WorldWideScience

Sample records for total cell-associated radioactivity

  1. Measurement of total body radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naversten, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of whole-body radioactivity in man using uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors have been studied. Geometrical effects and photon attenuation effects due to the different shapes of humans as well as due to varying in-vivo radioactivity distributions have been evaluated particularly for scanning-bed geometries and the chair geometry. Theoretically it is shown that the attenuation effects are generally dominating, for full-energy-peak pulse-range methods. For the application in radiation protection a cheap and simple chair-geometry unit has been constructed and used at various places distantly from the home-laboratory, for studies of body activity of Cs-137 in northern Sweden. High body activities were found particularly in reindeer-breeding Lapps. The elimination rate of Cs-137 in man was studied in the stationary whole-body counter in Lund as well as with the field-system. For the study of the performances at low and high photon energies clinical applications of methods for gastro-intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (Co-57; 122 keV) and total body potassium determination (K-40; 1.46 MeV, K-42; 1.52 MeV) have been evaluated. Theoretical and experimental results as well as experiences of applications in radiation protection and medicine show that the scanning-bed geometry effectively evens out redistributional effects. For optimum results, however, scatter-energy pulse-ranges rather than full-energy-peak ranges should be used. (Auth.)

  2. The Calculation Of Total Radioactivity Of Kartini Reactor Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisantoso, Edi Trijono; Sardjono, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The total radioactivity of Kartini reactor fuel element has been calculated by using ORIGEN2. In this case, the total radioactivity is the sum of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactivity from activation products nuclides, actinide nuclides and fission products nuclides in the fuel element. The calculation was based on irradiation history of fuel in the reactor core. The fuel element no 3203 has location history at D, E, and F core zone. The result is expressed in graphics form of total radioactivity and photon radiations as function of irradiation time and decay time. It can be concluded that the Kartini reactor fuel element in zone D, E, and F has total radioactivity range from 10 Curie to 3000 Curie. This range is for radioactivity after decaying for 84 days and that after reactor shut down. This radioactivity is happened in the fuel element for every reactor operation and decayed until the fuel burn up reach 39.31 MWh. The total radioactivity emitted photon at the power of 0.02 Watt until 10 Watt

  3. Software application for a total management of a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirpuri, E.; Escudero, R.; Macias, M.T.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiological material and/or equipment that generate ionizing radiation is widely extended in biological research. In every laboratory there are a large variety of methods, operations, techniques, equipment, radioisotopes and users related to the work with ionizing radiation. In order to control the radioactive material, users and the whole facility a large number of documents, databases and information is necessary to be created by the manager of the Radioactivity Facility. This kind of information is characterized by a constant and persistent manipulation and includes information of great importance such as the general management of the radioactive material and waste management, exposed workers vigilance, controlled areas access, laboratory and equipment reservations, radiological inspections, etc. These activities are often complicated by the fact that the main manager of the radioactive facility is also in charge of bio-safety and working prevention issues so the documents to generate and manipulate and the procedures to develop are multiplied. A procedure to access and manage all these files is highly recommended in order to optimize the general management of the facility, avoiding loss of information, automating all the activities and allowing data necessary for control easily accessible. In this work we present a software application for a total management of the facility. This software has been developed by the collaboration of six of the most important research centers from Spain in coordination with the company 'Appize soluciones'. This is a flexible and versatile application that adapts to any specific need of every research center, providing the appropriate reports and checklist that speed up to general management and increase the ease of writing the official documents, including the Operations Book. (author)

  4. Fallout total. beta. radioactivity in every rainfall in Aichi prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio; Shimizu, Michihiko; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Hamamura, Norikatsu (Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    Fallout total ..beta.. radioactivity was measured in every rainfall in the period from 1962 to 1981. Maximum value of monthly fallout was 462 mCi/km/sup 2/ at May 1966. Considering changes of monthly fallout, it was assumed that these 20 years were divided to 3 periods and these changes reflected the history of nuclear explosion tests in the world. Maximum value of annual fallout was 1,154 mCi/km/sup 2/ in 1963. Average of annual fallout in 1973 to 1981 was about 1/40 of maximum value. It was confirmed that changes of annual fallout were almost corresponded with changes of annual deposition of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in Tokyo reported by Katsuragi et al. Estimating the staying time of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs at Stratosphere by the use of annual fallout of total ..beta.. radioactivity and annual deposition of these radionuclides, /sup 90/Sr was 1.3 years and /sup 137/Cs was 1.5 years. Also, annual correlation between monthly fallout and monthly rainfall was regarded as significant in only 6 years of these 20 years.

  5. Fallout total β radioactivity in every rainfall in Aichi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio; Shimizu, Michihiko; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Hamamura, Norikatsu

    1983-01-01

    Fallout total β radioactivity was measured in every rainfall in the period from 1962 to 1981. Maximum value of monthly fallout was 462 mCi/km 2 at May 1966. Considering changes of monthly fallout, it was assumed that these 20 years were divided to 3 periods and these changes reflected the history of nuclear explosion tests in the world. Maximum value of annual fallout was 1,154 mCi/km 2 in 1963. Average of annual fallout in 1973 to 1981 was about 1/40 of maximum value. It was confirmed that changes of annual fallout were almost corresponded with changes of annual deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Tokyo reported by Katsuragi et al. Estimating the staying time of 90 Sr and 137 Cs at Stratosphere by the use of annual fallout of total β radioactivity and annual deposition of these radionuclides, 90 Sr was 1.3 years and 137 Cs was 1.5 years. Also, annual correlation between monthly fallout and monthly rainfall was regarded as significant in only 6 years of these 20 years. (author)

  6. A totally automatic density meter for radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    A totally automatic density meter for measuring the density of radioactive liquid (plutonium nitrate) samples was developed and built for use at the Savannah River Plant. The measurement cell (vibrating U-tube) and other wetted parts are glovebox-contained and are remoted from the electronics and control instrumentation. The only operator actions required are insertion of a sample vial into the system, starting the analysis, and removing the vial about 90 seconds later. The sample measurement takes about 3 to 4 minutes and uses 10 mL of sample; another 5 to 6 minutes is required for a water/air measurement-control check, which leaves the system ready for the next sample. No water bath is needed because a computer algorithm is applied to the measurement to correct it to a standard reference temperature. The system is normally operated under computer control, but a programmable logic controller is available for backup. The system may also be operated manually by means of a switchpanel. 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Investigation of total α and total β radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenhua; Wan Jun; Liu Li; He Chao; Tang Hua; Tu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total α and total β radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total α and β radioactivity. Results: Total α in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total β were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total α in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total α of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total β in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

  8. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  9. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir

    2014-06-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  10. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  11. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  12. Total cross section measurement of radioactive isotopes with a thin beam neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbudej, V.F.; Vertebnyj, V.P.; Padun, G.S.; Muravitskij, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The method for measuring the neutron total cross sections of radioactive isotopes by a time-of-flight spectrometer with a narrow (0.17 mm in diameter) beam of thermal neutrons is described. The distinguishing feature of this method is the use of capillary samples with a small amount of substance (0.05-1.0 mg). The energy range is 0.01-0.3 eV. The total cross sections of irradiated samples of sub(153)Eu and sub(151)Eu are measured. From them are obtained the cross sections of sub(152)Eu (Tsub(1/2)=12.4 g) and of sub(154)E (Tsub(1/2)=8.6 yr); they equal 11400+-1400 and 1530+-190 barn at E=0.0253 eV. The cross section of the sub(152)Eu absorption for the thermal spectrum (T=333 K) is determined by the activation method; it is 8900+-1200 barn

  13. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R; Wong, Karen J; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (-)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 >0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  15. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael V.; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R.; Wong, Karen J.; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L.; Jagoda, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Methods: Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (−)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. Results: PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95 < slope ≤ 1.02) and intercepts near zero (−0.001 MBq ≤ intercept ≤0.004 MBq). Conclusion: Total mouse xenograft tumor radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements.

  17. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  18. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  19. Outcomes analysis of radioactive iodine and total thyroidectomy for pediatric Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Reuven Zev; Felner, Eric I; Heiss, Kurt F; Wyly, J Bradley; Muir, Andrew B

    2016-03-01

    The majority of pediatric patients with Graves' disease will ultimately require definitive therapy in the form of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation or thyroidectomy. There are few studies that directly compare the efficacy and complication rates between RAI and thyroidectomy. We compared the relapse rate as well as the acute and long-term complications of RAI and total thyroidectomy among children and adolescents with Graves' disease treated at our center. Medical records from 81 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of Graves' disease who received definitive therapy over a 12-year period were reviewed. Fifty one patients received RAI and 30 patients underwent thyroidectomy. The relapse rate was not significantly different between RAI and thyroidectomy (12.1% vs. 0.0%, p=0.28). There were no acute or long-term complications in the RAI group, but there were eight cases of hypoparathyroidism (two transient and six permanent) in the thyroidectomy group. None of the patients developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. RAI is a safe and effective option for treatment of children and adolescents with Graves' disease. In light of the rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism seen at our center with thyroidectomy and previously published long-term safety of RAI, we recommend RAI as the first line treatment for children and adolescents with Graves' disease. For those centers performing thyroidectomies, we recommend that each center select 1-2 high-volume pediatric surgeons to perform all thyroid procedures, allowing individuals to increases case volume and potentially decrease long-term complications of thyroidectomy.

  20. Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Ov. S.; Mladin, C.; Vladu, Mihaela; Bulubasa, G.; Bidica, N.

    2008-01-01

    According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

  1. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  2. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  3. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (≥ 134, 137Cs 1000 kBq m−2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33 Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  4. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  5. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes; Determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90

  6. Cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs and total thyroidectomy for primary treatment of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Peter J; McLeod, Donald S A; Little, Richard; Gordon, Louisa

    2016-12-01

    Little data is in existence about the most cost-effective primary treatment for Graves' disease. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine (RAI), anti-thyroid drugs (ATD) and total thyroidectomy (TT) as first-line therapy for Graves' disease in England and Australia. We used a Markov model to compare lifetime costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)). The model included efficacy, rates of relapse and major complications associated with each treatment, and alternative second-line therapies. Model parameters were obtained from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. Costs were presented in 2015£ or Australian Dollars (AUD). RAI was the least expensive therapy in both England (£5425; QALYs 34.73) and Australia (AUD5601; 30.97 QALYs). In base case results, in both countries, ATD was a cost-effective alternative to RAI (£16 866; 35.17 QALYs; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) £26 279 per QALY gained England; AUD8924; 31.37 QALYs; ICER AUD9687 per QALY gained Australia), while RAI dominated TT (£7115; QALYs 33.93 England; AUD15 668; 30.25 QALYs Australia). In sensitivity analysis, base case results were stable to changes in most cost, transition probabilities and health-relative quality-of-life (HRQoL) weights; however, in England, the results were sensitive to changes in the HRQoL weights of hypothyroidism and euthyroidism on ATD. In this analysis, RAI is the least expensive choice for first-line treatment strategy for Graves' disease. In England and Australia, ATD is likely to be a cost-effective alternative, while TT is unlikely to be cost-effective. Further research into HRQoL in Graves' disease could improve the quality of future studies. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Report of results and progress research (1982-1984) total research on long life radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The specific research ''Synthetic research on long life radioactive waste management'' has been advanced in the Research Center for Nuclear Energy, University of Tokyo, for three years since 1982. This research was roughly divided into material science, biology and process engineering, and the research has been advanced according to 14 subthemes by the cooperation of the researchers in wide fields in the university. In this report, the report of the progress of research and the data on the results of researche from fiscal year 1982 to 1984 are summarized. The title of research, organization, the persons in charge, the period of research, the title of report, the objective, contents, state of progress, results obtained in 1984 and results obtained during three years of 5 material group papers, 7 process group papers and 4 biology group papers are given. (Kako, I.)

  8. Measuring arrangement for simultaneous and continuous determination of the total and radioactive amounts of reactive matters in flowing inert gases. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figge, K.; Martinen, H.; Schulz, W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the metabolism behaviour of radiocarbon-labelled substances, a special apparatus has been designed which enables a fully automatic as well as continuous and simultaneous determination of the total and the 14 C-labelled carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the respiratory air of small animals. The CO 2 which is exhaled by the experimental animals is absorbed quantitatively in a novel absorber-scintillator cocktail. The quantity of combined total CO 2 is then determined by measuring the specific conductivity whereas the amount of radioactive CO 2 is assessed via scintillation measurement. The measuring accuracy achieved is around 10 N cm 3 or about 5 nCi, whereas the CO 2 recovery is above 98%. In addition to the recording in a linear recorder, the data are transferred to punching tapes and can be evaluated in an EDP unit. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  10. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  11. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  12. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 1. The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the fourth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference authorized-system program is estimated to be 24 to 32 billion (1985) dollars. The total-system cost for the reference improved-performance system is estimated to be 26 to 34 billion dollars. A number of sensitivity cases were analyzed. For the authorized system, the costs for the sensitivity cases studied range from 21 to 39 billion dollars. For the improved-performance system, which includes a facility for monitored retrievable storage, the total-system cost in the sensitivity cases is estimated to be as high as 41 billion dollars. The factors that affect costs more than any other single factor for both the authorized and the improved-performance systems are delays in repository startup. A preliminary analysis of the impact of extending the burnup of nuclear fuel in the reactor was also performed; its results indicate that the impact is insignificant: the total-system cost is essentially unchanged from the comparable constant-burnup cases. The current estimate of the the total-system cost for the reference authorized system is zero to 3 billion dollars (9%) higher than the estimate for the reference system in the January 1985 TSLCC analysis

  13. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  14. Effects of cooking process on the changes of concentration and total amount of radioactive caesium in beef, wild plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain information about effects of the cooking process on the changes of concentration and amount of radioactive materials in foods, we determined the concentration of radioactive caesium in several foods such as beef, edible wild plants, blueberries and mushrooms, before and after cooking. Our results showed that drying after soaking in liquid seasoning and the removal of astringent taste were effective in removing radioactive caesium from foods. More than 80% of radioactive caesium could be removed by these cooking methods. These results suggest that cooking processes such as boiling and soaking in liquid seasoning or water are effective to remove radioactive caesium from foods. Moreover, appropriate food additives such as baking soda were useful to promote the removal of radioactive caesium from foods. On the other hand, simple drying, jam making, grilling and tempura cooking could not remove radioactive caesium from foods. In addition, we showed that the concentration of radioactive caesium in foods was raised after simple drying, although the amount of radioactive caesium was unchanged. It would be necessary to monitor radioactive caesium concentration in processed foods because they might have undergone dehydration by cooking, which could result in concentrations exceeding regulatory levels. (author)

  15. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  16. Hypothyroidism and hyponatremia: data from a series of patients with iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism undergoing radioactive iodine therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, L; Parenti, G; Simontacchi, G; Rastrelli, G; Giuliani, C; Ognibene, A; Peri, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of hypothyroidism as a cause of hyponatremia in a clinical model of iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism due to thyroid hormone withdrawal prior to ablative radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy after total thyroidectomy. The study group consisted of 101 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients (77 women and 24 men). Plasma concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone ([TSH]) and sodium ([Na + ]) was evaluated before total thyroidectomy (pre[TSH] and pre[Na + ]) and on the day of RAI therapy (post[TSH] and post[Na + ]). The frequency of hypothyroidism-associated hyponatremia was 4 % (4/101). Pre[Na + ] was significantly higher than post[Na + ] (140.7 ± 1.6 vs 138.7 ± 2.3 mEq/L, p = 0.012). Moreover, a linear correlation was identified between pre[Na + ] and post[Na + ]. Iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism-related hyponatremia is uncommon. However, because of the significant reduction of [Na + ] in the transition from euthyroidism to iatrogenic hypothyroidism, the value of pre[Na + ] should be viewed as a parameter to be considered. Since it acts as an independent risk factor for the development of hyponatremia, patients with a pre[Na + ] close to the lower limit of normal range may deserve a closer monitoring of [Na + ].

