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Sample records for total cell volume

  1. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  2. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  3. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  4. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  5. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  6. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  7. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  8. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  9. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation......This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  10. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize......Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...

  11. Clinical associations of total kidney volume: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Chuang, Michael L; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Fox, Caroline S

    2017-08-01

    Total kidney volume (TKV) is an imaging biomarker that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility. The relationships between kidney volume, renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been characterized in a large community-dwelling population. This information is needed to advance the clinical application of TKV. We measured TKV in 1852 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 64.1 ± 9.2 years, 53% women) using magnetic resonance imaging. A healthy sample was used to define reference values. The associations between TKV, renal function and CVD risk factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, mean TKV was 278 ± 54 cm3 for women and 365 ± 66 cm3 for men. Risk factors for high TKV (>90% healthy referent size) were body surface area (BSA), diabetes, smoking and albuminuria, while age, female and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) kidney damage including albuminuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while high TKV is associated with diabetes and decreased odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies are needed to characterize the natural progression and clinical consequences of TKV. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  13. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  14. Prognostic value of whole-body metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Choon-Young; Hong, Chae Moon; Kim, Do-Hoon; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), whole-body metabolic tumour volume (WBMTV), and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WBTLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict prognosis in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with newly-diagnosed ENKTL who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. WBMTV and WBTLG were measured automatically using the boundaries of voxels presenting SUV > 3.0. Uni- and multivariate analyses for survival and disease progression were performed using clinical variables and PET parameters (SUVmax, WBMTV, and WBTLG). During the follow-up period (median 26.3 months), 12 patients showed disease progression and 10 patients died from the disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed cut-off values for SUVmax, WBMTV and WBTLG of 8.1, 14.4 cm{sup 3} and 52.7, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and PET parameters were significant predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for the IPI score, showed that high WBMTV was the best predictor of OS and PFS, and high SUVmax and WBTLG were significant predictors of PFS. Our results suggested that the use of PET parameters together with the IPI score may be useful for detailed prediction of prognosis in ENKTL patients. Therefore, despite a lower IPI score, patients with high PET parameter values might be considered candidates for aggressive therapy to improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  15. Relation Between the Cell Volume and the Cell Cycle Dynamics in Mammalian cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, A.C.G.; Oliveira, I.L.; Hauck, J.V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to add and analyze an equation that represents the volume in a dynamical model of the mammalian cell cycle proposed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) [1]. The cell division occurs when the cyclinB/Cdkl complex is totally degraded (Tyson and Novak, 2011)[2] and it reaches a minimum value. At this point, the cell is divided into two newborn daughter cells and each one will contain the half of the cytoplasmic content of the mother cell. The equations of our base model are only valid if the cell volume, where the reactions occur, is constant. Whether the cell volume is not constant, that is, the rate of change of its volume with respect to time is explicitly taken into account in the mathematical model, then the equations of the original model are no longer valid. Therefore, every equations were modified from the mass conservation principle for considering a volume that changes with time. Through this approach, the cell volume affects all model variables. Two different dynamic simulation methods were accomplished: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic simulation, the volume affects every model's parameters which have molar unit, whereas in the deterministic one, it is incorporated into the differential equations. In deterministic simulation, the biochemical species may be in concentration units, while in stochastic simulation such species must be converted to number of molecules which are directly proportional to the cell volume. In an effort to understand the influence of the new equation a stability analysis was performed. This elucidates how the growth factor impacts the stability of the model's limit cycles. In conclusion, a more precise model, in comparison to the base model, was created for the cell cycle as it now takes into consideration the cell volume variation (paper)

  16. Prognostic significance of preoperative metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, In Sun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers; yet few studies have investigated their clinical and prognostic significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present retrospective study evaluated the utility of pretreatment MTV and TLG measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict survival and occult metastasis (OM) in OSCC. Of 162 patients with OSCC evaluated preoperatively by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, 105 who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were eligible. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), MTV and TLG were measured. For calculation of MTV, 3-D regions of interest were drawn and a SUV threshold of 2.5 was used for defining regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with OM, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The median (range) SUV{sub max}, MTV and TLG were 7.3 (0.7-41.9), 4.5 ml (0.7-115.1 ml) and 18.3 g (2.4-224.1 g), respectively. Of 53 patients with clinically negative lymph nodes, OM was detected in 19 (36 %). By univariate and multivariate analyses, MTV (P = 0.018) and TLG (P = 0.011) were both independent predictive factors for OM, although they were not independent of each other. The 4-year DFS and OS rates were 53.0 % and 62.0 %, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that MTV (P = 0.001) and TLG (P = 0.006), with different cut-off levels, were both independent predictive factors for DFS, although they were not independent of each other, and MTV (P = 0.001), TLG (P = 0.002) and the involved resection margin (P = 0.007) were independent predictive factors for OS. Pretreatment MTV and TLG may be useful in stratifying the likelihood of survival and predicting OM in OSCC. (orig.)

  17. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  18. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  19. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  20. The relationship of hospital charges and volume to surgical site infection after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Rebecca; Ensor, Kelsey; Qian, Edward; Hutzler, Lorraine; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of hospital volume and charges on the rate of surgical site infections for total hip replacements (THRs) in New York State (NYS). In NYS, higher volume hospitals have higher charges after THR. The study team analyzed 93,620 hip replacements performed in NYS between 2008 and 2011. Hospital charges increased significantly from $43,713 in 2008 to $50,652 in 2011 (P<.01). Compared with lower volume hospitals, patients who underwent THR at the highest volume hospitals had significantly lower surgical site infection rates (P=.003) and higher total hospital charges (P<.0001). The study team found that in the highest volume hospitals, preventing one surgical site infection was associated with $1.6 million dollars in increased charges. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  1. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  2. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  3. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  4. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  5. Forecasting on the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, W. L.; Yong, M. K. Au

    2017-04-01

    This study is to give an insight on the doubt of the important of macroeconomic variables that affecting the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The time frame for this study will be determined by using quarterly data of the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports covering the period between 2000-2015. The macroeconomic variables will be limited to eleven variables which are the exchange rate of US Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (USD-MYR), exchange rate of China Yuan with Malaysia Ringgit (RMB-MYR), exchange rate of European Euro with Malaysia Ringgit (EUR-MYR), exchange rate of Singapore Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (SGD-MYR), crude oil prices, gold prices, producer price index (PPI), interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), industrial production index (IPI) and gross domestic product (GDP). This study has applied the Johansen Co-integration test to investigate the relationship among the total volumes to Malaysia's imports and exports. The result shows that crude oil prices, RMB-MYR, EUR-MYR and IPI play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's imports. Meanwhile crude oil price, USD-MYR and GDP play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's exports.

  6. Genetic Schizophrenia Risk Variants Jointly Modulate Total Brain and White Matter Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2013-01-01

    with total brain volume (R(2)=.048, p=1.6×10(-4)) and white matter volume (R(2)=.051, p=8.6×10(-5)) equally in patients and control subjects. The number of (independent) SNPs that substantially influenced both disease risk and white matter (n=2020) was much smaller than the entire set of SNPs that modulated...... modulating schizophrenia and brain volume. METHODS: Odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data were calculated in the sample collected by the Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium (8690 schizophrenia patients and 11,831 control subjects, excluding subjects from the present study). These were used...

  7. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid-levels during childhood can have detrimental effects on the developing brain. Here, we examined the impact of glucocorticoid-treatment during childhood on brain volumes. METHODS: Thirty children and adolescents...... with rheumatic or nephrotic disease previously treated with glucocorticoids and 30 controls matched on age, sex, and parent education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Total cortical grey and white matter, brain, and intracranial volume, and total cortical thickness and surface area were...... were mainly driven by the children with rheumatic disease. Total cortical thickness and cortical surface area did not significantly differ between groups. We found no significant associations between glucocorticoid-treatment variables and volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Observed smaller total brain...

  8. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, Pierre M.; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  9. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... volume alterations is not yet fully understood. The KCNQ1 channel belonging to the voltage gated KCNQ family is considered a precise sensor of volume changes. The goal of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanism that induces cell volume sensitivity. Until now, a number of investigators have implicitly...

  10. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  11. Extracellular space, blood volume, and the early dumping syndrome after total gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Reilmann, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Koerber, H.K.; Kotzerke, J.; Hecker, H. (Medzinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-10-01

    Extracellular space and blood volume were measured using 82Br dilution and 51Cr-tagged erythrocytes in 24 tumor-free patients after total gastrectomy. Eleven of the patients suffered from early dumping. Age, blood volume, and extracellular space were significantly smaller in dumpers (P less than 0.05). The dumping score could be predicted by a multiple regression model considering blood volume per lean body mass and extracellular space (r = 0.637; P = 0.0039). Rapid (t1/2 less than 360 seconds) emptying of the gastric substitute, assessed using a 99Tc-labeled solid test meal, was significantly associated with dumping in addition to extracellular space and blood volume (r = 0.876; P = 0.0018). Both rapid emptying and a narrow extracellular space seem to contribute to the early dumping syndrome.

  12. A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.

  13. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May... taxes and other charges which the enterprise must pay for such goods. Generally, all charges will be... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale...

  14. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7.......5 weeks. The total numbers of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells were estimated using the optical fractionator and the mean volume of the Purkinje cell perikarya was estimated with the vertical rotator technique. The volumes of the molecular layer, the granular cell layer and the white matter were...... estimated using the Cavalieri principle. The mean weight of the cerebellum of the intoxicated rats was 7% lower than that of the control rats (2P = 0.001). The numbers of the Purkinje cells and granule cells were the same in both groups, but the mean volume of the perikarya of the Purkinje cells...

  15. Does early tetralogy of Fallot total correction give better final lung volumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hasan Allah; Miri, Seyed Reza; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Mirmesdagh, Yalda; Paziraee, Nazita

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary blood flow may affect lung development in adulthood. Early total correction of tetralogy of Fallot may affect development of final lung volumes. We evaluated the effect of age at total correction on lung volumes years after the operation. In a retrospective cohort study on patients with totally corrected tetralogy of Fallot (mean age, 13.40 years at the time of follow-up), forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and other parameters were measured 154.8 ± 46.25 months after the operation. Comparison were made of 3 groups: ≤2-, 2-8-, and >8-years old at the time of total correction surgery. Among 322 enrolled patients, the mean values of the follow-up spirometry results in ≤2-, 2-8-, >8-year-olds and the percentage of predicted values were respectively: vital capacity: 4.46 ± 0.57 L (107% ± 10.96%), 3.89 ± 0.58 L (91.10% ± 12.25%), 3.25 ± 0.48 L (82.35% ± 10.62%), p volume in 1 s: 4.22 ± 0.63 L (104.84% ± 13.64%), 3.66 ± 0.58 L (90.61% ± 12.59%), 3.02 ± 0.48 L (84.31% ± 12%), p volumes and capacities. It is better to consider total correction for all tetralogy of Fallot patients below 2-years old, or at least below 8-years old, if it is technically possible.

  16. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  17. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  18. Cell volume change through water efflux impacts cell stiffness and stem cell fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Ming; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Mao, Angelo; Zhou, Enhua H.; Arany, Praveen R.; Han, Yulong; Burnette, Dylan T.; Jensen, Mikkel H.; Kasza, Karen E.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Mackintosh, Frederick C.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Mooney, David J.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Weitz, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Cells alter their mechanical properties in response to their local microenvironment; this plays a role in determining cell function and can even influence stem cell fate. Here, we identify a robust and unified relationship between cell stiffness and cell volume. As a cell spreads on a substrate, its

  19. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  20. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  1. MRI estimation of total renal volume demonstrates significant association with healthy donor weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Emil I.; Kelly, Sarah A.; Edye, Michael; Mitty, Harold A.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate total renal volume (TRV) calculations, obtained through the voxel-count method and ellipsoid formula with various physical characteristics. Materials and methods: MRI reports and physical examination from 210 healthy kidney donors (420 kidneys), on whom renal volumes were obtained using the voxel-count method, were retrospectively reviewed. These values along with ones obtained through a more traditional method (ellipsoid formula) were correlated with subject height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and age. Results: TRV correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.7) and to a lesser degree with height, age, or BMI (r = 0.5, -0.2, 0.3, respectively). The left kidney volume was greater than the right, on average (p < 0.001). The ellipsoid formula method over-estimated renal volume by 17% on average which was significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Body weight was the physical characteristic which demonstrated the strongest correlation with renal volume in healthy subjects. Given this finding, a formula was derived for estimating the TRV for a given patient based on the his or her weight: TRV = 2.96 x weight (kg) + 113 ± 64.

  2. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  3. KCNQ1 channels sense small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2003-01-01

    Many important physiological processes involve changes in cell volume, e.g. the transport of salt and water in epithelial cells and the contraction of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we show that voltage-gated KCNQ1 channels, which are strongly expressed in epithelial cells or cardiomyocytes......, and KCNQ4 channels, expressed in hair cells and the auditory tract, are tightly regulated by small cell volume changes when co-expressed with aquaporin 1 water-channels (AQP1) in Xenopus oocytes. The KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 current amplitudes precisely reflect the volume of the oocytes. By contrast, the related...... KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels, which are prominently expressed in neurons, are insensitive to cell volume changes. The sensitivity of the KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels to cell volume changes is independent of the presence of the auxiliary KCNE1-3 subunits, although modulated by KCNE1 in the case of KCNQ1...

  4. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  5. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume ({gamma}= 0.637 for total liver and {gamma}= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  6. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume (γ= 0.637 for total liver and γ= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  7. Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric [Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Stockholm (Sweden); Edholm, Kaijsa; Cavallin, Lena; Muller, Susanne; Axelsson, Rimma [Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Simmons, Andrew [King' s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health and Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia, London (United Kingdom); Skoog, Ingmar [Gothenburg University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Larsson, Elna-Marie [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images. Thirty-six CT examinations from 18 patients were included. Ten patients were examined twice the same day and eight patients twice six months apart (these patients also underwent MRI). The algorithm combines morphological operations, intensity thresholding and mixture modelling. The method was validated against manual delineation and its robustness assessed from repeated imaging examinations. Using automated MRI software, the comparability with MRI was investigated. Volumes were compared based on average relative volume differences and their magnitudes; agreement was shown by a Bland-Altman analysis graph. We observed good agreement between our algorithm and manual delineation of a trained radiologist: the Pearson's correlation coefficient was r = 0.94, tICVml[manual] = 1.05 x tICVml[automated] - 33.78 (R{sup 2} = 0.88). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 31 mL and a standard deviation of 30 mL over a range of 1265 to 1526 mL. tICV measurements derived from CT using our proposed algorithm have shown to be reliable and consistent compared to manual delineation. However, it appears difficult to directly compare tICV measures between CT and MRI. (orig.)

  8. Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric; Edholm, Kaijsa; Cavallin, Lena; Muller, Susanne; Axelsson, Rimma; Simmons, Andrew; Skoog, Ingmar; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2015-01-01

    To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images. Thirty-six CT examinations from 18 patients were included. Ten patients were examined twice the same day and eight patients twice six months apart (these patients also underwent MRI). The algorithm combines morphological operations, intensity thresholding and mixture modelling. The method was validated against manual delineation and its robustness assessed from repeated imaging examinations. Using automated MRI software, the comparability with MRI was investigated. Volumes were compared based on average relative volume differences and their magnitudes; agreement was shown by a Bland-Altman analysis graph. We observed good agreement between our algorithm and manual delineation of a trained radiologist: the Pearson's correlation coefficient was r = 0.94, tICVml[manual] = 1.05 x tICVml[automated] - 33.78 (R 2 = 0.88). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 31 mL and a standard deviation of 30 mL over a range of 1265 to 1526 mL. tICV measurements derived from CT using our proposed algorithm have shown to be reliable and consistent compared to manual delineation. However, it appears difficult to directly compare tICV measures between CT and MRI. (orig.)

  9. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  10. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  11. Safe total corporal contouring with large-volume liposuction for the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Lakshyajit D; Agarwal, Meenakshi

    2006-01-01

    The advent of the tumescent technique in 1987 allowed for safe total corporal contouring as an ambulatory, single-session megaliposuction with the patient under regional anesthesia supplemented by local anesthetic only in selected areas. Safety and aesthetic issues define large-volume liposuction as having a 5,000-ml aspirate, mega-volume liposuction as having an 8,000-ml aspirate, and giganto-volume liposuction as having an aspirate of 12,000 ml or more. Clinically, a total volume comprising 5,000 ml of fat and wetting solution aspirated during the procedure qualifies for megaliposuction/large-volume liposuction. Between September 2000 and August 2005, 470 cases of liposuction were managed. In 296 (63%) of the 470 cases, the total volume of aspirate exceeded 5 l (range, 5,000-22,000 ml). Concurrent limited or total-block lipectomy was performed in 70 of 296 cases (23.6%). Regional anesthesia with conscious sedation was preferred, except where liposuction targeted areas above the subcostal region (the upper trunk, lateral chest, gynecomastia, breast, arms, and face), or when the patient so desired. Tumescent infiltration was achieved with hypotonic lactated Ringer's solution, adrenalin, triamcinalone, and hyalase in all cases during the last one year of the series. This approach has clinically shown less tissue edema in the postoperative period than with conventional physiologic saline used in place of the Ringer's lactate solution. The amount injected varied from 1,000 to 8,000 ml depending on the size, site, and area. Local anesthetic was included only for the terminal portion of the tumescent mixture, wherever the subcostal regions were infiltrated. The aspirate was restricted to the unstained white/yellow fat, and the amount of fat aspirated did not have any bearing on the amount of solution infiltrated. There were no major complications, and no blood transfusions were administered. The hospital stay ranged from 8 to 24 h for both liposuction and liposuction

  12. The role of surgeon volume on patient outcome in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Rick L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of factors have been identified as influencing total knee arthroplasty outcomes, including patient factors such as gender and medical comorbidity, technical factors such as alignment of the prosthesis, and provider factors such as hospital and surgeon procedure volumes. Recently, strategies aimed at optimizing provider factors have been proposed, including regionalization of total joint arthroplasty to higher volume centers, and adoption of volume standards. To contribute to the discussions concerning the optimization of provider factors and proposals to regionalize total knee arthroplasty practices, we undertook a systematic review to investigate the association between surgeon volume and primary total knee arthroplasty outcomes. Methods We performed a systematic review examining the association between surgeon volume and primary knee arthroplasty outcomes. To be included in the review, the study population had to include patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. Studies had to report on the association between surgeon volume and primary total knee arthroplasty outcomes, including perioperative mortality and morbidity, patient-reported outcomes, or total knee arthroplasty implant survivorship. There were no restrictions placed on study design or language. Results Studies were variable in defining surgeon volume (‘low’: 5 to >70 total knee arthroplasty per year. Mortality rate, survivorship and thromboembolic events were not found to be associated with surgeon volume. We found a significant association between low surgeon volume and higher rate of infection (0.26% - 2.8% higher, procedure time (165 min versus 135 min, longer length of stay (0.4 - 2.13 days longer, transfusion rate (13% versus 4%, and worse patient reported outcomes. Conclusions Findings suggest a trend towards better outcomes for higher volume surgeons, but results must be interpreted with caution.

  13. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal...... and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft...... enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat...

  14. Radioimmunological measurements of total LH in sheep pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, R.P.; McIntosh, J.E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures commonly used to extract LH from pituitary cells in order to measure total cell content were compared in four cell preparations. It was shown in 81 samples of cells suspended in 1 mM EDTA or 50 mM NaHCO 3 that after freezing and thawing folloqwed by any of a variety of treatments, there were no significant differences in the amounts of LH measured by RIA relative to the arbitrarily chosen reference treatment of vigorous pipetting. The additional treatments were multiple freezing and thawing, homogenisation, sonication, homogenisation in 25-100 mM Na 2 CO 3 folloqwed by rapid neutralisation, or none. The consistency of the results suggested that the same cellular pools of LH were being made accessible for measurement with all treatments. However, use of the more vigorous conditions of 1-2.5 M urea, 1% Triton X-100, or sonication on ice in 100 mM Na 2 CO 3 decreased the amount of measurable hormone presumably due to its modification. In two cell preparations, homogenisation of cells in 100 mM Na 2 CO 3 produced and additional 45% of measurable LH not accessible using other treatments nor from the source material in two other preparations. (author)

  15. Endothelial cell subpopulations in vitro: cell volume, cell cycle, and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Bauer, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are important clinical targets of radiation and other forms of free radical/oxidant stresses. In this study, we found that the extent of endothelial damage may be determined by the different cytotoxic responses of EC subpopulations. The following characteristics of EC subpopulations were examined: (1) cell volume; (2) cell cycle position; and (3) cytotoxic indexes for both acute cell survival and proliferative capacity after irradiation (137Cs, gamma, 0-10 Gy). EC cultured from bovine aortas were separated by centrifugal elutriation into subpopulations of different cell volumes. Through flow cytometry, we found that cell volume was related to the cell cycle phase distribution. The smallest EC were distributed in G1 phase and the larger cells were distributed in either early S, middle S, or late S + G2M phases. Cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation was not associated with acute cell loss. However, distribution in the cell cycle did relate to cell survival based on proliferative capacity (P less than 0.01). The order of increasing radioresistance was cells in G1 (D0 = 110 cGy), early S (135 cGy), middle S (145 cGy), and late S + G2M phases (180 cGy). These findings (1) suggest an age-related response to radiation in a nonmalignant differentiated cell type and (2) demonstrate EC subpopulations in culture

  16. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  17. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices. 1985 supplement. Volume 2, part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.E.; Gauthier, M.K.; Coss, J.R.; Dantas, A.R.V.; Price, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data, are provided in graphic format for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. This volume provides data on integrated circuits. The data are presented in graphic, tabular, and/or narrative format, depending on the complexity of the integrated circuit. Most tests were done using the JPL or Boeing electron accelerator (Dynamitron) which provides a steady-state 2.5 MeV electron beam. However, some radiation exposures were made with a cobalt-60 gamma ray source, the results of which should be regarded as only an approximate measure of the radiation damage that would be incurred by an equivalent electron dose

  18. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  19. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  20. K-Cl cotransporters, cell volume homeostasis, and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Khanna, Arjun R; Alper, Seth L; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K; Sun, Dandan; Delpire, Eric

    2015-08-01

    K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCCs) were originally characterized as regulators of red blood cell (RBC) volume. Since then, four distinct KCCs have been cloned, and their importance for volume regulation has been demonstrated in other cell types. Genetic models of certain KCCs, such as KCC3, and their inhibitory WNK-STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) serine-threonine kinases, have demonstrated the evolutionary necessity of these molecules for nervous system cell volume regulation, structure, and function, and their involvement in neurological disease. The recent characterization of a swelling-activated dephosphorylation mechanism that potently stimulates the KCCs has pinpointed a potentially druggable switch of KCC activity. An improved understanding of WNK/SPAK-mediated KCC cell volume regulation in the nervous system might reveal novel avenues for the treatment of multiple neurological diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total reference air kerma can accurately predict isodose surface volumes in cervix cancer brachytherapy. A multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Andersen, Else; Champoudry, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate that V60 Gy, V75 Gy, and V85 Gy isodose surface volumes can be accurately estimated from total reference air kerma (TRAK) in cervix cancer MRI-guided brachytherapy (BT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: 60 Gy, 75 Gy, and 85 Gy isodose surface volumes levels were obtained from treatm...

  2. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  3. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...

  4. Optimal repairable spare-parts procurement policy under total business volume discount environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Rodrigo; Santelices, Gabriel; Lüer-Villagra, Armin; Vera, Jorge; Cawley, Alejandro Mac

    2017-01-01

    In asset intensive fields, where components are expensive and high system availability is required, spare parts procurement is often a critical issue. To gain competitiveness and market share is common for vendors to offer Total Business Volume Discounts (TBVD). Accordingly, companies must define the procurement and stocking policy of their spare parts in order to reduce procurement costs and increase asset availability. In response to those needs, this work presents an optimization model that maximizes the availability of the equipment under a TBVD environment, subject to a budget constraint. The model uses a single-echelon structure where parts can be repaired. It determines the optimal number of repairable spare parts to be stocked, giving emphasis on asset availability, procurement costs and service levels as the main decision criteria. A heuristic procedure that achieves high quality solutions in a fast and time-consistent way was implemented to improve the time required to obtain the model solution. Results show that using an optimal procurement policy of spare parts and accounting for TBVD produces better overall results and yields a better availability performance. - Highlights: • We propose a model for procurement of repairable components in single-echelon and business volume discount environments. • We used a mathematical model to develop a competitive heuristic that provides high quality solutions in very short times. • Our model places emphasis on using system availability, procurement costs and service levels as leading decision criteria. • The model can be used as an engine for a multi-criteria Decision Support System.

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  6. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  7. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell water volume....

  8. The use of phase sequence image sets to reconstruct the total volume occupied by a mobile lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Isabelle M.; Robinson, Don M.; Halperin, Ross; Roa, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The use of phase sequence image (PSI) sets to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target is presented. Isocontrast composite clinical target volumes (CCTVs) may be constructed from PSI sets in order to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target during the course of its travel. The ability of the CCTV technique to properly account for target motion is demonstrated by comparison to contours of the true total volume occupied (TVO) for a number of experimental phantom geometries. Finally, using real patient data, the clinical utility of the CCTV technique to properly account for internal tumor motion while minimizing the volume of healthy lung tissue irradiated is assessed by comparison to the standard approach of applying safety margins. Results of the phantom study reveal that CCTV cross sections constructed at the 20% isocontrast level yield good agreement with the total cross sections (TXO) of mobile targets. These CCTVs conform well to the TVOs of the moving targets examined whereby the addition of small uniform margins ensures complete circumscription of the TVO with the inclusion of minimal amounts of surrounding external volumes. The CCTV technique is seen to be clearly superior to the common practice of the addition of safety margins to individual CTV contours in order to account for internal target motion. Margins required with the CCTV technique are eight to ten times smaller than those required with individual CTVs

  9. TOTAL WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES BY IMAGES OF LANDSAT SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fernando Berra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987566Models relating spectral answers with biophysical parameters aim estimate variables, like wood volume, without the necessity of frequent field measurements. The objective was to develop models to estimate wood volume by Landsat 5 TM images, supported by regional forest inventory data. The image was geo-referenced and converted to spectral reflectance. After, the images-index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SR (Simple Ratio was generated. The reflectance values of the bands (TM1, TM2, TM3 e TM4 and of the indices (NDVI and SR was related with the wood volume. The biggest correlation with volume was with the NDVI and SR indices. The variables selection was made by Stepwise method, which returned three regression models as significant to explain the variation in volume. Finally, the best fitted model was selected (volume = -830,95 + 46,05 (SR + 107,47 (TM2, which was applied on the Landsat image where the pixels had started to represent the estimated volume in m³/ha on the Eucalyptus sp. production units. This model, significant at 95% confidence level, explains 68% of the wood volume variation.

  10. Effect of total cementitious content on shear strength of high-volume fly ash concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezoumandi, Mahdi; Volz, Jeffery S.; Ortega, Carlos A.; Myers, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing design standards conservatively predicted the capacity of the HVFAC beams. ► In general, the HVFAC beams exceeded the code predicted shear strengths. ► The cementitious content did not have effect on the shear behavior of the HVFAC beams. - Abstract: The production of portland cement – the key ingredient in concrete – generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. However, due to its incredible versatility, availability, and relatively low cost, concrete is the most consumed manmade material on the planet. One method of reducing concrete’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is the use of fly ash to replace a significant amount of the cement. This paper compares two experimental studies that were conducted to investigate the shear strength of full-scale beams constructed with high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) – concrete with at least 50% of the cement replaced with fly ash. The primary difference between the two studies involved the amount of cementitious material, with one mix having a relatively high total cementitious content (502 kg/m 3 ) and the other mix having a relatively low total cementitious content (337 kg/m 3 ). Both mixes utilized a 70% replacement of portland cement with a Class C fly ash. Each of these experimental programs consisted of eight beams (six without shear reinforcing and two with shear reinforcing in the form of stirrups) with three different longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The beams were tested under a simply supported four-point loading condition. The experimental shear strengths of the beams were compared with both the shear provisions of selected standards (US, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan) and a shear database of conventional concrete (CC) specimens. Furthermore, statistical data analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) were performed to evaluate whether or not there is any statistically significant difference between the shear strength of both mixes. Results of these

  11. Effects of tidal volume and methacholine on low-frequency total respiratory impedance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchen, K R; Jackson, A C

    1990-05-01

    The frequency dependence of respiratory impedance (Zrs) from 0.125 to 4 Hz (Hantos et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 123-132, 1986) may reflect inhomogeneous parallel time constants or the inherent viscoelastic properties of the respiratory tissues. However, studies on the lung alone or chest wall alone indicate that their impedance features are also dependent on the tidal volumes (VT) of the forced oscillations. The goals of this study were 1) to identify how total Zrs at lower frequencies measured with random noise (RN) compared with that measure with larger VT, 2) to identify how Zrs measured with RN is affected by bronchoconstriction, and 3) to identify the impact of using linear models for analyzing such data. We measured Zrs in six healthy dogs by use of a RN technique from 0.125 to 4 Hz or with a ventilator from 0.125 to 0.75 Hz with VT from 50 to 250 ml. Then methacholine was administered and the RN was repeated. Two linear models were fit to each separate set of data. Both models assume uniform airways leading to viscoelastic tissues. For healthy dogs, the respiratory resistance (Rrs) decreased with frequency, with most of the decrease occurring from 0.125 to 0.375 Hz. Significant VT dependence of Rrs was seen only at these lower frequencies, with Rrs higher as VT decreased. The respiratory compliance (Crs) was dependent on VT in a similar fashion at all frequencies, with Crs decreasing as VT decreased. Both linear models fit the data well at all VT, but the viscoelastic parameters of each model were very sensitive to VT. After methacholine, the minimum Rrs increased as did the total drop with frequency. Nevertheless the same models fit the data well, and both the airways and tissue parameters were altered after methacholine. We conclude that inferences based only on low-frequency Zrs data are problematic because of the effects of VT on such data (and subsequent linear modeling of it) and the apparent inability of such data to differentiate parallel

  12. Equal Pay for Equal Work: Medicare Procedure Volume and Reimbursement for Male and Female Surgeons Performing Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Brady, Christina; Pipkin, William C; Somerson, Jeremy S

    2018-02-21

    The observed sex gap in physician salary has been the topic of much recent debate in the United States, but it has not been well-described among orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in Medicare claim volume and reimbursement among orthopaedic surgeons. The Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Public Use File was used to compare claim volume and reimbursement between female and male orthopaedic surgeons in 2013. Data were extracted for each billing code per orthopaedic surgeon in the year 2013 for total claims, surgical claims, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) claims, and total hip arthroplasty (THA) claims. A total of 20,546 orthopaedic surgeons who treated traditional Medicare patients were included in the initial analysis. Claim volume and reimbursement received were approximately twofold higher for all claims and more than threefold higher for surgical claims for male surgeons when compared with female surgeons (p 10 TKAs and THAs, respectively, in 2013 for Medicare patients and were included in the subset analyses. Although male surgeons performed a higher mean number of TKAs than female surgeons (mean and standard deviation, 37 ± 33 compared with 26 ± 17, respectively, p men and women for TKA or THA ($1,135 ± $228 compared with $1,137 ± $184 for TKA, respectively, p = 0.380; $1,049 ± $226 compared with $1,043 ± $266 for THA, respectively, p = 0.310). Female surgeons had a lower number of total claims and reimbursements compared with male surgeons. However, among surgeons who performed >10 THAs and TKAs, there were no sex differences in the mean reimbursement payment per surgeon. The number of women in orthopaedics is rising, and there is much interest in how their productivity and compensation compare with their male counterparts.

