the coolability of the corium pool. The FLOW-3D results on the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region have been compared and evaluated with the experimental data. The FLOW-3D results have shown that the developed natural convection flow contributes to the solidified crust formation of the high density molten metal pool. The present FLOW-3D results, on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region, are more similar to the calculated results of Globe and Dropkin's correlation than any others. The natural convection heat transfer in the low aspect ratio case is more substantial than that in the high aspect ratio case. The FLOW-3D results, on the temperature profile and on the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region, are very similar to the experimental data. The heat transfer rate of the internal heat generation case is higher than that of the bottom heating case at the same heat supply condition. (author)

  17. Structural analysis of the reactor pool for the RRRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberro, J.G.; Abbate, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present document is to describe the structural design of the Reactor Pool relevant to the RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. The structural analysis required coordinated design, engineering, analysis, and fabrication efforts. The pool has been designed, manufactured, and inspected following as guideline the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which defines the requirements for the pool to withstand hydrostatic and mechanical forces, ensuring its integrity throughout its lifetime. Standard off-the-shelf finite element programs (Nastran and Ansys codes) were used to evaluate the pool and further qualify the design and its construction. Both global and local effect analyses were carried out. The global analysis covers the structural integrity of the pool wall (6 mm thick) considering the different load states acting on it, namely hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion, and seismic event. The local analysis evaluates the structural behaviour of the pool at specific points resulting from the interaction among components. It is confirmed that maximum stresses and displacements fall below the allowable values required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The water pressure analysis was validated by means of a hydrostatic test. (authors)

  18. Sample pooling for real-time PCR detection and virulence determination of the footrot pathogen Dichelobacter nodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosth, Sara; König, Ulrika; Nyman, Ann-Kristin; Aspán, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the principal cause of ovine footrot and strain virulence is an important factor in disease severity. Therefore, detection and virulence determination of D. nodosus is important for proper diagnosis of the disease. Today this is possible by real-time PCR analysis. Analysis of large numbers of samples is costly and laborious; therefore, pooling of individual samples is common in surveillance programs. However, pooling can reduce the sensitivity of the method. The aim of this study was to develop a pooling method for real-time PCR analysis that would allow sensitive detection and simultaneous virulence determination of D. nodosus. A total of 225 sheep from 17 flocks were sampled using ESwabs within the Swedish Footrot Control Program in 2014. Samples were first analysed individually and then in pools of five by real-time PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA and aprV2/B2 genes of D. nodosus. Each pool consisted of four negative and one positive D. nodosus samples with varying amounts of the bacterium. In the individual analysis, 61 (27.1%) samples were positive in the 16S rRNA and the aprV2/B2 PCR assays and 164 (72.9%) samples were negative. All samples positive in the aprV2/B2 PCR-assay were of aprB2 variant. The pooled analysis showed that all 41 pools were also positive for D. nodosus 16S rRNA and the aprB2 variant. The diagnostic sensitivity for pooled and individual samples was therefore similar. Our method includes concentration of the bacteria before DNA-extraction. This may account for the maintenance of diagnostic sensitivity. Diagnostic sensitivity in the real-time PCR assays of the pooled samples were comparable to the sensitivity obtained for individually analysed samples. Even sub-clinical infections were able to be detected in the pooled PCR samples which is important for control of the disease. This method may therefore be implemented in footrot control programs where it can replace analysis of individual samples.

  19. Diets high in resistent starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total...... resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P microbial composition towards butyrogenic...

  20. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, General Eligibility Criteria. The resource pool for capacity and... transmission in Kansas. Final allocation of the Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, is contingent...