  17. Clinical management and outcomes in patients with hyperfunctioning distant metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Shen, Chen-Tian; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Hyperfunctioning distant metastasis (HFDM) from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a rare entity. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of DTC patients presenting with HFDM after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy. A total of 5367 DTC patients treated with (131)I after total thyroidectomy were analyzed retrospectively from January 1991 to June 2013. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated based on changes in serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and anatomical imaging changes in metastatic lesions. The relationships between survival time and several variables were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards model respectively. Thirty-eight patients with HFDM from DTC were diagnosed, including four with hyperthyroidism, four with subclinical hyperthyroidism, and three with subclinical hypothyroidism. The remaining 27 were euthyroid. Of 25 patients with lung metastases, 84% (21/25) showed disappearance or shrinkage of lung nodules; of 24 patients with bone metastases, 66.67% (16/24) exhibited no obvious imaging changes in metastatic bone lesions after (131)I therapy. Serum Tg decreased significantly in 81.58% (31/38) and increased in 18.42% (7/38) after (131)I therapy. The 10-year survival rate of DTC patients with HFDM was 65.79% (25/38). Multivariate analyses identified age at occurrence of distant metastases (thyroid cancer (PTC; p=0.032, NA, and 0.043) as independent predictors of survival. The response of hyperfunctioning lung metastases to (131)I treatment was better than that of non-hyperfunctioning lung metastases in DTC, while hyperfunctioning bone metastases responded similarly compared to non-hyperfunctioning bone metastases. Patients younger than 45 years at occurrence of distant metastases, those with only lung metastases, and patients with PTC had better prognoses.

  18. Transcatheter embolization of renal neoplasms. A comparison of the merits of the radio-active infarct implant versus total embolization with inert material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, E.K.; Pisco, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization with radio-active infarct particles and inert embolic material has been proposed for adjuvant therapy in the management of renal cell carcinoma. Transcatheter embolization with inert embolic material has been advocated in preparation for surgical resection of renal tumours. Embolization with radio-active infarct particles is undertaken to deliver a tumouricidal dose to the primary neoplasm. The resultant interstitial implant offers the advantage of a high dose to the primary tumour, choice of time of delivery of the radiant energy by selection of a radio-isotope with appropriate half-life, and limitation of the integral dose to the patient by selection of appropriate physical characteristics of the radio-isotope utilized. Transcatheter embolization with radio-active infarct particles is advocated either as definitive therapy for clearly inoperable neoplasms, or in hope to make an initially inoperable neoplasm operable. (Auth.)

  19. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  20. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  1. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  2. Ministerial Decree of 27 July 1966 determining the values of the total quantity of radioactivity within the meaning and in implementation of Section 5 (2) of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 as amended by Section 2 of Decree No. 1704 of the President of the Republic dated 30 December 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Decree establishes the values of the total quantity of radioactivity and the conditions under which the licensing system for the transport of radioactive materials (with the exception of special fissile materials) provided by Act No. 1860 as amended does not apply. (NEA) [fr

  3. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 1, The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 dollars) over the entire life of the system...or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  4. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  5. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  6. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  7. Nanoparticles-cell association predicted by protein corona fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, S.; Digiacomo, L.; Pozzi, D.; Peruzzi, G.; Micarelli, E.; Mahmoudi, M.; Caracciolo, G.

    2016-06-01

    In a physiological environment (e.g., blood and interstitial fluids) nanoparticles (NPs) will bind proteins shaping a ``protein corona'' layer. The long-lived protein layer tightly bound to the NP surface is referred to as the hard corona (HC) and encodes information that controls NP bioactivity (e.g. cellular association, cellular signaling pathways, biodistribution, and toxicity). Decrypting this complex code has become a priority to predict the NP biological outcomes. Here, we use a library of 16 lipid NPs of varying size (Ø ~ 100-250 nm) and surface chemistry (unmodified and PEGylated) to investigate the relationships between NP physicochemical properties (nanoparticle size, aggregation state and surface charge), protein corona fingerprints (PCFs), and NP-cell association. We found out that none of the NPs' physicochemical properties alone was exclusively able to account for association with human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). For the entire library of NPs, a total of 436 distinct serum proteins were detected. We developed a predictive-validation modeling that provides a means of assessing the relative significance of the identified corona proteins. Interestingly, a minor fraction of the HC, which consists of only 8 PCFs were identified as main promoters of NP association with HeLa cells. Remarkably, identified PCFs have several receptors with high level of expression on the plasma membrane of HeLa cells.In a physiological environment (e.g., blood and interstitial fluids) nanoparticles (NPs) will bind proteins shaping a ``protein corona'' layer. The long-lived protein layer tightly bound to the NP surface is referred to as the hard corona (HC) and encodes information that controls NP bioactivity (e.g. cellular association, cellular signaling pathways, biodistribution, and toxicity). Decrypting this complex code has become a priority to predict the NP biological outcomes. Here, we use a library of 16 lipid NPs of varying size (Ø ~ 100-250 nm) and surface

  8. Age dependency in the absorption of radioactive Iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Endo, Satoru; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Ohtaki, Megu; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1998-01-01

    In this study, activities of 131 I in the thyroid, total body and blood were measured for rats of three different ages to estimate the movement of 131 I in the body, the absorbed doses were calculated in the thyroid and total body under the exposed condition of iodine deficiency and sufficiency, and the standard curves for the determination of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body were obtained for rats of newborn, pubertal and adult. Authors used female rats of Fisher 344 strain in this experiment and set up twelve experimental group of different ages (1, 4 and 9 weeks old), and divided each age group into one standard diet (SD) group and three iodine deficient diet (IDD) groups. Rats were intravenously injected once with 131 I in 0.9% saline with the activity of 0.38, 1.03 and 9.42 kBq per g weight. In the thyroid and total body, the absorbed dose values increased in an injected activity-dependent manner, and those of 1-week-old rats were significantly higher than those of 4- and 9-weeks old rats. The absorbed dose values in IDD-treated groups were higher than those in the SD-treated groups. The speed of 131 I accumulation into the thyroid and that of 131 I excretion from the body was slow in 1-week-old groups. The data also showed that most of injected 131 I distributed in the thyroid and blood in 4- and 9-week-old groups but not in the 1-week-old group, indicating that 131 I is pooled in certain tissues or organs except the thyroid in rats of the 1-week-old group at which the development of the thyroid has not been completed. Standard curves were obtained for the estimation of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body on the bases of injected activity of 131 I for each age group of rats. These standard curves are to be used in the carcinogenesis experiment which compare the effectiveness of internal with external irradiation under the condition of iodine deficiency or sufficiency in the rats of different ages. (K.H.)

  9. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  10. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  11. Age-dependent exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru

    2001-01-01

    Female rats of the Fischer 344 strain at ages of 1, 4 and 9 weeks were exposed to 131 I intraperitoneally with activities of 0.38, 1.03 and 3.42 kBq per gram of body weight under the condition of iodine deficiency. The absorbed doses in the thyroid increased linearly depending on the injected activities. Irradiation at 1 week old caused heavier exposure than those at 4 and 9 weeks old by 7.5 and 7.7 times, respectively; however, damage of the thyroid tissue was more obvious in the 4-week-old groups than in the 1-week-old groups. The absorbed doses in the total body were proportional to the square root of the injected activities. The one-week-old groups were exposed more heavily than the 4- and 9-week-old groups by 3.6 and 4.7 times, respectively, shown by the slow excretion of 131 I with the values of effective half-life of 131 I activity (T eff ). An IDD-treatment was not so effective to enhance the 131 I absorption in the total body, as in the thyroid. No matter how the iodine concentration in the blood changed, the 1-week-old groups could not react to normalize the level. We drew standard curves, which enabled us to estimate the absorbed doses in the thyroid and the total body in the case of the injected activities of 131 I for the newborn, pubertal and adult rats. (author)

  12. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  13. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  14. New radioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.; Sandulescu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Some atomic nuclei reorganize their structure by ejection of big protons and neutrons aggregates. The observation of these new radioactivities specifies the theories of the nuclear dynamics. (authors)

  15. Radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of radioactivity in the ocean with marine life are various. Activities in this field, especially the measurements of the radioactivity in sea water and marine life are described. The works first started in Japan concerning nuclear weapon tests. Then the port call to Japan by U.S. nuclear-powered naval ships began. On the other hand, nuclear power generation is advancing with its discharge of warm water. The radioactive pollution of sea water, and hence the contamination of marine life are now major problems. Surveys of the sea areas concerned and study of the radioactivity intake by fishes and others are carried out extensively in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  16. Radioactivity Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Radioactivity Handbook will be published in 1985. This handbook is intended primarily for applied users of nuclear data. It will contain recommended radiation data for all radioactive isotopes. Pages from the Radioactivity Handbook for A = 221 are shown as examples. These have been produced from the LBL Isotopes Project extended ENDSF data-base. The skeleton schemes have been manually updated from the Table of Isotopes and the tabular data are prepared using UNIX with a phototypesetter. Some of the features of the Radioactivity Handbook are discussed here

  17. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  18. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  19. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  20. Radii of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.; Plagnol, E.; Schutz, Y.

    1989-11-01

    A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section (σ R ) for several light radioactive nuclei (A≤40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r o 2 ) are obtained. A comparison is made with data obtained by other techniques. A strong isospin dependence of the nuclear radii is observed. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  2. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  3. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  4. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes is widely distributed on the ground primarily in marine environments. Nowadays, more than 340 isotopes has been identified exist in our earth especially in marine environment. From that total, 80 isotopes was radioactive. The existence of radioactivity in the marine environment is through the direct and indirect distribution of radionuclides

  6. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  7. Radioactivity leakage monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takuichiro; Noguchi, Noboru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for detecting the leakage ratio of a primary coolant by utilizing the variation in the radioactivity concentration in a reactor container when the coolant is leaked. Constitution: A measurement signal is produced from a radioactivity measuring instrument, and is continuously input to a malfunction discriminator. The discriminator inputs a measurement signal to a concentration variation discriminator when the malfunction is recognized and simultaneously inputs a measurement starting time from the inputting time to a concentration measuring instrument. On the other hand, reactor water radioactivity concentration data obtained by sampling the primary coolant is input to a concentration variation computing device. A comparator obtains the ratio of the measurement signal from the measuring instrument and the computed data signal from the computing device at the same time and hence the leakage rate, indicates the average leakage rate by averaging the leakage rate signals and also indicates the total leakage amount. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  9. Radioactive air emissions 1992 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes, by radionuclide or product and by emitting facility, the Laboratory's 1992 radioactive air emissions. In 1992, the total activity of radionuclides emitted into the air from Laboratory stacks was approximately 73,500 Ci. This was an increase over the activity of the total 1991 radioactive air emissions, which was approximately 62,400 Ci. Total 1992 Laboratory emissions of each radionuclide or product are summarized by tables and graphs in the first section of this report. Compared to 1991 radioactive air emissions, total tritium activity was decreased, total plutonium activity was decreased, total uranium activity was decreased, total mixed fission product activity was increased, total 41 Ar activity was decreased, total gaseous/mixed activation product (except 41 Ar) activity was increased, total particulate/vapor activation product activity was increased, and total 32 P activity was decreased. Radioactive emissions from specific facilities are detailed in this report. Each section provides 1992 data on a single radionuclide or product and is further divided by emitting facility. For each facility from which a particular radionuclide or product was emitted, a bar chart displays the air emissions of each radionuclide or product from each facility over the 12 reporting periods of 1992, a line chart shows the trend in total emissions of that radionuclide or product from that facility for the past three years, the greatest activity during the 1990--1992 period is discussed, and unexpected or unusual results are noted

  10. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  11. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  12. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of radioactivity monitoring work done in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. It consists of air, rainwater, food and personnel monitoring. Additional services to the public are: information and development of a database and a computer code for predicting future radionuclide concentration in air, soil, water and food. (G.Q.)