  13. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  14. Sickle cell patients are characterized by a reduced glycocalyx volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Edward J.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Duits, Ashley J.; Evers, Ludo M.; Schnog, John-John B.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2008-01-01

    The glycocalyx is an important anti-inflammatory and anti-adhesive barrier at the luminal side of endothelial cells. Glycocalyx volume was significantly reduced in sickle cell patients (HbSS/HbS beta(0)-thalassemia median 0.47L, IQR 0.27-0.66, HbSC/HbS beta(+)-thalassemia 0.23L, 0.0-0.58) compared

  15. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  16. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  17. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl swell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl swell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates ICl swell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl swell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl

  18. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  19. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  20. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1), but not slack (Slo2.2) K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Stople, Kathleen; Hammami Bomholtz, Sofia; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klaerke, Dan A

    2014-01-01

    Slick (Slo2.1) and Slack (Slo2.2) channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control) by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control) by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  1. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1, but not slack (Slo2.2 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Tejada

    Full Text Available Slick (Slo2.1 and Slack (Slo2.2 channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  2. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  4. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  5. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered...... transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed....

  6. Controlling cell volume for efficient PHB production by Halomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Ran; Yao, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial morphology is decided by cytoskeleton protein MreB and cell division protein FtsZ encoded by essential genes mreB and ftsZ, respectively. Inactivating mreB and ftsZ lead to increasing cell sizes and cell lengths, respectively, yet seriously reduce cell growth ability. Here we develop a temperature-responsible plasmid expression system for compensated expression of relevant gene(s) in mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants H. campaniensis LS21, allowing mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants to grow normally at 30°C in a bioreactor for 12h so that a certain cell density can be reached, followed by 36h cell size expansions or cell shape elongations at elevated 37°C at which the mreB and ftsZ encoded plasmid pTKmf failed to replicate in the recombinants and thus lost themselves. Finally, 80% PHB yield increase was achieved via controllable morphology manipulated H. campaniensis LS21. It is concluded that controllable expanding cell volumes (widths or lengths) provides more spaces for accumulating more inclusion body polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the resulting cell gravity precipitation benefits the final separation of cells and product during downstream. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  8. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the young human utricular macula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Avall; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Kirkegaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Conclusion: There is no change in the total cell population and hair cell:supporting cell ratio in the human utricular macula from gestational week 16 and onwards, whereas the lower hair cell:supporting cell ratio and lower total number of cells in the youngest specimens indicate...... that the utricle is still differentiating and adding new cells at the 10th to 12th gestational week. Objectives: Archival temporal bones were investigated to quantify cell numbers in the utricular macula in fetuses and children. Methods: The age of the subjects ranged from gestational week 10 to 15 years....... The optical fractionator was used to estimate the total number of cells in the utricular macula. Results: The total cell number was found to be 143 000 in subjects older than gestational week 16. The number of hair cells and supporting cells did not change between the 16th gestational week and 15 years...

  9. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  10. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  11. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05 and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  12. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2014-01-01

    An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56-63 degrees N). The mean total age was 40 +/- 13 (range 17-91) years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob) was 15 +/- 4 (range 5-27) cm and the mean density was 1621 +/- 902 (range 100-7600) stems ha(-1). The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchan...

  13. Increased epicardial fat volume quantified by 64-multidetector computed tomography is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and totally occlusive lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji; Anzai, Toshihisa; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the epicardial fat volume measured by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the extension and severity of coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. Both MDCT and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in 71 consecutive patients who presented with effort angina. The volume of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was measured by MDCT. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by evaluating the extension of coronary plaques in 790 segments using MDCT data, and the percentage diameter stenosis in 995 segments using CAG data. The estimated volume of EAT indexed by body surface area was defined as VEAT. Increased VEAT was associated with advanced age, male sex, degree of metabolic alterations, a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the presence of total occlusions, and showed positive correlation with the stenosis score r=0.28, P=0.02) and the atheromatosis score (r=0.67, P 3 /m 2 ) to be the strongest independent determinant of the presence of total occlusions odds ratio 4.64. P=0.02). VEAT correlates with the degree of metabolic alterations and coronary atheromatosis. Excessive accumulation of EAT might contribute to the development of ACS and coronary total occlusions. (author)

  14. Association of Automatically Quantified Total Blood Volume after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, I. A.; Gathier, C. S.; Boers, A. M.; Marquering, H. A.; Slooter, A. J.; Velthuis, B. K.; Coert, B. A.; Verbaan, D.; van den Berg, R.; Rinkel, G. J.; Majoie, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of extravasated blood after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, assessed with semiquantitative methods such as the modified Fisher and Hijdra scales, is known to be a predictor of delayed cerebral ischemia. However, prediction rates of delayed cerebral ischemia are moderate, which

  15. Paid to Perform: Aligning Total Military Compensation With Talent Management. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    study upon which a wider compensation model can be built, we propose a system that thoughtfully integrates rede - signed basic pays and pensions...Taken together, these basic pay and pension rede - sign components will create a far more cost-effective total compensation system than the one

  16. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  17. Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Li, Bo; Si, Fangwei; Phillip, Jude M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2015-09-15

    Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. However, the mechanics and forces that shape the nucleus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. We develop a mathematical model that systematically analyzes the evolution of nuclear shape and volume. The analysis suggests that the pressure difference across the nuclear envelope, which is influenced by changes in cell volume and regulated by microtubules and actin filaments, is a major factor determining nuclear morphology. Our results show that physical and chemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment directly influence nuclear morphology and suggest that there is a direct link between the environment and gene regulation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  19. Modification of cell volume and proliferative capacity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata cells exposed to metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Manuela D.; Soares, Eduardo V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Metals induce morphological alterations on P. subcapitata. •Algal cell cycle consists: mother cell growth; cell division, with two nucleus divisions; release of four autospores. •Cu(II) and Cr(VI) arrest cell growth before the first nuclear division. •Cd(II) arrests cell growth after the second nuclear division but before the cytokinesis. •The approach used can be useful in the elucidation of different modes of action of pollutants. -- Abstract: The impact of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) on growth, cell volume and cell division of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed over a period of 72 h was investigated. The algal cells were exposed to three nominal concentrations of each metal: low (closed to 72 h-EC 10 values), intermediate (closed to 72 h-EC 50 values) and high (upper than 72 h-EC 90 values). The exposure to low metal concentrations resulted in a decrease of cell volume. On the contrary, for the highest metal concentrations an increase of cell volume was observed; this effect was particularly notorious for Cd and less pronounced for Zn. Two behaviours were found when algal cells were exposed to intermediate concentrations of metals: Cu(II) and Cr(VI) induced a reduction of cell volume, while Cd(II) and Zn(II) provoked an opposite effect. The simultaneous nucleus staining and cell image analysis, allowed distinguishing three phases in P. subcapitata cell cycle: growth of mother cell; cell division, which includes two divisions of the nucleus; and, release of four autospores. The exposure of P. subcapitata cells to the highest metal concentrations resulted in the arrest of cell growth before the first nucleus division [for Cr(VI) and Cu(II)] or after the second nucleus division but before the cytokinesis (release of autospores) when exposed to Cd(II). The different impact of metals on algal cell volume and cell-cycle progression, suggests that different toxicity mechanisms underlie the action of different metals

  20. Efficiency and cost analysis of cell saver auto transfusion system in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-06-01

    Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Retrospective comparative study. Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (pblood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  1. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  2. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  3. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56–63° N. The mean total age was 40 ± 13 (range 17–91 years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 15 ± 4 (range 5–27 cm and the mean density was 1621 ± 902 (range 100–7600 stems ha−1. The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchantable volume equations for the estimation of commercial volume for any top diameter and bole length were developed. Soil types in the stands were sediments (coarse sand, fine sand and silt and heavy, medium and light clay, tills (sandy, fine sandy and silty and peat. The standing volume was calculated; the mean was 253 ± 103 (range 26–507 m3 ha−1 with a MAI (mean annual increment of 6.9±3.5 (range 1.3–16.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. There were statistically significant differences between MAI and coarse sand, sand and silt, light clay, peat and silty till soils. Spruce stands growing on silty tills had the lowest MAI (4.94 ± 2.27 m3 ha−1 year−1 and light clay, fine sand and silt and peat the highest (7.62 ± 4.24, 7.46 ± 3.33 and 8.67 ± 2.83 m3 ha−1 year−1.

  4. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  5. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  6. Hemorrhagic shock impairs myocardial cell volume regulation and membrane integrity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro myocardial slice technique was used to quantitate alterations in cell volume regulation and membrane integrity after 2 h or hemorrhagic shock. After in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringer-phosphate medium containing trace [ 14 C]inulin, values (ml H 2 O/g dry wt) for control nonshocked myocardial slices were 4.03 /plus minus/ 0.11 (SE) for total water, 2.16 /plus minus/ 0.07 for inulin impermeable space, and 1.76 /plus minus/ 0.15 for inulin diffusible space. Shocked myocardial slices showed impaired response to cold incubation. After 2 h of in vivo shock, total tissue water, inulin diffusible space, and inulin impermeable space increased significantly for subendocardium, whereas changes in subepicardium parameters were minimal. Shock-induced cellular swelling was accompanied by an increased total tissue sodium, but no change in tissue potassium. Calcium entry blockade in vivo significantly reduced subendocardial total tissue water as compared with shock-untreated dogs. In addition, calcium entry blockade reduced shock-induced increases in inulin diffusible space. In vitro myocardial slice studies confirm alterations in subendocardial membrane integrity after 2 h of in vivo hemorrhagic shock. Shock-induced abnormalities in myocardial cell volume regulation are reduced by calcium entry blockade in vivo

  7. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  8. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Predictive value of PET response combined with baseline metabolic tumor volume in peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottereau, Anne-Segolene; El-Galaly, Tarec C; Becker, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor outcomes with current therapy. We investigated if response assessed with Positron Emission Tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) co...

  10. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2017-07-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat grafting. Improvements in graft retention, the SVF to fat (SVF:fat) ratio, and the ASC concentration used for enrichment were emphasized. We proposed an increased retention rate greater than 1.5-fold relative to nonenriched grafts and a maximum SVF:fat ratio of 1:1 as the thresholds for clinical relevance and feasibility, respectively. Nine studies fulfilled these criteria, whereof 6 used ASCs for enrichment. We found no convincing evidence of a clinically relevant effect of SVF enrichment in humans. ASC enrichment has shown promising results in enhancing graft retention, but additional clinical trials are needed to substantiate this claim and also determine the optimal concentration of SVF cells/ASCs for enrichment. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  12. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  13. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  14. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Modulation of KCNQ4 channel activity by changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Charlotte; Klaerke, Dan A; Hoffmann, Else K

    2004-01-01

    KCNQ4 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells are sensitive to cell volume changes, being activated by swelling and inhibited by shrinkage, respectively. The KCNQ4 channels contribute significantly to the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following cell swelling. Under isoosmotic conditions...

  16. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  17. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  18. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  19. Quantification of Tumor Volume Changes During Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Jana; Ford, Eric; Redmond, Kristin; Zhou, Jessica; Wong, John; Song, Danny Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for lung cancer is limited by normal tissue toxicity. We evaluated sequential computed tomography (CT) scans to assess the possibility of adaptively reducing treatment volumes by quantifying the tumor volume reduction occurring during a course of radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients underwent RT for Stage I-III non-small-cell lung cancer with conventional fractionation; 15 received concurrent chemotherapy. Two repeat CT scans were performed at a nominal dose of 30 Gy and 50 Gy. Respiration-correlated four-dimensional CT scans were used for evaluation of respiratory effects in 17 patients. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on simulation and all individual phases of the repeat CT scans. Parenchymal tumor was evaluated unless the nodal volume was larger or was the primary. Subsequent image sets were spatially co-registered with the simulation data for evaluation. Results: The median GTV reduction was 24.7% (range, -0.3% to 61.7%; p 100 cm 3 vs. 3 , and hilar and/or mediastinal involvement vs. purely parenchymal or pleural lesions. A tendency toward a greater volume reduction with increasing dose was seen, although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated significant alterations in the GTV seen on repeat CT scans during RT. These observations raise the possibility of using an adaptive approach toward RT of non-small-cell lung cancer to minimize the dose to normal structures and more safely increase the dose directed at the target tissues.

  20. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andrei; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET–CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET–CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results: Multiple MTV’s were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R 2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p = 0.0005) and tumor grade (p = 0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R 2 = 0.63). Conclusions: Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET–CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV.

  1. Immature germ cells in semen ? correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priya S.; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S.; Patil, Ashalata D.; Gune, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. Aim: The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in se...

  2. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S Patil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  3. Stereotactic ultrasound for target volume definition in a patient with prostate cancer and bilateral total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Haneder, Stefan; Ehmann, Michael; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wertz, Hansjörg; Mai, Sabine; Kegel, Stefan; Heitmann, Sigrun; von Swietochowski, Sandra; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Target-volume definition for prostate cancer in patients with bilateral metal total hip replacements (THRs) is a challenge because of metal artifacts in the planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for matching and prostate delineation; however, at a spatial and temporal distance from the planning CT, identical rectal and vesical filling is difficult to achieve. In addition, MRI may also be impaired by metal artifacts, even resulting in spatial image distortion. Here, we present a method to define prostate target volumes based on ultrasound images acquired during CT simulation and online-matched to the CT data set directly at the planning CT. A 78-year-old patient with cT2cNxM0 prostate cancer with bilateral metal THRs was referred to external beam radiation therapy. T2-weighted MRI was performed on the day of the planning CT with preparation according to a protocol for reproducible bladder and rectal filling. The planning CT was obtained with the immediate acquisition of a 3-dimensional ultrasound data set with a dedicated stereotactic ultrasound system for online intermodality image matching referenced to the isocenter by ceiling-mounted infrared cameras. MRI (offline) and ultrasound images (online) were thus both matched to the CT images for planning. Daily image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was performed with transabdominal ultrasound and compared with cone beam CT. Because of variations in bladder and rectal filling and metal-induced image distortion in MRI, soft-tissue-based matching of the MRI to CT was not sufficient for unequivocal prostate target definition. Ultrasound-based images could be matched, and prostate, seminal vesicles, and target volumes were reliably defined. Daily IGRT could be successfully completed with transabdominal ultrasound with good accordance between cone beam CT and ultrasound. For prostate cancer patients with bilateral THRs causing artifacts in planning CTs, ultrasound referenced to

  4. Single-slice epicardial fat area measurement. Do we need to measure the total epicardial fat volume?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Noriko; Goto, Daisuke; Ito, Yoichi M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a method for measuring epicardial fat volume (EFV) by means of a single-slice area measurement. We investigated the relation between a single-slice fat area measurement and total EFV. A series of 72 consecutive patients (ages 65±11 years; 36 men) who had undergone cardiac computed tomography (CT) on a 64-slice multidetector scanner with prospective electrocardiographic triggering were retrospectively reviewed. Pixels in the pericardium with a density range from -230 to -30 Hounsfield units were considered fat, giving the per-slice epicardial fat area (EFA). The EFV was estimated by the summation of EFAs multiplied by the slice thickness. We investigated the relation between total EFV and each EFA. EFAs measured at several anatomical landmarks - right pulmonary artery, origins of the left main coronary artery, right coronary artery, coronary sinus - all correlated with the EFV (r=0.77-0.92). The EFA at the LMCA level was highly reproducible and showed an excellent correlation with the EFV (r=0.92). The EFA is significantly correlated with the EFV. The EFA is a simple, quick method for representing the time-consuming EFV, which has been used as a predictive indicator of cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  5. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  6. Membrane mechanisms and intracellular signalling in cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Dunham, Philip B.

    1995-01-01

    Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation.......Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation....

  7. Age and total and free prostate-specific antigen levels for predicting prostate volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Soner; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Keles, Ibrahim; Demirci, Hakan; Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Karalar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the predictive values of free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), total PSA (tPSA) and age on the prostate volume. The data of 2148 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had transrectal ultrasonography guided 10 core biopsies owing to the findings obtained on digital rectal examination and presence of high PSA levels (PSA = 2.5-10 ng/dl), and proven to have BPH histopathologically were included in the study. Age, tPSA, fPSA and the prostate volumes (PV) of the patients were noted. One thousand patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The PV of the patients were significantly correlated with age, tPSA and fPSA (p < 0.001 and r = 0.307, p < 0.001 and r = 0.382, p < 0.001 and r = 0.296, respectively). On linear regression model, fPSA was found as a stronger predictive for PV (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.001) when compared to age (AUC = 0.64, p < 0.001), and tPSA (AUC = 0.69, p = 0.013). Although tPSA is an important prognostic factor for predicting PV, the predictive value of fPSA is higher. PV can easily be predicted by using age, and serum tPSA and fPSA levels.

  8. Tumor-Volume Simulation During Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Using a Four-Level Cell Population Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Dong Lei; Palta, Jantinder R.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast computational radiobiologic model for quantitative analysis of tumor volume during fractionated radiotherapy. The tumor-volume model can be useful for optimizing image-guidance protocols and four-dimensional treatment simulations in proton therapy that is highly sensitive to physiologic changes. Methods: The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of total cell number and (2) tumor-cell population is separated into four subpopulations: oxygenated viable cells, oxygenated lethally damaged cells, hypoxic viable cells, and hypoxic lethally damaged cells. An exponential decay model is used for disintegration and removal of oxygenated lethally damaged cells from the tumor. Results: We tested our model on daily volumetric imaging data available for 14 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with an integrated computed tomography/linear accelerator system. A simulation based on the averaged values of radiobiologic parameters was able to describe eight cases during the entire treatment and four cases partially (50% of treatment time) with a maximum 20% error. The largest discrepancies between the model and clinical data were obtained for small tumors, which may be explained by larger errors in the manual tumor volume delineation procedure. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the change in gross tumor volume for head-and-neck cancer can be adequately described by a relatively simple radiobiologic model. In future research, we propose to study the variation of model parameters by fitting to clinical data for a cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer and other tumors. The potential impact of other processes, like concurrent chemotherapy, on tumor volume should be evaluated.

  9. Association Between Provider Volume and Comorbidity on Hospital Utilization and Outcomes of Total Hip Arthroplasty Among National Health Insurance Enrollees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shih Huang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that the volume of THAs performed by individual surgeons was a more important determinant of hospital utilization than hospital volume. Perioperative adverse events were associated with patients' age and comorbidity.

  10. Morphometry and cell volumes of diatoms from a tropical estuary of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaviKumar, M.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Tang, D.

    Cell volumes and per cell carbon contents of different diatoms (10 centric, 14 pennate and 1 dinoflagellate) collected from Dona Paula Bay in the central west coast of India have been analyzed. Morphometric information on the phytoplankton types...

  11. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  12. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology

  13. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  14. Cell cycle variation in x-ray survival for cells from spheroids measured by volume cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable work has been done studying the variation in cell survival as a function of cell cycle position for monolayers or single cells exposed to radiation. Little is known about the effects of multicellular growth on the relative radiation sensitivity of cells in different cell cycle stages. The authors have developed a new technique for measuring the response of cells, using volume cell sorting, which is rapid, non-toxic, and does not require cell synchronization. By combining this technique with selective spheroid dissociation,they have measured the age response of cells located at various depths in EMT6 and Colon 26 spheroids. Although cells in the inner region had mostly G1-phase DNA contents, 15-20% had S- and G2-phase DNA contents. Analysis of these cells using BrdU labeling and flow cytometric analysis with a monoclonal antibody to BrdU indicated that the inner region cells were not synthesizing DNA. Thus, the authors were able to measure the radiation response of cells arrested in G1, S and G2 cell cycle phases. Comparison of inner and outer spheroid regions, and monolayer cultures, indicates that it is improper to extrapolate age response data in standard culture conditions to the situation in spheroids

  15. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  16. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  17. Single cell adhesion strength assessed with variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Cardoso Dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new strategy to evaluate adhesion strength at the single cell level. This approach involves variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor in real time the topography of cell membranes, i.e. a map of the membrane/substrate separation distance. According to the Boltzmann distribution, both potential energy profile and dissociation energy related to the interactions between the cell membrane and the substrate were determined from the membrane topography. We have highlighted on glass substrates coated with poly-L-lysine and fibronectin, that the dissociation energy is a reliable parameter to quantify the adhesion strength of MDA-MB-231 motile cells.

  18. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes. Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. This work presents the first heteromeric K+ channel with a characteristic graded sensitivity to small and fast changes in cell volume. Our results show that the cell volume sensitivity of Slick/Slack heteromeric channels is dependent on the number of volume sensitive Slick α-subunits in the tetrameric channels, giving rise to graded cell volume sensitivity. Regulation of the subunit composition of a channel may constitute a novel mechanism to determine volume sensitivity of cells.

  19. Cellular volume regulation and substrate stiffness modulate the detachment dynamics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative characterizations of cell detachment are vital for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cell adhesion. Experiments have found that cell detachment shows strong rate dependence, which is mostly attributed to the binding-unbinding kinetics of receptor-ligand bond. However, our recent study showed that the cellular volume regulation can significantly regulate the dynamics of adherent cell and cell detachment. How this cellular volume regulation contributes to the rate dependence of cell detachment remains elusive. Here, we systematically study the role of cellular volume regulation in the rate dependence of cell detachment by investigating the cell detachments of nonspecific adhesion and specific adhesion. We find that the cellular volume regulation and the bond kinetics dominate the rate dependence of cell detachment at different time scales. We further test the validity of the traditional Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact model and the detachment model developed by Wyart and Gennes et al (W-G model). When the cell volume is changeable, the JKR model is not appropriate for both the detachments of convex cells and concave cells. The W-G model is valid for the detachment of convex cells but is no longer applicable for the detachment of concave cells. Finally, we show that the rupture force of adherent cells is also highly sensitive to substrate stiffness, since an increase in substrate stiffness will lead to more associated bonds. These findings can provide insight into the critical role of cell volume in cell detachment and might have profound implications for other adhesion-related physiological processes.

  20. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  1. Purinergic signalling - a possible mechanism for KCNQ1 channel response to cell volume challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J.; Meinild, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: A number of K(+) channels are regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. The mechanisms underlying cell volume sensitivity are not known, but one possible mechanism could be purinergic signalling. Volume activated ATP release could trigger signalling pathways that subsequently lead...... stimuli. Basal ATP release was approx. three times higher in the KCNQ1 + AQP1 and KCNQ1 injected oocytes compared to the non-injected ones. Exogenously added ATP (0.1 mm) did not have any substantial effect on volume-induced KCNQ1 currents. Nevertheless, apyrase decreased all currents by about 50...

  2. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  3. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  4. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  5. Structural imaging of the brain reveals decreased total brain and total gray matter volumes in obese but not in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to body mass index-matched counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen Saydam, Basak; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Bozdag, Gurkan; Oguz, Kader Karli; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2017-07-01

    To detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. Forty subjects participated in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed. Total brain volume and total gray matter volume (GMV) were decreased in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean PCOS and controls did not show a significant difference. Secondary analyses of regional brain volumes showed decreases in GMV of the caudate nucleus, ventral diencephalon and hippocampus in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean patients with PCOS had lower GMV in the amygdala than lean controls (p PCOS, suggests volumetric reductions in global brain areas in obese women with PCOS. Functional studies with larger sample size are needed to determine physiopathological roles of these changes and potential effects of long-term medical management on brain structure of PCOS.

  6. Association of translocator protein total distribution volume with duration of untreated major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Attwells, Sophia; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Rusjan, Pablo M; Miler, Laura; Xu, Cynthia; Sharma, Sarita; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (V T ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited participants aged 18-75 years from the Toronto area and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, ON, Canada). Participants either had major depressive episodes secondary to major depressive disorder or were healthy, as confirmed with a structured clinical interview and consultation with a study psychiatrist. To be enrolled, participants with major depressive episodes had to score a minimum of 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and had to be medication free or taking a stable dose of medication for at least 4 weeks before PET scanning. Eligible participants were non-smokers; had no history of or concurrent alcohol or substance dependence, neurological illness, autoimmune disorder, or severe medical problems; and were free from acute medical illnesses for the previous 2 weeks before PET scanning. Participants were excluded if they had used brain stimulation treatments within the 6 months before scanning, had used anti-inflammatory drugs lasting at least 1 week within the past month, were taking hormone replacement therapy, had psychotic symptoms, had bipolar disorder (type I or II) or borderline antisocial personality disorder, or were pregnant or breastfeeding. We scanned three primary grey-matter regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula) and 12 additional regions and subregions using 18

  7. Total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for LWR pin-cells with improved UNICORN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chenghui; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is established for the total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. • The NR approximation applied in S&U analysis can be avoided by the new model. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed to PWR pin-cells by the new model. • The effects of the NR approximation for the PWR pin-cells are quantified. - Abstract: In this paper, improvements to the multigroup cross-section perturbation model have been proposed and applied in the self-developed UNICORN code, which is capable of performing the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations by applying the direct numerical perturbation method and the statistical sampling method respectively. The narrow resonance (NR) approximation was applied in the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, implemented in UNICORN. As improvements to the NR approximation to refine the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, an ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation model has been established, in which the actual perturbations are applied to the ultrafine-group cross-section library and the reconstructions of the resonance cross sections are performed by solving the neutron slowing-down equation. The total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis were then applied to the LWR pin-cells, using both the multigroup and the ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation models. The numerical results show that the NR approximation overestimates the relative sensitivity coefficients and the corresponding uncertainty results for the LWR pin-cells, and the effects of the NR approximation are significant for σ_(_n_,_γ_) and σ_(_n_,_e_l_a_s_) of "2"3"8U. Therefore, the effects of the NR approximation applied in the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations of LWR should be taken into account.

  8. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of intact cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM is a powerful tool for observing fluorescently labeled molecules on the plasma membrane surface of animal cells. However, the utility of TIRFM in plant cell studies has been limited by the fact that plants have cell walls, thick peripheral layers surrounding the plasma membrane. Recently, a new technique known as variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was developed to circumvent this problem. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of the optical principles underlying VAEM has limited its applications in plant-cell biology. Results Here, we present theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of variable-angle TIRFM in observations of intact plant cells. We show that when total internal reflection occurs at the cell wall/cytosol interface with an appropriate angle of incidence, an evanescent wave field of constant depth is produced inside the cytosol. Results of experimental TIRFM observations of the dynamic behaviors of phototropin 1 (a membrane receptor protein and clathrin light chain (a vesicle coat protein support our theoretical analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that variable-angle TIRFM is appropriate for quantitative live imaging of cells in intact tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Label free imaging of cell-substrate contacts by holographic total internal reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Biagio; Gennari, Oriella; Marchesano, Valentina; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    The study of cell adhesion contacts is pivotal to understand cell mechanics and interaction at substrates or chemical and physical stimuli. We designed and built a HoloTIR microscope for label-free quantitative phase imaging of total internal reflection. Here we show for the first time that HoloTIR is a good choice for label-free study of focal contacts and of cell/substrate interaction as its sensitivity is enhanced in comparison with standard TIR microscopy. Finally, the simplicity of implementation and relative low cost, due to the requirement of less optical components, make HoloTIR a reasonable alternative, or even an addition, to TIRF microscopy for mapping cell/substratum topography. As a proof of concept, we studied the formation of focal contacts of fibroblasts on three substrates with different levels of affinity for cell adhesion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...

  11. Concurrent gradients of ribbon volume and AMPA-receptor patch volume in cochlear afferent synapses on gerbil inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichun; Engler, Sina; Koepcke, Lena; Steenken, Friederike; Köppl, Christine

    2018-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is a classic animal model for age-related hearing loss. As a prerequisite for studying age-related changes, we characterized cochlear afferent synaptic morphology in young adult gerbils, using immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of confocal microscopic images. Cochlear wholemounts were triple-labeled with a hair-cell marker, a marker of presynaptic ribbons, and a marker of postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Seven cochlear positions covering an equivalent frequency range from 0.5 - 32 kHz were evaluated. The spatial positions of synapses were determined in a coordinate system with reference to their individual inner hair cell. Synapse numbers confirmed previous reports for gerbils (on average, 20-22 afferents per inner hair cell). The volumes of presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptor patches were positively correlated: larger ribbons associated with larger receptor patches and smaller ribbons with smaller patches. Furthermore, the volumes of both presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic receptor patches co-varied along the modiolar-pillar and the longitudinal axes of their hair cell. The gradients in ribbon volume are consistent with previous findings in cat, guinea pig, mouse and rat and further support a role in differentiating the physiological properties of type I afferents. However, the positive correlation between the volumes of pre- and postsynaptic elements in the gerbil is different to the opposing gradients found in the mouse, suggesting species-specific differences in the postsynaptic AMPA receptors that are unrelated to the fundamental classes of type I afferents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enrichment of circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume using leukapheresis and elutriation: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Robert L; Lind, Judith; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Weber, Viktoria; Fischer, Michael B; Zeillinger, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a sequential process using leukapheresis, elutriation, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich and isolate circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume to allow further molecular analysis. Mononuclear cells were collected from 10 L of blood by leukapheresis, to which carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester prelabeled CaOV-3 tumor cells were spiked at a ratio of 26 to 10⁶ leukocytes. Elutriation separated the spiked leukapheresates primarily by cell size into distinct fractions, and leukocytes and tumor cells, characterized as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester positive, EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events, were quantified by flow cytometry. Tumor cells were isolated from the last fraction using FACS or anti-EpCAM coupled immunomagnetic beads, and their recovery and purity determined by fluorescent microscopy and real-time PCR. Leukapheresis collected 13.5 x 10⁹ mononuclear cells with 87% efficiency. In total, 53 to 78% of spiked tumor cells were pre-enriched in the last elutriation fraction among 1.6 x 10⁹ monocytes. Flow cytometry predicted a circulating tumor cell purity of ~90% giving an enrichment of 100,000-fold following leukapheresis, elutriation, and FACS, where CaOV-3 cells were identified as EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events. FACS confirmed this purity. Alternatively, immunomagnetic bead adsorption recovered 10% of tumor cells with a median purity of 3.5%. This proof of concept study demonstrated that elutriation and FACS following leukapheresis are able to enrich and isolate tumor cells from a large blood volume for molecular characterization. Copyright © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  14. REDUCED GANGLION CELL VOLUME ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Nguyen, Brian; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Saunders, Luke J; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; You, Qisheng; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-07

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is the sequelae of macular degeneration. Automated inner retinal analysis using optical coherence tomography is flawed because segmentation software is calibrated for normal eyes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume is reduced in GA using manual analysis. Nineteen eyes with subfoveal GA and 22 controls were selected for morphometric analyses. Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope optical coherence tomography images of the optic nerve and macula were obtained, and the Viewing Module was used to manually calibrate retinal layer segmentation. Retinal layer volumes in the central 3-mm and surrounding 6-mm diameter were measured. Linear mixed models were used for statistics. The GCL volume in the central 3 mm of the macula is less (P = 0.003), and the retinal nerve fiber layer volume is more (P = 0.02) in patients with GA when compared with controls. Ganglion cell layer volume positively correlated with outer nuclear layer volume (P = 0.020). The patients with geographic atrophy have a small significant loss of the GCL. Ganglion cell death may precede axonal loss, and increased macular retinal nerve fiber layer volumes are not indicative of GCL volume. Residual ganglion cell stimulation by interneurons may enable vision in patients with GA.

  15. Cell Volume Regulation and Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes and Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Kathrine; Larsen, Susanne; Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Caveolae have been implicated in sensing of cell volume perturbations, yet evidence is still limited and findings contradictory. Here, we investigated the possible role of caveolae in cell volume regulation and volume sensitive signaling in an adipocyte system with high (3T3-L1 adipocytes......); intermediate (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes); and low (cholesterol-depleted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes) caveolae levels. Using large-angle light scattering, we show that compared to pre-adipocytes, differentiated adipocytes exhibit several-fold increased rates of volume restoration following osmotic cell swelling (RVD......) and osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required...

  16. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  17. Characterization of corneal pannus removed from patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espana, Edgar M; Di Pascuale, Mario A; He, Hua; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Raju, Vadrevu K; Liu, Chia-Yang; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2004-09-01

    To determine the epithelial lineage of origin in corneal pannus tissue surgically removed from patients with total limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency. The lineage of origin of the entire conjunctivalized pannus removed from eight corneas with a diagnosis of total limbal SC deficiency was characterized by anti-keratin (K)-3 and anti-K19 monoclonal antibodies. The protein and mRNA of epithelial outgrowth from segments of five such pannus specimens were analyzed by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Cross sections of all eight specimens showed a stratified epithelium with goblet cells expressing mucin (MUC)-5AC, and a stroma showing blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Immunostaining showed full-thickness expression of K19 in the entire pannus of all eight specimens. Expression of K3 was negative in seven patients, but was sporadically positive in a patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. In culture, all five pannus specimens generated a compact, small epithelial cell outgrowth, and except for one, reached confluence in 2 to 3 weeks. The K3/K12 pair was expressed by extracts of cell outgrowth from the control limbal epithelial explant, but not in all five pannus specimens. A 60-kDa band of DeltaNp63 was expressed in the control specimen and in all five pannus specimens. Cell outgrowth expressed K3 transcript in three, but none showed K12 transcript. The resultant epithelial phenotype of the pannus tissue was not corneal, as evidenced by the negative staining to cornea-specific K12 mRNA and protein, but was conjunctival, as evidenced by the presence of goblet cells, the weak expression of K3, and the strong expression of K19. The abundant expression of DeltaNp63 in such conjunctiva-derived epithelium in eyes with total limbal SC deficiency raises doubts as to its validity as a limbal SC marker. Copyright Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

  18. Comparison of twin-cell centrifugal partition chromatographic columns with different cell volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johannes; Audo, Gregoire; Minceva, Mirjana

    2015-08-07

    Two twin-cell centrifugal partition chromatographic columns (SCPC 250 and SCPE-250-BIO, Armen Instrument, France) with the same column volume but different cell size and number were compared in terms of stationary phase retention and column efficiency. The columns were tested with two types of solvent systems: a commonly used organic solvent based biphasic system from the ARIZONA solvent system family and a polymer/salt based aqueous two phase system (ATPS). The efficiency of the columns was evaluated by pulse injection experiments of two benzenediols (pyrocatechol and hydroquinone) in the case of the ARIZONA system and a protein mixture (myoglobin and lysozyme) in the case of the ATPS. As result of high stationary phase retention, the column with the lower number of larger twin-cells (SCPE-250-BIO) is suitable for protein separations using ATPS. On the other hand, due to higher column efficiency, the column with the greater number of smaller cells (SCPC 250) is superior for batch elution separations performed with standard liquid-liquid chromatography organic solvent based biphasic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of red cell mass and plasma volume in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Polycythemia vera (PV) was first described in 1892. The primary objective during the evaluation of erythrocytosis is to ascertain the presence or absence of PV. Because of prognostic and treatment differences, PV must be distinguished from relative polycythemia and secondary erythrocytosis. A retrospective analysis of RCM and plasma volume data are presented with special attention to different methods of RCM interpretation. A total 104 patients was studied (26 women and 78 men). Measurements of RCM and plasma volume were performed using chromium-51 labeled red cells. Results were expressed in millilitres by using the actual patient weight and using body surface area. There was a high prevalence of overweight or obesity in our population. However adipose tissue is relatively avascular, can lack precision of measurement of RCM in obese individuals. Pearson et al. showed that the results from 98% of males and 99% of females fall between ± 25% of the mean value at any given surface area. Using these limits as the reference range, we accepted the diagnosis of absolute erythrocytosis when an individual measured RCM is more than 25% above their predicted value

  20. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  1. Determination of the total blood volume of the rat using chromium 51 (1962); Determination du volume sanguin total chez le rat a l'aide du chrome 51 (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y; Rinaldi, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    In various experiments it is important that the rat's blood volume should be known and it is essential that it could be worked out by simply weighing the animal. Therefore authors decided to work out systematically with chromium 51 blood volume for rats with different weights. Results have shown that blood volume for 100 g is 5.55 ml and that it does not seen to vary with the weight of animals. (authors) [French] La connaissance de la masse sanguine chez le rat est indispensable dans de nombreuses experiences et il est essentiel de pouvoir l'evaluer apres une simple pesee de l'animal. C'est dans ce but que les auteurs ont entrepris la determination systematique de la masse sanguine a l'aide du chrome 51 chez des rats de poids differents. Les resultats obtenus ont montre que la masse sanguine rapportee a 100 grammes d'animal est de 5,53 millilitres, et qu'elle ne parait pas varier avec le poids de l'animal. (auteurs)

  2. High-volume infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...

  3. Nanograting-based plasmon enhancement for total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyujung; Cho, Eun-Jin; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Dong Jun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated evanescent field enhancement based on subwavelength nanogratings for improved sensitivity in total internal reflection microscopy of live cells. The field enhancement is associated with subwavelength-grating-coupled plasmon excitation. An optimum sample employed a silver grating on a silver film and an SF10 glass substrate. Field intensity was enhanced by approximately 90% when measured by fluorescent excitation of microbeads relative to that on a bare prism as a control, which is in good agreement with numerical results. The subwavelength-grating-mediated field enhancement was also applied to live cell imaging of quantum dots, which confirmed the sensitivity enhancement qualitatively.

  4. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination cycles: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Elvan Koyun; Doğan, Omer Erbil; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gülekli, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. The retrospective study included a total of 156 cycles (141 couples) and was performed in our center over a 24-month period. The semen parameters were recorded for each man and each insemination. The semen samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. Post-wash TPMSC values were divided into four groups; Group 1: 10×10(6). Post-wash inseminated semen volume was divided into three groups; Group 1: 0.3 mL; Group 2: 0.4 mL; Group 3: 0.5 mL. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes was evaluated. The pregnancy rates per cycle and per couple were 27.56% and 30.49%, respectively. There was not a significant relationship between the inseminated semen volume and pregnancy rate (p>0.05). However, a significant linear-by-linear association was documented between the TPMSC and pregnancy rate (p=0.042). Our findings suggest that the post-wash inseminated semen volume should be between 0.3-0.5 mL. An average post-wash total motile sperm count of 10×10(6) may be a useful threshold value for IUI success, but more studies are needed to determine a cut-off value for TPMSC.

  5. TOTAL NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION, AND PHENOTYPE OF CELLS EXPRESSING CHONDROITIN SULPHATE PROTEOGLYCANS IN THE NORMAL HUMAN AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308

  6. Study of molasses / vinasse waste ratio for single cell protein and total microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Luciana Cazetta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different molasses/ vinasse ratio were used as substrate to investigate single cell protein and total lipids production by five microorganisms: four yeasts strains: Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast isolated from vinasse lake (denominated LLV98 and a bacterium strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum. The media utilized were: a 50% molasses and 50% vinasse; b 25% molasses and 75% vinasse and c 75% molasses and 25% vinasse. The objective of this work was to study the growth of microorganisms and also evaluate protein and lipids content in the biomass obtained from these by-products. The highest single cell protein production was obtained by S. cerevisiae, 50.35%, followed by R. mucilaginosa, 41.96%. The lowest productions were obtained by C. glutamicum. The higher total lipids productions, more than 26%, were founded in molasses plus vinasse at 50%/50% by S. cerevisiae and C. glutamicum.

  7. A new strategy for umbilical cord blood collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María

    2017-09-01

    The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  8. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  9. Total Glucosides of Paeony Promote Intestinal Motility in Slow Transit Constipation Rats through Amelioration of Interstitial Cells of Cajal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiye Zhu

    Full Text Available Using an atropine-diphenoxylate-induced slow transit constipation (STC model, this study explored the effects of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP in the treatment of STC and the possible mechanisms.A prospective experimental animal study.The constipation model was set up in rats with an oral gavage of atropine-diphenoxylate and then treated with the TGP. The volume and moisture content of the faeces were observed and the intestinal kinetic power was evaluated. Meanwhile, the colorimetric method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were employed to determine the changes of nitric oxide (NO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, vasoative intestinal peptide (VIP and the P substance (SP in the serum, respectively. The protein expressions of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot, respectively, and the mRNA level of c-kit was measured by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.The TGP attenuated STC responses in terms of an increase in the fecal volume and moisture content, an enhancement of intestinal transit rate and the reduction of NO, NOS and VIP in the serum. In addition, the c-kit, a labeling of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC increased at both protein and mRNA levels. SCF, which serves as a ligand of c-kit also increased at protein level.The analysis of our data indicated that the TGP could obviously attenuate STC through improving the function of ICC and blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as NO, NOS and VIP.

  10. Total Glucosides of Paeony Promote Intestinal Motility in Slow Transit Constipation Rats through Amelioration of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feiye; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Yongsheng; Chen, Fangming; Ji, Jinjun; Xie, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using an atropine-diphenoxylate-induced slow transit constipation (STC) model, this study explored the effects of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) in the treatment of STC and the possible mechanisms. Study Design A prospective experimental animal study. Methods The constipation model was set up in rats with an oral gavage of atropine-diphenoxylate and then treated with the TGP. The volume and moisture content of the faeces were observed and the intestinal kinetic power was evaluated. Meanwhile, the colorimetric method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to determine the changes of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoative intestinal peptide (VIP) and the P substance (SP) in the serum, respectively. The protein expressions of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot, respectively, and the mRNA level of c-kit was measured by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The TGP attenuated STC responses in terms of an increase in the fecal volume and moisture content, an enhancement of intestinal transit rate and the reduction of NO, NOS and VIP in the serum. In addition, the c-kit, a labeling of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) increased at both protein and mRNA levels. SCF, which serves as a ligand of c-kit also increased at protein level. Conclusion The analysis of our data indicated that the TGP could obviously attenuate STC through improving the function of ICC and blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as NO, NOS and VIP. PMID:27478893

  11. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  12. Antisense oligonucleotides suppress cell-volume-induced activation of chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwentner, M; Nagl, U O; Wöll, E; Schmarda, A; Ritter, M; Paulmichl, M

    1995-08-01

    Cell volume regulation is an essential feature of most cells. After swelling in hypotonic media, the simultaneous activation of potassium and chloride channels is believed to be the initial, time-determining step in cell volume regulation. The activation of both pathways is functionally linked and enables the cells to lose ions and water, subsequently leading to cell shrinkage and readjustment of the initial volume. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts efficiently regulate their volume after swelling and bear chloride channels that are activated by decreasing extracellular osmolarity. The chloride current elicited in these cells after swelling is reminiscent of the current found in oocytes expressing an outwardly rectifying chloride current termed ICln. Introduction of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the first 30 nucleotides of the coding region of the ICln channel into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suppresses the activation of the swelling-induced chloride current. The experiments directly demonstrate an unambiguous link between a volume-activated chloride current and a cloned protein involved in chloride transport.

  13. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C. Cheng. 2. Höfler diagrams below the volume of zero turgor and the theoretical implication for pressure-volume curves of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Junhui; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, P t , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative P t in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative P t does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, P B , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the P B domain because of negative P t . PV curve analysis of Robinia leaves revealed a shift in the x-intercept (x-axis is relative water loss) of PV curves, caused by negative P t of palisade cells. The low x-intercept of the PV curve was explained by the non-collapse of palisade cells in Robinia in the P B domain. Non-collapse means that P t smoothly falls from positive to negative values with decreasing cell volume without a dramatic change in slope. The magnitude of negative turgor in non-collapsing living cells was as low as -1.3 MPa and the relative volume of the non-collapsing cell equaled 58% of the total leaf cell volume. This study adds to the growing evidence for negative P t . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  15. An optimal control problem for controlling the cell volume in dehydration and rehydration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenghung Huang; Tetsung Chen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Dept. of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-08-01

    An optimal control algorithm utilizing the conjugate gradient method (CGM) of minimization is applied successfully in the present study in determining the optimal boundary control function for a diffusion-limited cell model based on the desired cell volume. The validity of the present optimal control analysis is examined by means of numerical experiments. Different desired cell volume for dehydration, rehydration and their combination are given in three test cases with different weighting coefficients and the corresponding optimal control functions are determined. The results show that the optimal boundary control functions can be obtained with an arbitrary initial guess within one second CPU time on a Pentium III-600 MHz PC. (Author)

  16. Large-volume static compression using nano-polycrystalline diamond for opposed anvils in compact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuchi, T; Sasaki, S; Ohno, Y; Osakabe, T; Odake, S; Kagi, H

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the pressure regime of intrinsically low-sensitivity methods of measurement, such as neutron scattering and NMR, sample volume to be compressed in compact opposed-anvil cells is desired to be significantly increased. We hereby conducted a series of experiments using two types of compact cells equipped with enforced loading mechanisms. Super-hard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) anvils were carefully prepared for large-volume compression in these cells. These anvils are harder, larger and stronger than single crystal diamond anvils, so that they could play an ideal role to accept the larger forces. Supported and unsupported anvil geometries were separately tested to evaluate this expectation. In spite of insufficient support to the anvils, pressures to 14 GPa were generated for the sample volume of > 0.1 mm 3 , without damaging the NPD anvils. These results demonstrate a large future potential of compact cells equipped with NPD anvils and enforced loading mechanism.

  17. Ouabain-Induced Cytoplasmic Vesicles and Their Role in Cell Volume Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Russo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular swelling is controlled by an active mechanism of cell volume regulation driven by a Na+/K+-dependent ATPase and by aquaporins which translocate water along the osmotic gradient. Na+/K+-pump may be blocked by ouabain, a digitalic derivative, by inhibition of ATP, or by drastic ion alterations of extracellular fluid. However, it has been observed that some tissues are still able to control their volume despite the presence of ouabain, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of cell volume control. In 1977, by correlating electron microscopy observation with ion and water composition of liver slices incubated in different metabolic conditions in the presence or absence of ouabain, we observed that hepatocytes were able to control their volume extruding water and recovering ion composition in the presence of ouabain. In particular, hepatocytes were able to sequester ions and water in intracellular vesicles and then secrete them at the bile canaliculus pole. We named this “vesicular mechanism of cell volume control.” Afterward, this mechanism has been confirmed by us and other laboratories in several mammalian tissues. This review summarizes evidences regarding this mechanism, problems that are still pending, and questions that need to be answered. Finally, we shortly review the importance of cell volume control in some human pathological conditions.

  18. Correlation of total body potassium and leukemic cell mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P.; Sawitsky, A.; Chanana, A.D.; Chikkappa, G.; Cohn, S.H.; Rai, K.R.; Cronkity, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Total body leukemic mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was measured by quantitation of total body potassium (TBK) with a whole-body counter. In addition, the predicted normal total body potassium (Kp) for each patient was calculated from an empirically derived relationship involving height, weight age, and sex. Both the absolute TBK and the relative excess of total body potassium (TBK/Kp) were related to the stage of disease. Patients in the early stages of CLL were found to have lower TBK and TBK/Kp than patients in the late stages of disease. Both of these parameters increased with the successively advanced stages of the disease. The clinically monitored reduction of leukemic cell mass following therapy was accompanied by reductions in TBK and TBK/Kp. Data presented support the notion that TBK/Kp is a useful indicator of the total body leukemic mass. Futhermore, the results of these studies quantitatively validate the proposed clinical staging system for CLL. Quantitation of TBK by a whole-body counter is an accurate and noninvasive procedure and does not require administration of isotopes

  19. IMMUNOMETABOLIC RESPONSES AFTER SHORT AND MODERATE REST INTERVALS TO STRENGTH EXERCISE WITH AND WITHOUT SIMILAR TOTAL VOLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Agostinete

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of short and moderate intervals of recovery with and without equated volume during an acute bout exhaustive strength exercise on metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses in healthy adults. Eight physically active men (23.5 ±3.1 performed three randomized sequences: Short (70% of 1RM with 30 seconds of rest; Moderate (70% of 1RM with 90 seconds of rest; and Volume-Equated Short (70% of 1 RM with 30 seconds of rest between sets with a repetition volume equal to that performed in Moderate. All sequences of exercises were performed until movement failure in the squat, bench press and T-bar row exercises, respectively. Glucose, lactate, testosterone, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and MCP-1 levels were assessed at rest, immediate post-exercise, and 1 hour post. There was a main effect of time for testosterone (p<0.001. The post hoc indicated differences between post-exercise and rest and post-1 hour and post-exercise (p<0.001. Lactate increased post-exercise when compared to pre and post-1 hour (p<0.001 and maintained higher post-1 hour in relation to rest. IL-6 was greater post-exercise than rest (p= 0.045 and post-1 hour and rest (p= 0.020. IL-10 was greater post-exercise (p= 0.007 and post-1 hour (p=0.002 than rest. IL-1ra increased post-exercise in relation to rest (p=0.003 and MCP-1 was greater post-exercise than rest (p<0.001 and post-1 hour (p=0.043. There were no significant differences between conditions or interaction. Thus, both short and moderate intervals of recovery induced greater metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses after acute bout of exhaustive strength exercise in healthy adult.

  20. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  1. Refractive Index Imaging of Cells with Variable-Angle Near-Total Internal Reflection (TIR) Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Kevin P; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    The refractive index in the interior of single cells affects the evanescent field depth in quantitative studies using total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence, but often that index is not well known. We here present method to measure and spatially map the absolute index of refraction in a microscopic sample, by imaging a collimated light beam reflected from the substrate/buffer/cell interference at variable angles of incidence. Above the TIR critical angle (which is a strong function of refractive index), the reflection is 100%, but in the immediate sub-critical angle zone, the reflection intensity is a very strong ascending function of incidence angle. By analyzing the angular position of that edge at each location in the field of view, the local refractive index can be estimated. In addition, by analyzing the steepness of the edge, the distance-to-substrate can be determined. We apply the technique to liquid calibration samples, silica beads, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and primary culture chromaffin cells. The optical technique suffers from decremented lateral resolution, scattering, and interference artifacts. However, it still provides reasonable results for both refractive index (~1.38) and for distance-to-substrate (~150 nm) for the cells, as well as a lateral resolution to about 1 µm.

  2. Empirical evaluation of cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function for pink mutations in tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i.e., a cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function). This effectiveness function (or hit size weighting function) provides the probability of inducing a biological effect of interest (in the present study, pink mutations in Tradescantia) as a function of lineal energy density y. In a preliminary analysis the critical value of y above which pink mutations are seen was 4.5 keV/μm, and the value of y at which the probability reaches unity was 115 keV/μm. Idealized but approximate event size distributions for mono-LET particles ranging from 10 to 5000 keV/μm were generated, and these distributions were weighted by the effectiveness function to determine the pink mutation frequencies. Results are compared with measured pink mutation frequencies for 11 keV/μm ( 12 C) and 31 keV/μm ( 20 Ne) ions

  3. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With Avascular Necrosis After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijapura, Anita; Levine, Harlan B; Donato, Michele; Hartzband, Mark A; Baker, Melissa; Klein, Gregg R

    2018-03-01

    The immunosuppressive regimens required for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predispose recipients to complications, including avascular necrosis. Cancer-related comorbidities, immunosuppression, and poor bone quality theoretically increase the risk for perioperative medical complications, infection, and implant-related complications in total joint arthroplasty. This study reviewed 20 primary total hip arthroplasties for avascular necrosis in 14 patients. Outcomes were assessed at routine clinical visits and Harris hip scores were calculated. Follow-up radiographs were evaluated for component malposition, loosening, polyethylene wear, and osteolysis. Average follow-up was 44.5 months for all patients. Postoperative clinical follow-up revealed good to excellent outcomes, with significant improvement in functional outcome scores. There were no periprosthetic infections or revisions for aseptic loosening. There was 1 dislocation on postoperative day 40, which was treated successfully with a closed reduction. Two patients with a prior history of venous thromboembolism developed a pulmonary embolus on postoperative day 13 and 77, respectively. Four patients died several months to years after arthroplasty of complications unrelated to the surgical procedure. Total hip arthroplasty can both be safely performed and greatly improve quality of life in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who develop avascular necrosis. However, prolonged venous thromboembolism prophylaxis should be carefully considered in this high-risk patient population. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(2):e257-e261.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. 5373 Volume 11 No. 6 October 2011 TRUST, CELL PHONES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khanjan Mehta

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... entrepreneurship, social networks and cell phones that is crucial for the establishment ... relationships to each other and to individuals and organizations related to their area of ..... www.rurdev.usda.gov/RBS/pub/cir1sec3.pdf.

  5. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response......PURPOSE: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments...... or a very good partial response rate (response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  7. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  8. Total glucosides of paeony inhibits Th1/Th17 cells via decreasing dendritic cells activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinpiao; Xiao, Lianbo; Ouyang, Guilin; Shen, Yu; Huo, Rongfen; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Yue; Zhu, Xianjin; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2012-12-01

    Total glucoside of paeony (TGP), an active compound extracted from paeony root, has been used in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Th1 and Th17 cells are now believed to play crucial roles in the lesions of RA. However, the molecular mechanism of TGP in inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGP treatment significantly decreased percentage and number of Th1 and Th17 cells in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Consistently, treatment with TGP decreased expression of T-bet and RORγt as well as phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In particular, TGP treatment inhibited dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and reduced production of IL-12 and IL-6. Moreover, TGP-treatment RA patients showed shank population of matured DCs and IFN-γ-, IL-17-producing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TGP inhibited maturation and activation of DCs, which led to impaired Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Yoon

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA. Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all p<0.01. Overall, 20 and 15 indicated a higher and a lower practical consequence than the average, respectively, which was assessed by the matched Constant scores. The deltoid muscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009, absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040, and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013 were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011. In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA.

  10. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Seo, Anna; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Chang-Hwa; Baek, Seung-Hun; Kim, Shin Yoon; Jeong, Eun Taek; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Chung, Seok Won

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA). Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI) were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all pmuscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009), absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040), and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013) were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011). In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA.

  11. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Tsai, Nicole [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen J. [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk.

  13. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Stein, Anthony; Tsai, Nicole; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Palmer, Joycelynne; Liu, An; Rosenthal, Joseph; Forman, Stephen J.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk

  14. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  15. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  16. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  17. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  19. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  20. Effect of Risk Acceptance for Bundled Care Payments on Clinical Outcomes in a High-Volume Total Joint Arthroplasty Practice After Implementation of a Standardized Clinical Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, James R; Edwards, Paul K; Barnes, Charles L

    2017-08-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative and the Arkansas Payment Improvement (API) initiative seek to incentivize reduced costs and improved outcomes compared with the previous fee-for-service model. Before participation, our practice initiated a standardized clinical pathway (CP) to reduce length of stay (LOS), readmissions, and discharge to postacute care facilities. This practice implemented a standardized CP focused on patient education, managing patient expectations, and maximizing cost outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all primary total joint arthroplasty patients during the initial 2-year "at risk" period for both BPCI and API and determined discharge disposition, LOS, and readmission rate. During the "at risk" period, the average LOS decreased in our total joint arthroplasty patients and our patients discharged home >94%. Patients within the BPCI group had a decreased discharge to home and decreased readmission rates after total hip arthroplasty, but also tended to be older than both API and nonbundled payment patients. While participating in the BPCI and API, continued use of a standardized CP in a high-performing, high-volume total joint practice resulted in maintenance of a low-average LOS. In addition, BPCI patients had similar outcomes after total knee arthroplasty, but had decreased rates of discharge to home and readmission after total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes....... Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  2. Total intermittent Pringle maneuver during liver resection can induce intestinal epithelial cell damage and endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A W G Dello

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The intermittent Pringle maneuver (IPM is frequently applied to minimize blood loss during liver transection. Clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament blocks the hepatic inflow, which leads to a non circulating (hepatosplanchnic outflow. Also, IPM blocks the mesenteric venous drainage (as well as the splenic drainage with raising pressure in the microvascular network of the intestinal structures. It is unknown whether the IPM is harmful to the gut. The aim was to investigate intestinal epithelial cell damage reflected by circulating intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels (I-FABP in patients undergoing liver resection with IPM. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver surgery received total IPM (total-IPM or selective IPM (sel-IPM. A selective IPM was performed by selectively clamping the right portal pedicle. Patients without IPM served as controls (no-IPM. Arterial blood samples were taken immediately after incision, ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, transection, 8 hours after start of surgery and on the first post-operative day. RESULTS: 24 patients (13 males were included. 7 patients received cycles of 15 minutes and 5 patients received cycles of 30 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion. 6 patients received cycles of 15 minutes selective hepatic occlusion and 6 patients underwent surgery without inflow occlusion. Application of total-IPM resulted in a significant increase in I-FABP 8 hours after start of surgery compared to baseline (p<0.005. In the no-IPM group and sel-IPM group no significant increase in I-FABP at any time point compared to baseline was observed. CONCLUSION: Total-IPM in patients undergoing liver resection is associated with a substantial increase in arterial I-FABP, pointing to intestinal epithelial injury during liver surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099475.

  3. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  4. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and...... ventilation. In total, 80 L/s of clean air supplied at 20°C was distributed between the ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room. Regardless of the airflow interaction, the inhaled air...