  14. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  16. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  17. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  19. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  20. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  1. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  2. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  3. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  4. Radioactivity telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouras, Florent; Legrand, Bernard; Montigaud, Jean-Marie; Grandin, Marc

    1969-05-01

    The authors present an assembly which aims at radio-transmitting from mobile stations information on radioactivity. It comprises 20 mobile stations which can be located within the Cadarache Centre or outside of it within a 10 km radius, and a central station which centralises information. The report proposes a general presentation of these stations, their characteristics and principles of operation. It describes operation sequences, central station functions (call programmer, address and memory management, recording, peripherals) and its energy supply, and mobile station functions. The last part presents the installation, its start-up and exploitation, its threshold devices and its safety device

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  6. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  8. Polyethylene glycol enhances lipoplex-cell association and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-10-15

    The association between liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) and targeted cell membranes is a limiting step of cationic liposome-mediated transfection. A novel technique was developed where lipoplex-cell membrane association is enhanced by the addition of 2-6% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the transfection media. Lipoplex-cell association was found to increase up to 100 times in the presence of PEG. Transfection increased correspondingly in the presence of PEG. This increase was found in several cell lines. These results show that lipoplex adsorption to cell membranes is a critical step in liposome-mediated transfection. This step can be facilitated by PEG-induced particle aggregation.

  9. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  10. Radioactive content in aerosols and rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Lopez Perez, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Duarte, X.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental radiological characterization of a place requires knowledge of the radioactive contents of its components, such as air (aerosol), rain, soil, etc ... Inhalation of radioactive aerosols in the air remains the main component of the total dose to the world population. This work focuses on its determination. (Author)

  11. Radioactivity of the JINR site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskaya, S.I.; Bamblevskij, V.P.; Kargin, A.N.; Komochkov, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the study of the existing levels of enviromental radioactivity in the JINR region for 1971-1975; content of radioactive products in the grass and surface soil layer, levels of the total alpha - and beta-radioactivity of water of open reservoirs as well as the background of the gamma-radiation and charged particles are presented. The study testifies, that the operation of the JINR nuclear-physical installations does not significantly affect the radioactivity of the environment which is mainly conditioned by the products of the natural origin and the global fallouts

  12. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  13. What to do with radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation (82 slides) gives information on what is a radioactive waste, radioactivity and historical review of radioactivity, radioactive period, natural radioactivity (with examples of data), the three main radiation types (α, β, γ), the origin of radioactive wastes (nuclear power, research, defense, other), the proportion of radioactive wastes in the total of industrial wastes in France, the classification of nuclear wastes according to their activity and period, the quantities and their storage means, the 1991 december 30 law (France) related to the radioactive waste management, the situation in other countries (Germany, Belgium, Canada, USA, Finland, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland), volume figures and previsions for the various waste types in 2004, 2010 and 2020, the storage perspectives, the French national debate on radioactive waste management and the objective of perpetuated solutions, the enhancement of the public information, the 15 June 2006 law on a sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes with three main axis (deep separation and transmutation, deep storage, waste conditioning and long term surface storage), and the development of a nuclear safety and waste culture that could be extended to other types of industry

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are given on the monitoring of radioactive contamination of air and some food stuffe at world locations throughout Western South America, South Pacific and Africa during 1979. Data are included on the total β and γ activity and radionuclide content in air, milk and other environmental samples ( 131 I, 90 Sr, 137 Cs) [fr

  15. Monitoring of radioactivity in 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the monitoring of radioactive contamination of air and some foodstuffs at world (locations throughout Western South America, South Pacific, Africa during 1973. Data are included on the total β and γ activity and content of radionuclides found in fallout in air, milk and other environmental samples ( 131 I, 90 Sr, 137 Cs) [fr

  16. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  17. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  18. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  20. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Dunne, B.; Colgan, P.A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board measures radionuclides in air, rainwater, total fallout, drinking water supplies and milk as part of its programme to monitor radioactivity in the Irish environment. The report presents the results of measurements made during 1988 and 1989

  1. Tracking of Radioactive Sources in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fazlie Abdul Rashid; Noor Fadilla Ismail; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad; Suzilawati Muhd Sarowi; Raymond, Y.T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used in Malaysian Nuclear Agency for various purposes such as research and development, calibration, tracer and irradiation. Inventory of radioactive materials is crucial for ensuring the security and control of all radioactive materials owned and used so as not to be lost or fall into the hands of people who do not have permission to possess or use it. Experience in many countries around the world proves that the improper inventory of radioactive material would lead to loss of control of radioactive materials and will eventually cause an accident of radiation exposure. Radioactive material database has been developed for the need to ensure traceability of radioactive materials in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Records of radioactive materials are regularly updated based on the classification of the type of radionuclide, the total distribution in each building and the initial activity of radioactive sources. (author)

  2. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  3. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  4. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  5. A middle evaluation report on R and D subjects in 2000 fiscal year. Evaluation subject; 'draft of total program on ground disposal research on the high level radioactive wastes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) consulted the titled middle evaluation to the Subject Evaluation Committee (SEC) according to the Schematic indication on practice procedure of evaluation common to the generalized national R and D' and so on. By receiving the consult, SEC on wastes treatment and disposal carried out evaluation of this subject on basis of documents proposed from JNC and discussions at SEC according to an evaluation procedure determined by SEC. The program is to contribute to actualization of safe disposal of the high level radioactive wastes at a technical side. In order to promote the program to practice of the disposal without delay and to transfer its next stage smoothly, it is essential for JNC to prepare an R and D plan after the second summary. From these, this program is precise and adequate in its aim and meaning, high in its importance and agreeable to policy of government and needs of society. Here was summarized by the evaluation results with documents proposed by JNC. As a result of the evaluation, it was shown that as general directionality of this program was judged to be valid, its contents has some places without matching or always clearness with schedule of government and executing groups on practice of disposal. And, it was also shown that some points required for notice on promotion of this program. (G.K.)

  6. Ministerial Decree of 27 July 1966; procedure for the notification of holding and accounting radioactive material within the meaning and in implementation of Section 30 of the Decree of the President of the Republic No. 185 of 13 February 1964, and determination of the value of the total quantity of radioactivity in radioactive material within the meaning and in implementation of Sections 3 and 13 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 respectively amended by Sections 1 and 3 of the Decree of the President of the Republic No. 1704 of 30 December 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Decree establishes the levels of radioactivity and the procedure for applying the system of notification and accounting of radioactive materials with the exception of special fissile materials, source materials and ores. (NEA) [fr

  7. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  8. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  9. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  10. Mural cell associated VEGF is required for organotypic vessel formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Evensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood vessels comprise endothelial cells, mural cells (pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells and basement membrane. During angiogenesis, mural cells are recruited to sprouting endothelial cells and define a stabilizing context, comprising cell-cell contacts, secreted growth factors and extracellular matrix components, that drives vessel maturation and resistance to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To better understand the basis for mural cell regulation of angiogenesis, we conducted high content imaging analysis on a microtiter plate format in vitro organotypic blood vessel system comprising primary human endothelial cells co-cultured with primary human mural cells. We show that endothelial cells co-cultured with mural cells undergo an extensive series of phenotypic changes reflective of several facets of blood vessel formation and maturation: Loss of cell proliferation, pathfinding-like cell migration, branching morphogenesis, basement membrane extracellular matrix protein deposition, lumen formation, anastamosis and development of a stabilized capillary-like network. This phenotypic sequence required endothelial-mural cell-cell contact, mural cell-derived VEGF and endothelial VEGFR2 signaling. Inhibiting formation of adherens junctions or basement membrane structures abrogated network formation. Notably, inhibition of mural cell VEGF expression could not be rescued by exogenous VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a unique role for mural cell-associated VEGF in driving vessel formation and maturation.

  11. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  14. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  15. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  16. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  17. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  18. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  19. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  1. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  2. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  3. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  4. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  5. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by drawings, this publication briefly describes radioactive exposure modalities (external or internal irradiation), the ways they are measured and assessed (doses, units), the different natural radioactivity origins, the different radioactivity origins related to human activity, the share of each origin in population exposures

  6. Classification of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document first indicates the origins of radioactive wastes (mainly electronuclear industry), and the composition of spent fuel, and that only fission products and minor actinides are considered as radioactive wastes whereas uranium and plutonium can be used as new fuel after recycling. The classification of radioactive wastes is indicated in terms of radioactivity level and radionuclide half-life: high level (0.2 per cent of the total waste volume but 96 per cent of total waste radioactivity), medium level long life (3 per cent of volume, 4 per cent of radioactivity), low level long life (7 per cent of volume, 0.1 per cent of radioactivity), low and medium level and short life (63 per cent of volume and 0.02 per cent of radioactivity), very low level (27 per cent of volume and less than 0.01 per cent of radioactivity). An overview of radioactive waste processing and storage in France is presented for each category. Current and predicted volumes are indicated for each category. The main challenges are briefly addressed: spent fuel recycling, waste valorisation by fourth-generation reactors. Processing locations in France and in the World are indicated. Some key figures are provided: 2 kg of radioactive waste are produced per inhabitant and per year, and waste management costs represent 5 per cent of the total cost of produced electricity

  7. Forest decline, natural and technically generated radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, D.

    1983-06-01

    The question investigated is whether the radioactive rare gases emanating from nuclear plants are causative or participate in the triggering of forest disease. For one thing, a chemical reaction could be responsible for such an effect exerted by these artificial radioactive effluents. However, a calculation shows the concentration of radionuclides, respectively, in this case, their decomposition products, to be by many orders of magnitude smaller than other constituents in air; so a chemical reaction of this kind may be excluded. For the other part, rare gases might contribute to forest damage by their radioactive decomposition and late physical, chemical, and biological effects. In this connection, a detailed analysis is made of the comparability of natural radioactivity with radioactivity generated by nuclear plants. A possible contribution towards the total stress situation of forests (chemical air pollution, natural radioactivity, artificially produced radioactive rare gases, weather conditions and conditions arising from forest management and the like) would amount to a proportion smaller than 1/1000 considering natural radioactivity as a possible stress factor only. (orig.) [de

  8. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  9. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  11. Measuring radioactivity in the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    Techniques of measuring the total amount of radioactivity in the body of a living person as well as the principal applications of such measurements were reviewed at a Symposium on Whole Body Counting held in Vienna from 12 to 16 June 1961. The whole body counters can be divided into two broad groups: (a) counters for the radiation protection surveillance of the general public and radiation workers, capable of detecting extremely low levels of radioactivity in the human body, and (b) counters for medical research and diagnosis, designed to check the retention and excretion of radioactive substances administered to patients for metabolic and pathological studies. In both cases, the primary requirement is that the counter must be able to measure the total activity in the body. In recent years, there has been a remarkable development of the instruments and techniques for such measurements. One of the main purposes of the symposium in Vienna was to discuss how best to use these highly sophisticated instruments.

  12. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  13. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  14. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  15. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  16. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  17. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  18. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  19. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  1. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  2. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  3. Monitoring dissolved radioactive cesium in Abukuma River in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Komai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere and deposited over wide areas of farmland, forests, and cities; elevated levels of "1"3"1I, "1"3"4Cs, and "1"3"7Cs have been detected in these areas due to the accident at the Tokyo Power Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the April 2011 earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan. Radioactive Cs deposited on farmland and forests gradually leaches into water bodies such as mountain streams and rivers adsorbed onto particles or in a dissolved state. It is important to calrify the level of dissolved and total radioactive Cs in environmental water for forecasting the of discharge of radioactive Cs from forest and watersheds, assessing on the effect of dissolved and total radioactive Cs on not only irrigation water but also rice and other crops, and evaluating the transport of radioactive Cs from rivers to costal areas. Therefore, it is important to monitor their levels in Fukushima Prefecture over time. In this research, we monitored the levels of dissolved and total radioactive Cs in Abukuma River using a conventional evaporative concentration method. By monitoring the river waters since September 2012, it was estimated that the levels of dissolved radioactive Cs were less than 0.128 Bq/L and those of total radioactive Cs were less than 0.274 Bq/L in the main stream and branches of Abukuma River in the low suspended solid condition. (author)

  4. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  5. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  6. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  7. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  8. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use...

  9. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; Smith, V.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2008-10-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2007. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the envorinment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. In additiopn, some natural radioactivity exposure pathways are included in the programme including radioactivity in surface and ground drinking water. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural oprocesses, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in the Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2007 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at twelve stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows background concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  12. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  13. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  14. Radioactivity in cigaratte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Tanker, E.; Aksu, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Cigaratte is known to be hazardous to health due to nicotine and tar it contains.This is indicated on cigaratte packets by health warnings.However there is less known hazard of smoking due to intake of radioactive compounds by inhalation. This study dwells upon the radioactive hazard of smoking

  15. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  16. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  17. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  18. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  19. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  20. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  1. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  2. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  3. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.; Dowdall, A; Fegan, M.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McEvoy, I.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2007-10-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2006. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the environment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England, which are licensed by the UK Environment Agency, continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2006 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarily as a result of the

  4. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  5. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  6. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  7. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  8. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  9. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. Some bioindicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozmuta, I.; Micu, C.

    1996-01-01

    The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were numerous and encompassed all areas. One of those lead to the discovery of new monitoring methods which also supply to cost-effective solutions to control contaminant radioactive discharges in the environment. Through the measurements performed, we discovered that some samples, because of their radioactive content restrained also for long periods of time, can be used as bioindicators. Hen eggs between May 1-30 1986 were analysed (identification of radionuclides with a Ge(Li) detector and measuring of total gamma activity with NaI(T1)). Various aspects pursued revealed that eggs are precious witness of vegetable food contamination with fission products, especially Ba-140 and I-131, behaving as radionuclide separators (Ba-140 in egg shell -301 Bq/egg and I-131 in the content - 182 Bq/egg). Some of the most important pharmaceutical plants from Transylvania measured during 1986-1994 period presents high cesium radioactivity. The perennial plants (as Lichen Islandicus) for the same period accumulated a greater activity that the annual ones. Especially the lichen, because of the their slow decreasing activity are suitable as biological detectors also in retrospective measurements. Measuring the activity of some pollen samples was rediscovered. The pollen grains, during their transport in air by the bees, are acting like a filter for radionuclides so that we could use they to monitor the deliverance of these substances in air. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  12. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  13. Results of radioactivity surveys in Miyagi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of radioactivity surveys carried out in Miyagi Prefecture in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982), entrusted by the Science and Technology Agency, are presented in tables: total β radioactivity in rainwater, in rainwater and dust collected by large basins, in daily foods, in land water, in dairy products and vegetables, in marine products and in soil, 131 I nuclide in cow's milk, air γ-ray dose rate by survey meters, and air γ-ray counting, rate by a monitoring post were examined. The total β radioactivity was measured by a GM counting apparatus with an automatic sample changer, the nuclide analysis by a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer, the air γ-ray dose rate by a NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter, and the γ-ray counting rate by a NaI(Tl) scintillation type monitoring post. (Mori, K.)