  5. Association between tumour volume and recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, F.N.; Adil, A.; Ghaffar, S.; Ahmed, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic significance of computerized tomography derived tumour volume for squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, treated primarily by surgery. Methods: The retrospective review study comprised 72 patients with head and neck malignancies who were treated primarily by surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, with/without adjuvant. It was done from May 2007 to November 2008. Each patient was followed up for a minimum of one year to check for recurrence. For statistical analysis SPSS 17 was used. Frequencies, cross-tabulations with chi square tests to find associations, binary logistic regression analysis, Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve tests were run on the data. Results: Overall, the median tumour volume for patients with recurrent disease was 52 cm/sup 3/ compared to 22 cm/sup 3/ for those who did not have a recurrence. It was found that large tumour volume was associated with a significantly higher chance of recurrence (p = 0.009). Laryngeal cancers with volumes greater than 46 cm/sup 3/ and oral cancers with volumes greater than 23.1 cm/sup 3/ were associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions: The primary tumour volume can represent an important prognostic factor for treatment outcome. Patients with larger primary tumour volumes should be treated more aggressively. (author)

  6. Target volume determination in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer-facts and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, L.; Bujko, K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the precise target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy is required by ICRU Report 50 and 62, this task in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often controversial and strict accordance with ICRU requirements is hard to achieve. The Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) definition depends mainly on the imaging method used. We discuss the use of new imaging modalities, like PET, in GTV definition. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) definition remains a separate, and still unresolved problem, especially in the part concerning the Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI). Nowadays, there is no unified attitude among radiation oncologists regarding the necessity and extent of ENI. The common use of combined treatment modalities and the tendency to dose escalation, both increasing the potential toxicity, result in the more frequent use of involved-fields techniques. Problems relating to margins during Planning Target Volume (PTV) of lung cancer irradiation are also discussed. Another issue is the Interclinician variability in target volumes definition, especially when there is data indicating that the GTV, as defined by 3 D-treatment planning in NSCLC radiotherapy, may be highly prognostic for survival. We postulate that special attention should be paid to detailed precision of target volume determination in departmental and trial protocols. Careful analysis of patterns of failures from ongoing protocols will enable us to formulate the guidelines for target volume definition in radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  7. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Motwani

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  8. Total numbers of neurons and glial cells in cortex and basal ganglia of aged brains with Down syndrome--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna Schou; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2011-11-01

    The total numbers of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex and basal ganglia in adults with Down syndrome (DS) were estimated with design-based stereological methods, providing quantitative data on brains affected by delayed development and accelerated aging. Cell numbers, volume of regions, and densities of neurons and glial cell subtypes were estimated in brains from 4 female DS subjects (mean age 66 years) and 6 female controls (mean age 70 years). The DS subjects were estimated to have about 40% fewer neocortical neurons in total (11.1 × 10(9) vs. 17.8 × 10(9), 2p ≤ 0.001) and almost 30% fewer neocortical glial cells with no overlap to controls (12.8 × 10(9) vs. 18.2 × 10(9), 2p = 0.004). In contrast, the total number of neurons in the basal ganglia was the same in the 2 groups, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia was reduced by almost 50% in DS (405 × 10(6) vs. 816 × 10(6), 2p = 0.01). We conclude that trisomy 21 affects cortical structures more than central gray matter emphasizing the differential impairment of brain development. Despite concomitant Alzheimer-like pathology, the neurodegenerative outcome in a DS brain deviates from common Alzheimer disease.

  9. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  10. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  11. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  12. Effect of Vitamin C on the packed cell volume of trypanosome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was interested in using nutrient in the amelioration of trypanosomiasis which is one of the most endemic diseases of livestock. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vitamin C on the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of Trypanosoma brucei infected rats. Twenty albino rats (Rattus novegicus) were used.

  13. Effect of Light and Darkness on Packed Cell Volume in the Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the circadian oscillation of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) within a 24-hour time frame in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. 56 adult Sprague-Dawley rats consists of 28 male and 28 female rats were used. Male animals weighed 150-170g while the females weighed 130140g.

  14. High speed analysis of high pressure combustion in a constant volume cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Manski, S.S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    A combustion process with N2, O2 and C2H4 as fuel used in an opticallyaccessible, high pressure, high temperature, constant volume cell forresearch on diesel fuel spray formation, is studied. The flame frontspeed Vf,HS is determined using high speed imaging. The pressure traceof the combustion

  15. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...... to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......-ray Diffraction data with X-ray total scattering with Pair Distribution Function analysis. Powder neutron diffraction will furthermore allow characterization of the cation disorder on the metal sites in the kesterite structure. The nanoparticle ink is also characterized by XRD, EDS, and Raman spectroscopy...

  16. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored...... during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle...

  17. Plerixafor mobilization leads to a lower ratio of CD34+ cells to total nucleated cells which results in greater storage costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Adamski, Jill; Sell, Mary; Cunningham, Kathleen; Eisenmann, Christa; Magee, Deborah; Stadtmauer, Edward A; O'Doherty, Una

    2010-01-01

    Plerixafor (Mozobil, AMD3100) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes more CD34+ cells/kg compared to G-CSF alone. Given that plerixafor enhances mobilization of multiple white blood cell lineages, we determined if more storage space is required for products collected from patients mobilized with plerixafor. A review of the medical records of 15 patients mobilized with chemotherapy and G-CSF (control) and 14 patients mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF (plerixafor) was performed. Data on demographics, baseline characteristics, CD34+ cells/kg, total nucleated cells, total mononuclear cells, total apheresis sessions, and total bags for storage were collected. Mean values were determined and compared using Student's t-test. We found that the proportion of CD34+ cells among total nucleated cells was less in the plerixafor group compared to the control group (P = 0.0427). More nucleated cells (10.7 x 10(10) vs. 7.1 x 10(10), P =0.0452) and mononuclear cells (9.7 x 10(10) vs. 5.9 x 10(10), P = 0.0059) were mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF. However, there was no significant difference in CD34+ cells/kg, total CD34+ cells or the proportion of mononuclear cells among total nucleated cells between the two groups. More storage bags were required for the plerixafor group compared to the control group (15 vs. 9, P = 0.0299). Mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF resulted in a smaller proportion of CD34+ cells collected and a greater number of storage bags. An increase in the number of bags required for stem cell storage may be logistically problematic and will also lead to increased costs for storage of stem cells.

  18. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume...... decrease (RVD). Upon return to the original isotonic medium, cells shrank initially followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI). To maintain cell shrinkage, the RVI process was inhibited as follows: Ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) inhibited the Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Bumetanide inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)/2......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium...

  19. Biologically effective dose in total-body irradiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Heijenbrok-Kal, M.H.; Struikmans, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) is an important part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results after treatment with various TBI regimes were compared, and dose-effect relationships for the endpoints relapse incidence, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, and overall survival were derived. The aim was to define requirements for an optimal treatment schedule with respect to leukemic cell kill and late normal-tissue morbidity. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed. Three randomized studies, four studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens, and nine reports with results of one specific TBI regimen were identified. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. The results of the randomized studies and the studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens were pooled, and the pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for the treatments with high BED values versus treatments with a low BED. BED-effect relationships were obtained. Results: RRs for the high BED treatments were significantly lower for relapse incidence, not significantly different for disease-free survival and treatment-related mortality, and significantly higher for overall survival. BED-effect relationships indicate a decrease in relapse incidence and treatment-related mortality and an increase in disease-free and overall survival with higher BED values. Conclusion: 'More dose is better', provided that a TBI setting is used limiting the BEDs of lungs, kidneys, and eye lenses. (orig.)

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  2. Conjunctival-limbal autograft in total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Schollmayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corneal epithelium is renewed by stem cells (SC that reside at the corneal limbus. Reduced number of SC or their abnormal function lead to the ocular surface disease called limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD, characterized by corneal conjunctivalization, vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, chronic inflammation, and loss of vision. In a case of total unilateral LSCD, autologous transplantation of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC from the healthy eye is needed. We describe the surgical technique of choice for autologous limbal transplantation, called conjunctival limbal autograft (CLAU that we combined with amniotic membrane (AM use. We present the results of CLAU in three patients with total unilateral LSCD due to chemical injury.Methods: Autologous limbal transplantation CLAU begins with the removal of fibrovascular pannus from the diseased corneal surface and the harvesting of two conjunctival-limbal grafts from the healthy eye. The grafts are then transplanted on to the limbal area of the recipient eye. AM is used as a patch to cover the denuded cornea and limbal grafts, as well as a barrier preventing the conjunctival epithelium from encroaching on to the temporal and nasal side of the corneal surface. In the donor eye, AM is used to cover the donor sites. CLAU with the use of AM was performed in 3 patients with unilateral LSCD due to chemical eye injury. In one patient limbal transplantation was combined with symblepharon lysis for entropium repair. In all cases AM was removed 3–6 days postoperatively to assess the growth of new epithelium from the limbal grafts. In all patients the ocular surface was covered with another AM until the cornea was completely epithelized and the new epithelium stable. In one patient the corneal regrafting and cataract removal was performed subsequently.Results: CLAU was successful in 2 patients and partially successful in 1 patient during the follow up. In all cases the growth of new

  3. Enhanced adsorption of benzene vapor on granular activated carbon under humid conditions due to shifts in hydrophobicity and total micropore volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Bing; Yang, Bing; Xue, Nan-Dong

    2016-11-15

    A series of hydrophobic-modified (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating) activated carbons (ACs) were developed to answer a fundamental question: what are the determinants that dominate the adsorption on ACs under humid conditions? Using column experiments, an inter-comparison among bare-AC and PDMS-coated ACs was conducted regarding the association of surface characteristics and adsorption capacity. Primary outcomes occurred in two dominating markers, hydrophobicity and total micropore volume, which played a key role in water adsorption on ACs. However, their contributions to water adsorption on ACs substantially differed under different Pwater/Pair conditions. Hydrophobicity was the only contributor in Pwater/Pair=0.1-0.6, while the two markers contributed equally in Pwater/Pair=0.7-1.0. Furthermore, PDMS-coated AC had a significant increase in benzene adsorption capacities compared to bare-AC at 0-90% relative humidity, while these differences were not significant among PDMS-coated ACs. It is thus presumed that the balance between the two markers can be shifted to favor almost unchanged benzene adsorption capacities among PDMS-coated ACs over a large range of relative humidity. These findings suggest potential benefits of PDMS coating onto ACs in enhancing selective adsorption of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds under high humid conditions. To develop new porous materials with both high total micropore volume and hydrophobicity should thus be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  5. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  6. Assessment of treatment response by total tumor volume and global apparent diffusion coefficient using diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with metastatic bone disease: a feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Blackledge

    Full Text Available We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI using a Markov random field (MRF model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC; and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change = +0.18, range = -0.07 to +0.78 × 10(-3 mm2/s after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change = -0.02, range = -0.10 to +0.05 × 10(-3 mm2/s, p = 0.05, Mann-Whitney test, whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change = +26%, range = +3 to +284% compared to responding patients (median change = -50%, range = -85 to +27%, p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney test. Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment.

  7. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  8. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  9. Surgical outcomes after total pancreatectomy and islet cell autotransplantation in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory C; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Salehi, Marzieh; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Smith, Milton T; Kucera, Stephen; Choe, Kyuran A; Brunner, John E; Abbott, Daniel E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to review surgical outcomes of pediatric patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation (TP/IAT) for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP). All pediatric patients (≤18 years old) undergoing TP/IAT over a 10-year period (December 2002-June 2012) were identified for inclusion in a single-center, observational cohort study. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify pertinent preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data, including narcotic usage, insulin requirements, etiology of pancreatitis, previous operative interventions, operative times, islet cell yields, duration of hospital stay, and overall quality of life. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 health questionnaire. Fourteen pediatric patients underwent TP/IAT for the treatment of CP at the University of Cincinnati with a mean age of 15.9 years (range, 14-18) and a mean body mass index of 21.8 kg/m(2) (range, 14-37). Of the patients, 50% (n = 7) were male and 29% had undergone previous pancreatic operations (1 each of Whipple, Puestow, Frey, and Berne procedures). Etiology of pancreatitis was idiopathic for 57% (n = 8); the remainder had identified genetic mutations predisposing to pancreatitis (CFTR, n = 4; SPINK1, n = 1; PRSS1, n = 1). Mean operative time was 532 minutes (range, 360-674) with an average hospital duration of stay of 16 days (range, 7-37). Islet cell isolation resulted in mean islet cell equivalents (IEQ) of 500,443 in patients without previous pancreatic surgery versus 413,671 IEQ in patients with prior pancreatic surgery (P = .12). Median patient follow-up was 9 months from surgery (range, 1-78). Preoperatively, patients required on average 32.7 morphine equivalent mg per day (MEQ), which improved to 13.9 MEQ at most recent follow-up. Eleven patients (79%) were narcotic independent. None of the patients were diabetic preoperatively. All of the patients were discharged after the operation with scheduled

  10. Transplantation of islet cells across major histocompatibility barriers after total lymphoid irradiation and infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, L.D.; Scharp, D.W.; Lacy, P.E.; Slavin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Diabetic Lewis rats (AgB1/L) were evaluated as recipients of allogeneic Wistar-Furth (AgB2/2) isolated adult islets without the use of standard recipient immunosuppression. One group was treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and Wistar-Furth bone marrow cell reconstitution to proven chimerism prior to islet transplantation. This group returned to a prediabetic state following Wistar-Furth islet transplantation without any evidence of rejection for 100 days posttransplant. A second group of Lewis rats received only TLI without bone marrow treatment. They gave a varying result following islet transplantation with one recipient showing evidence of prolonged islet survival. A third chimeric control group did not receive isolated islets and did not alter their diabetic state. A fourth group was not given TLI nor donor bone marrow cells and uniformly rejected their allogeneic islets by 7 days. Thus, allogeneic adult islets will survive across major rat histocompatibility barriers using TLI and donor bone marrow chimerism as the only form of immunosuppression

  11. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  12. Total Skin Electron Beam for Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayad, Khaled; Kriz, Jan; Moustakis, Christos; Scobioala, Sergiu; Reinartz, Gabriele; Haverkamp, Uwe; Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Weishaupt, Carsten [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Stadler, Rudolf [Department of Dermatology, Johannes-Wesling-Klinikum Minden, Minden (Germany); Sunderkötter, Cord [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Recent trials with low-dose total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy demonstrated encouraging results for treating primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PCTCL). In this study, we assessed the feasibility of different radiation doses and estimated survival rates of different pathologic entities and stages. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 45 patients with PCTCL undergoing TSEB therapy between 2000 and 2015. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. Results: A total of 49 courses of TSEB therapy were administered to the 45 patients. There were 26 pathologically confirmed cases of mycosis fungoides (MF) lymphoma, 10 cases of Sézary syndrome (SS), and 9 non-MF/SS PCTCL patients. In the MF patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 92% (50% complete remission [CR]), 70% ORR in SS patients (50% CR), and 89% ORR in non-MF/SS patients (78% CR). The ORR for MF/SS patients treated with conventional dose (30-36 Gy) regimens was 92% (63% CR) and 75% (25% CR) for low-dose (<30-Gy) regimens (P=.09). In MF patients, the overall survival (OS) was 77 months with conventional dose regimens versus 14 months with low-dose regimens (P=.553). In SS patients, the median OS was 48 versus 16 months (P=.219), respectively. Median event-free survival (EFS) for MF in conventional dose patients versus low-dose patients was 15 versus 8 months, respectively (P=.264) and 19 versus 3 months for SS patients (P=.457). Low-dose regimens had shorter treatment time (P=.009) and lower grade 2 adverse events (P=.043). A second TSEB course was administered in 4 MF patients with 100% ORR. There is a possible prognostic impact of supplemental/boost radiation (P<.001); adjuvant treatment (P<.001) and radiation tolerability (P=.021) were detected. Conclusions: TSEB therapy is an efficacious treatment modality in the treatment of several forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. There is a nonsignificant trend to higher and longer clinical benefit

  13. Total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation as the initial treatment for minimal-change chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory C; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Smith, Milton T; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Salehi, Marzieh; Choe, Kyuran A; Brunner, John E; Abbott, Daniel E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with minimal-change chronic pancreatitis (MCCP) are traditionally managed medically with poor results. This study was conducted to review outcomes following total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation (TP/IAT) as the initial surgical procedure in the treatment of MCCP. All patients submitted to TP/IAT for MCCP were identified for inclusion in a single-centre observational study. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify pertinent preoperative, perioperative and postoperative data. A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 36.5 years (range: 15-60 years) underwent TP/IAT as the initial treatment for MCCP. The most common aetiology of chronic pancreatitis in this cohort was idiopathic (69.0%, n = 58), followed by aetiologies associated with genetic mutations (16.7%, n = 14), pancreatic divisum (9.5%, n = 8), and alcohol (4.8%, n = 4). The most common genetic mutations pertained to CFTR (n = 9), SPINK1 (n = 3) and PRSS1 (n = 2). Mean ± standard error of the mean preoperative narcotic requirements were 129.3 ± 18.7 morphine-equivalent milligrams (MEQ)/day. Overall, 58.3% (n = 49) of patients achieved narcotic independence and the remaining patients required 59.4 ± 10.6 MEQ/day (P < 0.05). Postoperative insulin independence was achieved by 36.9% (n = 31) of patients. The Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey administered postoperatively demonstrated improvement in all tested quality of life subscales. The present report represents one of the largest series demonstrating the benefits of TP/IAT in the subset of patients with MCCP. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  14. Outcomes following total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma: one centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S C; Kartha, S-S; Kathan, C; Sharp, J; Mortimore, S

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of total laryngectomy (TL), complications and factors affecting survival. Retrospective review of hospital electronic database for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa). Large district general hospital in England, United Kingdom. Patients who had TL between January 1994 and January 2008. 5-year disease specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Seventy-one patients were reviewed, of whom 38 (54%) had laryngeal SCCa and 33 (46%) hypopharyngeal SCCa. The overall mean survival period following TL was 42.4 months. The 5-year DSS and DFS was better for laryngeal SCCa compared to hypopharyngeal SCCa, although not statistically significant (P=0.090, P=0.54 respectively). Patients treated for laryngeal SCCa had a mean survival period of 47.5 months compared to 36.5 months for hypopharyngeal disease. Those who had laryngeal recurrence after primary radiotherapy (RT) demonstrated statistically better survival probability than those who had hypopharyngeal recurrence (P=0.011). Patients without cervical lymphadenopathy had statistically better survival (P=0.049). The most common early complication was related to the cardiorespiratory system. One fatal complication of erosion of the brachiocephalic artery due to the laryngectomy tube was noted. The most common late complication was neopharyngeal stenosis. The commonest cause of death was due to locoregional recurrence, followed by medical co-morbidities. Patients referred to specialised head and neck clinic had a better survival probability than those referred to a general ENT clinic (P=0.37). While there is increasing tendency towards laryngeal conservation, total laryngectomy remains a robust treatment option in selected patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  16. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  17. Prognostic significance of total lesion glycolysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kurata, Seiji [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Sasada, Tetsuro [Department of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Yohei [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kaida, Hayato [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawahara, Akihiko [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kinoshita, Takashi [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has been employed as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant tumors. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET is calculated by multiplying the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) by the tumor volume. Unlike the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which represents the point of greatest metabolic activity within tumors, TLG has been suggested to reflect global metabolic activity in whole tumors. Methods: We retrospectively examined whether or not FDG-PET measurements, including SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG, could predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Results: This study involved 81 consecutive patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent FDG-PET examination before treatment. SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG on FDG-PET were significantly associated with gender, smoking status, and tumor histology. With adjustment for several other variables, Cox regression analysis showed that TLG was significantly prognostic for both PFS [hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–4.64; P = 0.015] and OS (hazard ratio = 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–6.96; P = 0.003), whereas SUVmean and SUVmax had no significant association with PFS (P = 0.693 and P = 0.322, respectively) or OS (P = 0.587 and P = 0.214, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TLG may be more useful than SUVmean and SUVmax for predicting PFS and OS in NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. The TLG measurement on FDG-PET imaging could be routinely recommended to advanced NSCLC patients.

  18. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  19. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  20. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  1. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  2. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 1, The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 dollars) over the entire life of the system...or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  3. Psychological stress moderates the relationship between running volume and CD4+ T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, K E; Sunesara, I; Tull, M T; Marshall, G D

    2016-01-01

    Endurance-based exercise training can lead to alterations in components of the immune system, but it is unknown how psychological stress (another potent immunomodulator) may impact these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating role of psychological stress on exercise-induced immune changes. Twenty-nine recreational runners were recruited for this study four weeks before completing a marathon. Each subject reported: weekly training volume (miles/wk) for the week prior to the study visit; completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ); and donated blood for assessment of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and mitogen-induced cytokine production. Participants ran an average of 30 (±13.4) miles (1 mile=1.6 km) per week. Average values (SD) for immune biomarkers were: regulatory T cells (Treg), 3.2% (±1.2%); type 1 regulatory cells (Tr1), 27.1% (±8.3%); T helper 3 (Th3), 1.8% (±0.7%); interferon gamma (IFNγ), 3.1 pg/ml (±1.0); interleukin (IL)-4, 1.4 pg/ml (±1.1); IFNγ/IL-4, 8.6 (±1.2); IL-10, 512 pg/ml (±288). There was a significant relationship between running volume and both Treg cell numbers (slope of the regression line (β)=0.05, p less than 0.001) and IL-10 production β=-10.6, p=0.002), and there was a trending relationship between running volume and Tr1 cell numbers (β=-0.2%, p=0.064). Perceived stress was a trending moderator of the running volume-Treg relationship, whereas worry was a significant moderator of the running volume-IFNγ and running volume-IFNγ/IL-4 relationships. These data indicate that various forms of psychological stress can impact endurance exercise-based changes in certain immune biomarkers. These changes may reflect an increased susceptibility to clinical risks in some individuals.

  4. Re-irradiation after gross total resection of recurrent glioblastoma. Spatial pattern of recurrence and a review of the literature as a basis for target volume definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, Christoph; Elpula, Greeshma [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Schmidt-Graf, Friederike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed. The spatial pattern of recurrences was analyzed according to the RANO-HGG criteria (''response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria for high-grade gliomas''). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, a systematic review was performed in PubMed. All but 4 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after GTR. Progression was diagnosed in 20 of 26 patients and 70% of recurrent tumors occurred adjacent to the resection cavity. The median extension beyond the edge of the resection cavity was 20 mm. Median PFS was 6 months; OS was 12.8 months. We propose a target volume containing the resection cavity and every contrast enhancing lesion as the gross tumor volume (GTV), a spherical margin of 5-10 mm to generate the clinical target volume (CTV), and a margin of 1-3 mm to generate the planning target volume (PTV). Re-irradiation of this volume is deemed to be safe and likely to prolong PFS. Re-irradiation is worth considering also after GTR, as the volumes that need to be treated are limited and re-irradiation has already proven to be a safe treatment option in general. The strategy of early re-irradiation is currently being tested within the GlioCave/NOA 17/Aro 2016/03 trial. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem rezidivierten Glioblastom (rGBM) werden, wenn eine komplette Resektion (GTR) des makroskopischen Rezidivs durchgefuehrt wurde, aktuell meist systemisch adjuvant behandelt oder einer engmaschigen Nachsorge

  5. Primary Tumor Volume Is an Important Predictor of Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck Treated With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, Anna; Yovino, Susannah; Taylor, Rodney; Wolf, Jeffrey; Cullen, Kevin; Zimrin, Ann; Strome, Scott; Regine, William; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor volume has been established as a significant predictor of outcomes among patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy alone. The present study attempted to add to the existing data on tumor volume as a prognostic factor among patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients who had undergone definitive chemoradiotherapy for Stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx were identified. The primary tumor volumes were calculated from the treatment planning computed tomography scans, and these were correlated to the survival and tumor control data obtained from the retrospective analysis. Results: The interval to progression correlated with the primary tumor volume (p = .007). The critical cutoff point for the tumor volume was identified as 35 cm 3 , and patients with a tumor volume 3 had a significantly better prognosis than those with a tumor volume >35 cm 3 at 5 years (43% vs. 71%, p = .010). Longer survival was also correlated with smaller primary tumor volumes (p = .022). Similarly, patients with a primary tumor volume 3 had a better prognosis in terms of both progression-free survival (61% vs. 33%, p = .004) and overall survival (84% vs. 41%, p = 3 larger than tumors without locoregional failure (p = .028) and 27.1-cm 3 larger than tumors that recurred as distant metastases (p = .020). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the primary tumor volume is a significant prognostic factor in patients with advanced cancer of the head and neck undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy and correlated with the treatment outcomes better than the T or N stage.

  6. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  7. Flow-through electroporation based on constant voltage for large-volume transfection of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Witting, Scott R; Cornetta, Kenneth G; Lu, Chang

    2010-05-21

    Genetic modification of cells is a critical step involved in many cell therapy and gene therapy protocols. In these applications, cell samples of large volume (10(8)-10(9)cells) are often processed for transfection. This poses new challenges for current transfection methods and practices. Here we present a novel flow-through electroporation method for delivery of genes into cells at high flow rates (up to approximately 20 mL/min) based on disposable microfluidic chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost direct current (DC) power supply that provides a constant voltage. By eliminating pulse generators used in conventional electroporation, we dramatically lowered the cost of the apparatus and improved the stability and consistency of the electroporation field for long-time operation. We tested the delivery of pEFGP-C1 plasmids encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the devices of various dimensions and geometries. Cells were mixed with plasmids and then flowed through a fluidic channel continuously while a constant voltage was established across the device. Together with the applied voltage, the geometry and dimensions of the fluidic channel determined the electrical parameters of the electroporation. With the optimal design, approximately 75% of the viable CHO cells were transfected after the procedure. We also generalize the guidelines for scaling up these flow-through electroporation devices. We envision that this technique will serve as a generic and low-cost tool for a variety of clinical applications requiring large volume of transfected cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  9. Role of BK channels in the apoptotic volume decrease in native eel intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Giordano, Maria Elena; Calisi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    High conductance Ca(+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) have previously been demonstrated in the eel intestine. They are specifically activated following a hypotonic stress and sustain Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). The aim of the present work was to address the possible role...... enterocytes that BK channels, which are involved in RVD in these cells, plays also a crucial role in the AVD process and in the progression of apoptosis....

  10. Peripheral Lymphoid Volume Expansion and Maintenance Are Controlled by Gut Microbiota via RALDH+ Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongde; Li, Jianjian; Zheng, Wencheng; Zhao, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Yaqian; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Lymphocyte homing to draining lymph nodes is critical for the initiation of immune responses. Secondary lymphoid organs of germ-free mice are underdeveloped. How gut commensal microbes remotely regulate cellularity and volume of secondary lymphoid organs remains unknown. We report here that, driven by commensal fungi, a wave of CD45(+)CD103(+)RALDH(+) cells migrates to the peripheral lymph nodes after birth. The arrival of these cells introduces high amounts of retinoic acid, mediates the neonatal to adult addressin switch on endothelial cells, and directs the homing of lymphocytes to both gut-associated lymphoid tissues and peripheral lymph nodes. In adult mice, a small number of these RALDH(+) cells might serve to maintain the volume of secondary lymphoid organs. Homing deficiency of these cells was associated with lymph node attrition in vitamin-A-deficient mice, suggesting a perpetual dependence on retinoic acid signaling for structural and functional maintenance of peripheral immune organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A three-week traditional altitude training increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite biathlon athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, K; Heinicke, I; Schmidt, W; Wolfarth, B

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that altitude training stimulates erythropoiesis, but only few data are available concerning the direct altitude effect on red blood cell volume (RCV) in world class endurance athletes during exposure to continued hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three weeks of traditional altitude training at 2050 m on total hemoglobin mass (tHb), RCV and erythropoietic activity in highly-trained endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass, RCV, plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) from 6 males and 4 females, all members of a world class biathlon team, were determined on days 1 and 20 during their stay at altitude as well as 16 days after returning to sea-level conditions (800 m, only males) by using the CO-rebreathing method. In males tHb (14.0 +/- 0.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.0 g/kg, p altitude and returned to near sea-level values 16 days after descent. Similarly in females, tHb (13.0 +/- 1.0 to 14.2 +/- 1.3 g/kg, p altitude training period, whereas PV was not altered. In male athletes, plasma erythropoietin concentration increased up to day 4 at altitude (11.8 +/- 5.0 to 20.8 +/- 6.0 mU/ml, p altitude training period, both parameters indicating enhanced erythropoietic activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV. Considering the relatively fast return of tHb and RCV to sea-level values after hypoxic exposure, our data suggest to precisely schedule training at altitude and competition at sea level.

  12. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  13. Adhesion of living cells revealed by variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2016-02-01

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) is a widespread technique to study cellular process occurring near the contact region with the glass substrate. In this field, determination of the accurate distance from the surface to the plasma membrane constitutes a crucial issue to investigate the physical basis of cellular adhesion process. However, quantitative interpretation of TIRF pictures regarding the distance z between a labeled membrane and the substrate is not trivial. Indeed, the contrast of TIRF images depends on several parameters more and less well known (local concentration of dyes, absorption cross section, angular emission pattern…). The strategy to get around this problem is to exploit a series of TIRF pictures recorded at different incident angles in evanescent regime. This technique called variable-angle TIRF microscopy (vaTIRFM), allowing to map the membrane-substrate separation distance with a nanometric resolution (10-20 nm). vaTIRFM was developed by Burmeister, Truskey and Reichert in the early 1990s with a prism-based TIRF setup [Journal of Microscopy 173, 39-51 (1994)]. We propose a more convenient prismless setup, which uses only a rotatable mirror to adjust precisely the laser beam on the back focal plane of the oil immersion objective (no azimuthal scanning is needed). The series of TIRF images permit us to calculate accurately membrane-surface distances in each pixel. We demonstrate that vaTIRFM are useful to quantify the adhesion of living cells for specific and unspecific membrane-surface interactions, achieved on various functionalized substrates with polymers (BSA, poly-L-lysin) or extracellular matrix proteins (collagen and fibronectin).

  14. The total number of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testes of men across various age groups - a stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter M; Seierøe, Karina; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    is particularly sensitive to methodological problems. Therefore, using the optical fractionator technique and a sampling design specifically optimized for human testes, we estimated the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes from 26 post mortem male subjects ranging in age from 16 to 80 years...... of Sertoli cells with age; no such decline was found for Leydig cells. Quantitative stereological analysis of post mortem tissue may help understand the influence of age or disease on the number of human testicular cells....

  15. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  16. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2015-06-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  17. Total glucosides of paeony inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory microenvironment promoted prostate cancer progression. This study investigated whether total glucosides of paeony (TGP, the active constituents extracted from the root of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall, suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells. PC-3 cells were incubated with LPS (2.0 μg/mL in the absence or presence of TGP (312.5 μg /mL. As expected, cells at S phase and nuclear CyclinD1, the markers of cell proliferation, were increased in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Migration activity, as determined by wound-healing assay and transwell migration assay, and invasion activity, as determined by transwell invasion assay, were elevated in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Interestingly, TGP suppressed LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells proliferation. Moreover, TGP inhibited LPS-stimulated migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. Additional experiment showed that TGP inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/p38 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Correspondingly, TGP attenuated upregulation of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. In addition, TGP inhibited nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. These results suggest that TGP inhibits inflammation-associated STAT3 activation and proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells.

  18. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3"+, CD8"+, and CD4"+ T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4"+ T cells was delayed more than that of CD8"+ T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  19. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  20. The effect of whole body or total-head x irradiation of the metallophilic cells in the mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Matsueda, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Kenzo; Ogata, Kunitoshi; Sugie, Tsuneto

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify morphological changes of the reticuloendothelial cells in the spleen following X-irradiation by Katsura's silver impregnation method. The animals used in this experiment were ddN female mice weighing 20 to 25g. The mice were given X-irradiation to the total-head (1,500R) or whole body (300R). The metallophilic cells in the spleen of control mice were of the small foamy type in the follicle, the large stellate type in the marginal metallophils, the small branching type in the marginal zone and the small foamy or round type in the red pulp, respectively. The metallophilic cells decreased immediately after whole body irradiation and the number of cells returned to normal in from 10 to 14 days. On the other hand, the number of the metallophilic cells in the follicle and the perifollicular region increased immediately after total-head X-irradiation. This state continued for several days. In the marginal zone and red pulp, the number of amoebian type cells appeared from 24 hours after irradiation and the number of cells in total-head irradiation group were more clearly distinguishable than in the whole body irradiated group. (author)

  1. White cell labeling: 20 ML VS 4 ML of blood volume-case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Some times, it becomes difficult to draw 20 mL blood from a patient with bad veins. On two occasions, we could collect only about 4 mL of blood, that too with a great deal of struggle, and then we carried out the routine labelling procedure. A labelling efficiency of 98.2% and 95.6% was achieved. The white cell scan was negative in one patient, but positive in the next one. In a third patient, a comparison of labelling efficiency was done between 5 and 20 mLs of blood volumes separately and the results were found to be identical, 98.5% and 98.4%, respectively. As we have achieved the usual pattern of white cell scan with as low as 4-5 mL of blood, it appears that enough number of white cells is present even in the 4-5 mL of blood that is capable of generating a white cell scan and so, it seems rational to reduce the blood volume from 20 mL to 4 or 5 mL. However, further studies are warranted before adopting this modification. The procedure appears to carry the following advantages: ease of blood collection, handling and re-injection and less risk to the patient

  2. [Fuel Rod Consolidation Project]: The estimated total life cycle cost for the 30-year operation of prototypical consolidation demonstration equipment: Volume 4, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Total Life Cycle Costs have been developed for the construction, operation and decommissioning of a single line of hot-cell-enclosed production consolidation equipment operating on spent fuel at the rate of 750 MTU/year for 30 years. The cost estimate is for a single production line that is part of an overall facility at either a Monitored Retrievable Storage or a Repository facility. This overall facility would include other capabilities and possibly other consolidation lines. However, no costs were included in the cost estimate for other portions of the plant, except that staff costs include an overhead charge that reflects the overhead support services in an overall facility

  3. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P; Jakobsen, A

    1991-01-01

    Using modern stereology, this study was carried out to obtain base-line data concerning three-dimensional, mean nuclear size in precancerous and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point-sampling of nu......Using modern stereology, this study was carried out to obtain base-line data concerning three-dimensional, mean nuclear size in precancerous and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point......-sampling of nuclear intercepts in 51 pre-treatment biopsies from patients with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Vertical sections from 27 specimens with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I through III were also investigated, along with 10 CIN III associated with microinvasion (CIN III + M......). On average, nuclear vv was larger in SCC than in CIN III and CIN III + M together (2 P = 8.9 . 10(-5). A conspicuous overlap of nuclear vv existed between all investigated lesional groups. The reproducibility of estimates of nuclear vv in biopsies with SCC was acceptable (r = 0.85 and r = 0.84 in intra...

  4. Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, Steven L.; Powell, Simon N.; Colby, Christine; Spitzer, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT. The three dose levels of fractionated TBI (200 cGy twice daily) were 1,600 cGy, 1,800 cGy, and 2,000 cGy. Lung blocks were used to reduce the TBI transmission dose by 50%, and the chest wall dose was supplemented to the prescribed dose using electrons. Shielding of the kidneys was performed to keep the maximal renal dose at 1,600 cGy. Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT. Results: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n=4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n=1). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant α-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon). Six (66%) patients achieved a response. Four (44%) patients achieved complete responses, three of which were of a duration greater than 1 year, and 2 (22%) patients achieved a partial response. One patient remains disease-free more than 5 years posttransplant. Corticosteroid-induced gastritis and postoperative infection resulted in the death of 1 patient in complete response, 429 days posttransplant. Conclusion: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as

  5. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  6. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  7. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Khavanin, Ali; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2013-04-01

    There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cell phone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effects of these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the duration of exposure and the frequency of these waves. This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g). The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7): i. control; ii. two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulated waves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups, sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the mean sperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using SPSS version 16 software. The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (pcell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.

  8. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  9. Recovery of rat lens epithelial cells after total or partial x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Riley, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation of whole lenses interferes with the normal mitogenic response of lens cells to stimulation by mechanical wounding. Radiation exposure causes a delay and partial suppression of cells entering the S phase of the cell cycle. When cells are irradiated 1 day before wounding, DNA synthesis begins 20 hr after wounding and peaks 10 hr later. The return to a normal wound response is gradual when the time interval between irradiation and wounding is lengthened. By 28 days, essentially complete recovery of the wound response occurs. Mitosis shows a similar pattern of recovery. When half of the lens is irradiated 1 day before wounding, delay and suppression of the wound response in the irradiated half of the lens epithelium is observed. However, if 4 days elapse between irradiation and mechanical wounding, complete recovery of cells responding to the mitogenic stimulus occurs. Cells of the shielded half of the lens appear to compensate for the reduced number of irradiated cells entering S phase so that peak labelling of shielded cells is 70% compared with 50% for control lens cells. An evaluation of mitotic figures confirms faster recovery of the entire lens when only half the lens is irradiated. Complete recovery of the cellular response of partially irradiated lenses occurs in 4 days in contrast to almost 28 days for wholly irradiated lenses. (author)

  10. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalkina, M. V.; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Medvedeva, Yu S.; Saburina, I. N.; Karganov, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 106/mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells.

  11. Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.

  12. Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn alleviate the endothelial cells injury after coronary bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Feng, Bing; He, Songmin; Su, Zuqing; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2018-02-01

    To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn, compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines, on the endothelial cells injury after artery bypass graft surgery. The animal model of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was prepared by transplanting a segment of autologous jugular vein onto the transected common carotid artery in rabbits. After CABG surgery, the rabbits were administrated with saline (model group), aspirin (Aspirin group), resveratrol (Res group), total flavones of hawthorn (Haw group) and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn (Res+Haw group) once a day for eight weeks, respectively. Eight weeks later, the grafting arteries from all group were obtained for the pathomorphism observation, peripheral blood was collected to detect circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry. And the concentration of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 in the serum were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the model group, the level of CECs density and the expressions of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 were significantly decreased in the aspirin,resveratrol,total flavones of hawthorn and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn groups (P Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn could protect the endothelial cells after coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A clinical audit of the utilisation of red cell products in elective total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in elective total hip replacement surgery. Y G Peters,1,2 MTech; A R ... Background. Previous studies have documented a marked variation in transfusion practice for total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Objective. ..... European Overview (OSTHEO) Study: Blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in. Europe.

  15. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  16. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  17. SU-E-T-429: Uncertainties of Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of cell surviving fraction reconstructed from tumor-volume variation curves during radiation therapy using sensitivity analysis based on linear perturbation theory. Methods: The time dependent tumor-volume functions V(t) have been calculated using a twolevel cell population model which is based on the separation of entire tumor cell population in two subpopulations: oxygenated viable and lethally damaged cells. The sensitivity function is defined as S(t)=[δV(t)/V(t)]/[δx/x] where δV(t)/V(t) is the time dependent relative variation of the volume V(t) and δx/x is the relative variation of the radiobiological parameter x. The sensitivity analysis was performed using direct perturbation method where the radiobiological parameter x was changed by a certain error and the tumor-volume was recalculated to evaluate the corresponding tumor-volume variation. Tumor volume variation curves and sensitivity functions have been computed for different values of cell surviving fractions from the practically important interval S 2 =0.1-0.7 using the two-level cell population model. Results: The sensitivity functions of tumor-volume to cell surviving fractions achieved a relatively large value of 2.7 for S 2 =0.7 and then approached zero as S 2 is approaching zero Assuming a systematic error of 3-4% we obtain that the relative error in S 2 is less that 20% in the range S2=0.4-0.7. This Resultis important because the large values of S 2 are associated with poor treatment outcome should be measured with relatively small uncertainties. For the very small values of S2<0.3, the relative error can be larger than 20%; however, the absolute error does not increase significantly. Conclusion: Tumor-volume curves measured during radiotherapy can be used for evaluation of cell surviving fractions usually observed in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation

  18. Pretherapy metabolic tumour volume is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanelli, Myriam; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Itti, Emmanuel [Paris-Est University, Nuclear Medicine and Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Georges-Francois Leclerc Center, Le Bocage Hospital, Dijon (France); Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Siegel, Barry A.; Cashen, Amanda F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vera, Pierre; Tilly, Herve [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Henri Becquerel Center, Rouen (France); Versari, Annibale [Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). TMTV was measured in 114 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline before immunochemotherapy. TMTV was computed by summing the volumes of all lymphomatous lesions after applying the local SUVmax threshold of 41 % using semiautomatic software. Prognostic value was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 39 months. Average pretherapy TMTV was 509 ± 568 cm{sup 3}. The 3-year estimates of PFS were 77 % in the low metabolic burden group (TMTV ≤550 cm{sup 3}) and 60 % in the high metabolic burden group (TMTV >550 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.04), and prediction of OS was even better (87 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.0003). Cox regression showed independence of TMTV for OS prediction (p = 0.002) compared with other pretherapy indices of tumour burden, such as tumour bulk and the International Prognostic Index. Pretherapy TMTV is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  19. Cell and Tissue Organization in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems Volume 1 Signaling in Cell Organization, Fate, and Activity, Part A Cell Structure and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning.  The present volume is devoted to cellular events that allow adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly mechanotransduction. It begins with cell organization and a survey of cell types in the vasculatur...

  20. Fractionated total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs: Hemopoietic recovery after various marrow cell doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenburger, U.; Kolb, H.J.; Thierfelder, S.; Netzel, B.; Schaeffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1980-01-01

    Hemopoietic recovery was studied in dogs given 2400 R fractionated total body irradiation within one week and graded doses of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow. Complete hemopoietic recovery including histology was observed after this dose and sufficient doses of marrow cells. Doses of more than 5.5 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight were sufficient for complete recovery in all dogs, 1.5 to 5.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were effective in some of the dogs and less than 1.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were insufficient for complete recovery. Similarly, more than 30000 CFUsub(c)/kg body weight were required for hemopoietic recovery. The optimal marrow cell dose which has been defined as the minimal dose required for the earliest possible recovery of leukocyte and platelet counts was 7-8 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight. It has been concluded that fractionated total body irradiation with 2400 R dose not require greater doses of marrow cells for hemopoietic reconstitution than lower single doses and that the hemopoietic microenvironment is not persistently disturbed after this dose. (author)

  1. An ancillary method in urine cytology: Nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio for discrimination between benign and malignant urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Keiko; Hoshiai, Keita; Kumagai, Naoya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kurose, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The essential of urine cytology for the diagnosis and the follow-up of urothelial neoplasia has been widely recognized. However, there are some cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made due to difficulty in discriminating between benign and malignant. This study evaluated the practicality of nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) for the discrimination. Using Papanicolaou-stained slides, 253 benign urothelial cells and 282 malignant urothelial cells were selected and divided into a benign urothelial cell and an urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell groups. Three suspicious cases and four cases in which discrimination between benign and malignant was difficult were prepared for verification test. Subject cells were decolorized and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for detection of the nuclei and the nucleoli. Z-stack method was performed to analyze. When the cutoff point of 1.514% discriminating benign urothelial cells and UC cells from nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) was utilized, the sensitivity was 56.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, the positive predictive value was 84.5%, and the negative predictive value was 64.4%. Nuclear and nucleolar volume, number of the nucleoli, and nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) were significantly higher in the UC cell group than in the benign urothelial cell group (P benign and malignant urothelial cells, providing possible additional information in urine cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:483-491. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherall, Joseph; Brigati, David P; Faour, Mhamad; Messner, William; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Standardized care pathways are evidence-based algorithms for optimizing an episode of care. Despite the theoretical promise of care pathways, there is an inconsistent literature demonstrating improvements in patient care. The authors hypothesized that implementing a care pathway, across 11 hospitals, would decrease hospital length of stay (LOS), decrease postoperative complications at 90 days, and increase discharges to home. A multidisciplinary team developed an evidence-based care pathway for total hip arthroplasty (THA) perioperative care. All patients receiving THA in 2013 (pre-protocol, historical control), 2014 (transition), and 2015 (full protocol implementation) were included in the analysis. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship of the care pathway to 90-day postoperative complications, LOS, and discharge disposition. Cost savings were estimated using previously published postarthroplasty episode and per diem hospital costs. A total of 6090 primary THAs were conducted during the study period. After adjusting for the covariates, the full protocol implementation was associated with a decrease in LOS (mean ratio, 0.747; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.727, 0.767]) and an increase in discharges to home (odds ratio, 2.079; 95% CI [1.762, 2.456]). The full protocol implementation was not associated with a change in 90-day complications (odds ratio, 1.023; 95% CI [0.841, 1.245]). Payer-perspective-calculated theoretical cost savings, including both index admission and postdischarge costs, were $2533 per patient. The THA care pathway implementation was successful in reducing LOS and increasing discharges to home. The care pathway was not associated with a change in 90-day complications; further targeted interventions in this area are needed. Despite care standardization efforts, high-volume hospitals and surgeons had higher performance. Extrapolation of theoretical cost savings indicates that widespread THA care pathway adoption could lead to national

  4. Recurrence pattern of squamous cell carcinoma in the midthoracic esophagus: implications for the clinical target volume design of postoperative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Wang,1,2,* Yijun Luo,1,2,* Minghuan Li,2 Hongjiang Yan,2 Mingping Sun,2 Tingyong Fan2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Postoperative radiotherapy has shown positive efficacy in lowering the recurrence rate and improving the survival rate for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. However, controversies still exist about the postoperative prophylactic radiation target volume. This study was designed to analyze the patterns of recurrence and to provide a reference for determination of the postoperative radiotherapy target volume for patients with midthoracic ESCC.Patients and methods: A total of 338 patients with recurrent or metastatic midthoracic ESCC after radical surgery were retrospectively examined. The patterns of recurrence including locoregional and distant metastasis were analyzed for these patients.Results: The rates of lymph node (LN metastasis were 28.4% supraclavicular, 77.2% upper mediastinal, 32.0% middle mediastinal, 50.0% lower mediastinal, and 19.5% abdominal LNs. In subgroup analyses, the rate of abdominal LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with histological node-positive than that in patients with histological node-negative (P=0.033. Further analysis in patients with histological node-positive demonstrated that patients with three or more positive nodes are more prone to abdominal LN metastasis, compared with patients with one or two positive nodes (χ2=4.367, P=0.037. The length of tumor and histological differentiation were also the high-risk factors for abdominal LN metastasis.Conclusion: For midthoracic ESCC with histological node-negative, or one or two positive nodes, the supraclavicular and

  5. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  6. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  7. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  8. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for real-time imaging of nanoparticle-cell plasma membrane interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate systems are widely used for site-specific drug and gene delivery as well as for medical imaging. The mode of nanoparticle-cell interaction may have a significant effect on the pathway of nanoparticle internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Total internal reflection...

  9. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  10. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  11. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyalkina, M V; Alchinova, I B; Yakovenko, E N; Medvedeva, Yu S; Saburina, I N; Karganov, M Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 10 6 /mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells. (paper)

  12. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  13. Modelo de predição para o volume total de Quaruba (Vochysia inundata ducke via análise de fatores e regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Diego Rocha Valente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propôs-se um método para a construção de um modelo de regressão para determinar o Volume de Madeira Total da espécie florestal (Vochysia inundata ducke Quaruba, em função de suas características (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP, Idade e Altura. O modelo foi determinado utilizando-se a técnica estatística multivariada de Análise de Fatores com do Método das Componentes Principais via Rotação Ortogonal do Tipo Varimax para Extração dos Fatores, procurando contornar o problema da Multicolinearidade. Por fim desenvolveu-se um modelo de Regressão Linear Simples com base nos Escores Fatoriais. O modelo determinado apresentou-se de fácil interpretação e utilização, usando-se um fator e proporcionando um bom ajuste (R² = 96 % aos dados e uma boa capacidade preditiva. Ele atendeu a todas as suposições teóricas para sua existência e utilização.

  14. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  15. Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma with 2-Stage Total en bloc Spondylectomy after Marked Response to Molecular Target Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the bone occurs at a high rate, and the prognosis is poor. In general, total en bloc spondylectomy is considered when there is only one vertebral metastasis and the primary disease is treated. However, palliative surgery is selected when the primary disease is not being treated or metastasis occurs to an important organ. We encountered a patient in whom lung and vertebra metastases were already present at the time of the first examination at our department and the prognosis was considered poor. However, molecular targeted therapy was markedly effective and enabled 2-stage total en bloc spondylectomy. As of one year after total en bloc spondylectomy, the condition has improved to cane gait, and surgery for lung metastasis is planned. Molecular target drugs might markedly change the current therapeutic strategy for renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Assessment of interpatient heterogeneity in tumor radiosensitivity for nonsmall cell lung cancer using tumor-volume variation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V., E-mail: chvetsov2@gmail.com; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Mayr, Nina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195-6043 (United States); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario 46A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous work, the authors showed that a distribution of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients could be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. In this research study, the authors show that this algorithm can be applied to other tumors, specifically in nonsmall cell lung cancer. This new application includes larger patient volumes and includes comparison of data sets obtained at independent institutions. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage computed tomography. Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} and clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T{sub 1/2} have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population model of tumor response and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Nonsmall cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} for nonsmall cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Conclusions: The data obtained

  17. Total Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides Inhibit Growth and Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Tumor HeLa Cells In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Guang; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Huang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Uygur females of Xinjiang have the higher incidence of cervical tumor in the country. Alkaloids are the major active ingredients in Sophora alopecuroides, and its antitumor effect was recognized by the medical profession. Xinjiang is the main site of S. alopecuroides production in China so these plants are abundant in the region. Studies on the antitumor properties of total alkaloids of S. alopecuroides (TASA) can take full use of the traditional folk medicine in antitumor unique utility. To explore the effects of TASA on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical tumor HeLa cells in vitro. TASA was extracted, purified, and each monomer component was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of TASA at different concentrations on the survival of HeLa cells was determined after 24 h using the Cell Counting Kit-8. In addition, cells were photographed using an inverted microscope to document morphological changes. The effect of TASA on apoptotic rate of HeLa cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Monomers of TASA were found to be sophoridine, matrine, and sophocarpine. On treatment with 8.75 mg/ml of TASA, more than 50% of HeLa cells died, and cell death rate increased further with longer incubation. The apoptotic rates of HeLa cells in the experimental groups were 16.0% and 33.3% at concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.50 mg/ml, respectively. TASA can induce apoptosis in cervical tumor HeLa cells, and it has obvious inhibitory effects on cell growth. Total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides (TASA) exhibits anti-human cervical tumor propertiesMonomer component of TASA was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and its main effect component are sophoridine, matrine, and sophocarpineTASA inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa cells. Abbreviations used: TASA: Total alkaloids of S. alopecuroides, CCK-8: Cell Counting Kit-8, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, PBS: Phosphate buffered saline, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium.

  18. Hybrid fuel cell/diesel generation total energy system, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, C. F.

    1982-11-01

    Meeting the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DGSCC) electrical and thermal requirements with the existing system was compared with using fuel cells. Fuel cell technology selection was based on a 1985 time frame for installation. The most cost-effective fuel feedstock for fuel cell application was identified. Fuels considered included diesel oil, natural gas, methanol and coal. These fuel feedstocks were considered not only on the cost and efficiency of the fuel conversion process, but also on complexity and integration of the fuel processor on system operation and thermal energy availability. After a review of fuel processor technology, catalytic steam reformer technology was selected based on the ease of integration and the economics of hydrogen production. The phosphoric acid fuel cell was selected for application at the GDSCC due to its commercial readiness for near term application. Fuel cell systems were analyzed for both natural gas and methanol feedstock. The subsequent economic analysis indicated that a natural gas fueled system was the most cost effective of the cases analyzed.

  19. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingming Zhu,* Minghuan Li,* Li Kong, Jinming Yu Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the

  20. Convergence of Cell Based Finite Volume Discretizations for Problems of Control in the Conduction Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a convergence analysis of a cell-based finite volume (FV) discretization scheme applied to a problem of control in the coefficients of a generalized Laplace equation modelling, for example, a steady state heat conduction. Such problems arise in applications dealing with geometric optimal......, whereas the convergence of the coefficients happens only with respect to the "volumetric" Lebesgue measure. Additionally, depending on whether the stationarity conditions are stated for the discretized or the original continuous problem, two distinct concepts of stationarity at a discrete level arise. We...... provide characterizations of limit points, with respect to FV mesh size, of globally optimal solutions and two types of stationary points to the discretized problems. We illustrate the practical behaviour of our cell-based FV discretization algorithm on a numerical example....

  1. Volume doubling time and growth rate of renal cell carcinoma determined by helical CT: a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Chan Kyo; Choi, Dongil; Park, Byung Kwan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the volume doubling time (VDT) and growth rate of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) on a serial computed tomography (CT) scan. Thirty pathologically proven RCCs were reviewed with helical CT. Each tumor underwent at least two CT scans. Tumor volume was determined using an area measuring tool and the summation-of-areas technique. Growth rate was evaluated in terms of diameter and volume changes. VDT and volume growth rate were compared in relation to several factors (initial diameter, initial volume, diameter growth rate, volume growth rate, tumor grade, tumor subtype, sex or age). Mean VDT of RCCs was 505 days. Mean diameter and volume growth rate were 0.59 cm/year and 19.1 cm 3 /year, respectively. For volume and diameter growth rate, tumors ≤4 cm showed lower rates than those >4 cm (P 0.05). Volume growth rate was moderately to strongly positively correlated with initial diameter, initial volume and diameter growth rate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, small RCCs grew at a slow rate both diametrically and volumetrically. More accurate assessment of tumor growth rate and VDT may be helpful to understand the natural history of RCC. (orig.)

  2. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  3. Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Bezgin, Selin; Çakabay, Taliye; Odaman Al, Işık

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children. Between January 2015 and July 2016, 105 children who were referred to our clinic with epistaxis and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were determined in both groups. RDW values were found significantly (P epistaxis than in the control group (11.95 ± 1.31 vs. 12.74 ± 1.21). MPV was 7.49 ± 1.33 in the group with epistaxis and 7.23 ± 1.06 in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We found no difference between MPV values of both groups and significantly lower RDW values in children with epistaxis. Decreased RDW values were considered as an accompanying marker rather than a result of epistaxis. In addition, it may be thought that low RDW values may increase the bleeding tendency by disrupting the thrombotic activities. Further studies are needed to validate the relation of these parameters with epistaxis and its mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the human cerebral and cerebellar cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Pakkenberg, Bente; Fabricius, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20-30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fetal brain development, differences in cell numbers between men and women, the effect of age on selected...

  5. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  6. Geometrical nuclear diagnosis and total paths of cervical cell evolution from normality to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Oswaldo Rodríguez Velásquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of cervix cytology has problems of inter-observer reproducibility. Methodologies based on fractal geometry objectively differentiated normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (L-SIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL states. Aims: The aim was to develop a mathematical-physical diagnosis and a theoretical generalization of the evolution paths of cervical cells from normal to carcinoma based on their occupation in the box-counting space. Subjects and Methods: Overlaying a grid of 8x8 pixels, the a number of squares occupying the nucleus surface and cytoplasm of 5 normal cells, 5 ASCUS, 5 L-SIL and 5 H-SIL were evaluated, as well as the ratio C/N, establishing differences between states. Sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio, and Kappa coefficient over the gold standard were calculated. Also was developed a generalization of all possible paths from normality to carcinoma. Results: The occupancy spaces of the nuclear surface allow differentiating normal L-SIL and H-SIL thus avoiding the indeterminacy of ASCUS cells. Compared to the Gold Standard, this method has sensitivity and specificity of 100%, negative likelihood ratio of 0, and Kappa coefficient of 1. 62,900 possible routes of evolution were determined between normal and H-SIL, states, based on the structural basis of the cells. Conclusions: it was obtained an objective and reproducible diagnostic methodology of the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical cells for clinical application. Additionally were developed all possible paths of preneoplastic cellular alteration to carcinoma which facilitates the tracking of patients over time to clinical level, warning of alterations that lead to malignancy, based on the spatial occupation measurements of the nucleus in fractal space regardless of causes or risk factors.

  7. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  8. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  9. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  10. Cell volume and geometric parameters determination in living cells using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: David Hevia, Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta Alonso-Gervós, Isabel Quirós-González, Henar M Cimadevilla, Carmen Gómez-Cordovés, Rosa M Sainz & Juan C Mayo ### Abstract The protocol reported here describes a simple, easy, fast and reproducible method aimed to know the geometric parameters of living cells based on confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with 3D reconstruction software. Briefly, the method is based on intrinsic fluorescence properties of acridine orange (AO), a...

  11. ESTIMATIVA DO VOLUME TOTAL DE MADEIRA EM ESPÉCIES DE EUCALIPTO A PARTIR DE IMAGENS DE SATÉLITE LANDSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fernando Berra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Models relating spectral answers with biophysical parameters aim estimate variables, such as wood volume, without the necessity of frequent field measurements. The objective was to develop models to estimatewood volume by Landsat 5 TM images, supported by regional forest inventory data. The image was georeferenced and converted to spectral reflectance. After, the images-index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SR (Simple Ratio was generated. The reflectance values of both spectral bands (TM1, TM2, TM3 e TM4 and indices (NDVI and SR was related with the wood volume. The biggest correlation with volume was with the NDVI and SR indices. The variables selection was made by Stepwise method, which returned three regression models as significant to explain the variation in volume. Finally,the best fitted model was selected (volume = -830,95 + 46,05 × (SR + 107,47 × (TM2, which was applied on the Landsat image where the pixels had started to represent the estimated volume in m³/ha on the Eucalyptus sp. production units. This model, significant at 95 % confidence level, explains 68 % of the wood volume variation.

  12. Donor hematopoiesis in mice following total lymphoid irradiation requires host T-regulatory cells for durable engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonia M. S.; Poyser, Jessica; Küpper, Natascha J.; Burnett, Cassandra; Ko, Rose M.; Kohrt, Holbrook E.K.; Florek, Mareike; Zhang, Pei; Negrin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a unique regimen that prepares recipients for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by targeting lymph nodes, while sparing large areas of the bone marrow. TLI is reported to increase the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) relative to conventional T cells. In this study, barriers to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment following this nonmyeloablative conditioning were evaluated. TLI/ATG resulted in profound lymphoablation but endogenous host HSC remained. Initial donor HSC engraftment occurred only in radiation exposed marrow sites, but gradually distributed to bone marrow outside the radiation field. Sustained donor engraftment required host lymphoid cells insofar as lymphocyte deficient Rag2γc−/− recipients had unstable engraftment compared with wild-type. TLI/ATG treated wild-type recipients had increased proportions of Treg that were associated with increased HSC frequency and proliferation. In contrast, Rag2γc−/− recipients who lacked Treg did not. Adoptive transfer of Treg into Rag2γc−/− recipients resulted in increased cell cycling of endogenous HSC. Thus, we hypothesize that Treg influence donor engraftment post-TLI/ATG by increasing HSC cell cycling, thereby promoting the exit of host HSC from the marrow niche. Our study highlights the unique dynamics of donor hematopoiesis following TLI/ATG, and the effect of Treg on HSC activity. PMID:24591203

  13. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili; Ersin Erçin; Cemal Kural; Altuğ Duramaz; Cevdet Avkan; Gökhan Peker; Serdar Hakan Başaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system ...

  14. Evaluation of velvet antler total protein effect on bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xiang; Li, Lin; Xu, Shuqiang; Mao, Min; Pan, Ruiyan; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Li; Zheng, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Lu Rong, velvet antler (VA), is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is used as a food supplement and therapeutic drug in China, Japan, Russia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia. The regenerative characteristics of VA have resulted in great research interest, particularly regarding the fields of organ grafting and stem cell differentiation. Various VA proteomic studies verified that proteins act as the primary bioactive components of VA. The present study aimed to investigate if VA proteins (VA...