  14. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  16. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  17. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  18. Optimization of Concrete Composition in Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IIija, P.

    1999-01-01

    Low and Intermediate level radioactive waste re presents 95% of the total wastes that is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these containers are to protect radioactive waste safely for about 300 years, the selection and precise control of physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is very important. After volume reduction and valuable components recovery, waste materials have to be conditioned for transport, storage and disposal. Conditioning is the waste management step in which radioactive wastes are immobilized and packed . In this paper methods and optimization of concrete container composition, used for storing radioactive waste, is presented

  19. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  20. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  1. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  2. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  4. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  5. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  6. Natural Radioactivity of Thermal Springs in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.; Cesar, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia is rich in thermal and mineral springs, which are widely popular for medical therapy, tourism, recreation, rehabilitation and drinking. Considering the popularity of the spas and the habits of our population to use the beneficial effects of these springs it is of interest to estimate the radiation doses received by patients or tourists staying in the spas. In view of this, the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been engaged in a research programme dealing with the natural radioactivity concentration in the Croatian thermal and mineral waters. The aim of this paper was to estimate total natural radioactivity (Ra, Ra decay) in thermal and mineral waters from the several spas in Croatia. On basis of the obtained data the Ra and Ra activity ratio was calculated for each investigated spa. In this study possible effects of natural radioactivity were determined for each radionuclide using a derived concentration (DC) for a group of individuals for municipal drinking water supplies. Values exceeding DC represent radionuclide concentrations for radioactive waste. Total percentage ratio for each spring was also calculated. Since natural radioactivity in some spas exceeds DC value the practise of using these waters should be regularly estimated and monitored in order to avoid any possible health effects. (author)

  7. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  8. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  9. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  10. Radioactive contamination of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytil, I.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model is discussed describing radioactivity transport between the source and the organism. The model is to be applied in assessing the effect of a nuclear installation on the organism. Fortran and Pascal appear to be the most appropriate computer languages. With respect to internal memory requirements, the program file is estimated to consist of a control program and a number of subprograms. Upon setting the radioactivity transport and the output requirements the control program should recall the necessary subprograms. The program file should allow the complete data file and the solutions of all possible radioactivity transport variants to be inputted. It is envisaged that several subprograms will be available for one type of radioactivity transport, this depending on different accuracy of the transport description. Thus, the requirements for input data will also differ. (Z.M.)

  11. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  13. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  14. Advance in radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J. A.; Farrera V, R.

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  15. Radioactive pollution, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters as well as the atmosphere is discussed. Man-rem data are compared and expected quantities for disposal by power plants in the Netherlands are tabulated

  16. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  18. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  19. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  1. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  3. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  4. Radioactive pollution in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemtland, R.

    1985-01-01

    Routine measurements of radioactivity in rainfall are carried out at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway. The report discusses why the method of ion exchange was selected and gives details on how the measurements are performed

  5. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  6. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  8. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  11. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The book summarizes general concepts on radiation, nuclear structure, radioactivity and the interaction of the nuclear radiation with matter. It describes also the basic principles of radio dosimetry. Natural and artificial sources of radiation are reviewed as well as the effects of radiation in man. Medical and industrial applications of ionizing radiation and the pollution produced by the discharge of radioactive materials are outlined. A short review is made of the safety rules and the regulations concerning the protection of the environment [es

  12. Foodstuffs (radioactive contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Donald; Taylor, Teddy; Campbell-Savours, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings are given of the debate in the UK House of Commons on the maximum permitted radioactivity levels for foodstuffs, feeding stuffs and drinking water in the case of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident. The motion takes note of European Community Document no. 7183/87 and urges the Community to assure a common standard of health protection by adopting a rational set of scientifically based intervention levels for foodstuffs. (UK)

  13. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  14. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  15. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  16. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  17. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  18. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  19. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  20. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  1. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  2. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  3. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  4. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  5. 77 FR 52073 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to..., 2012, July 31, 2012, XW012/ radioactive total of 5,500 materials and/or 02, 11005699. waste including tons or about radioactive various 1,000 tons waste that is materials (e.g., metal, 4,000 attributed to...

  6. 78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... Class A radioactive secondary waste will waste imported in either be returned accordance with NRC... Recipient country application no.; docket No. Eastern Technologies, Inc.; Class A radioactive The total...

  7. Radioactivity monitoring in Ireland of air, deposition and water 1982-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; McRandall, M.; Hayden, E.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board in conjunction with the Meteorological Service undertakes an environmental radioactivity monitoring programme with the objective of determining levels of artificially produced radioactivity in the Irish environment. The levels of radioactivity in airbourne dust, total fallout samples, precipitation and drinking water are presented for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987

  8. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  9. Radioactivity monitoring of fallout, water and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, R.

    1961-01-01

    During 1961, the radioactivity monitoring of the Boris Kidric Institute site covered monitoring of the total β activity of the fallout and water on the site. Activity of the fallout was monitored by measuring the activity of the rain and collected sedimented dust form the atmosphere. Water monitored was the water from Danube and river Mlaka, technical and drinking water. Plants and soil activity were not measured although sample were taken and the total β activity will be measured and analysed later

  10. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry

  11. Radiological assessment of the radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech Nieves, Haydee; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro

    1996-01-01

    In the work are obtained the dose values resulting from the evaluation of the conditioning operations of wastes in the scenarios of exposure that are mentioned and are compared with the dose restriction suggested for the moment for such tasks. The radioactive wastes that are evaluated in the work are: liquids -both those from the generating institutions and the ones stored in the Managua- located deposit, Radon-226 not-in-use solids and sources 226: the results demonstrate that it is possible to treat in a year the total volume of the liquid and solid radioactive wastes as well as a large number of sources of Radon-226

  12. Assessment methodology for radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment is to define and rank the needs for controlling radioactive effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The assessment is based on environmental standards and dose-to-man calculations. The study includes three calculations for each isotope from each facility: maximum individual dose for a 50-year dose commitment from a 1-yr exposure according to the organ affected; population dose for a 50-yr dose commitment from a 1-yr exposure according to the organ affected; and annual dose rate for the maximally exposed individual. The relative contribution of a specific nuclide and source to the total dose provides a method of ranking the nuclides, which in turn identifies the sources that should receive the greatest control in the future. These results will be used in subsequent tasks to assess the environmental impact of the total nuclear fuel cycle

  13. EG type radioactive calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    EG standards are standards with a radioactive substance deposited as a solution on filtration paper and after drying sealed into a plastic disc or cylinder shaped casing. They serve the official testing of X-ray and gamma spectrometers and as test sources. The table shows the types of used radionuclides, nominal values of activity and total error of determination not exceeding +-4%. Activity of standards is calculated from the charge and the specific activity of standard solution used for the preparation of the standard. Tightness and surface contamination is measured for each standard. The manufacturer, UVVVR Praha, gives a guarantee for the given values of activity and total error of determination. (M.D.)

  14. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone stimulates cell-associated and soluble chondroitin 4-sulfate proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, J.C.; Rodbard, D.; Katki, A.; Chernick, S.; Yanagishita, M.

    1991-01-01

    The proteoglycans (cell-associated and culture media) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in culture were analyzed before and during differentiation into adipocytes. Cells were metabolically labeled with [35S]sulfate and [3H] glucosamine for 24 h and then extracted and analyzed. There was a 1.68 ± 0.07-fold increase in the 35S in medium proteoglycan during differentiation, whereas cell-associated proteoglycan radioactivity showed no increase. Analyses of radiolabeled molecules using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and high performance liquid chromatography after enzymatic or alkaline digestion indicated that all of the 35S label was recovered as two major species of chondroitin 4-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG-I and CSPG-II) and 7% as heparan sulfate proteoglycan. CSPG-I has a mass of ∼ 970 kDa with multiple chondroitin sulfate chains (average of 50 kDa each) and a core protein of ∼ 370 kDa including oligosaccharides. CSPG-II has a mass of 140 kDa with one or two chondroitin sulfate chains (average of 68 kDa each) and a core protein of 41 kDa including oligosaccharides. CSPG-I appears to be similar to versican, whereas CSPG-II is similar to decorin and/or biglycan, found in other fibroblastic cells. Cell differentiation was associated with a specific increase in CSPG-I (4.0 ± 0.2-fold in media and 3.2 ± 0.5-fold in the cell-associated form). This system should facilitate study of the functional roles of proteoglycans during growth and differentiation

  15. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  16. Radioactive waste management at Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN) - Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, C.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of liquid and solid wastes accumulated at the Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant are given. The technologies used for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes are presented. The final product is metallic drum-concrete-radioactive wastes (type A package) for the final disposal at the National Repository Baita, Bihor. The facilities for radioactive waste management at ICN Pitesti are: Plant for treatment, with uranium recovery of liquid radioactive waste resulting from the fabrication of CANDU type nuclear fuel; Plant for treatment of low-active liquid wastes; Plant for conditioning in concrete of the radioactive concentrate obtained during the evaporation treatment of liquid radioactive waste; Plant for incineration of solid radioactive waste contaminated with natural uranium; Plant for treatment and conditioning of organic liquid radioactive waste with tritium content. This wastes are generated by Cernavoda-NPP operation; Plant for conditioning into bitumen of spent ion exchangers at TRIGA reactor. The existing Facility is Baita repository - with two rock cavities of an uranium mine and the total capacity of 21000 containers (200 l drums)

  17. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T.

    1999-04-01

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210 Pb and progeny 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are found in combination with 226 Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226 Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222 Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  18. Handbook of radioactive medicine standard. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Now, the radioactive medicine standard has been instituted (the Ministry of Health and Welfare announcement No. 28, March 13, 1979) but this is the total revision of the old standard. While the radioactive medicines are used for the treatment of malignant tumors and others, the accuracy and fastness as the diagnostic medicines have been regarded as important. Recently, more safe and convenient medicines have appeared. Since these emit radiation, prudent consideration must be given to their handling. In order to make the properties and qualities of radioactive medicines appropriate, the standard is instituted for all of them based on the Drugs, Cosmetics and Medical Instruments Act. Since the medicines which do not accord with the standard cannot be produced, imported and sold according to the Act, the users must be familiar with the contents of the standard. The Ministry of Health and Welfare announcement No. 28 and the notice concerning it by the director of the Pharmaceutical and Supply Bureau to prefectural governors are reprinted. The standard comprises common rules, the general rules on medicine production, the provisions for individual medicines (94 kinds), 14 general testing methods, and the attached table showing the characteristics of 20 radioactive nuclides contained in the radioactive medicines described in this standard. (Kako, I.)

  19. Radioactive emission from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1981-07-01

    Radioactive hazards of the emissions and wastes of thermal power plants arising from fuel impurities of uranium and thorium are discussed. The hazard due to radioactive emission is calculated for an average Australian bituminous coal which contains 2 ppm of U and 2.7 ppm of Th. When the dust removal efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is 99%, the radioactive hazard is greater than that of a nuclear reactor of the same electrical output. After 500 years the radioactive toxicity of the coal waste will be higher than that of fission products of a nuclear reactor and after 2,000 years it will exceed the toxicity of all the nuclear wastes including actinides. The results of a recent calculation are shown, according to which the radioactive hazard of a coal-fired power plant to the public is from several hundred to several tens of thousands of times higher than that of a total fuel cycle of plutonium. It is found that in some regions, such as Japan, the hazard due to /sup 210/Po through seafood could be considerable.

  20. Radioactive waste vitrification offgas analysis proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.W.; Morrey, E.V.

    1993-11-01

    Further validation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed simulants will be performed by analyzing offgases during crucible melting of actual waste glasses and simulants. The existing method of vitrifying radioactive laboratory-scale samples will be modified to allow offgas analysis during preparation of glass for product testing. The analysis equipment will include two gas chromatographs (GC) with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and one NO/NO x analyzer. This equipment is part of the radioactive formating offgas system. The system will provide real-time analysis of H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and SO 2 . As with the prior melting method, the product glass will be compatible with durability testing, i.e., Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Material Characterization Center (MCC-1), and crystallinity analysis. Procedures have been included to ensure glass homogeneity and quenching. The radioactive glass will be adaptable to Fe +2 /ΣFe measurement procedures because the atmosphere above the melt can be controlled. The 325 A-hot cell facility is being established as the permanent location for radioactive offgas analysis during formating, and can be easily adapted to crucible melt tests. The total costs necessary to set up and perform offgas measurements on the first radioactive core sample is estimated at $115K. Costs for repeating the test on each additional core sample are estimated to be $60K. The schedule allows for performing the test on the next available core sample

  1. Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections that may influence transmission of cell-associated HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard A

    2014-12-15

    Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are likely to influence the transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota (Nugent score 0-3) will likely inhibit transmission, especially female-to-male transmission. In contrast, polymicrobial microbiota (Nugent score 4-10), community state types IV-A and IV-B, and STIs will likely increase transmission of cell-associated HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  4. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  5. Doses from radioactive methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A possible radiation hazard arises from exposure to methane labelled with either a 3 H or a 14 C nuclide. This radioactive methane could be released from a variety of sources, e.g. land burial sites containing radioactive waste. Standard assumptions adopted for vapours would not apply to an inert alkane like methane. This paper discusses mechanisms by which radioactive methane would irradiate tissues and provides estimates of doses. Data on skin thickness and metabolism of methane are discussed with reference to these mechanisms. It is found that doses are dominated by dose from the small fraction of methane which is inhaled and metabolised. This component of dose has been calculated under rather conservative assumptions. (author)

  6. Radioactivity - superstition and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  7. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  8. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  9. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  10. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  11. Reloadable radioactive generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombetti, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    A generator system that can be reloaded with an elutable radioactive material, such as 99 molybdenum, a multiple number of times is described. The system basically comprises a column filled with alumina, a loading vial containing a predetermined amount of the elutable radioactive material, and a rinsing vial containing a sterile solution. The two vials are connected by a conduit so that when communication is achieved between the column and loading vial and an evacuated vial is placed in communication with the bottom of the column, the predetermined amount of the radioactive material in the loading vial will be transferred to the column. The procedure can be repeated as the elutable material in the column is dissipated

  12. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  14. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book. refs

  15. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  16. Handling of radioactive sources in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the following aspects: sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, radiation detectors, personnel and area monitoring, surface pollution, radioactive wastes control and radioactive sources transferring. (The author)

  17. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  18. Shale as a radioactive waste repository: the importance of vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S; Roy, D M; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; USA). Materials Research Labs.)