  15. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic investigation of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holovský, Jakub; De Wolf, S.; Jiříček, Petr; Ballif, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 7 (2015), , "073108-1"-"073108-6" ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk 7E12029; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : FTIR * ATR * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2015

  16. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  17. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  18. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  19. Hyperosmotically induced volume change and calcium signaling in intervertebral disk cells: the role of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Scott; Erickson, Geoffrey R; Guilak, Farshid

    2002-11-01

    Loading of the spine alters the osmotic environment in the intervertebral disk (IVD) as interstitial water is expressed from the tissue. Cells from the three zones of the IVD, the anulus fibrosus (AF), transition zone (TZ), and nucleus pulposus (NP), respond to osmotic stress with altered biosynthesis through a pathway that may involve calcium (Ca(2+)) as a second messenger. We examined the hypothesis that IVD cells respond to hyperosmotic stress by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) through a mechanism involving F-actin. In response to hyperosmotic stress, control cells from all zones decreased in volume and cells from the AF and TZ exhibited [Ca(2+)](i) transients, while cells from the NP did not. Extracellular Ca(2+) was necessary to initiate [Ca(2+)](i) transients. Stabilization of F-actin with phalloidin prevented the Ca(2+) response in AF and TZ cells and decreased the rate of volume change in cells from all zones, coupled with an increase in the elastic moduli and apparent viscosity. Conversely, actin breakdown with cytochalasin D facilitated Ca(2+) signaling while decreasing the elastic moduli and apparent viscosity for NP cells. These results suggest that hyperosmotic stress induces volume change in IVD cells and may initiate [Ca(2+)](i) transients through an actin-dependent mechanism.

  20. Quantitative analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling using live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heath E; Haugh, Jason M

    2013-12-02

    This unit focuses on the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and image analysis methods to study the dynamics of signal transduction mediated by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in mammalian cells. The first four protocols cover live-cell imaging experiments, image acquisition parameters, and basic image processing and segmentation. These methods are generally applicable to live-cell TIRF experiments. The remaining protocols outline more advanced image analysis methods, which were developed in our laboratory for the purpose of characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of PI3K signaling. These methods may be extended to analyze other cellular processes monitored using fluorescent biosensors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Evidence for mouse Th1- and Th2-like helper T cells in vivo. Selective reduction of Th1-like cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Mosmann, T.; Strober, S.

    1989-01-01

    Purified CD4+ BALB/c spleen T cells obtained 4-6 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) helped normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP keyhole limpet hemocyanin in adoptive cell transfer experiments. However, the same cells failed to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity to the adoptive hosts as measured by a foot pad swelling assay. In addition, purified CD4+ cells from TLI-treated mice were unable to induce graft vs. host disease in lethally irradiated allogeneic C57BL/Ka recipient mice. In response to mitogen stimulation, unfractionated spleen cells obtained from TLI mice secreted normal levels of IL-4 and IL-5, but markedly reduced levels of IL-2 and INF-gamma. A total of 229 CD4+ clones from spleen cells of both normal and TLI-treated mice were established, and the cytokine secretion pattern from each clone was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the ratio of Th1- and Th2-like clones in the spleens of normal BALB/c mice is 1:0.6, whereas the ratio in TLI mice is approximately 1:7. These results suggest that Th2-like cells recover rapidly (at approximately 4-6 wk) after TLI treatment and account for the early return of antibody helper activity and secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, but Th1-like cells recover more slowly (in approximately 3 mo) after irradiation, and this accounts for the deficit in cell-mediated immunity and the reduced amount of IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion

  2. Thyroid cartilage invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Mario; Weiss, Daniel; Steiger, Matthias; Elges, Sandra; Rudack, Claudia; Stenner, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the accuracy of computed tomography in detecting malignant thyroid cartilage invasion. In a retrospective chart review, 120 patients with carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent computed tomography before total laryngectomy. These data were compared with the histological specimens. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 76 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 69 %. The specificity of MDCT was 89 % and sensitivity was 46 %. Comparison between radiologic suspected cartilage invasion and histologic results showed a significant correlation (p < 0.02). We found no significant impact of cartilage invasion concerning survival rates (5-year overall survival p = 0.683; 5-year disease-free survival p = 0.711). Preoperative CT scan is an important instrument in detecting neoplastic cartilage invasion.

  3. Evaluation of total effort and risk of membraneless tubular fuel cell concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, Luis Antonio Waack [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bambace@dem.inpe.br

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally people estimate project risks and duration by comparing predicted actions with similar ones. This methodology is rather difficult to apply in very innovative projects, as several of their Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) actions are quite new to a particular developer, even if this action is a standard procedure in another field or company. This paper proposes the use of an alternative methodology with fuel cell design example, which is inspired in Suh third axiom, Jelinsky-Moranda Model of software reliability (JMSRM). This model considers human error with JMRSR, relates the number of trials with entropy and search residual risk, feasibility with model uncertainty and acceptable and target risks, and the matching of search field and real solution field with statistical tools. (author)

  4. Fluorescence Exclusion: A Simple Method to Assess Projected Surface, Volume and Morphology of Red Blood Cells Stored in Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of “small RBC” with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts. We aimed to develop a reproducible and ergonomic method to assess simultaneously RBC volume and morphology at the single cell level. We adapted the fluorescence exclusion measurement of volume in nucleated cells to the measurement of RBC volume. This method requires no pre-treatment of the cell and can be performed in physiological or experimental buffer. In addition to RBC volume assessment, brightfield images enabling a precise definition of the morphology and the measurement of projected surface area can be generated simultaneously. We first verified that fluorescence exclusion is precise, reproducible and can quantify volume modifications following morphological changes induced by heating or incubation in non-physiological medium. We then used the method to characterize RBC stored for 42 days in SAG-M in blood bank conditions. Simultaneous determination of the volume, projected surface area and morphology allowed to evaluate the surface area-to-volume ratio of individual RBC upon storage. We observed a similar surface area-to-volume ratio in discocytes (D and echinocytes I (EI, which decreased in EII (7% and EIII (24%, sphero-echinocytes (SE; 41% and spherocytes (S; 47%. If RBC dimensions determine indeed the ability of RBC to cross the spleen, these modifications are expected to induce the rapid splenic entrapment of the most morphologically altered RBC

  5. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Fracture criterion for brittle materials based on statistical cells of finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cords, H.; Kleist, G.; Zimmermann, R.

    1986-06-01

    An analytical consideration of the Weibull Statistical Analysis of brittle materials established the necessity of including one additional material constant for a more comprehensive description of the failure behaviour. The Weibull analysis is restricted to infinitesimal volume elements in consequence of the differential calculus applied. It was found that infinitesimally small elements are in conflict with the basic statistical assumption and that the differential calculus is not needed in fact since nowadays most of the stress analyses are based on finite element calculations, and these are most suitable for a subsequent statistical analysis of strength. The size of a finite statistical cell has been introduced as the third material parameter. It should represent the minimum volume containing all statistical features of the material such as distribution of pores, flaws and grains. The new approach also contains a unique treatment of failure under multiaxial stresses. The quantity responsible for failure under multiaxial stresses is introduced as a modified strain energy. Sixteen different tensile specimens including CT-specimens have been investigated experimentally and analyzed with the probabilistic fracture criterion. As a result it can be stated that the failure rates of all types of specimens made from three different grades of graphite are predictable. The accuracy of the prediction is one standard deviation. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of an olive oil total polyphenolic fraction and hydroxytyrosol from a Greek Olea europea variety in endothelial cells and myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouka, Paraskevi; Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Angelis, Apostolis; Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Xinos, Nikos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-09-01

    Olive oil (OO) constitutes the basis of the Mediterranean diet, and it seems that its biophenols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT) may scavenge free radicals, attracting distinct attention due to their beneficial effects in many pathological conditions, such as cancer. To the best of our knowedge, this is the first study in which the functional properties of an OO total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) and pure HT were examined in order to determine their antioxidant effects at a cellular level in endothelial cells and myoblasts. The test compounds were isolated using a green gradient‑elution centrifugal partition chromatography‑based method that allows the isolation of large volumes of OO in a continuous extraction procedure and with extremely low solvent consumption. For the isolation of HT, a combination of two chromatographic techniques was used, which is effective for the recovery of pure compounds from complex natural extracts. Moreover, TPF and HT exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro. The cells were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations and their redox status [in terms of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels] was assessed. TPF extract was less cytotoxic than HT, and the observed differences between the two cell lines used suggest a tissue‑specific activity. Finally, flow cytometric analysis revealed that both TPF and HT improved the redox status by increasing the levels of GSH, one of the most important antioxidant molecules, in both endothelial cells and myoblasts, while the ROS levels were not significantly affected.

  8. Recovery of the Erythropoietin-Sensitive Stem-Cell Population following Total-Body X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byron, J. W. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1968-08-15

    Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. This effect may be used in polycythaemic mice to estimate changes in the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population following total-body irradiation (TBR). Generally, single doses of erythropoietin, less than that needed for maximum stem-cell response, are used to estimate changes in the stem-cell population. The validity of results using this test is based upon accepting several assumptions regarding erythropoietin kinetics. These are: (a) the contribution of endogenous erythropoietin is always negligible; (b) the origin of the dose-response curve to erythropoietin alters only because of changes in stem-cell numbers; (c) the proportion of stem cells responding to a given concentration of erythropoietin is independent of stem-cell numbers; (d) the slope of the dose-response curve does not alter; and (e) competition between erythropoietin and other factors for the stem cells remains unchanged. The studies to be reported indicate that some of these assumptions m a y not always be valid. Following 150 rad TBR, changes in erythropoietin dose-response curves were not always due to changes in the size of the stem-cell population, but also due to changes in erythropoietin kinetics. Changes in erythropoietin kinetics could be corrected for by using doses of erythropoietin which at any particular time after TBR gave maximum stem-cell response; through full dose-response studies, the nature of changes in erythropoietin kinetics following TBR could be established. These studies appear to explain discrepancies in results obtained in different laboratories using the erythropoietin test. The effect of 150 rad TBR on the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population is an initial depression within 30 min to 20% of normal followed by a second depression (post-irradiation dip) at about 12 h. Twenty-four hours after TBR there is a recovery to the initial depression. This

  9. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E; Warner, Joshua D; Irazabal, Maria V; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-02-01

    Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼ ± 100 mL. Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In addition, it will hasten the routine use of

  10. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  11. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV peak ) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver mean + [2 × Liver sd ]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm 3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy

  12. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Beluffi, Simonetta; Tanzi, Dario; Belloli, Federica; Carmagnini, Paola; Croci, Massimo; D’Aviri, Giuseppe; Menasce, Guido; Pastore, Juan C.; Pellanda, Armando; Pollini, Alberto; Savoia, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2) Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3) Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6%) required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008), significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002), and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB) level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI) 2.84 (2.11–3.82)), a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05)) and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02)) were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4) Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation. PMID:29385760

  13. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ristagno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2 Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3 Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6% required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008, significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002, and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001. In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI 2.84 (2.11–3.82, a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05 and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02 were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4 Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation.

  14. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute...... to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...

  15. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Evidence for a single stem cell to reconstitute nearly one half of the total blood T cells in two A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Itho, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Nakamura, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Recently, we have encountered two A-bomb survivors who had identical chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes with very high frequencies; one survivor bore the same translocations in 40% of blood lymphocytes (case 1, estimated dose= 1.06 Sv) and the other had identical inversions and deletions in 30% of the lymphocytes (case 2, estimated dose 3.54 Sv). In case 1, the same abnormality was frequently observed in CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and EBV-transformed B cells as well, suggesting the origin in a bone marrow stem cell. Although it is generally thought that the clonal aberrations observed in A-bomb survivors were induced by A-bomb radiation, the results did not allow us to distinguish if the clone preexisted (i.e., as a mosaic individual) or was induced following radiation exposure. To discriminate these two possibilities, we applied 24-color FISH to detect additional non-clonal aberrations among the clonal cells. As these survivors bore various non-clonal translocations in about 30% (case 1) or 50% (case 2) of the lymphocytes that do not carry the clonal aberration, the rational is straightforward; if the clonal cells preexisted, we expected 30% or 50% of additional but non-clonal aberrations among the clonal cells. By contrast, if the clone emerged following the A-bomb radiation exposure, we expected a minimum frequency of additional aberrations among the clonal cells (i.e., close to the background aberration frequency observed in non-exposed people). The results showed that the frequency of additional translocations among the clonal cells was only 3% (3/101 cells) in case 1 and 1% (1/100) in case 2. Thus, the results clearly demonstrated that the clonal cells did not preexist and were produced as a result of extensive proliferation of a single stem cell following radiation exposure, which gave rise to comprise nearly one half of the total lymphocytes

  17. Mean platelet volume and red cell distribution width levels in initial evaluation of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoglu M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Asoglu,1 Mehmet Aslan,2 Okan Imre,1 Yuksel Kivrak,3 Oznur Akil,1 Emin Savik,4 Hasan Buyukaslan,5 Ulker Fedai,1 Abdurrahman Altındag6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey Background: As the relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied in recent years, activated platelets lead to certain biochemical changes, which occur in the brain in patients with mental disorders. However, data relating to the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with panic disorder (PD are both limited and controversial. Herein, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the red cell distribution width (RDW levels combined with MPV levels in patients with PD.Patients and methods: Between January 2012 and June 2015, data of 30 treatment-naïve patients (16 females, 14 males; mean age: 37±10 years; range: 18–59 years who were diagnosed with PD and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (10 females, 15 males; mean age: 36±13 years; range: 18–59 years (control group were retrospectively analyzed. The white blood cell count (WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were measured in both groups.Results: The mean WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were 9,173.03±2,400.31/mm3, 8.19±1.13 fl, and 12.47±1.14%, respectively, in the PD group. These values were found to be 7,090.24±1,032.61, 6.85±0.67, and 11.63±0.85, respectively, in the healthy controls. The WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were significantly higher in the patients with PD compared to the healthy controls (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0

  18. Impact of total radiotherapy dose on survival for head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sagar A; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Mak, Kimberley S; Sahni, Debjani; Giacalone, Nicholas J; Ezzat, Waleed; Jalisi, Scharukh; Truong, Minh Tam

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is commonly treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk features. The optimal radiation dose is unknown. One thousand six hundred twenty-five eligible patients with head and neck MCC were identified in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Radiation dose was divided into 3 groups: 30 to 55-70 Gy. Cox regression was used to compare overall survival (OS) between groups, accounting for age, sex, stage, surgery type, margin status, comorbidities, and use of chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 33.5 months, 3-year OS was 48.9%, 70.3%, and 58.7% for 30 to 55-70 Gy, respectively (P 55-70 Gy (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.0-1.46; P = .06) were associated with worse survival. Adjuvant radiation doses within 50-55 Gy may be optimal for head and neck MCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Accuracy of formulas used to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume rise in anemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jacqueline L; Diehl, Shenandoah; Seshadri, Ravi; Serrano, Sergi

    2012-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of published formulas used to guide packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions in anemic dogs and to compare the predicted rise in packed cell volume (PCV) to the actual post-transfusion rise in PCV. Prospective observational study from April 2009 through July 2009. A small animal emergency and specialty hospital. Thirty-one anemic client-owned dogs that received pRBC transfusions for treatment of anemia. None Four formulas were evaluated to determine their predictive ability with respect to rise in PCV following transfusion with pRBC. Post-transfusion rise in PCV were compared to calculated rise in PCV using 4 different formulas. Bias and limits of agreement were investigated using Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy of existing formulas to predict rise in PCV following transfusion varied significantly. Formula 1 (volume to be transfused [VT] [mL] = 1 mL × % PCV rise × kg body weight [BW]) overestimated the expected rise in PCV (mean difference, 6.30), while formula 2 (VT [mL] = 2 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) underestimated the rise in PCV (mean difference, -3.01). Formula 3 (VT [mL] = 90 mL × kg BW × [(desired PCV - Patient PCV)/PCV of donor blood]) and formula 4 (VT [mL] = 1.5 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) performed well (mean difference 0.23 and 0.09, respectively) in predicting rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion. Agreement between 2 formulas, "VT (mL) = kg BW × blood volume (90 mL) × [(desired PCV - recipient PCV)/Donor PCV]" and "VT (mL) = 1.5 ×desired rise in PCV × kg BW," was found when they were compared to the actual rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion in anemic dogs. Further research is warranted to determine whether these formulas perform similarly well for other species. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  20. Irradiation of blood, blood compounds and cell culture in equipment of radiotherapy of clinical usage. Study about volume and ideal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of blood bags with the objective of minimizing the graft-versus-host disease in the proceedings of blood transfusion has been consolidated as an indispensable step in the advances of hematopoietic system diseases therapeutics. This practice performed in the great oncological treatment centers requires appropriate equipment (cell irradiators), that due to the high coast, is inaccessible to the majority of the services. The main objective of this work is the show the technique developed by the Radiological Physics Service of the Hospital A. C. Camargo Radiation Department, using the teletherapy equipment of clinical usage available at the Institution. The literature shows that a total dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy must be administered to all target volume to get an ideal dose/volume relation that proportionates better therapeutic results, neutralizing the cells which are causative of post transfusion reactions of rejection, without prejudicing the other cells that are necessary to the maintenance and preservation of the transplanted person's hematopoietic system functions. With the technic developed for optimization of the irradiation. it is possible to conclude that the utilization of radiotherapy equipment of clinical usage for blood irradiation, substituting cells irradiators, is a good option, permitting safe transfusion of products irradiated with adequate dose. (author)

  1. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  3. Fibrin sealants or cell saver eliminate the need for autologous blood donation in anemic patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Monsef, Jad; Buckup, Johannes; Waldstein, Wenzel; Cornell, Charles; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Reducing allogeneic blood transfusions remains a challenge in total knee arthroplasty. Patients with preoperative anemia have a particularly high risk for perioperative blood transfusions. 176 anemic patients (Hb < 13.5 g/dl) undergoing total knee replacement were prospectively evaluated to compare the effect of a perioperative cell saver (26 patients), intraoperative fibrin sealants (5 ml Evicel, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) (45 patients), preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) (21 patients), the combination of fibrin sealants and preoperative autologous blood donation (44) and no intervention (40 patients) on perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. All protocols resulted in significant reduction of allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfusion rates were similar with the use of PABD (19%), Evicel (18%), and cell saver (19%), all significantly lower than the control group (38 %, p < 0.05). Combining Evicel with PABD resulted in significantly higher wastage of autologous units (p < 0.05) with no significant reduction in allogeneic transfusion rate (14%). The use of fibrin sealant resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss compared to the PABD group (603 vs. 810 ml, p < 0.005) as well as the control group (603 vs. 822 ml, p < 0.005). While PABD proved to be the most cost-effective treatment option in anemic patients, fibrin sealants and cell saver show similar reduction in allogeneic transfusion rates compared to controls. The combination of fibrin sealants and PABD is not cost-effective and increases the number of wasted units.

  4. Perioperative Allogeneic Red Blood-Cell Transfusion Associated with Surgical Site Infection After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joshua S; Sojka, John H; Mayerson, Joel L; Glassman, Andrew H; Scharschmidt, Thomas J

    2018-02-21

    Perioperative allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion is a suspected risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), but the interrelationships among SSI risk, transfusion dose, preoperative anemia, and the presence of coagulopathies have not been well described. Data on SSI within 1 year after surgery as well as on transfusion with blood products within 30 days after surgery were obtained for 6,788 patients who had undergone primary or revision total hip or knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2011 in a single hospital system. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to determine the independent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI. There was a dose-dependent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI, with the infection rate increasing as the transfusion dose increased from 1 unit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 2.79; p 3 units (OR = 7.40; CI = 4.91, 11.03; p conservation strategies. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Pretreatment red blood cell total folate is associated with response to pemetrexed in stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J.; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L.; Alley, Evan W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Langer, Corey J.; Blair, Ian A.; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Prior studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic marker of cellular folate status, was associated with response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. Pretreatment RBC total folate was quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We then compared objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations above and below an optimal cut-off value determined from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab. Results The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). ROC analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and non-responders. Patients with RBC total folate below 364.5 nM had an ORR of 27%, compared to 71% in patients with RBC total folate above this value (p=0.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.57, p=0.01). Conclusions Low pretreatment RBC total folate is associated with inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV non-squamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. PMID:27863923

  6. Anatomic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Engineered Cartilage Constructs for Biologic Total Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Kim, Minwook; Keah, Niobra M.; Neuwirth, Alexander L.; Stoeckl, Brendan D.; Bickard, Kevin; Restle, David J.; Salowe, Rebecca; Wang, Margaret Ye; Steinberg, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage has a poor healing response, and few viable options exist for repair of extensive damage. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) polymerized through UV crosslinking can generate functional tissue, but this crosslinking is not compatible with indirect rapid prototyping utilizing opaque anatomic molds. Methacrylate-modified polymers can also be chemically crosslinked in a cytocompatible manner using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). The objectives of this study were to (1) compare APS/TEMED crosslinking with UV crosslinking in terms of functional maturation of MSC-seeded HA hydrogels; (2) generate an anatomic mold of a complex joint surface through rapid prototyping; and (3) grow anatomic MSC-seeded HA hydrogel constructs using this alternative crosslinking method. Juvenile bovine MSCs were suspended in methacrylated HA (MeHA) and crosslinked either through UV polymerization or chemically with APS/TEMED to generate cylindrical constructs. Minipig porcine femoral heads were imaged using microCT, and anatomic negative molds were generated by three-dimensional printing using fused deposition modeling. Molded HA constructs were produced using the APS/TEMED method. All constructs were cultured for up to 12 weeks in a chemically defined medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and characterized by mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histologic analysis. Both UV- and APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs showed increasing mechanical properties and robust proteoglycan and collagen deposition over time. At 12 weeks, APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs had higher equilibrium and dynamic moduli than UV-polymerized constructs, with no differences in proteoglycan or collagen content. Molded HA constructs retained their hemispherical shape in culture and demonstrated increasing mechanical properties and proteoglycan and collagen deposition, especially at the edges compared to the center of these

  7. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. → Induction of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. → C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune

  8. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible

  9. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  10. Cell dispensing in low-volume range with the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Lena; Büttner, Evy; Laske, Christopher; Traube, Andrea; Brode, Tobias; Traube, Andreas Florian; Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Handling and dosing of cells comprise the most critical step in the microfabrication of cell-based assay systems for screening and toxicity testing. Therefore, the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT) was developed to provide a flexible noncontact liquid handling system enabling dispensing of cells and liquid without the risk of cross-contamination down to a precise volume in the nanoliter range. Liquid is dispensed from a source plate within nozzles at the bottom by a short compressed air pulse that is given through a quick release valve into the well, thus exceeding the capillary pressure in the nozzle. Droplets of a defined volume can be spotted directly onto microplates or other cell culture devices. We present a study on the performance and biological impact of this technology by applying the cell line MCF-7, human fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For all cell types tested, viability after dispensing is comparable to the control and exhibits similar proliferation rates in the absence of apoptotic cells, and the differentiation potential of hMSCs is not impaired. The immediate drop-on-demand technology enables accurate cell dosage and offers promising potential for single-cell applications. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K

    2004-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a ubiquitous feature of programmed cell death (PCD), but whether it is an obligatory signalling event in PCD is unclear. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) potently counteracts PCD in many cells, by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the present investigation, we found...... that severe hypertonic stress greatly diminished the viability of murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-902) and immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs). This effect was attenuated markedly by Hsp70 over-expression. To determine whether the protective effect of Hsp70 was mediated via an effect on volume...... regulatory ion transport, we compared regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and increase (RVI) in control WEHI-902 cells and after increasing Hsp70 levels by heat shock or over-expression (WEHI-912). Hsp70 levels affected neither RVD, RVI nor the relative contributions of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE1) and Na...

  12. Image-guided total-marrow irradiation using helical tomotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y C; Rosenthal, Joseph; Liu, An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George

    2009-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an important role in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical tomotherapy results in reduced doses to normal organs, which predicts for reduced toxicities compared with standard TBI. Thirteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated in an autologous tandem transplantation Phase I trial with high-dose melphalan, followed 6 weeks later by total-marrow irradiation (TMI) to skeletal bone. Dose levels were 10, 12, 14, and 16 Gy at 2 Gy daily/twice daily. In a separate allogeneic HCT trial, 8 patients (5 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 with multiple myeloma) were treated with TMI plus total lymphoid irradiation plus splenic radiotherapy to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice daily) combined with fludarabine/melphalan. For the 13 patients in the tandem autologous HCT trial, median age was 54 years (range, 42-66 years). Median organ doses were 15-65% that of the gross target volume dose. Primarily Grades 1-2 acute toxicities were observed. Six patients reported no vomiting; 9 patients, no mucositis; 6 patients, no fatigue; and 8 patients, no diarrhea. For the 8 patients in the allogeneic HCT trial, median age was 52 years (range, 24-61 years). Grades 2-3 nausea, vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea were observed. In both trials, no Grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity was observed, and all patients underwent successful engraftment. This study shows that TMI using helical tomotherapy is clinically feasible. The reduced acute toxicities observed compare favorably with those seen with standard TBI. Initial results are encouraging and warrant further evaluation as a method to dose escalate with acceptable toxicity or to offer TBI-containing regimens to patients unable to tolerate standard approaches.

  13. Image-Guided Total-Marrow Irradiation Using Helical Tomotherapy in Patients With Multiple Myeloma and Acute Leukemia Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Rosenthal, Joseph; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an important role in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical tomotherapy results in reduced doses to normal organs, which predicts for reduced toxicities compared with standard TBI. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated in an autologous tandem transplantation Phase I trial with high-dose melphalan, followed 6 weeks later by total-marrow irradiation (TMI) to skeletal bone. Dose levels were 10, 12, 14, and 16 Gy at 2 Gy daily/twice daily. In a separate allogeneic HCT trial, 8 patients (5 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 with multiple myeloma) were treated with TMI plus total lymphoid irradiation plus splenic radiotherapy to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice daily) combined with fludarabine/melphalan. Results: For the 13 patients in the tandem autologous HCT trial, median age was 54 years (range, 42-66 years). Median organ doses were 15-65% that of the gross target volume dose. Primarily Grades 1-2 acute toxicities were observed. Six patients reported no vomiting; 9 patients, no mucositis; 6 patients, no fatigue; and 8 patients, no diarrhea. For the 8 patients in the allogeneic HCT trial, median age was 52 years (range, 24-61 years). Grades 2-3 nausea, vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea were observed. In both trials, no Grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity was observed, and all patients underwent successful engraftment. Conclusions: This study shows that TMI using helical tomotherapy is clinically feasible. The reduced acute toxicities observed compare favorably with those seen with standard TBI. Initial results are encouraging and warrant further evaluation as a method to dose escalate with acceptable toxicity or to offer TBI-containing regimens to patients unable to tolerate standard approaches

  14. Spreading Sequence Design for Multiple Cell Synchronous DS-CDMA Systems under Total Weighted Squared Correlation Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotae Paul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for designing spreading sequences for an overloaded multicellular synchronous DS-CDMA system on uplink is introduced. The criterion used to measure the optimality of the design is the total weighted square correlation (TWSC assuming the channel state information known perfectly at both transmitter and receiver. By using this algorithm it is possible to obtain orthogonal generalized WBE sequences sets for any processing gain. The bandwidth of initial generalized WBE signals of each cell is preserved in the extended signal space associated to multicellular system. Mathematical formalism is illustrated by selected numerical examples.

  15. Total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a nationwide cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Lise M; Kamstrup, Maria Rørbæk; Petersen, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Background. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective palliative treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In the present study we reviewed the clinical response to TSEBT in Danish patients with CTCL. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 35 patients with CTCL...... to treatment compared to patients treated with high-dose. Consequently the study with low-dose was discontinued and published. In patients treated with high-dose the overall response rate was 100%. Complete response (CR) rate was 68% and CR occurred after a median time of 2.1 months (range 1.8 months-2.0 years...

  16. Incidence of interstitial pneumonia after hyperfractionated total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Wenz, F.; Flentje, M.; Kalle, K. von; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a severe complication after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with incidence rates between 10 % and 40 % in different series. It is a polyetiologic disease that occurs depending on age, graft vs. host disease (GvHD), CMV-status, total body irradiation (TBI) and immunosuppressive therapy after BMT. The effects of fractionation and dose rate are not entirely clear. This study evaluates the incidence of lethal IP after hyperfractionated TBI for autologous BMT or stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods Between 1982 and 1992, 182 patients (60 % male, 40 % female) were treated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) before autologous bone marrow transplantation. Main indications were leukemias and lymphomas (53 % AML, 21 % ALL, 22 % NHL, 4 % others) Median age was 30 ys (15 - 55 ys). A total dose of 14.4 Gy was applied using lung blocks (12 fractions of 1.2 Gy in 4 days, dose rate 7-18 cGy/min, lung dose 9 - 9.5 Gy). TBI was followed by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). 72 % were treated with bone marrow transplantation, 28 % were treated with stem cell transplantation. Interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed clinically, radiologically and by autopsy. Results 4 patients died most likely of interstitial pneumonia. For another 12 patients interstitial pneumonia was not the most likely cause of death but could not be excluded. Thus, the incidence of lethal IP was at least 2.2 % but certainly below 8.8 %. Conclusion Lethal interstitial pneumonia is a rare complication after total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation in this large, homogeously treated series. In the autologous setting, total doses of 14.4 Gy can be applied with a low risk for developing interstitial pneumonia if hyperfractionation and lung blocks are used. This falls in line with data from series with identical twins or t-cell depleted marrow and smaller, less homogeneous autologous transplant studies. Thus

  17. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  19. Role of volume-regulated and calcium-activated anion channels in cell volume homeostasis, cancer and drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter

    2015-01-01

    to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g. secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene...... functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance....

  20. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both....... Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed....

  1. Survival of alpha particle irradiated cells as a function of the shape and size of the sensitive volume (nucleus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microdosimetry is the study of the stochastic variation of energy deposited within sub-cellular targets. As such, the size and shape of the critical target (i.e. cell nucleus) are essential when considering microdosimetric quantities. In this work, a microdosimetric analysis examines the expected cell survival as a function of the size and shape of the cell nucleus under conditions of irradiation emitting alpha particles. The results indicate that, in general, cell survival is relatively insensitive to changes in the shape of the cell nucleus when the volume is held constant. However, cell survival is a strong function of the variation in the size of the target. These results are useful when analysing the results of cell survival experiments for alpha particle emitters. (Author)

  2. Cell volumes of marine phytoplankton from globally distributed coastal data sets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harrison, P.J; Zingone, A.; Mickelson, M.J; Lehtinen, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Kraberg, A.C; Sun, J; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Jakobsen, H.H.

    volumes are the single largest source of uncertainty in community phytoplankton carbon estimates and greatly exceeds the uncertainty associated with the different volume to carbon estimates. Small diatoms have 10 times more carbon density than large...

  3. The effect of γ radiation on a change in the volume of Protozoa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowska, A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of various doses of γ radiation on changes in the volume of Spirostomum ambiguum and on the time of return of the volume of this protozoan to the initial state. It was found that γ rays brought about a decrease in the volume of the animal, depending in a linear relation on the dose, while the return of the volume to the initial state is negatively correlated with the received dose. (author)

  4. Total glucosides of paeony induces regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells by increasing Foxp3 demethylation in lupus CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Liang, Gong-ping; Tang, Mei-ni; Luo, Shuang-yan; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Wen-jing; Chan, Tak-mao; Lu, Qian-jin

    2012-05-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP), an active compound extracted from Paeony root, has been used in therapy for autoimmune diseases. However the molecular mechanism of TGP in the prevention of autoimmune response remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGP treatment significantly increased the percentage and number of Treg cells in lupus CD4(+) T cells. Further investigation revealed that treatment with TGP increased the expression of Foxp3 in lupus CD4(+) T cells by down-regulating Foxp3 promoter methylation levels. However, we couldn't observe similar results in healthy control CD4(+) T cells treated by TGP. Moreover, our results also showed that IFN-γ and IL-2 expression was enhanced in TGP-treated lupus CD4(+) T cells. These findings indicate that TGP inhibits autoimmunity in SLE patients possibly by inducing Treg cell differentiation, which may in turn be due to its ability to regulate the methylation status of the Foxp3 promoter and activate IFN-γ and IL-2 signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  6. Total glucosides of paeony attenuated functional maturation of dendritic cells via blocking TLR4/5 signaling in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lin, Jinpiao; Huo, Rongfen; Huang, Wenkang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Li; Sun, Yue; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the initiation and development of an immune response. Inhibitory effect on DC maturation alters immune-mediated inflammatory reaction in vivo. Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) are active compounds extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and have been widely used to ameliorate inflammation in therapy for autoimmune diseases. However, whether TGP act on DC maturation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of TGP on DC maturation in ovalbumin (OVA) immunized mice. Ear inflammation was inhibited by TGP (150 mgkg(-1), i.p.×11 days) obviously. The antigen presenting capacity of DC derived from TGP-treated mice was arrested. Meanwhile, OVA specific T cell proliferation was inhibited. In addition, we found that maturation of DCs was decreased by TGP treatment. Furthermore, OVA specific T cell proliferation was rescued by the adoptive transfer of mature DCs (mDCs) into TGP treated OVA-challenged mice. The research on the mechanism showed that TGP significantly inhibited activation of TLR4/5 singling. All these results demonstrated that TGP inhibited DC maturation and function by selectively blocking TLR4/5 activation in vivo, which in turn leads to reduce immune-mediated inflammation in vivo, adding a novel mechanism and therapeutic target of TGP for inflammatory and autoimmune disease treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in studies of the T cell dependence of autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.; Logue, G.L.; Schiffman, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on T cell-dependent and -independent humoral immune responses was studied in patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The serum levels of several autoantibodies and of antibodies to diphtheria (DT) and tetanus (TT) toxoids and to pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS; 12 antigenic types) were studied before and after TLI. In addition, the patients were given a booster injection of DT and TT and a single injection of pneumococcal vaccine after radiotherapy. Antibody levels to DT and TT decreased about twofold after TLI and did not rise significantly after a booster injection. However, there was no reduction in antibody levels to PPS after TLI, and a significant rise in titers was observed after a single vaccination. The serum levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), and granulocyte associated IgG rose slightly after TLI. Thus, the autoantibodies and antibodies to polysaccharides appear to be relatively independent of helper T cell function, which is markedly reduced after TLI. On the other hand, antibodies to protein antigens such as DT and TT appear to be more closely dependent upon T helper function in man, as has been reported in rodents. The findings suggest that T cell-independent autoantibody responses alone do not maintain the joint disease activity in RA, because improvement in joint disease after TLI has been reported

  8. Quantitative HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy applied to cultured melanoma cells treated by chloroethyl nitrosourea: demonstration of phospholipid metabolism alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha; Papon, Janine; Madelmont, Jean Claude

    2003-02-01

    Recent NMR spectroscopy developments, such as high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) probes and correlation-enhanced 2D sequences, now allow improved investigations of phospholipid (Plp) metabolism. Using these modalities we previously demonstrated that a mouse-bearing melanoma tumor responded to chloroethyl nitrosourea (CENU) treatment in vivo by altering its Plp metabolism. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) could be used as a quantitative technique to probe Plp metabolism, and to determine the Plp metabolism response of cultured B16 melanoma cells to CENU treatment in vitro. The exploited TOCSY signals of Plp derivatives arose from scalar coupling among the protons of neighbor methylene groups within base headgroups (choline and ethanolamine). For strongly expressed Plp derivatives, TOCSY signals were compared to saturation recovery signals and demonstrated a linear relationship. HRMAS proton TOCSY was thus used to provide concentrations of Plp derivatives during long-term follow-up of CENU-treated cell cultures. Strong Plp metabolism alteration was observed in treated cultured cells in vitro involving a down-regulation of phosphocholine, and a dramatic and irreversible increase of phosphoethanolamine. These findings are discussed in relation to previous in vivo data, and to Plp metabolism enzymatic involvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells by which total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris protects against artherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengquan; Guan, Yue; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhai, Fengguo; Zhang, Xiuping; Guan, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jan-Show [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsiu-Yuan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  12. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  13. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  14. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  15. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 2. The Total Force and Its Manpower Requirements Including Overviews of Each Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    J^^’.Si*!** \\ ir..’’T^-.’-T*TSfn titoa i iMBi’M, OTTŕ" ,^~" fraCk k^«^;-<^»J,..;^.a,L.^t»^^ri^fc ft WBMyLmH’.’JW*^Hi,.J , Jl,l|llliln|Kli|Pffl...also develop a means to inspect tube internals to insure they are clean 11. Develop a deep tank, high volume, high head hydraulic driven pump to...and procedures that have been implemented at this Command and havs en- hanced productivity are: - Power floor cleaners Pneumatic/ hydraulic ram tire

  16. Total pleurectomy as the surgical treatment for recurrent secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in a child with severe pulmonary Langerhans cells histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Dayang Anita; Abdul Rahman, Nur Afdzillah; Tang, Swee Fong; Abdul Latif, Hasniah; Zaki, Faizah Mohd; Annuar, Zulfiqar Mohd; Alias, Hamidah; Abdul Latiff, Zarina

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children is more extensive and is a rare cause of spontaneous secondary pneumothorax (SSP) which tends to be recurrent and refractory to conventional treatment. Its occurrence in paediatric patients posed great challenge to the choice of surgical management. Surgery in the form of pleurodesis is only considered if SSP does not improve after chemotherapy and after considering all relevant risk and benefits of surgery to patients. Chemical pleurodesis will not give the expected effect to eradicate SSP in this patient. Therefore mechanical pleurodesis is the treatment of choice. There are various techniques to perform mechanical pleurodesis; from pleural abrasion to pleurectomy. In the authors' experience, bilateral total pleurectomy provided the best outcome for this 9-year-old patient with persistent respiratory distress from SSP due to extensive pulmonary LCH.

  17. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristei, Cynthia; Carotti, Alessandra; Palazzari, Elisa; Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Lancellotta, Valentina; Palumbo, Isabella; Falzetti, Franca; Aversa, Franco; Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  18. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, Cynthia, E-mail: cynthia.aristei@unipg.it [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Carotti, Alessandra [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Palazzari, Elisa [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo [Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Lancellotta, Valentina [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falzetti, Franca [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Aversa, Franco [Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Parma General Hospital and University, Parma (Italy); Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  19. Chitin hydrolysis assisted by cell wall degrading enzymes immobilized of Thichoderma asperellum on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Kátia F.; Cortijo-Triviño, David; Batista, Karla A.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; García-Ruiz, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cell wall degrading enzymes produced by Thrichoderma asperellum (TCWDE) were immobilized on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol (TCNSO) beads and used for chitin hydrolysis. In order to optimize immobilization efficiency, the reaction time was varied from 2 to 12 h and reactions were conducted in the presence or absence of Na 2 SO 4 . Immobilized enzymes were analysed concerning to thermal and operational stability. Immobilization in presence of Na 2 SO 4 was 54% more efficient than immobilization in absence of salt. After optimization, 32% of the total enzyme offered was immobilized, with 100% of bounding efficiency, measured as the relation between protein and enzyme immobilized. Free and TCNSO–TCWDE presented very similar kinetics with maximum hydrolysis reached at 90 min of reaction. Thermal stability of both free and TCNSO–TCWDE was similar, with losses in activity after 55 °C. Moreover, free and TCNSO–TCWDE retained 100% activity after 3 h incubation at 55 °C. TCNSO–TCWDE were used in a bath-wise reactor during 14 cycles, producing 1825 μg of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) maintaining 83% of initial activity. - Highlights: • TCWDE immobilized on TCNSO, a support with highly hydrophobic character • New immobilization strategy for immobilization on a hydrophobic support • TCNSO–TCWDE were retained during washes and during incubation at 55 °C for 3 h

  20. Chitin hydrolysis assisted by cell wall degrading enzymes immobilized of Thichoderma asperellum on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Kátia F., E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Instituo de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Cortijo-Triviño, David [Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Batista, Karla A.; Ulhoa, Cirano J. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Instituo de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); García-Ruiz, Pedro A. [Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, cell wall degrading enzymes produced by Thrichoderma asperellum (TCWDE) were immobilized on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol (TCNSO) beads and used for chitin hydrolysis. In order to optimize immobilization efficiency, the reaction time was varied from 2 to 12 h and reactions were conducted in the presence or absence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Immobilized enzymes were analysed concerning to thermal and operational stability. Immobilization in presence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was 54% more efficient than immobilization in absence of salt. After optimization, 32% of the total enzyme offered was immobilized, with 100% of bounding efficiency, measured as the relation between protein and enzyme immobilized. Free and TCNSO–TCWDE presented very similar kinetics with maximum hydrolysis reached at 90 min of reaction. Thermal stability of both free and TCNSO–TCWDE was similar, with losses in activity after 55 °C. Moreover, free and TCNSO–TCWDE retained 100% activity after 3 h incubation at 55 °C. TCNSO–TCWDE were used in a bath-wise reactor during 14 cycles, producing 1825 μg of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) maintaining 83% of initial activity. - Highlights: • TCWDE immobilized on TCNSO, a support with highly hydrophobic character • New immobilization strategy for immobilization on a hydrophobic support • TCNSO–TCWDE were retained during washes and during incubation at 55 °C for 3 h.

  1. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael; Sykora, Karl-Walter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children (≤ 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses ≤ 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  2. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  3. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 1. The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the fourth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference authorized-system program is estimated to be 24 to 32 billion (1985) dollars. The total-system cost for the reference improved-performance system is estimated to be 26 to 34 billion dollars. A number of sensitivity cases were analyzed. For the authorized system, the costs for the sensitivity cases studied range from 21 to 39 billion dollars. For the improved-performance system, which includes a facility for monitored retrievable storage, the total-system cost in the sensitivity cases is estimated to be as high as 41 billion dollars. The factors that affect costs more than any other single factor for both the authorized and the improved-performance systems are delays in repository startup. A preliminary analysis of the impact of extending the burnup of nuclear fuel in the reactor was also performed; its results indicate that the impact is insignificant: the total-system cost is essentially unchanged from the comparable constant-burnup cases. The current estimate of the the total-system cost for the reference authorized system is zero to 3 billion dollars (9%) higher than the estimate for the reference system in the January 1985 TSLCC analysis

  4. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  5. Evaluation of Partial and Total Splenectomy in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Using an Internet-Based Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouttalib, Sofia; Rice, Henry E.; Snyder, Denise; Levens, Justin S.; Reiter, Audra; Soler, Pauline; Rothman, Jennifer A.; Thornburg, Courtney D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) who undergo total or partial splenectomy are poorly defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to initiate an internet-based registry to facilitate analysis of clinical outcomes for these children. We hypothesized that both surgical procedures would be well tolerated and would eliminate risk of splenic sequestration. Methods We developed a web-based registry using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform. Children were included if they had SCD and underwent total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) between 2003 to 2010. Clinical outcomes were compared between cohorts, with follow-up to one year. Results Twenty-four children were included, total splenectomy (n=15) and partial splenectomy (n=9). There were no differences in surgical time or intraoperative blood loss. The length of stay was longer after PS (4.1±1.7 days) compared to TS, (2.4±1.2 days, p=0.02). Within 30 days of surgery, 2 (20%) patients had acute chest syndrome following TS and 2 (15%) patients had acute chest syndrome after PS. During one year follow-up, no patient in either cohort had recurrent splenic sequestration, venous thrombosis or overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis. All children who were transfused preoperatively to prevent recurrent splenic sequestration successfully discontinued transfusions. Conclusions Both TS and PS result in favorable hematologic outcomes and low risk of adverse events for children with SCD. A REDCap based registry may facilitate data entry and analysis of clinical outcomes to allow for comparison between different types of splenectomy. PMID:22238140

  6. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. II. Measurement of circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T; Yoshida, H; Matsuda, S; Kimura, H; Miura, N [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 ..mu..Ci of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by /sup 51/Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by /sup 51/Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume.

  7. Detection of atomic scale changes in the free volume void size of three-dimensional colorectal cancer cell culture using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Lopez-Euba, Tamara; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro.

  8. Comparison of total body irradiation-based or non-total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jeong Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40 or non-TBI (n=37 regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS, and event-free survival (EFS were compared between the 2 groups. Results : Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 28 (82.4% were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33 of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%, the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P =0.005. In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089. The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion : The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.

  9. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Evaluation of white cell count and differential in synovial fluid for diagnosing infections after total hip or knee arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF white cell count (WCC and polymorphonuclear (PMN cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI at the total hip arthroplasty (THA or total knee arthroplasty (TKA site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, positive likelihood ratios (PLR, negative likelihood ratios (NLR, and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81-0.93 and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93 and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92 for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20% post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable

  11. [Inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis on the proliferation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-83 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiumin, He; Biao, Xu; Weihong, Wang; Chongyun, Bao; Shaowei, Hu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis on the proliferation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-83 cells. In vitro cell culture was performed. The proliferation of ACC-83 cells treated with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg·mL⁻¹) of total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis was observed using CCK-8 assay. Meanwhile, the apoptosis of ACC-83 cells treated with different concentrations (25, 50, 100 μg·mL⁻¹) of the total saponins was observed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CD74 were measured using Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis induced apoptosis and expressed dose-effect relationship. ACC-83 cells expressed MIF and CD74, and the total saponins suppressed MIF and CD74 expression in ACC-83 cells. The total saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis can significantly inhibit the proliferation, suppress MIF and CD74 expression, and promote apoptosis in ACC-83 cells. This study provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma using Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
.

  12. Effect of Radiotherapy Dose and Volume on Relapse in Merkel Cell Cancer of the Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Matthew; Harvey, Jennifer; Porceddu, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume on relapse patterns in patients with Stage I-III Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 112 patients diagnosed with MCC between January 2000 and December 2005 and treated with curative-intent RT. Results: Of the 112 evaluable patients, 88% had RT to the site of primary disease for gross (11%) or subclinical (78%) disease. Eighty-nine percent of patients had RT to the regional lymph nodes; in most cases (71%) this was for subclinical disease in the adjuvant or elective setting, whereas 21 patients (19%) were treated with RT to gross nodal disease. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72% and 53%, respectively, and the 2-year locoregional control rate was 75%. The in-field relapse rate was 3% for primary disease, and relapse was significantly lower for patients receiving ≥50Gy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.86). Surgical margins did not affect the local relapse rate. The in-field relapse rate was 11% for RT to the nodes, with dose being significant for nodal gross disease (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87). Patients who did not receive elective nodal RT had a much higher rate of nodal relapse compared with those who did (HR = 6.03; 95% CI, 1.34-27.10). Conclusion: This study indicates a dose-response for subclinical and gross MCC. Doses of ≥50Gy for subclinical disease and ≥55Gy for gross disease should be considered. The draining nodal basin should be treated in all patients.

  13. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  14. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  15. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  16. Blood, blood compounds and cell cultures irradiation in clinical radiotherapy equipment: studies on ideal volume and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio R.; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present the technic and equipment used by the Physical Radiologic Service of Radiation Therapy Department of A.C. Camargo Hospital to irradiate blood and blood compounds. The practical routine is illustrated. The results from others Institutions are presented, discussing about the homogeneity of dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy to all target volume, sufficient to neutralize cells responsible by graft-versus-host disease from blood transfusions. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a | forthcoming | boms | Volumes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  18. Combined effects of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3A polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic levels on the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu-Mei [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study showed that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) might influence DNMT enzyme activity associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the association of five SNPs from DNMT1 (rs8101626 and rs2228611), DNMT3A (rs34048824 and rs1550117), and DNMT3B (rs1569686) with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We also examined the combined effects of DNMT genotypes and urinary arsenic levels on ccRCC risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study, which included 293 subjects with ccRCC and 293 age- and gender-matched controls. The urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We observed that the DNMT1 rs8101626 G/G genotype was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of ccRCC [OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.99]. Subjects with concurrent DNMT1 rs8101626 A/A + A/G and DNMT3A rs34048824 T/T + T/C genotypes had significantly higher OR for ccRCC [OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.44–5.77]. Participants with the high-risk genotype of DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 with concurrently high urinary total arsenic levels had even higher OR of ccRCC in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to evaluate variant DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 genotypes that modify the arsenic-related ccRCC risk in a geographic area without significant arsenic exposure in Taiwan. - Highlights: • High urinary total arsenic level or polymorphism of DNMT1 increased the OR of ccRCC. • High risk genotypes of combination of DNMT1 and DNMT3A increased the OR of ccRCC. • A joint effect of urinary total arsenic level and DNMTs genotypes may affect ccRCC.

  19. Volumetry based biomarker speed of growth: Quantifying the change of total tumor volume in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging over time improves risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennmann, Markus; Kintzelé, Laurent; Piraud, Marie; Menze, Bjoern H; Hielscher, Thomas; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Wagner, Barbara; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens; Langs, Georg; Weber, Marc-André

    2018-05-18

    The purpose of this study was to improve risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients, introducing new 3D-volumetry based imaging biomarkers derived from whole-body MRI. Two-hundred twenty whole-body MRIs from 63 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma were retrospectively analyzed and all focal lesions >5mm were manually segmented for volume quantification. The imaging biomarkers total tumor volume, speed of growth (development of the total tumor volume over time), number of focal lesions, development of the number of focal lesions over time and the recent imaging biomarker '>1 focal lesion' of the International Myeloma Working Group were compared, taking 2-year progression rate, sensitivity and false positive rate into account. Speed of growth, using a cutoff of 114mm 3 /month, was able to isolate a high-risk group with a 2-year progression rate of 82.5%. Additionally, it showed by far the highest sensitivity in this study and in comparison to other biomarkers in the literature, detecting 63.2% of patients who progress within 2 years. Furthermore, its false positive rate (8.7%) was much lower compared to the recent imaging biomarker '>1 focal lesion' of the International Myeloma Working Group. Therefore, speed of growth is the preferable imaging biomarker for risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients.

  20. Rapid analysis of NSAIDs binding to β-cyclodextrin using the simultaneous measurement of absorption and circular dichroism with a novel multi-cell low-volume device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel Dahab, Ali; El-Hag, Dhia

    2012-10-01

    One of the relatively recent and most widely used approaches to reduce side effects associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the complexation of NSAIDs with Cyclodextrins (CyD). So far, CyD interaction with drugs is not well understood. There have been many reports along these lines; however, rarely do these studies exploit the full potential of optical techniques. The purpose of this work is to produce a versatile, compact, low-volume, routine apparatus for the simultaneous measurements of absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) which allows for the concurrent use of three different pathlengths for binding studies of NSAIDs/CyD as a function of pH. A new rotating multi-cell holder which holds four cells was designed and manufactured. The work was achieved using an effective novel method for binding titration employing four separate flow cells connected in series in a flow system involving a titration flask and a pump. The pK(a), binding constants, stoichiometry and structural co-conformations of NSAIDs/β-CyD complexes were elucidated and determined with accuracy. The system proved to be efficient and the analysis time was reduced to less than or equal to one fourth of total analysis time used in one-cell systems, with possible automation for high-throughput analysis.

  1. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Zadrag-Tecza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell—the hypertrophy state—is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without “mother” cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before.

  2. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  3. Express determination of the volume 222Rn activity using the Lucas Type scintillation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the possibility of the accurate determination of the volume radon activity using the Lucas type scintillation chamber before the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its decay products is achieved. This method allows to obtain data about the volume activity of the sample promptly and also it offers a possibility to apply the detector for measurements more times a day. We developed a method for the determination of the detection efficiency of the scintillation chamber for varied time periods after the chamber was filled up with a sample. The volume radon activity calculated from the count rates in saturated conditions is in a good agreement with the volume radon activity calculated from our derived relation. It was shown that the scintillation chamber can be used for the express determination of the volume radon activity. The time between the individual applications of the scintillation chamber can be compressed maintaining of sufficient accuracy of the determination of the volume radon activity. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of apoptosis and micronucleation induced by reactor neutron beams with two different cadmium ratios in total and quiescent cell populations within solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Takagaki, Masao; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Response of quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells in solid tumors to reactor neutron beam irradiation with two different cadmium (Cd) ratios was examined in terms of micronucleus (MN) frequency and apoptosis frequency, using four different tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors, C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, and Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty min after i.p. injection of sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of p-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutron beams. The tumors without 10 B-compound administration were irradiated with neutron beams or γ-rays. This neutron beam irradiation was performed using neutrons with two different Cd ratios. The tumors were then excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the MN frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, for apoptosis assay, 6 h after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequencies in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: Without 10 B-compounds, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was reduced by neutron beam irradiation. Under our particular neutron beam irradiation condition, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was larger in Q cells than in total cells, and the RBE values were larger for low Cd-ratio than high Cd-ratio neutrons. With 10 B-compounds, both frequencies were increased for each cell population, especially for total cells. BPA

  5. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Na; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Ding Xian; Xu, Li Qin; Fang, Hong; Wu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Total glycosides of peony (TGP) is a natural immuno-modulatory drug extracted from traditional Chinese herb peony. It has been approved by State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, data of TGP effect on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is still scarce. In this study, 19 patients with PsA received 12-week treatment of TGP, and clinical efficacy in joint manifestations was evaluated by DAS28 at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Peripheral percentages of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and NK cells were analyzed, and serum Th1-type cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) as well as pro-inflammatory factors (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were concomitantly examined. Six patients (32%) exhibited ≥25% decrease of DAS28 (responders). Interestingly, all responders displayed a continuous decrease in Treg and Th1 numbers during TGP treatment, concomitant with significant decreases in Th1-type cytokine levels. Serum IL-6 also showed a significant decline in responders. Non-responders lacked these sequential alterations. Thus, TGP merits further consideration as a promising therapeutic option for PsA. The result indicated that recovery of Tregs and Th1 may serve as prognostic markers to assess responsiveness to TGP treatment in PsA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  7. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R2=0.63. Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  8. Measurement of total hemoglobin reduces red cell transfusion in hospitalized patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a retrospective database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Christopher; Belk, Kathy W; Myers, Gerard J

    2018-01-01

    Historically, perioperative hemoglobin monitoring has relied on calculated saturation, using blood gas devices that measure plasma hematocrit (Hct). Co-oximetry, which measures total hemoglobin (tHb), yields a more comprehensive assessment of hemodilution. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of tHb measurement by co-oximetry and Hct, using conductivity with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, length of stay (LOS) and inpatient costs in patients having major cardiac surgery. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve replacement (VR) procedures from January 2014 to June 2016, using MedAssets discharge data. The patient population was sub-divided by the measurement modality (tHb and Hct), using detailed billing records and Current Procedural Terminology coding. Cost was calculated using hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant drivers of RBC transfusion and resource utilization. The study population included 18,169 cardiovascular surgery patients. Hct-monitored patients accounted for 66% of the population and were more likely to have dual CABG and VR procedures (10.4% vs 8.9%, p=0.0069). After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, as well as patient comorbidities, Hct-monitored patients had significantly higher RBC transfusion risk (OR=1.26, CI 1.15-1.38, pcosts (IRR=1.15, pcost (IRR=1.22, pcost compared to Hct monitoring.

  9. The modulation of the phosphorylation status of NKCC1 in organ cultured bovine lenses: Implications for the regulation of fiber cell and overall lens volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsova, Irene; Donaldson, Paul J; Kong, Zhiying; Wickremesinghe, Chiharu; Lam, Leo; Lim, Julie C

    2017-12-01

    In previous work, we have shown the Sodium/Potassium/2 Chloride Cotransporter (NKCC1) to be a key effector of lens fiber cell volume regulation. Since others have shown that the activity of NKCC1 is regulated via its phosphorylation status, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether NKCC1 phosphorylation can be modulated in organ cultured bovine lenses, and to see how this relates to changes in lens wet weight. Western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. After 1-22 h of culturing, lenses were weighed, assessed for transparency and the cortical protein fractions analyzed by western blot using antibodies to detect total NKCC1 and NKCC1-P. NKCC1, NKCC1-P, SPAK, PP1 and PP2A were all detected in the membrane fraction of bovine lenses. Under hypertonic conditions, NKCC1 is phosphorylated and activated to mediate a regulatory volume increase. Finally, NKCC1-P signal increased in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors indicating that PP1/PP2A can dephosphorylate NKCC1. These results show that the phosphorylation status and hence activity of NKCC1 is dynamically regulated and that in response to hypertonic stress, NKCC1 activity is increased to effect a regulatory volume increase that limits cell shrinkage. These findings support the view that the lens dynamically regulates ion fluxes to maintain steady state lens volume, and suggest that dysfunction of this regulation maybe an initiating factor in the localized fiber cell swelling that is a characteristic of diabetic lens cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Distinct Astrocytic Populations Responding with Different Volume Changes to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation: 3d Confocal Morphometry And Single-Cell Gene Expression Profilig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Jana; Rusňáková, Vendula; Honsa, Pavel; Pivoňková, Helena; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2011), S126-S126 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-13.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : cell volume regulation * single-cell PCR profiling * ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  13. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  14. Total Skin Electron Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Using a Modern Dual-Field Rotational Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumann, Thatcher R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute (WCI), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Parker, Sareeta [Department of Dermatology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Biostatistics Shared Core Resource at WCI, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Dhabbaan, Anees [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute (WCI), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Goodman, Michael [Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Flowers, Christopher R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute (WCI), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To report our experience with rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and to examine response by disease stage and race. Methods and Materials: We reviewed our outcomes for 68 CTCL patients who received RTSEI (≥30 Gy) from 2000 to 2013. Primary outcomes were complete clinical response (CCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Using log–rank tests and Cox proportional hazards, OS and RFS were compared across tumor stages at time of RTSEI with further racial subgroup analysis. Results: Median age at diagnosis and at time of radiation was 52 and 56 years, respectively. Median follow-up was 5.1 years, 49% were African American, and 49% were female. At time of treatment, 18, 37, and 13 patients were T stage 2, 3, and 4, respectively. At 6 weeks after RTSEI, overall CCR was 82% (88%, 83%, and 69% for T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Median RFS was 11 months for all patients and 14, 10, and 12 months for stage T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Tumor stage was not associated with RFS or CCR. Maintenance therapy after RTSEI was associated with improved RFS in both crude and multivariable analysis, controlling for T stage. Median OS was 76 months (91 and 59 months for T3 and T4, respectively). With the exception of improved OS in African Americans compared with whites at stage T2, race was not associated with CCR, RFS, or OS. Conclusions: These results represent the largest RTSEI clinical outcomes study in the modern era using a dual-field rotational technique. Our observed response rates match or improve upon the standard set by previous outcome studies using conventional TSEI techniques, despite a large percentage of advanced CTCL lesions in our cohort. We found that clinical response after RTSEI did not seem to be affected by T stage or race.