    1979-01-01

    Cesium sorption and fixation properties of thirty shale minerals and shales were investigated in search of a criterion for the suitability of shales for a radioactive waste repository. Shales and illites containing vermiculite fixed the largest proportion of total Cs sorbed (up to 91%) against displacement with 0.1 N KCl. For example, a slate sample fixed 33% of the total Cs sorbed while its weathered counterpart in which chlorite had altered to vermiculite fixed 89% of the total Cs sorbed. Since Cs is one of the most soluble and hazardous radioactive ions, its containment is of great importance in safe radioactive waste disposal. Presence of vermiculite in a shale body may therefore, serve as one criterion in the selection of a suitable shale for radioactive waste disposal if and when shales in geologically stable areas are selected for repositories.

  19. Radioactivity and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents)

  20. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  1. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  2. Radioactive material generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplinski, T.V.; Bolter, B.J.; Heyer, R.E.; Bruno, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive material generator includes radioactive material in a column, which column is connected to inlet and outlet conduits, the generator being embedded in a lead casing. The inlet and outlet conduits extend through the casing and are topped by pierceable closure caps. A fitting, containing means to connect an eluent supply and an eluate container, is adapted to pierce the closure caps. The lead casing and the fitting are compatibly contoured such that they will fit only if properly aligned with respect to each other

  3. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  4. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  5. Amersham's high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulkin, S

    1984-11-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples.

  6. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  9. Your radioactive garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet on radiation risks from nuclear waste is based on lectures given by the author at Westminster School (United Kingdom) and elsewhere during 1986. A description is given of naturally-occurring radioactivity, and the health risks due to this radiation. The types of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry are described, including low-level wastes, short-lived and long-lived intermediate-level wastes, and high level wastes. These wastes are discussed with respect to their potential health risks and their disposal underground. (U.K.)

  10. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulkin, S.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  11. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  12. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Tanihata, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides. One goal, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell modelclose quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. 25 refs., 7 figs

  13. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  14. The management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)

  15. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell model close quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs

  16. Radioactive Waste in Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Graham, G.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of

  17. Development of radioactive source scanner based on PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guogui; Gao Xiang; Guo Hongli

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive radial uniformity of 68 Ge line radioactive sources is a critical quality parameter. The radioactive source scanner with linear scanning function is developed by making use of high-speed pulse counters, high-speed pulse output ports, and the powerful instruction system of Siemens S7-200 series programmable logic controller (PLC). A computer used as a host computer of the instrument communicate with. the PLC by point to point interface (PPI) protocol, The instrument with functions of data collection, transmission, displaying, saving, motion control and instrument parameter settings, can be used to measure the radioactive radial uniformity and total activity of line radioactive source. The advantages of Using the PLC to develop nuclear instrumentation are development speed, strong anti-interference ability, and low-cost. This paper mainly describes the control system implementation and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  18. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  19. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  20. The radioactive organic wastewater treatment of INER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chinchang; Chen Chaorui; Chung Jenchren

    2014-01-01

    The treatment strategy of radioactive organic wastewater was to separate it at first, then to treat it step by step by the characteristics of liquid layer. The waste liquid has separated into three layers, the organic layer, aqueous layer and the bottom gel mastic by natural sedimentation. The organic layer has occupied 23% of the total volume, the intermediate aqueous layer occupied 75% of the total volume, the bottom mastic was about 2% of the total. The aqueous layer of organic waste was with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 20,000ppm. The combustion test shows good treatment performance and all samples can be decomposed completely by incineration. The experiment of incineration has passed the test more than 200 batches and 3000L low-level radioactive organic aqueous solution. The process goes smoothly and gas emission values far below the regulatory limit. Each kilogram of polymer absorber can absorb 45 kg aqueous solution to form a solid combustible material and can be decomposed by incineration. Organic waste solvents were diesel miscible and similar calorific value and small viscosity. It can be used as an incinerator auxiliary fuel of radioactive incinerator. The method testing has begun in this year. It has expected to save diesel fuel consumption of incineration, and well solved such kind waste liquid. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  2. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  4. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  5. Radioactivity and you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    What does it mean when radiation levels are said to have risen? How do we measure radioactivity? Where do we get our exposure to radiation from? This programme, examines the risks we incur through radiation exposure, explains the basic science of radiation measurement, looks at the contributions of natural and man made sources. (author)

  6. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  7. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  8. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  9. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  10. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  11. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  12. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  13. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  14. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The average intake of radioactivity via foodstuffs remained relatively constant at about 10000 Bq per annum during the entire period elapsing since the Chernobyl accident. However, the dose received by especially exposed population groups has been considerably higher. In particular, the intake of radioactivity through the consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish has been high among certain groups (hunters and angler, and Sami reindeer herdsmen in southern and mid-Norway). Studies show that their dietary radionuclide exposure was highest during the second year post Cernobyl. The existing intervention levels were also applied in 1989. These are, with the exception of the limit of 6000 Bq/kg for reindeer meat, game meat and freshwater fish, identical with the maximum levels laid down by the EC. The present report reviews the data concerning radioactivity levels in dairy products, meat and fish recorded during 1989. Overall, it may be concluded that levels were considerable lower than the previous year. An important reason for this was the almost complete absence, in outlying pastures, of various types of fungi eaten by grazing livestock, such fungi being a major source of radioactivity. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Radioactive substance removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Tayama, Ryuichi; Teruyama, Hidehiko; Hikichi, Takayoshi.

    1992-01-01

    If inert gases are jetted from a jetting device to liquid metals in a capturing vessel, the inert gases are impinged on the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel, to reduce the thickness of a boundary layer as a diffusion region of radioactive materials formed between the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel and the liquid metals. Further, a portion of the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the adsorption amount of radioactive materials by the capturing vessel. When the inert gases are jetted on the inner or outer circumference of the capturing vessel to rotate the capturing vessel, the flow of the liquid metals is formed along with the rotation, and the thickness of the boundary layer is reduced or the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the absorption amount of the radioactive materials. If gas bubbles are formed in the liquid metals by the inert gases, the liquid metals are stirred by the gas bubbles to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer or peel it off, thereby enabling to increase the adsorption amount of the radioactive materials. Since it is not necessary to pass through the rotational member to the wall surface of the vessel, safety and reliability can be improved. (N.H.)

  16. Sampling airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems

  17. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  18. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  19. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  20. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  1. The radioactive paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Most of us will still remember with horror: In March 1954, a US H-bomb exploded directly over Bikini atoll. What has become of this island that used to be so romantic. And what has become of Eniwetok and all the small Robinson islands which are radioactive today. Can people live there again. A scientific investigation now destroys all illusions. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  4. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  5. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. Out of 1700 known isotopes of 104 chemical elements, only about 16 per cent are stable. Seventy-three radioactive isotopes of 39 elements occur naturally in the terrestrial environment. The significance of environmental radioactivity lies in the contribution to the annual exposure of the general population to ionising radiation. This exposure results largely from natural sources of radioactivity and radiation together with applications of radiation in medicine. Minor contributions are from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear power production and the nuclear fuel cycle, and consumer products including luminous clocks and watches, television receivers and smoke detectors. The natural background radiation level varies substantially with altitude and geographic location. Although no satisfactory evidence is available that natural variations in background radiation levels are detrimental to humans, upper limits of risk have been estimated for possible somatic and genetic effects from these levels of radiation. Contributory sources of and variability in the radiation background are reviewed and the relation between effective dose equivalent and associated detriment outlined. The risk from exposure to an average level of background radiation is compared with risks from other human activities

  6. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The average radioactivity dose level to which the Norwegian population was exposed through the ingestion of food in 1988 was between 0.10 and 0.15 mSv. This was about the same as in 1987. The radioactivity dose to which individuals with certain special dietary habits (large proportions of freshwater fish and reindeer meat in the diet) were exposed, was, however, up to three times higher in 1988 than in 1987. This was due firstly to the fact that reindeer meat which had been produced prior to the Chernobyl accident was no longer available, and secondly, to dietary advice not being followed as closely as before. The cost-benefit ratio of the measures introduced to reduce radioactivity levels in food, i.e. resources employed compared with the actual reduction in radioactivity levels achieved, has proved to be reasonably satisfactory, both in 1987 and 1988. Action levels and dietary advice remained unchanged in 1988. The present report summarizes results of analyses performed in 1988, and describes the measures introduced concerning various categorites of foods. Measures introduced were, as in 1987, primarily focused on the production of sheep meat (mutton/lamb) and on reindeer farming. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Lower fungi and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, M.

    1989-01-01

    Sorption activities for radioactive elements were observed in molds Penicillinum muszynsky, Aspergillus versicolor and Alternaria tenius. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were isolated in laboratory and cultivated on a modified substrate containing uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate. They were found to be capable of absorbing in the biomass some members of the uranium decay series. (E.J.). 4 tabs., 11 refs

  8. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  9. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  10. Radiological consequences of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the differential radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle with and without plutonium recycle is being undertaken jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A summary is given of the development of the methodology detailed in their first report to the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (NRPB/CEA, A methodology for evaluating the radiological consequences of radioactive effluents released in normal operations. Luxembourg, CEC Doc. V/3011/75 EN (1979)). The Collective Effective Dose Equivalent Commitment was used in an attempt to assess the total health detriment. The application of the methodology within particular member states of the European Community has been discussed at seminars. Sensitivity analysis can identify the more important parameters for improving the accuracy of the assessment. (UK)

  11. Radioactive resistance of memory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, B.; Stankovic, S.; Novakovic, D.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the results of semiconductor memories radioactive resistance examination (EPROM and EEPROM) are presented. Performance of semiconductor memories is most important, when working under high risk condition where there is an influence of radiation. This research is particularly interesting for specific applications in military industry and space technology. Therefore, the analysis of the degradation mechanism of these components as well as the possibilities to increase their radiation resistivity have been considered by many authors. The aim of this work is the examination of the reliability of EPROM and EEPROM characteristics under radiation. Total dose results are presented for the JL 27C512D EPROM and ST 24C02 EEPROM. There is evidence that EPROM are more sensitive to y radiation than EEPROM. The results obtained are analyzed theoretically via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layer. (authors)

  12. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  13. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  15. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  16. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  17. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  19. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  1. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  2. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  3. Radioactive tracer profiling system and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, R.; Veach, L.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactive charge is ejected into the borehole and a subsurface unit including a radiation detector is moved upwardly through this charge a number of times. The total radiation count as the unit moves up through the charge is obtained by integrating the output of the radiation detector during the period when the counter output exceeds the background radiation. The integrated count is displayed on a digital display unit. Compensation is provided for background radiation within the borehole. Also correction is made for the dead time of the radiation detector so that an accurate indication of the total amount of radioactivity remaining in the borehole during successive runs is obtained. 22 claims, 6 figures

  4. Report of radioactivity investigation and research in fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences has continuously carried out the investigation and research on the environmental radioactivity level due to the radioactive fallout accompanying nuclear explosion experiments and the radioactive substances released from nuclear facilities and on the safety analysis of those since fiscal year 1959 as a part of the radioactivity investigation and research of Science and Technology Agency. The importance of radioactivity investigation and research increases more accompanying the remarkable progress of the peaceful use of atomic energy and the emphasis placed on the safety analysis of atomic energy utilization. In such situation, in fiscal year 1984, by appropriating the total budget of about 105 million yen, the investigation of the radioactivity level and dose in environment, foods and human bodies, the investigation of the level around nuclear facilities, the business of radioactivity data center, the basic research on the evaluation of the results of radioactivity investigation, the training of environmental radiation monitoring technicians, and the investigation and research on the measurement of and countermeasures to emergency radiation exposure were carried out. In this book, the results of these investigation and research are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. The radioactive waste management at IAEA laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deron, S.; Ouvrard, R.; Hartmann, R.; Klose, H.