  15. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  16. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  17. Prognostic value of defining the systemic tumor volume with FDG-PET in diffuse large b cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Kang, Hye Jin; Na, Im Il; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Yang, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We measured the systemic tumor volume using FDG-PET in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). We also investigated its prognostic role, and compared it with that of other prognostic factors. FDG PET was performed in 38 newly diagnosed DLBL patients (20 men, 18 women, age 55.715.1 years) at pre-treatment of chemotherapy. Clinical staging of lymphoma was evaluated by Ann Arbor system. On each FDG PET scan, we acquired volume of interest (VOl) at the cut-off value of SUV=2.5 in every measurable tumor by the automatic edge detection software. According to the VOI, we measured the metabolic volume and mean SUV, and estimated volume-activity indexes (SUV Vol) as mean SUV times metabolic volume. And then, we calculated the summed metabolic volume (VOLsum) and summed SUV Vol (SUV Volsum) in every FDG PET scan. Maximum SUV of involved lesion (SUVmax) was also acquired on each FDG PET scan. Time to treatment failure (TTF) was compared among VOLsum (median), SUV Volsum (median), SUVmax (median), clinical stage, gender, age, LDH, and performance status-assigned response designations by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Initial stages of DLBL patients were stage I in 4, II in 14, III in 15, and IV in 4 by Ann Arbor system. Median follow up period was 15.5months, and estimated mean TTF was 22.3 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that TTF is statistically significantly reduced in those with high VOLsum (>215.1cm2, p=0.004), high SUV Volsum (>1577.5, p=0.003), and increased LDH (p=0.036). TTF did not correlate with SUVmax (p=0.571), clinical stage (p=0.194), gender (p=0.549), and age (p=0.128), and performance status =2 (p=0.074). Multivariate analysis using VOLsum, SUV Volsum, LDH, and performance status demonstrated no statistically significant predictor of TTF (p>0.05). Systemic tumor volume measurement using FDG-PET is suggestive to be the significant prognostic factor in patients with DLBL

  18. Optical Quantification of Cellular Mass, Volume, and Density of Circulating Tumor Cells Identified in an Ovarian Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Velasco, Carmen Ruiz; Li, Julia; Kolatkar, Anand; Luttgen, Madelyn; Bethel, Kelly; Duggan, Bridgette; Kuhn, Peter; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of cancer patients with known metastatic disease across the major types of epithelial malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of CTCs in the blood is prognostic of overall survival in breast, prostate, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer. This study characterizes CTCs identified using the high-definition (HD)-CTC assay in an ovarian cancer patient with stage IIIC disease. We characterized the physical properties of 31 HD-CTCs and 50 normal leukocytes from a single blood draw taken just prior to the initial debulking surgery. We utilized a non-interferometric quantitative phase microscopy technique using brightfield imagery to measure cellular dry mass. Next we used a quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy technique to measure cellular volume. These techniques were combined to determine cellular dry mass density. We found that HD-CTCs were more massive than leukocytes: 33.6 ± 3.2 pg (HD-CTC) compared to 18.7 ± 0.6 pg (leukocytes), p < 0.001; had greater volumes: 518.3 ± 24.5 fL (HD-CTC) compared to 230.9 ± 78.5 fL (leukocyte), p < 0.001; and possessed a decreased dry mass density with respect to leukocytes: 0.065 ± 0.006 pg/fL (HD-CTC) compared to 0.085 ± 0.004 pg/fL (leukocyte), p < 0.006. Quantification of HD-CTC dry mass content and volume provide key insights into the fluid dynamics of cancer, and may provide the rationale for strategies to isolate, monitor or target CTCs based on their physical properties. The parameters reported here can also be incorporated into blood cell flow models to better understand metastasis.

  19. Functional clonal deletion versus suppressor cell-induced transplantation tolerance in chimeras prepared with a short course of total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Morecki, S.; Weigensberg, M.; Bar, S.; Weiss, L.

    1986-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras induced by infusion of BM cells into recipients conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) were shown to develop humoral and cell-mediated tolerance to host and donor-type alloantigens by a number of in vitro and in vivo assays. Spleen cells of tolerant chimeras exhibited suppressive activity of mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). MLR suppression was not abrogated by depletion of Lyt-2 cells, and neither could Lyt-2-positive cells sorted from the spleens of tolerant chimeras suppress MLR or attenuate graft-versus-host reactivity in vivo. Likewise, specifically unresponsive spleen cells obtained from chimeras could not be induced to respond in MLR against tolerizing host-type cells following depletion of Lyt-2 or passage through a nylon-wool column. Tolerance of chimera spleen cells to host alloantigens, best documented by permanent survival of donor-type skin allografts, could be adoptively transferred into syngeneic recipients treated by heavy irradiation but not into untreated or mildly irradiated recipients. Adoptive transfer of tolerance seemed to be associated with experimental conditions favoring engraftment of tolerant cells rather than suppression of host reactivity. We speculate that although host and/or donor-derived suppressor cells may be operating in reducing the pool of specific alloreactive clones by blocking cell proliferation in response to allogeneic challenge, the final outcome in tolerant chimeras is actual or functional deletion of alloreactive clones

  20. Busulfan and total body irradiation as antihematopoietic stem cell agents in the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, R.; Rappeport, J.M.; Hellman, S.; Lipton, J.; Smith, B.; Geha, R.; Nathan, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of busulfan and total body irradiation to ablate hematopoietic stem cells as preparation for the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders was studied. Fourteen patients received 18 transplants; busulfan was used in the preparatory regimen of eight transplants and total body irradiation in the regimens of six transplants. Sustained hematopoietic ablation was achieved in six of eight patients prepared with busulfan and in all six patients prepared with total body irradiation. Three patients prepared with total body irradiation died with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, whereas no patients receiving busulfan developed interstitial pneumonitis. The optimal antihematopoietic stem cell agent to be used for the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorder for bone marrow transplantation is not certain

  1. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinomas in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Nitha, B; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes were evaluated for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. Cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect of total triterpenes were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line using MTT assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by down-regulating the levels of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and also by up-regulating the levels of Bax and caspase-9. Anti-carcinogenicity of total triterpenes was analysed using dimethyl benz [a] anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papilloma and mammary adenocarcinoma in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats respectively. Topical application of 5mg, 10mg and 20mg total triterpenes reduced the incidence of skin papilloma by 62.5, 37.5 and 12.5% respectively. Incidence of the mammary tumour was also reduced significantly by 33.33, 66.67 and 16.67% in 10, 50 and 100mg/kg b.wt. total triterpenes treated animals respectively. Total triterpenes were also found to reduce the average number of tumours per animal and extended the tumour latency period in both the models. The results indicate the potential cytotoxicity and anti-cancerous activity of total triterpenes, there by opens up a path to the development of a safe and successive chemo preventive agent of natural origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure and properties of cell membranes. Volume 3: Methodology and properties of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benga, G.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the topics: Quantum chemical approach to study the mechanisms of proton translocation across membranes through protein molecules; monomolecular films as biomembrane models; planar lipid bilayers in relation to biomembranes; relation of liposomes to cell membranes; reconstitution of membrane transport systems; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by X-ray techniques; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by spin labeling ESR; structure and dynamics of cell membranes as revealed by NMR techniques; the effect of dietary lipids on the composition and properties of biological membranes and index

  3. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  4. Total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Lise M.; Iversen, Lars; Kamstrup, Maria R.; Gniadecki, Robert; Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena; Wiren, Johan; Fenger-Groen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Background. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective palliative treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In the present study we reviewed the clinical response to TSEBT in Danish patients with CTCL. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 35 patients with CTCL treated with TSEBT in Denmark from 2001 to 2008 and followed for a median time of 7.6 months (range 3 days-3.7 years). Twenty five patients were treated with high-dose (30 Gy) and 10 patients in a protocol with low-dose (4 Gy) TSEBT. Results. Patients treated with low-dose therapy had inadequate response to treatment compared to patients treated with high-dose. Consequently the study with low-dose was discontinued and published. In patients treated with high-dose the overall response rate was 100%. Complete response (CR) rate was 68% and CR occurred after a median time of 2.1 months (range 1.8 months - 2.0 years). We found no difference in CR rate in patients with T2 (66.7%) and T3 disease (78.6%) (p = 0.64). Following CR 82.4% relapsed at a median time of four months (range 12 days-11.5 months). Relapse-free-survival was similar in patients with T2 and T3 disease (p 0.77). Progressive disease (PD) was experienced in 28.0% and the median time to PD was 9.0 months (range 4.6-44.3 months). Overall progression-free survival was 95.3%, 72.1% and 64.1% after 0.5-, 1- and 2-years. Effects of initial therapy on TSEBT treatment response and side effects to TSEBT were also analyzed. Conclusion. In conclusion, the present study confirms that high-dose TSEBT is an effective, but generally not a curative therapy in the management of CTCL. High-dose treatment yielded significantly better results than low-dose treatment with 4 Gy. TSEBT offers significant palliation in most patients when other skin-directed or systemic treatments have failed

  5. Wood decay by brown-rot fungi : changes in pore structure and cell wall volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Flournoy; T. Kent Kirk; T.L. Highley

    1991-01-01

    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta in soilblock cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to four low molecular weight molecules, (water, 4 Å,; glucose, 8 Å,; maltose, 10 Å; and raffinose, 128,) and three dextrans (Mr 6,000, 38 Å; 11,200, 51 Å; nd 17,500, 61 Å) were...

  6. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soe, Rikke; Macaulay, Nanna; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    in Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents upon swelling of the oocytes and a reduction in the current when the oocytes were shrunk. The volume-dependent changes in channel activity were not due to changes in the kinetics of the channels. These findings implicate a putative functional interaction between...... the Kir channels and aquaporins via small, fast cell volume changes in the glial cells....... channels and aquaporins is therefore debated. To test a possible volume-sensitivity of the Kir channels, the Kir4.1 or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without co-expression of aquaporins and subsequently exposed to cell volume alterations. Our results show an increase...

  7. ESTRO ACROP guidelines for target volume definition in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Ricardi, Umberto; Geets, Xavier; Belderbos, Jose; Pöttgen, Christoph; Dziadiuszko, Rafal; Peeters, Stephanie; Lievens, Yolande; Hurkmans, Coen; Slotman, Ben; Ramella, Sara; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; McDonald, Fiona; Manapov, Farkhad; Putora, Paul Martin; LePéchoux, Cécile; Van Houtte, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays a major role in the curative treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the ACROP committee was asked by the ESTRO to provide recommendations on target volume delineation for standard clinical scenarios in definitive (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant RT for locally advanced NSCLC. The guidelines given here are a result of the evaluation of a structured questionnaire followed by a consensus discussion, voting and writing procedure within the committee. Hence, we provide advice for methods and time-points of diagnostics and imaging before the start of treatment planning and for the mandatory and optional imaging to be used for planning itself. Concerning target volumes, recommendations are given for GTV delineation of primary tumour and lymph nodes followed by issues related to the delineation of CTVs for definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy. In the context of PTV delineation, recommendations about the management of geometric uncertainties and target motion are given. We further provide our opinions on normal tissue delineation and organisational and responsibility questions in the process of target volume delineation. This guideline intends to contribute to the standardisation and optimisation of the process of RT treatment planning for clinical practice and prospective studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic Value of Volume-Based {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT Parameters in Patients with Clinically Node-Negative Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Hwan Joo; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Moon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Byung Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Chung Hwan; Son, Young Ik [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of volume-based metabolic parameters measured with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) as compared with other prognostic factors. In this study, we included a total of 57 patients who had been diagnosed with cN0 tongue cancer by radiologic, ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and physical examinations. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average SUV (SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for primary tumors were measured with ({sup 18}F-FDG PET. The prognostic significances of these parameters and other clinical variables were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In the univariate analysis, pathological node (pN) stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, SUVmax, SUVavg, MTV, and TLG were significant predictors for survival. On a multivariate analysis, pN stage (hazard ratio = 10.555, p = 0.049), AJCC stage (hazard ratio = 13.220, p = 0.045), and MTV (hazard ratio = 2.698, p 0.033) were significant prognostic factors in cN0 OTSCC patients. The patients with MTV {>=} 7.78 cm{sup 3} showed a worse prognosis than those with MTV < 7.78 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.037). The MTV of primary tumor as a volumetric parameter of ({sup 18}F-FDG PET, in addition to pN stage and AJCC stage, is an independent prognostic factor for survival in cN0 OTSCC.

  9. [Loss of total 5-methylcytosine from the genome during cell culture aging coincides with the Hayflick limit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Analyzing the data about the age-related 5-methylcytosine (5mC) loss from DNA of cell cultures, the following conclusions have been made: 1. The rate of 5mC loss from DNA does not depend on the cell donor age; it remains constant during the logarithmic phase of cell growth, and may vary significantly in different cell lines. 2. The rate is inversely proportional to their Hayflick limit and to the species lifespan of cell donors. 3. In immortal cell lines the 5mC content in DNA is stable or increases with aging. 4. Hayflick limit estimations coincide with or are lower than the number of cell population doublings that corresponds to all 5mC loss from cell genome. A simple and fast method has been proposed for Hayflick limit prognostication by analysis of the rate of DNA hypomethylation. It may be used for early diagnosis of precrisis and immortal cell lines. Evidence has been obtained that age-dependent 5mC loss from DNA is the result of accumulating 5mC-->T+C substitutions that occur during DNA methylation in every cell division. The loss of all genomic 5mC residues during the lifespan may correspond to accumulation of about 3 x 10(6) 5mC-->T transitions or, on average, one mutation per gene. This may be one of the main reasons of the "catastrophe of errors" and cessation of cell proliferation. It is calculated that the rate of 5mC-->T transitions in normal cells may be 2.3 x 10(-5) per site in each cell doubling in human, 6 x 10(-5) in hamster, and 4.6 x 10(-4) in mouse. DNA methylation as a generator of mutations may be a "counter" of cell divisions and thus be one of the molecular mechanisms of the Hayflick phenomenon. The conclusion is made that the DNA methylation system may be considered as a genetically programmed mechanism for accumulating mutations during cell aging.

  10. Multimodality imaging with CT, MR and FDG-PET for radiotherapy target volume delineation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, David; Scarsbrook, Andrew F.; Sykes, Jonathan; Ramasamy, Satiavani; Subesinghe, Manil; Carey, Brendan; Wilson, Daniel J.; Roberts, Neil; McDermott, Gary; Karakaya, Ebru; Bayman, Evrim; Sen, Mehmet; Speight, Richard; Prestwich, Robin J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the variation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation between CT, MR and FDG PET-CT imaging. A prospective, single centre, pilot study was undertaken where 11 patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers (2 tonsil, 9 base of tongue primaries) underwent pre-treatment, contrast enhanced, FDG PET-CT and MR imaging, all performed in a radiotherapy treatment mask. CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs were contoured by 5 clinicians (2 radiologists and 3 radiation oncologists). A semi-automated segmentation algorithm was used to contour PET GTVs. Volume and positional analyses were undertaken, accounting for inter-observer variation, using linear mixed effects models and contour comparison metrics respectively. Significant differences in mean GTV volume were found between CT (11.9 cm 3 ) and CT-MR (14.1 cm 3 ), p < 0.006, CT-MR and PET (9.5 cm 3 ), p < 0.0009, and MR (12.7 cm 3 ) and PET, p < 0.016. Substantial differences in GTV position were found between all modalities with the exception of CT-MR and MR GTVs. A mean of 64 %, 74 % and 77 % of the PET GTVs were included within the CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs respectively. A mean of 57 % of the MR GTVs were included within the CT GTV; conversely a mean of 63 % of the CT GTVs were included within the MR GTV. CT inter-observer variability was found to be significantly higher in terms of position and/or volume than both MR and CT-MR (p < 0.05). Significant differences in GTV volume were found between GTV volumes delineated by radiologists (9.7 cm 3 ) and oncologists (14.6 cm 3 ) for all modalities (p = 0.001). The use of different imaging modalities produced significantly different GTVs, with no single imaging technique encompassing all potential GTV regions. The use of MR reduced inter-observer variability. These data suggest delineation based on multimodality imaging has the potential to improve accuracy of GTV definition. ISRCTN Registry: ISRCTN34165059. Registered 2

  11. Alteration of sensitivity of intratumor quiescent and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Takagaki, Masao; Kinashi, Yuko; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Changes in the sensitivity of intratumor quiescent (Q) and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10 B-compound were examined. Methods and Materials: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected to SCC VII tumor-bearing mice intraperitoneally 10 times to label all the proliferating (P) tumor cells. As priming irradiation, thermal neutrons alone or thermal neutrons with 10 B-labeled sodium borocaptate (BSH) or dl-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered. The tumor-bearing mice then received a series of γ-ray radiation doses, 0 through 24 h after the priming irradiation. During this period, no BrdU was administered. Immediately after the second irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. Following incubation of tumor cells with cytokinesis blocker, the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (= Q cells at the time of priming irradiation) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total (P + Q) tumor cells was determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU before the priming irradiation. To determine the BrdU-labeled cell ratios in the tumors at the time of the second irradiation, each group also included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted subcutaneously 5 days before the priming irradiation. Results: In total cells, during the interval between the two irradiations, the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays relative to that immediately after priming irradiation decreased with the priming irradiation ranking in the following order: thermal neutrons only > thermal neutrons with BSH > thermal neutrons with BPA. In contrast, in Q cells, during that time the sensitivity increased in the following order: thermal neutrons only 10 B-compound, especially BPA, in thermal neutron irradiation causes the recruitment from the Q to P population

  12. Bone marrow transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers in mice. II. T cell requirement for engraftment in total lymphoid irradiation-conditioned recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallera, D.A.; Soderling, C.C.; Carlson, G.J.; Kersey, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the role of T lymphocytes in engraftment of bone marrow (BM) in animals conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers. Donor BM (added as a source of lymphohematopoietic stem cells) and spleen cells (added as a source of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-causing cells) were pretreated in vitro with monoclonal anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement (C). T cell-depleted grafts were then give to allogeneic mice conditioned with 900 rad of single dose TLI plus cyclophosphamide (CY). These mice did not engraft. Even in the absence of added spleen cells, elimination of the small T cell population from donor BM grafts prevented engraftment compared with animals that received the same conditioning regimen and untreated donor cells. These control animals demonstrated uniform evidence of engraftment about 1 month after transplantation. Similar findings were reported when recipients were conditioned with fractionated 17 x 200-rad TLI. In TLI plus CY-conditional recipients, we have also observed that increasing the donation of treated bone marrow cells still did not result in significant engraftment. Furthermore, graft failure in mice receiving normal dosages of anti-Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells was not a strain-restricted phenomenon. Moreover, removal of bone marrow T cells with monoclonal anti-Lyt-1 plus complement also resulted in graft failure in TLI-conditioned recipients. In contrast to TLI conditioning, when Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells were given to recipients conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI), a high percentage of engraftment was demonstrated by an H-2 microcytotoxicity assay. Plausible mechanisms for there findings are discussed

  13. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  14. 3D Volume and Morphology of Perennial Cave Ice and Related Geomorphological Models at Scăriloara Ice Cave, Romania, from Structure from Motion, Ground Penetrating Radar and Total Station Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J.; Onac, B. P.; Kruse, S.; Forray, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    Research at Scăriloara Ice Cave has proceeded for over 150 years, primarily driven by the presence and paleoclimatic importance of the large perennial ice block and various ice speleothems located within its galleries. Previous observations of the ice block led to rudimentary volume estimates of 70,000 to 120,000 cubic meters (m3), prospectively placing it as one of the world's largest cave ice deposits. The cave morphology and the surface of the ice block are now recreated in a total station survey-validated 3D model, produced using Structure from Motion (SfM) software. With the total station survey and the novel use of ArcGIS tools, the SfM validation process is drastically simplified to produce a scaled, georeferenced, and photo-texturized 3D model of the cave environment with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.24 m. Furthermore, ground penetrating radar data was collected and spatially oriented with the total station survey to recreate the ice block basal surface and was combined with the SfM model to create a model of the ice block itself. The resulting ice block model has a volume of over 118,000 m3 with an uncertainty of 9.5%, with additional volumes left un-surveyed. The varying elevation of the ice block basal surface model reflect specific features of the cave roof, such as areas of enlargement, shafts, and potential joints, which offer further validation and inform theories on cave and ice genesis. Specifically, a large depression area was identified as a potential area of initial ice growth. Finally, an ice thickness map was produced that will aid in the designing of future ice coring projects. This methodology presents a powerful means to observe and accurately characterize and measure cave and cave ice morphologies with ease and affordability. Results further establish the significance of Scăriloara's ice block to paleoclimate research, provide insights into cave and ice block genesis, and aid future study design.

  15. Non-calcified coronary plaque volume inversely related to CD4(+) T-cell count in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Horacio; Matta, Jatin R; Muldoon, Nancy; Masur, Henry; Hadigan, Colleen; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Non-calcified coronary artery plaque (NCAP) might be an important predictor of cardiovascular events; however, few studies have directly measured NCAP in HIV-infected individuals. We completed a prospective cross-sectional evaluation of NCAP and coronary calcium scores using computed tomography angiography in HIV-infected patients (n=26) without known coronary artery disease (CAD), but who had one or more CAD risk factor(s), and compared them with controls matched on age, race, sex, body mass index and Framingham Risk Score (n=26). There was no difference in coronary calcium scores (114 ± 218 versus 124 ± 298; P=0.89) or NCAP volume (65 ± 86 mm(3) versus 63 ± 82 mm(3); P=0.38) between HIV-infected patients and controls, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, lower CD4(+) T-cell count was associated with increased NCAP volume (r=-0.52, P=0.006). The CD4(+) T-cell count remained a significant predictor of NCAP in a multivariate analysis that adjusted for age and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Plaque burden is similar between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals when matched on traditional CAD risk factors; however, immune function might mediate the development of atherosclerosis in HIV infection.

  16. Rescue by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs from bone marrow failure after total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.R.; Gray, K.N.; Hester, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the minimum dose of buffy coat cells necessary to achieve hematopoietic rescue following supralethal irradiation, mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were subjected to leukacytapheresis using three different techniques of cell separation. The buffy coats were frozen with dimethylsulfoxide and stored at -196 degrees C until transfused. Sixteen dogs were irradiated with 800 rads and were supported with antibiotics and transfusions of irradiated homologous blood. They were transfused with the frozen and thawed buffy coat cells, and, if they survived, they were followed for 100 days, sacrificed, and their tissues studied. The mean yield of mononuclear cells during leukocytapheresis ranged from 4.1 +/- 2.0 X 10(9) (mean +/- SD) to 6.0 +/- 4.0 X 10(9) for the three leukacytapheresis methods; one technique was not as satisfactory as the other two. Six of the 16 dogs fully recovered with evidence of marrow rescue; however, only one had a dose of mononuclear cells less than 11.1 X 10(9). These data indicate that seven to 17 leukacytapheresis procedures would be required to reconstitute a 70 kilogram patient. These preliminary findings suggest that, because the yields of transplantable cells with current technology are not adequate, the transplantation potential of buffy coat cells exposed to mobilizing agents should be evaluated

  17. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated

  18. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope 50Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori; Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A method using stable isotope 50 Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with 50 Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of 50 Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the 50 Cr method were 46.6±9.9 and 133±17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author)

  19. The determination of blood volume in horses using stable isotope sup 50 Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Kunugiyama, Iwao; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Megumi; Furukawa, Yoshinori (Kitasato Univ., Towada, Aomori (Japan). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences); Hiraga, Atsushi; Yamanobe, Akira; Kubo, Katsuyoshi

    1991-05-01

    A method using stable isotope {sup 50}Cr was presented to determine equine blood volumes accurately in the field. The erythrocyte labelled with {sup 50}Cr was injected intravenously, then small amount of blood was collected at regular intervals, and the erythrocyte volume was measured from dilution rate of {sup 50}Cr. A blood volume was calculated from the erythrocyte volume and the packed cell volume (PCV). The present results suggested that the optimum time of collecting blood at rest was 2 h after injection of tagged blood. The red cell volumes and the total blood volumes of fifteen thoroughbred horses measured by the {sup 50}Cr method were 46.6+-9.9 and 133+-17 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The mean red cell volume of stallion was larger than mare (t-test, p<0.05), and three was no significant difference in the blood volume. (author).

  20. Quality of red cell concentrates in relation to the volume of the buffy coat removed by automated processing in a top and bottom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N; Dekker, W J; Reesink, H A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of automated removal of increasing volumes of buffy coat in a 'top and bottom' system on the composition of red cell concentrates (RCC) was investigated. The volume of the buffy coat was adjusted to group 1:50 ml (n = 31), group 2: 70 ml (n = 31) and group 3: 100 ml (n = 31), respectively. The numbers of platelets and leukocytes in the buffy coats were comparable between the groups, whereas the red cell volumes in the buffy coats showed a significant difference (17 +/- 3.6 ml group 1, versus 22 +/- 4.1 ml group 2 and 26 +/- 3.88 ml group 3; p less than 0.001). The volumes, hematocrits and cell counts of the RCC were not significantly different. The plasma volumes were inversely correlated with the volume of buffy coat removed, i.e. 268 +/- 19 ml group 1, versus 257 +/- 15 ml group 2 and 233 +/- 20 ml group 3 (p less than 0.001). We conclude that in the 'top and bottom' system an increase of the volume of the buffy coat from 50 to 100 ml did not improve the quality of the RCC regarding contamination with leukocytes and platelets.

  1. Analysis of primary tumor metabolic volume during chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roengvoraphoj, Olarn; Eze, Chukwuka; Li, Minglun; Dantes, Maurice; Taugner, Julian [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Wijaya, Cherylina [Asklepios Fachkliniken Muenchen-Gauting, Department of Pulmonology, Munich (Germany); Tufman, Amanda; Huber, Rudolf Maria [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich and Thoracic Oncology Centre Munich, Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, Internal Medicine V, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany); Belka, Claus; Manapov, Farkhad [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has an established role in the initial diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. However, a prognostic value of PET/CT during multimodality treatment has not yet been fully clarified. This study evaluated the role of primary tumor metabolic volume (PT-MV) changes on PET/CT before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A total of 65 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) UICC stage IIIA/B (TNM 7th Edition) were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (sequential or concurrent setting). PET/CT was acquired before the start, at the end of the third week, and 6 weeks following CRT. Median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 16 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12-20). In all, 60 (92.3%) patients were eligible for pre-treatment (pre-PT-MV), 28 (43%) for mid-treatment (mid-PT-MV), and 53 (81.5%) for post-treatment (post-PT-MV) volume analysis. Patients with pre-PT-MV >63 cm{sup 3} had worse OS (p < 0.0001). A reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV of >15% improved OS (p = 0.001). In addition, patients with post-PT-MV > 25 cm{sup 3} had significantly worse outcome (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, performance status (p = 0.002, hazard ratio [HR] 0.007; 95% CI 0.00-0.158), pre-PT-MV1 < 63 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.027, HR 3.98; 95% CI 1.17-13.49), post-PT-MV < 25 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.013, HR 11.90; 95% CI 1.70-83.27), and a reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV > 15% (p = 0.004, HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.02-0.31) correlated with improved OS. Our results demonstrated that pre- and post-treatment PT-MV, as well as an at least 15% reduction in mid- to post-PT-MV, significantly correlates with OS in patients with inoperable locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F-2-Fluor-2-desoxy-D-Glukose und Computertomographie ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) hat sich in der initialen

  2. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  3. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  4. Two types of T helper cells in mice: Differences in cellular immune functions and cytokine secretion - selective reduction of one type after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.Z.

    1989-01-01

    As observed from a large panel of mouse T helper clones, there are at least two subsets of CD4 + T cells that both differ in function and demonstrate distinct patterns of cytokine secretion after antigen or mitogen stimulation. Th1 cells synthesize IL-2, INF-γ and lymphotoxin. They produce a DTH reaction in the footpads of naive mice. In addition, Th1 cells are required for the generation of CTL, and they appear to augment IgG2a antibody production. In contrast, by secreting IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, Th2 cells play an essential role in humoral immunity. TLI consists of high dose, fractionated irradiation delivered selectively to the major lymphoid tissues. Four to six weeks after TLI, the CD4 + cells of the treated mice (counted as a percentage of the total spleen lymphocytes) recover to the similar levels as those in normal BALB/c mice. These CD4 + cells can help normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP-KLH in adoptive cell transfer experiments, but the same cells are inactive in the MLR, and they fail to transfer DTH in TNP-KLH primed syngeneic BALB/c mice

  5. [Effect of total glucosides of peony on expression and DNA methylation status of ITGAL gene in CD4(+) T cells of systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Liang, Gongping; Luo, Shuangyan; Lu, Qianjin

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on expression and DNA methylation status of ITGAL gene (CD11a) in CD4(+) T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CD4(+) T cells were isolated by positive selection using CD4 beads. CD4(+) T cells were treated by TGP at 0, 62.5, 312.5 and 1562.5 mg/L for 48 h. The MTT method was used to assess cell viability; mRNA expression level was measured by realtime-PCR; protein level of CD11a was measured by flow cytometric analysis; DNA methylation status was assayed by bisulfite sequencing. No significant change in cell viability was found in CD4(+) T cells among the different concentration groups (P>0.05). Compared with control, the mRNA and protein levels of ITGAL were down-regulated significantly in SLE CD4(+) T cells treated with TGP (1562.5 mg/L) (PTGP (1562.5 mg/L) treated CD4(+) T cells compared with control group (PTGP can repress CD11a gene expression through enhancing DNA methylation of ITGAL promoter in CD4(+) T cells from patients with SLE. This observation represents a preliminary step in understanding the mechanism of TGP in SLE therapy.

  6. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  7. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesmann, Lukas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel; Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene; Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike; Dobiasch, Sophie; Eze, Chukwuka; Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne; Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa; Hausmann, Jan; Henkenberens, Christoph; Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H.; Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela; Maeurer, Matthias; Panje, Cedric M.; Suess, Christoph; Ziegler, Sonia; Ebert, Nadja; Medenwald, Daniel; Ostheimer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  8. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA......Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  9. The Blood Volume of the Guinea Pig: Effects of Epinephrine and Isoproterenol upon the Red Cell and Plasma Volumes, Heart Rate, and Mean Arterial Pressure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    capillaries (4), blood volumes calculated from plasma volume measures must correct for label that has left the system between the time of the injected dose...Splenic sequestration and contraction are mediated by the autonomic nervous system and blood-borne agents (10). Sympathetic nerve fibers from the truncus...sympathlcus and parasympathetic neurons of the nervus vagus (cranial nerve X) innervate the celiac plexus (8, 11). A subdivision of the celiac plexus

  10. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV......Aging is associated with decreased trabecular bone mass and increased adipocyte formation in bone marrow. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share common precursor cells present in the bone marrow stroma, it has been proposed that an inverse relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast....../TV %) using the point-counting technique. Bone size did not differ between the two groups. In troglitazone-treated mice, AV/TV was significantly higher than in control mice (4.7+/-2.1% vs. 0.2+/-0.3%, respectively, mean +/- SD, P

  11. Perioperative transfusion management in patients with sickle cell anaemia undergoing a total hip arthroplasty. Is there a role of red-cell exchange transfusion? A retrospective study in the CHU of Fort-de-France Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Amar, K; Rouvillain, J-L; Loko, G

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to examine the optimal regimen of transfusion and whether preoperative transfusion is needed in patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) undergoing a Total hip arthroplasty (THA). Then, we assessed the incidence of perioperative complications rates among patients assigned to different transfusion