    1992-10-01

    The report gives a brief description of the nature of the radioactive wastes generated at the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf, their origin and composition, their management and monitoring. The management of the radioactive waste produced at IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf is governed by the Technical Agreements of 1985 between the IAEA and the Austrian Health Ministry. In the period of 1982 to 1991 waste containers of low activity and radiotoxicity generated at laboratories other than the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) were transferred to the FZS waste treatment and storage plant: The total activity contained in these drums amounted to < 65 MBq alpha activity; < 1030 MBq beta activity; < 2900 MBq gamma activity. The radioactive waste generated at SAL and transferred to the FZs during the same period included. Uranium contaminated solid burnable waste in 200 1 drums, uranium contaminated solid unburnable waste in 200 1 drums, uranium contaminated liquid unburnable waste in 30 1 bottles, plutonium contaminated solid unburnable waste in 200 1 drums. In the same period SAL received a total of 146 Kg uranium and 812 g plutonium and exported out of Austria, unused residues of samples. The balance, i.e.: uranium 39 kg, plutonium 133 g constitutes the increase of the inventory of reference materials, and unused residues awaiting export, accumulated at SAL and SIL fissile store as a result of SAL operation during this 10 year period. The IAEA reexports all unused residues of samples of radioactive and fissile materials analyzed at his laboratories, so that the amount of radioactive materials ending in the wastes treated and stored at FZS is kept to a minimum. 5 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Elevated temperature grouts and radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, M.; Fenton, A.; Lee, D.J.; Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this year's programme was to quantify the total volumes of cementitious immobilising material required to package radioactive waste arisings in the UK to 2010. These data form the basis for selection of cementitious matrices for further investigation of storage at likely repository temperatures, including the effect of γ irradiation and resaturation to determine their effects on the physical and chemical performance of the cement systems. (Author)

  7. Determination of radioactivity in Cisadane River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarigan, C.; Lubis, E.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of radioactivity in Cisadane river. The determination of radioactivity in water and sediment samples from Cisadane river in the period of March 1989 through March 1990 has been carried out. The aim of the study is to get some information on the radionuclides species and its quantities in water and sediment samples. Sampling was done at randon from 12 stations of 5 km apart. Result of the determination showed that the average total α activity in water was 18.10 ± 13.26 mBq/l and in sediment 34.96 ± 9.99 Bq/kg. Total β activities in water was 129.95 ± 148.14 mBq/l and in sediment 275.94 ± 41.63 Bq/kg. Activities of K-40 and Ra-226 in water was 6.39 ± 2.16 Bq/l and 7.34 ± 1.61 Bq/l and in sediment 6.58 ± 1.80 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 84.87 ± 16.55 Bq/kg for K-40. Compared to environmental quality standard data for water group A total α and β activities showed good quality river water. Compared to data from UNSCEAR, for similar sample the radioactivity level in Cisadane river was normal. This result gave an indication that total α and β radioactivities in the water and sediment are due to natural radionuclides. (authors). 6 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  8. Categorization of In-use Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.A.; Mohamed, Y.T.; El Haleim, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources have widespread applications in industry, medicine, research and education. While most sources are of relatively low activity, there are many of medium or very high activity. The mismanagement of high activity sources is responsible for most of the radiological accidents that result in loss of life or disabling injuries. Because of the variety of applications and activities of radioactive sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are adequate with its radiological risk. The aim of this work is to use the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) categorization system to provide a simple, logical system for grading radioactive sealed sources in Egypt. The categorizations of radioactive sealed sources are based on their potential to cause harm to human health. This study revealed that total of 1916 sources have been used in Egypt in the different applications with a total activity of 89400 Ci according to available data in October 2005. (authors)

  9. Investigation of the environmental radioactivity around the mooring port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Here are the main data for radioactivity examination performed in 1975 at Mutsu port, the mooring port of atomic energy vessel ''Mutsu''. No abnormality were observed in space γ ray dose ratio, and integrated doses measured by the thermofluorescence dosimeter at three monitoring posts in the port (G M tube) and three monitoring station in Mutsu City. A serial measurement of radioactivity concentration in sea water did not show any abnormality, either. Samples were taken from the surface soil of the ground, the bottom of the rivers, river water, drinking water, and milk and measured the total radioactivity by a gas flow counter. The measurement of the total β-radioactivity and radio nuclides analysis were carried out in sea water, the soil from the bottom of the sea and sea products. Abnormality considered to be caused by ''Mutsu'' did not observed at all. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. A radioactive controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    During 2002, the National Congress of Argentina began discussing the 'Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and Australia on cooperation in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy'. This document has revived the debate regarding development of a national nuclear industry. The debate was spurred by a commercial contract signed in 2000 by INVAP, an Argentinean company who sold a nuclear reactor to the ANSTO, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization. More than sixty non-governmental organizations are opposed to the ratification of the agreement, because they interpret that the text leaves the door wide open for the transport and deposit of Australian nuclear waste to Argentina, to be processed in national territory. Article 41 of the Argentinean National Constitution, explicitly prohibits the generation of any income from 'radioactive residues'. Those who support the agreement say that it does not promote the deposit of nuclear waste in Argentina, and argue that environmentalists are hampering efforts of this advanced technological industry to flourish in Argentina. The point of conflict in the agreement lies in article 12, which states that Argentina will continue the process of reactor-driven irradiated fuel outside Argentina. Once the treatment is completed, the fuel conditioned and the resulting waste must return to the country of origin for their storage. The possibility of spent fuel being sent to Argentina lies in the hypothetical case that the French company Cogema, which currently holds treatment responsibility, stops treatment sometime within the next fifteen years, when the fuel must be treated. The non-ratification of the agreement on Argentina part will not imply any sort of impediment in the realization of the reactor, it will only put on hold the possibility that the Australians spent fuels will complete treatment in Argentina. The constitutionality of the agreement lies in the question of waste, but this too is not a simple question. The

  11. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  12. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  13. The Radioactivity α and β Evaluation in Fish, Lobster and Shrimps from Donan's River Cilacap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Zainul Kamal

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity α and β total evaluation in fish, lobster and shrimps from Donan's river Cilacap have been done The determination of α and β total using α and β spectrometry. The result of experimentation showed that radioactivity α and β in fish, lobster and shrimps. Could not use as shore quality because unprepared of the threshold value. (author)

  14. Cellular retention of radioactivity and increased radiation dose. Model experiments with EGF-dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Aasa Liljegren; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Joergen; Steffen, Ann-Charlott; Gedda, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Targeting of tumor cells with radiolabeled biomolecules is a possible approach to inactivate disseminated tumor cells. However, rapid degradation of the biomolecules after cellular internalization and subsequent excretion of the radioactivity is a problem. We studied the possibility of using dextran as a carrier of radionuclides to improve the intracellular retention. An EGF-dextran conjugate, aimed for targeting of tumor cells overexpressing the EGF-receptor, was used as model. Retention tests were performed with 125 I on different parts: [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran-[ 125 I], [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran and EGF-dextran-[ 125 I]. Comparisons were made with [ 125 I]-EGF. The radiolabeled compounds were incubated with cultured glioma cells for different times. The cellular retention of radioactivity was then measured for up to 24 h. Expected radiation doses at the cellular level were calculated assuming that 131 I, instead of 125 I, was coupled to EGF and EGF-dextran. The results indicated that the EGF-part of the conjugate was degraded and the EGF-attached radioactivity was rapidly excreted, whereas radioactivity on dextran was retained intracellularly to a high degree, i.e. 70-80% of the radioactivity bound to dextran was still cell-associated after 24 h. The retention after 24 h was significantly higher (p < 0.001) when the radioactivity was on the dextran instead of the EGF-part. The radiolabeled EGF-dextran had a notably high specific radioactivity; up to 11 MBq/μg. There was potential for at least hundred times increased radiation dose per receptor interaction when the radioactivity was on the dextran part. The advantage with radioactivity on the dextran part was the high cellular retention and the high specific radioactivity (higher than previously reported for other residualizing labels) without severe loss of receptor specific binding. Thus, dextran seems suitable as a carrier of radionuclides aimed for therapy and gives potential for a highly increased radiation dose

  15. Progress in radioactive graphite waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive graphite constitutes a major waste stream which arises during the decommissioning of certain types of nuclear installations. Worldwide, a total of around 250 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite, comprising graphite moderators and reflectors, will require management solutions in the coming years. 14 C is the radionuclide of greatest concern in nuclear graphite; it arises principally through the interaction of reactor neutrons with nitrogen, which is present in graphite as an impurity or in the reactor coolant or cover gas. 3 H is created by the reactions of neutrons with 6 Li impurities in graphite as well as in fission of the fuel. 36 Cl is generated in the neutron activation of chlorine impurities in graphite. Problems in the radioactive waste management of graphite arise mainly because of the large volumes requiring disposal, the long half-lives of the main radionuclides involved and the specific properties of graphite - such as stored Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility and the potential for radioactive gases to be released. Various options for the management of radioactive graphite have been studied but a generally accepted approach for its conditioning and disposal does not yet exist. Different solutions may be appropriate in different cases. In most of the countries with radioactive graphite to manage, little progress has been made to date in respect of the disposal of this material. Only in France has there been specific thinking about a dedicated graphite waste-disposal facility (within ANDRA): other major producers of graphite waste (UK and the countries of the former Soviet Union) are either thinking in terms of repository disposal or have no developed plans. A conference entitled 'Solutions for Graphite Waste: a Contribution to the Accelerated Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Nuclear Reactors' was held at the University of Manchester 21-23 March 2007 in order to stimulate progress in radioactive graphite waste management

  16. MONITORING OF RADIOACTIVITY AT DNURT CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Dolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research paper aims to determine radioactive contamination on the territory of campus of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT. Methodology. The dosimeters measured the radioactive contamination in different places (points of DNURT campus, focusing on public places. The centres of measurements became dormitories, monuments, stops, main entrances of the new and the old buildings, classrooms, basements, a swimming pool, boiler room and others. Findings. The conducted radiation monitoring for the first time in the history of the University discovered the source of radioactive contamination on DNURT territory and campus. The highest radiation background is observed on three points, namely: the pedestal of the monument, the monument to students-soldiers, the main entrance of the new building (columns. This can be explained by granite materials, which the pedestals and the stairs are made of. Originality. The largest contribution to the total value of annual effective dose of human exposure is made by ionizing radiation sources (IRS of building materials (65 - 70%. The radioactivity level of building materials is determined by the content of natural radionuclides that are included in uranium-radium and thorium decay series (18 and 12 radionuclides as well as potassium-40. Radioactivity of building materials is evaluated by the content of dominant radionuclides radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40. Their dominant role is explained by the fact that these long-lived high-energy - emitters are the products of decay of radium-226 in uranium series of and radium-224 in thorium series, exposing radioactive gases (radon-222 and radon-220. Radioactive gases are accumulated in the basements of educational buildings; their decay is accompanied by 100% alpha radiation, which is the most dangerous. Practical value. It is necessary to set radioactivity signs near the objects with high

  17. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  18. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  19. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  20. Radioactive content in Portuguese wines (1951-1971)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.C.F.Q.

    1975-01-01

    In this work we describe some considerations about the importance of a wine control quality, concerning the radioactive content susceptible to enter in a human diet. Results of total beta activity measurements and determination of radionuclides such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Uranium and Thorium radioactive families were determined in Fundao country wines (crops from 1951 to 1968) and in recent wines from different provinces

  1. Transportation incidents involving Canadian shipments of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    This paper gives a brief statement of the legislation governing the transportation of radioactive materials in Canada, reviews the types of shipments made in Canada in 1977, and surveys the transportation incidents that have been reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board over the period 1947-1978. Some of the more significant incidents are described in detail. A totAl of 135 incidents occurred from 1947 to 1978, during which time there were 644750 shipments of radioactive material in Canada

  2. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminade, F.; Laurent, H.

    1957-01-01

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m 3 ). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author) [fr

  3. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  5. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Radioactivity and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This book details the knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation from the discovery of radium to about 1980. Research findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them except where the work under discussion was markedly iconoclastic and obviously wrong according to the author's comments. Findings from over 100 personal interviews and literature searches including unpublished or little-known materials are summarized. The material in the book is divided into six sections. The first section deals with naturally occurring radioactive elements. The next section covers material on man-made radioisotopes. Inhalation toxicology (radioactive dusts and particles and respirable gases) is the subject of Section 3. Section 4 deals with environmental matters - radioecology, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, transport of radionuclides, testing and standard settings, and Section 5 consists of information on laboratory and field instrumentation. The development of the therapy for exposure and of nuclear medicine is traced in the final section

  8. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  10. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  13. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  15. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  16. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The results are described of monitoring radioactivity of atmospheric fallout, surface waters, soils, plant feeds, cereals, and other agricultural produce. The results were obtained over a long time period. Radioactivity was also measured of milk, milk products, vegetables and fruits, meat and hen eggs, flour and bakery products with a view to radionuclide migration in the food chain. The daily intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from food was determined from the values obtained and the consumption of the individual types of food. Strontium-90 distribution was studied in the bones and the teeth of the population in Slovakia. With the commissioning of nuclear power plants, emissions and liquid wastes were monitored and their environmental impact assessed. (E.S.)

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  19. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  20. Assessment of Malaysia Institutional radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi

    1996-01-01

    A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal

  1. Distribution of radioactive constituents in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.

    1994-01-01

    For a research project on the distribution and evaluation of natural and artificial radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (northeast spain), the amounts of nuclides present in the main river waters were measured. Radioactive procedures include i) total alpha and beta indexes with a gas flow detector, dry residues near to 2 and 10 mg/ cm sup 2, respectively and counting periods of 1000 mn, ii) gamma emitters with a low level gamma spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) using the dry residue from 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days and iii) statistical treatment of data at 95% confidence.In this paper, ten water samples from the nervion river basin are included. Physical and chemical parameters of samples were also determined by standard procedures, because there is a sharp change in the composition of this river in the first part of the course. Radioactive constituents were identified as follows: a sample has a detectable alpha index, all samples contains beta emitters with a high variability, natural nuclides from uranium and thorium families were detected in some cases. A parallel behaviour is found between samples where K-40 and Cs-137 were found. The paper tries at last to find relations among chemical and radioactive constituents by the application of multivariate statistical methods, specially for the case of Cs-137, the only artificial nuclide identified in this work. 1 tab., 2 figs., 5 refs. (author)

  2. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  3. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  4. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  5. The radioactive grasshopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-15

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  6. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  7. The radioactive grasshopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  8. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  9. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  10. Radioactive gas inhalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMon, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    An ''inhalator'', or more particularly an apparatus for permitting a patient to inhale a radioactive gas in order to provide a diagnostic test of the patient's lung area, is described. The disclosed apparatus provides a simple, trouble-free mechanism for achieving this result; and, furthermore, provides an improved testing method. Moreover, the disclosed apparatus has the capability of gradually introducing the test condition in a manner that makes it easy for the patient to become acclimated to it. (U.S.)

  11. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  12. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  13. Radioactive sources in brachytherapy:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Janez

    2003-01-01

    Background. In modern brachytherapy, a greast step forward was made in the 1960s in France with the introduction of new radioactive isotopes and new techniques. These innovations spread rapidly across Europe, though no single dosimetry standard had been set by then. In the new millennium, the advances in brachytherapy are further stimulated by the introduction of 3-D imaging techniques and the latest after loading irradiation equipment that use point sources. The international organiyation IC...

  14. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  16. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  17. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  18. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  19. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  20. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  2. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  3. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  4. Radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrescu, M.; Milu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in Romania is based on National Regulations for Radiation Protection enforced in 1976, on other environment protection laws enforced in the last years and on the recommendations of IAEA. Accordingly two systems of radioactive monitoring are to date operational in this field: the first one is the self-control of the radioactive emissions in the environment generated by the own nuclear activities (of nuclear units like the Cernavoda NPP, the Institute of Atomic Physics at Magurele-Bucharest, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, the R Plant at Feldioara, Uranium mining units, etc.), while the other is based on two national agencies (the National Network of Environment Radiation Monitoring of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection and the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Health Ministry). The authors review and discuss the radiation protection legislation, the structure and the organizational operations of the national monitoring systems and the co-operation of the national monitoring systems with international authorities or programmes. 3 Figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  5. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  6. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In this report different aspects of the radioactivity in the environment of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2004 - 2006 years are reported. This report is published only on the Enviroportal.sk. The following aspects of the radioactivity in the environment are reviewed there: Electricity production in nuclear power plants and their consumption; Natural sources of ionisation radiation; Man-made sources of ionisation radiation; Safety of exploitation of the nuclear power plants on the territory of the Slovak Republic; International Nuclear Event Scale; Basic information about influence of radiation on health of population and about evaluation methods; Influence of physical risk factors (including of ionisation radiation) in the working environment on formation of occupation diseases; Collective doses of occupation in NPPs; Health state of population in the locality of the NPP Mochovce; Food contamination by ionisation radiation; Radiation monitoring network; Legislative directives about population health protection against ionisation radiation action; Decommissioning of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (EBO V-1); Conception of the back fuel cycle and treatment of spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes; Project of territorial-economic development of the Trnava region after decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

  7. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  9. Analysis of radioactive cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms. Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc., the manual deals with them as a whole as 60 Co of long half life. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry. However, specific collecting operation and γ-γ coincidence measurement have been required so far. This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies. It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  11. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  12. Analysis of radioactive ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This manual explains the procedures of analysis of radioactive ruthenium in the drain water from atomic energy plants. The most important radioactive ruthenium is 106 Ru, and the method of measurement described in this manual is to measure the beta ray of the daughter nuclide 106 Rh. The samples to be measured are collected from seawater, marine living things, and sediment of sea bottom near atomic energy plants. In case of sea water, the ruthenium is separated by the co-precipitation with magnesium hydroxide and distillation or the extraction with carbon tetrachloride, reduction and precipitation. The beta ray of the obtained sample is measured by a gas-flow type low background β counting system. Alkali dissolution-distillation or nitric acid extraction-distillation, reduction and precipitation are applied for marine living things. The sediment of sea bottom is treated with nitric acid or strong phosphoric acid, and distilled then the ruthenium is reduced and precipitated, and the beta-counting of the precipitation is made. The method to fix radioactive ruthenium on polyethylene films after the co-precipitation is also described for reference. The detectable levels by the present methods are 0.05 pCi/l for sea water, 0.1 pCi/g for marine living things, and 20 pCi/kg for the sediment of sea bottom. (Kato, T.)

  13. Radioactivity distribution of the fruit trees ascribable to radioactive fall out. A study on stone fruits cultivated in low level radioactivity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Sasaki, Haruto; Oshita, Seiichi; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2012-01-01

    After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactivity of fruit trees grown at an experimental farm of Nishi-Tokyo City in Tokyo, which was located about 230 km away from the power plant, was measured. Each organ of Japanese apricot and peach trees was taken at harvesting stage, respectively, and the radioactivity of 134 Cs and 137 Cs was measured. Although radioactivity of orchard soil and tree each organ were low generally, that of bark sampled from 3-old-year branch was as high as 1570 Bq/kg-dry weight. The total radioactivity of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in edible portion was far lower than that of the regulation level. (author)

  14. What do we measure when we measure cell-associated HIV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Alexander O; Berkhout, Ben

    2018-01-29

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. This review provides an update on some recent insights in the biology and clinical utility of this biomarker. We discuss a number of important considerations to be taken into account when interpreting CA HIV RNA measurements, as well as different methods to measure this biomarker.

  15. Dynamic imaging of cell-free and cell-associated viral capture in mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Esteban, Olga; Rodriguez-Plata, Maria T; Erkizia, Itziar; Prado, Julia G; Blanco, Julià; García-Parajo, Maria F; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and single-particle tracking approaches to dynamically dissect both cell-free and cell-associated viral capture by living mDCs. We show that cell-free virus capture by mDCs operates through three sequential phases: virus binding through specific determinants expressed in the viral particle, polarized or directional movements toward concrete regions of the cell membrane and virus accumulation in a sac-like structure where trapped viral particles display a hindered diffusive behavior. Moreover, real-time imaging of cell-associated viral transfer to mDCs showed a similar dynamics to that exhibited by cell-free virus endocytosis leading to viral accumulation in compartments. However, cell-associated HIV type 1 transfer to mDCs was the most effective pathway, boosted throughout enhanced cellular contacts with infected CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that in lymphoid tissues, mDC viral uptake could occur either by encountering cell-free or cell-associated virus produced by infected cells generating the perfect scenario to promote HIV pathogenesis and impact disease progression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Transport of radioactive waste in Germany - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  18. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premachandra, Bhartur

    1975-09-04

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured.

  19. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premachandra, Bhartur.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured [fr

  20. Always more radioactive matters to manage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The national agency for radioactive waste management published at the end of June (2009)its new three-yearly inventory of radioactive matters and wastes. for this edition, the numbers are stopped at the 31. december 2007. The volume of conditioned wastes represents 1.15 millions of cubic meters. 62% of these wastes come from nuclear industry. The sectors of research and defence each produce 17% of the whole. The remaining 4% come from others industries and medical sector. currently, 824 609 cubic meters are stored. The most being low and intermediate activity at short life (68%) and very low activity (20%). with 2293 cubic meters the high level activity wastes represent 0.2% of the total volume but constitute 94.98% of the total radioactivity. They come from the reprocessing of spent fuels of electronuclear industry and content fission products and minor actinides. They are not still stored but mixed to a glass matrix melt in stainless steel container. (N.C.)

  1. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  3. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  5. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq 1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 125 I and 14 C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  8. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  9. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  10. The control of water radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Graubey, A.

    1962-01-01

    This report presents the different apparatuses and devices used to control and adjust routine releases, to detect accidental pollutions, and to identify the origins of an increased radioactivity. The objective is to perform permanent and continuous sampling and measurement. Samplers and measurement devices (Geiger probes, resin-based integrators, dry aerosol radioactivity recorders and dry sample radioactivity recorders) are presented. Water control stations are presented: these stations are either fixed, or mobile or floating

  11. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-01-01

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of ∼11,600 km 2 and a population of ∼600,000

  12. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  13. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  15. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  17. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  18. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  19. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  1. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de

  3. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  4. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  5. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  6. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)

  7. 3. Radioactive pharmaceutical medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the chapter common definitions of for radio-pharmacy are given. Radio-pharmacy medications are pharmacy medications which contain minor amount of one or several radionuclides (radioactive tracers), those radiation ability is applying in diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. At the same time radionuclides with more short life time, which are ether gamma-radiators or beta-radiators are applying. The following items for such radioisotopes production; radionuclides applying in nuclear medicine; radio-pharmaceutics; radio-toxicity; quality insurance; order for 18 F-PDG production; radionuclide analysis are considered

  8. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  9. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  10. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  11. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  12. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with all matters relating to radioactive waste management. It describes in detail the guidelines implemented by France in this field and provides a general overview of actions carried out at international level. The articles are assembled in several chapters, treating the following subjects: I. Upstream storage management. II. Storage (surface and underground). III. Research to back up the management program. There then follows a description of various processes and equipment developed by research laboratories and industrialists to provide, at the different stages, a number of operations required by the management programs [fr

  14. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  15. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    In Canada, large numbers of packages containing radioactive materials are shipped for industrial, medical and commercial purposes. The nature of the hazards and the associated risks are examined; the protection measures and regulatory requirements are indicated. The result of a survey on the number of packages being shipped is presented; a number of incidents are analyzed as a function of their consequences. Measures to be applied in the event of an emergency and the responsibility for the preparation of contingency plans are considered. (author) [fr

  17. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  18. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  19. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  20. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  1. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  2. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  3. Services for a radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Brown, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Services for a radioactive environment are introduced through a plug in an enclosure for the radioactive environment. The plug is connectable to the enclosure by means of a double door unit so that removal of the plug can be effected without disturbing the integrity of the radioactive environment. To enable the plug to be removed, one of the doors is used to seal the enclosure, and the other door used to cover that portion of the plug that has been exposed to the radioactive environment. (author)

  4. Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues; Determination de la Radioactivite Alpha des Tissus Humains par Dosage de l'Activite Globale et Spectroscopie; Obshchee izmerenie i spektroskopiya pri opredelenii al'fa-radioaktivnosti tkanej cheloveka; Evaluacion de la Actividad Alfa en los Tejidos Humanos por Recuento Global y Espectroscopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W. V.; Hill, C. R. [Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Clifton Avenue, Belmont, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10{sup -13} c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po{sup 210}, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu{sup 239} in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu{sup 239} in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po{sup 210} to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author) [French] L'auteur fait brievement le point de l'execution d'un programme septennal de mesures de la radioactivite alpha. Au debut, on procedait seulement a un dosage simple et sensible au moyen d'ecrans minces de sulfure de cadmium et de zinc; maintenant, ce procede est complete par l'emploi de methodes de spectroscopie alpha qui ont ete mises au point a l'occasion de travaux sur des sources a faible activite specifique et a tres grande surface. Ces methodes permettent de mesurer des activites specifiques aussi faibles que 10{sup -13} c/g, d'obtenir, dans certains cas, une resolution en energie de l'ordre de 40 keV et, independamment, d

  5. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from 81 provinces of the country within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2010 and outdoor gamma dose rates obtained by means of car-borne measurement system are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 28.11±1.23 Bq kg - 1, 32.4±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and 430.8±12.5, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 9.78±0.79 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 50.5 nGy h - 1 and 0.062 mSv y - 1, respectively. Total indicative doses of the analyzed drinking water samples were below the limit values. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 1.01 Bq L - 1 and 0.29 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 196.6 Sv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring program in 2010 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any

  7. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrakova, M.; Babarikova, F.; Belanova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm -3 ) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222 Rn, concentration of U nat , volume 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm 3 .year -1 (0.4 dm 3 .day -1 ) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  8. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  9. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  10. Current status of radioactive waste management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    In Japan the nuclear power generation capacity now exceeds the level of 20,000 MW, 24.3 % of the total power generation. It constitutes the major position of energy source, a substitute for a petroleum. In the nuclear power, chemical engineering contributes significantly to treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. In the interim report by an ad hoc committee in the Atomic Energy Commission, for the future, rational grouping of the wastes and the direction of land disposal are stated. Contents are the following: basic ideas for the radioactive wastes, radioactive wastes countermeasures in Japan (wastes classification, low and high level and transuranic wastes), radioactive wastes in the nuclear fuel cycle (reactor and fuel reprocessing and reactor dismantling wastes). (Mori, K.)

  11. The Quality Testing of Water from Microbiology and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainul Kamal; Yazid, M.; Mulyaningsih; Iim lmroatin

    2002-01-01

    The quality testing of well water from microbiologic and radioactivity has been done. The samples were taken from Degolan and Lodadi village, Ngemplak, Sleman. The quality testing based from standard procedure of microbiologic and environmental radioactivity. From the experimentally results showed that E. Coli in well water = 5 - 920 JPT / 100 ml, Streptococcus in well water 0 - 4 JPT /100 ml, E. Coli and Streptococcus in PAM water 0 JPT / 100 ml, radioactivity β totally in well water 0.08-0.34 Bq/l and in PAM water 0.08 - 0.31 Bq/l. From the dates required could be concluded that in microbiologically aspects the value of E. Coli and Streptococcus in well water higher than the threshold value from Health Department Rl 416/Menkes/PER/IX/1990, in radioactivity aspect lower than the threshold value from Health Department RI 416/Menkes/PER/IX/1990. (author)

  12. Effects of natural radioactivity on food radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennyu, Atsuhito

    2012-01-01

    Since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Company, groups and individuals including local governments, food manufacturers, distribution circles, retail circles, and citizens are eager to measure the radioactivity of food, in order to confirm the safety of food from the concerns about radioactive contamination. The measurement of radioactivity of food is done by quantitatively determining gamma rays due to radioactive cesium that was incorporated into the biosphere cycle after having been released into the environment. As for the radioactivity measurement of food using gamma-ray spectrometry with a potassium iodide scintillation detector, which is very commonly used, this paper describes the handling method of obtained data, the principle of erroneous detection of radioactive cesium and iodine interrupted by natural radionuclides, and countermeasures for it. Major natural radioactivity sources are uranium series and thorium series. This paper explains gamma rays, which are characteristic in the decay process of uranium series and often affect the measurement of radioactive cesium in food and water. (O.A.)

  13. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  14. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  17. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  18. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  19. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  20. Released radioactivity reducing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yumi.

    1995-01-01

    A water scrubber is disposed in a scrubber tank and a stainless steel fiber filter is disposed above the water scrubber. The upper end of the scrubber tank is connected by way of a second bent tube to a capturing vessel incorporating a moisture removing layer and an activated carbon filter. The exit of the capturing vessel is connected to a stack. Upon occurrence of an accident of a BWR-type power plant, gases containing radioactive materials released from a reactor container are discharged into the water scrubber from a first bent tube through a venturi tube nozzle, and water soluble and aerosol-like radioactive materials are captured in the water. Aerosol and splashes of water droplets which can not be captured thoroughly by the water scrubber are captured by the stainless steel fiber filter. Gases passing through the scrubber tank are introduced to a capturing vessel through a second bent tube, and organic iodine is captured by the activated carbon filter. (I.N.)

  1. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Takeuchi, Kunifumi.

    1997-01-01

    Base rock is dug in a substantially cylindrical shape, bentonite blocks in an amount for a predetermined lift are disposed on the inner side of the dug wall surfaces. Concrete blocks constituting a structure of an underground silo are disposed at the inner side. Barrier blocks are disposed to the inner side thereof, and vessels incorporated with radioactive wastes are disposed to the inner side. The bentonite disposed to the inner side of the dug wall surfaces, the concrete structure of the underground silo and the barrier members are divided in the vertical direction into a plurality of blocks, and these blocks are stacked successively from the lowermost layer together with the containing vessels of the radioactive wastes, and after stacking them to a predetermined height, a filler is filled up to the circumference of the vessels. With such a constitution, the underground silo is not fallen down or vibrated even upon occurrence of an earthquake. In addition, bending stresses are scarcely caused thereby making reinforcement of iron reinforcing materials unnecessary. Accordingly, the sealing performance is improved, and processing cost is reduced. (T.M.)

  2. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  3. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  4. Radioactive beams in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    In its report open-quotes Nuclear Physics in Europe - Opportunities and Perspectivesclose quotes, NuPECC concluded that physics with radioactive beams represents one of the foremost frontiers in nuclear physics. It therefore set up a study group to produce a report on the physics case for radioactive beams, together with a comparison of the relative merits of the various European facilities, operational or planned, and the R ampersand D required to achieve the desired goals. This paper presents some of the results of that report and concentrates on the latter two aspects of the task assigned to the Study Group. The facilities discussed are those planning to use the two-accelerator method to produce beams in the energy range of 0.5-25Mev/A. In addition, a report is given on the status of the recently-approved Test Bed facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where the aim is to test the ability of existing ISOL target/ion-source technology to withstand a primary proton beam intensity of 100μA

  5. Radioactivity around us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The hazards of ionizing radiation exist they can not be eliminated altogether. But what human skill and organization can perform is to eliminate as far as possible the chances of exposure and hence the possibility of harm. Of this one can be reasonably certain: that the employment of atomic energy to promote man's peaceful progress need not be attended by an impairment of his health or genetic future, that it is possible to devise and adopt adequate measures of safety. This task has two broad aspects: to ensure that people engaged in atomic energy activities are not exposed to excessive radiation in the course of their work and to protect the world's population in general from the radiations given off by the radioactive material produced by the atomic energy industry. The first requirement has to be met by the adoption of protective measures in all atomic energy establishments and laboratories where radioactive materials are used, and an important part of the Agency's work is devoted to the formulation of these measures. Perhaps more important - at least from the public point of view - is the work to ensure the safety of people in general. And the basic aim in that respect is to see to it that the development of atomic energy applications does not lead to an increase in the levels of radiation in man's immediate environment

  6. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  7. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  8. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Radioactive isotopes on the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A limited review of experiments and studies of radioactivity and isotope ratios in lunar materials is given. Observations made on the first few millimeters of the surface where the effects of solar flare particles are important, some measurements on individual rocks, and some studies of radioactivities produced deep in the lunar soil by galactic cosmic rays, are among the experiments discussed

  12. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  14. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  15. Water pollution by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.

    1976-01-01

    Within the frame of the definition of a philosophy and politics of waste disposal and site selection, an analysis is made of the main elements of radioactive pollution of waters: sources of radioactivity, radionuclides classified according to their hazard, waste processing, disposal criteria and transfer processes in the compartments: water, suspended sediments, deposited sediments, biomass [fr

  16. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  17. Radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano B, A.

    1996-01-01

    This research was carried out to develop the most adequate technique to immobilize low and medium-activity radioactive waste. different brands of national cement were used, portland and pozzolanic cement. Prismatic and cylindrical test tubes were prepared with different water/cement (W/C) relationship. Additives such a as clay and bentonite were added in some other cases. Later, the properties of these test tubes were evaluated. Properties such as: mechanical resistance, immersion resistance, lixiviation and porosity resistance. Cement with the highest mechanical resistance values, 62,29 MPa was pozzolanic cement for a W/C relationship of 0,35. It must be mentioned that the other types of cements reached a mechanical resistance over 10 MPa, a value indicated by the international standards for transportation and storage of low and medium-activity radioactive waste at a superficial level. However, in the case of immersion resistance, Sol cement (portland type I) with a W/C relationship of 0,35 reached a compression resistance over 61,92 MPa; as in the previous cases, the other cements reached a mechanical resistance > 10 MPa. Regarding porosity, working with W/C relationships = 0,35 0,40 and 0,45, without additives and with additives, the percentage of porosity found for all cements is lower than 40% percentage indicated by international standards. With regard to the lixiviation test, pozzolanic cement best retained Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60, and increased its advantages when bentonite was added, obtaining a lixiviation rate of 2,02 x E-6 cm/day. Sol cement also improved its properties when bentonite was added and obtained a lixiviation rate of 2,84 x E-6 cm/day for Cesium-137. However, Cobalt-60 is almost completely retained with the 3 types of cement with or without additives, reaching the limits indicated by the international standards for the lixiviation rate of beta-gamma emitter < 5,00E-4 cm/day. Characterizing the final product involves the knowledge of its

  18. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  19. Handling of disused radioactive materials in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the handling of disused radioactive sources. It also shows graphic information of medical and industrial equipment containing radioactive sources. This information was prepared as part of a training course on radioactive wastes. (The author)

  20. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  1. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  2. Housing for a radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domnanovich, J. R.; Erwin, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The radioactive structure comprises a radioactive source surrounded by a housing. The housing contains a first and second shielding body and a connecting device. The first shielding body has a protrusion which contains a first recess for receiving the radioactive source. The second shielding body has a second recess in one face end which accommodates the protrusion and a conical aperture communicating with the second recess in another face end. The connecting device connects the first shielding body to the second shielding body. When the radioactive source is inserted into the first recess and when the protrusion is located in the second recess, the radioactive source emits radiation primarily through the conical aperture into the environment. The source preferably contains americium which emits gamma radiation. The structure may be used as a motion correction sensor or as a marker in a nuclear diagnostic imaging

  3. Natural radioactivity in water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination. It presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexes that mark the rapidly evolving area of water quality regulation. The contents include: radioactivity and risk; an introduction to the atomic theory; an introduction to natural radioactivity; risk assessment; uranium and radium contamination of water; radiobiology of uranium and radium in water. Determination of risk from exposure to uranium and radium in water; the legal milieu; one city's experience; and summary: the determinants of evolving regulation

  4. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  5. Final storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kolditz, H.; Thielemann, K.; Duerr, K.; Klarr, K.; Kuehn, K.; Staupendahl, G.; Uerpmann, E.P.; Bechthold, W.; Diefenbacher, W.

    1974-12-01

    The present report - presented by the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, Muenchen in cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe - gives a survey of the 1973 work in the field of final storage of radioactive wastes. The mining and constructional work carried out aboveground and underground in the saline of Asse near Remlingen with a view to repair, maintenance and expansion for future tasks is discussed. Storage of slightly active wastes on the 750 m floor and the tentative storage of medium-activity wastes on the 490 m floor were continued in the time under review. In September, the multiple transport container S 7 V, developped in the GfK for transports of 7 200 l iron-hooped drums containing medium activity wastes, were employed in Asse for the first time. With two transports a week between Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the Asse mine, 14 drums were stored per week with a total of 233 drums at the end of the year. The report also gives information on the present state of research in the fields of mountain engineering geology and hydrology, and its results. In addition, new storage methods are mentioned which are still in the planning stage. (orig./AK) [de

  6. Solidification of radioactive aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Hideaki; Kato, Kiyoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1970-09-07

    A process for solidifying a radioactive waste solution is provided, using as a solidifying agent a mixture of calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite. The quantity ratio of the mixture is preferred to be 1:1 by volume. The quantity of impregnation is 1/2 of the volume of the total quantity of the solidifying agent. In embodiments, 10 liters of plutonium waste solution was mixed with a mixture of 1:1 calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite contained in a 20-liter cylindrical steel container lined with asphalt. The plutonium waste solution from the laboratory was neutralized with a caustic soda aqueous solution to prevent explosion due to the nitration of organic compounds. The neutralization is not always necessary. A market available dental gypsum was calcined at 400 to 500/sup 0/C and a vermiculite from Illinois was burnt at 1,100/sup 0/C to prepare the agents. The time required for the impregnation with 10 liters of plutonium solution was four minutes. After impregnation, the temperature rose to 40/sup 0/C within 30 minutes to one hour. Next, it was cooled to room temperature by standing for 3-4 hours. Solidification time was about 1 hour. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Insitute had treated and disposed about 1,000 tons of plutonium waste by this process as of August 19, 1970.

  7. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafar, M.; Aasi, N.

    2002-04-01

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  8. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  9. Management situation and prospect of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Jun

    1985-04-01

    This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.

  10. History of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minder, W.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the historical development of the physics of atoms and nuclei. After a consideration of the ancient Greek philosophy concerning atoms the behaviour of gases is discussed with regards to statistical mechanics. Then the developement of chemistry from alchemy is described. Thereafter the early studies of gas discharges are described with regards to the electronic structure of atoms. In this connection the periodic system of elements is considered. Then the detection of the α-radiation of Uranium by Becquerel and the detections of M. and P. Curie are described. Thereafter the radiactive decay of nuclei is discussed. Then a popular introduction into nuclear structure is given with special regards to artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission. Finally nuclear reactors, the atomic bombs, applications of radionuclides, and problems of radiation protection are described. (HSI) [de

  11. Radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, I.B.

    1979-01-01

    An account of the various radioisotopes present in the human body, such as the naturally occurring isotopes 40 K, 14 C etc. is given. Other harmful isotopes such as radiophosphorus 32 P, 90 Sr, 87 Rb, 45 Ca, 137 Ce, 131 I and tritium which find their way into the human system either by accidental ingestion or from fallout or during radiodiao.nosis or therapy are also discussed. 90 Sr which has a half-life of 28 years and can enter the human body through milk and other animal foods, is dealt with in detail, because of its being a pure beta emitter. Other general radioactive hazards to the human population in the world are also touched upon. (K.B.)

  12. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji

    1976-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is equipped with such atomic energy facilities as a power test reactor, four research reactors, a hot laboratory, and radioisotope-producing factory. All the radioactive wastes but gas generated from these facilities are treated by the waste treatment facilities established in JAERI. The wastes carried into JAERI through Japan Radioisotope Association are also treated there. Low level water solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, an ion-exchange apparatus, and a cohesive precipitating apparatus, while medium level solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, and low level combustible solid is treated with an incinerating apparatus. These treated wastes and sludges are mixed with Portland cement in drum cans to solidify, and stored in a concrete pit. The correct classification and its indication as well as the proper packing for the wastes are earnestly demanded by the treatment facilities. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that, as of 1st May, the Radioactive Sources Service will be open full-time, i.e. from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m., on alternate weeks (rather than part-time, from 8.00 a.m. to 11.00 a.m., every day, as at present). The weeks in which the Service will be open during the coming month are listed below: week No. 18: from 01/05 to 05/05 week No. 20: from 15/05 to 19/05 week No. 22: from 29/05 to 02/06 http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  14. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  15. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  16. Radioactive ion exchanger fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokonova, Yu.P.; Ivshina, O.A.; Il'ina, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    Properties of some binding agents for fixing radioactive cationites and anionites, namels cement, bitumen, carbamide and polyether resins are analyzed. It is shown that localization of ionites in carbamide resin is not very effective, the same is true of cementing process owing to considerable washing out of cesium-137 (∼ 1.1 x 10 -1 cm) and low water resistance (the samples are destructed when, storage conditions vary). Products of ionite localization in polyether feature a lower washing out (3x10 -2 - 4x10 -2 cm) and a better water resistance (water absorption rate is approximattely 1.5 x 10 -4 cm/day)/ Polyethers despite their high cost, are preferable for processing and transportation of small amounts of the ionites (up to 100 m 3 /year)

  17. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  18. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To easily and reliably detect the consumption of a sputtered cathode in a radioactive gas storage device using ion injection method. Constitution: Inert gases are sealed to the inside of a cathode. As the device is operated, the cathode is consumed and, if it is scraped to some extent, inert gases in the cathode gases are blown out to increase the inner pressure of the device. The pressure elevation is detected by a pressure detector connected with a gas introduction pipe or discharge pipe. Further, since the discharge current in the inside is increased along with the elevation of the pressure, it is possible to detect the increase of the electrical current. In this way, the consumption of the cathode can be recognized by detecting the elevation in the pressure or increase in the current. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Radioactive wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukujoji, Seiya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly recognize the deposition state of mists into conduits thereby effectively conduct cleaning. Constitution: A drier for performing drying treatment of liquid wastes, a steam decontaminating tower for decontaminating the steams generated from the drier and a condenser for condensating the decontaminating steams are connected with each other by means of conduits to constitute a radioactive wastes processing apparatus. A plurality of pressure detectors are disposed to the conduits, the pressure loss within the conduits is determined based on the detector output and the clogged state in the conduits due to the deposition of mists is detected by the magnitude of the pressure loss. If the clogging exceeds a certain level, cleaning water is supplied to clean-up the conduits thereby keep the operation to continue always under sound conditions. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Tackling Tuwaitha's radioactive ruins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Some 1000 Iraqi men, women and children in a village near the former Tuwaitha nuclear site are living inside an area contaminated by radioactive residues and ruins. A project to clean-up the site, and other contaminated facilities in Iraq, was kick-started earlier this year at IAEA headquarters. Inhabitants of the Ishtar village, based within the Tuwaitha site boundary, some 20 kilometres south of Baghdad, are living in an area where levels of radiation are known to be higher than normal and prolonged exposure could prove risky over time. US authorities have supplied the IAEA with photographs of the Tuwaitha reactor that show crumbling facades and interiors of rubble, spray-painted with warnings like 'radioactive' and 'HOT'. (See Photo Essay). Once at the heart of Iraq's nuclear programme, the Tuwaitha complex was inspected and largely dismantled during IAEA-led weapons inspections in the 1990s and subsequently bombed in the 2003 war. It is one of a number of sites in the country identified as needing decommissioning or remediation where radioactive material was used or waste are buried. The Iraqi Government has requested the IAEA's assistance to prepare plans and programmes to decommission contaminated facilities in the country. The project's groundwork was set at an IAEA meeting in Vienna in February 2006, attended by the Iraqi Minister for Science and Technology, representatives from sixteen countries, including the US, and the European Commission. 'This is a huge task, one that could take many years,' says Mr. Dennis Reisenweaver, the IAEA safety expert in charge of the effort. Among the first steps is to identify, cordon off, and prioritise contaminated areas that pose the most risk to the public. Some of the challenges facing the clean-up effort include determining now unknown locations where contaminated equipment and materials might be buried, and recovering lost records about the contents of radioactive materials stored in waste containers