WorldWideScience

Sample records for total carbohydrate intake

  1. Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, A. E.; Skilton, M. R.; van Bakel, M. M. E.; Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Agnoli, C.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Buurma, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Jensen, M. K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Kaaks, R.; Noethlings, U.; Chloptsios, Y.; Zylis, D.; Mattiello, A.; Caini, S.; Ocke, M. C.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Skeie, G.; Parr, C. L.; Molina-Montes, E.; Manjer, J.; Johansson, I.; McTaggart, A.; Key, T. J.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35-74 years, were administered a

  2. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  3. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (poral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  4. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  5. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  7. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  8. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  9. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  10. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  11. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  13. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  14. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  15. Associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms among middle-aged Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eizaburo; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Uemura, Mayu; Murata, Chiyoe; Otsuka, Rei; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that may affect sleep, but the associations of macronutrient intakes with insomnia are inconsistent. We investigated the associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms. In this cross-sectional analysis of 4435 non-shift workers, macronutrient intakes were assessed by the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire, which requires the recall of usual intakes of 58 foods during the preceding month. Presence of insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and poor quality of sleep (PQS) were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for demographic, psychological, and behavioral factors, as well as medical histories. Low protein intake (vs ≥16% of total energy) was associated with DIS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.56) and PQS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48), while high protein intake (≥19% vs Low carbohydrate intake (vs ≥50% of total energy) was associated with DMS (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97-1.45). Protein and carbohydrate intakes in the daily diet were associated with insomnia symptoms. The causality of these associations remains to be explained.

  16. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita S Elidottir

    Full Text Available Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD.A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors.Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids, respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day, including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day. Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal.Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies.

  17. Total hip arthroplasty and perioperative oral carbohydrate treatment: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsten, Andreas; Hjartarson, Hjörtur; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2012-06-01

    Perioperative oral carbohydrate intake is beneficial to general surgery patients. Total hip arthroplasty is a common surgical procedure, and even a moderate improvement in patient outcome could have a significant effect on the resources needed for these patients. However, few studies have focused on the effects of carbohydrate intake on orthopaedic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate if perioperative oral carbohydrate intake alters the postoperative course for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The primary hypothesis was that pain scores would be lower in patients treated with carbohydrate. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. This study was carried out between September 2009 and April 2011 at a district Swedish hospital that specialises in orthopaedic surgery. Sixty ASA physical status I-III patients scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty were included. Exclusion criteria were obesity, diabetes, prior hip surgery to the same hip, ongoing infection, immunological deficiency or age less than 50 or more than 80 years. Patients were given 400 ml of either an oral 12.5% carbohydrate solution or a placebo beverage (flavoured water) 1.5 h before and 2 h after surgery. Visual analogue scales were used to score six discomfort parameters. Immediately prior to surgery, the carbohydrate-treated patients were less hungry (median score 9.5 vs. 22 mm) and experienced less nausea (0 vs. 1.5 mm) (Phip arthroplasty.

  18. The impact of carbohydrate intake and its sources on hemoglobin A1c levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes not taking anti-diabetic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimoto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Shiho Watanabe,2 Masashi Komeda,3 Kenji Wakai4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Jinsenkai Hospital, Morofuku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan Background: Although postprandial glucose levels largely depend on carbohydrate intake, the impact of carbohydrate and its sources on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels has not been demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM probably because, in previous studies, more than 50% of patients were taking anti-diabetic medication, and the researchers used energy percent of carbohydrate as an indicator of carbohydrate intake.Patients and methods: We recruited 125 Japanese men (mean age 58±12 years and 104 women (mean age 62±10 years with T2DM who were not taking anti-diabetic medication and dietary therapy. We used 3-day dietary records to assess total carbohydrate intake and its sources, computed Spearman’s correlation coefficients, and conducted multiple regression analyses for associations of carbohydrate sources with HbA1c by sex.Results: Mean HbA1c and total carbohydrate intake were 8.2%±1.9% and 272.0±84.6 g/day in men and 7.6%±1.3% and 226.7±61.5 g/day in women, respectively. We observed positive correlation of total carbohydrate intake (g/day with HbA1c in men (rs=0.384 and women (rs=0.251, but no correlation for % carbohydrate in either sex. Regarding carbohydrate sources, we found positive correlations of carbohydrate from noodles (rs=0.231 and drinks (rs=0.325, but not from rice, with HbA1c in men. In women, carbohydrate from rice had a positive correlation (rs=0.317, but there were no correlations for carbohydrate from noodles and drinks. The association of total carbohydrate intake (g/day and carbohydrate from soft drinks with HbA1c in

  19. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  20. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  1. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  2. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  3. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  4. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  5. Optimal energy distribution of carbohydrate intake for Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: the Japanese Elderly Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Chiemi; Yoshimura, Hidenori; Okumura, Ryota; Takahashi, Keiko; Iimuro, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Araki, Atsushi; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    In diet therapy for diabetes, optimal energy intake and the energy distribution of macronutrients (protein : fat : carbohydrate [PFC] energy ratio) are important. We aimed to clarify the correlation between the PFC energy ratio and metabolic parameters including glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and triglycerides in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 65 years or older. Participants were 1173 diabetic patients aged 65 years or older with serum HbA1c level of >/=7.4% enrolled in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). The participants were divided into four groups by the percentage of total energy intake (%E) of carbohydrate (C1: less than 55%E, C2: 55%E or more and less than 60%E, C3: 60%E or more and less than 65%E, and C4: 65%E or more). Relations of %E of carbohydrate to HbA1c and other metabolic parameters, energy intake and nutritional intake were examined. Furthermore, the subjects were divided into four categories by HbA1c levels by quartile method (Q1: less than 7.90%, Q2: 7.90% or more and less than 8.30%, Q3: 8.30% or more and less than 8.80%, Q4: 8.80% or more). Relations of HbA1c to other metabolic parameters, energy intake and nutritional intake were examined. The mean HbA1c levels in the four groups were C1: 8.40%, C2: 8.50%, C3: 8.41% and C4: 8.36% in men, and C1: 8.51%, C2: 8.47%, C3: 8.35% and C4: 8.52% in women, respectively. There were no significant differences and linear trend in HbA1c levels across groups. The mean triglyceride levels were in the range of 122-128 mg/dL in men from C1 to C3, although it was significantly higher in C4 (177 mg/dL). The mean triglyceride levels were in the range of 128-136 mg/dL in women from C1 to C3, although it was significantly higher in Q4 (150 mg/dL). Amounts of protein and fat intakes decreased with an increase of %E of carbohydrate, although amount of carbohydrate intake did not change significantly. As a result, %E of protein and fat, and energy intake decreased

  6. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  7. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  8. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS, a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals.

  9. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Cortes, Dina; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-12-01

    Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked to subsequent metabolic disease. The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 participating in a randomized controlled trial. Diet was assessed at gestational weeks 11-14 and 36-37 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Body composition in the offspring was assessed at birth by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative fat mass (%) was the primary outcome. Absolute measures (total fat, abdominal fat, and lean body mass) were secondary outcomes. Mean ± SD weight and absolute and relative fat mass in the offspring at birth were 3769 ± 542 g, 436 ± 214 g, and 11% ± 4%, respectively. Maternal intake of digestible carbohydrates was associated with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat mass of 2.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 3.7%), which corresponded in absolute terms to a 103-g (95% CI: 27, 179-g) higher fat mass. Abdominal fat mass was also higher. In a strata of women with well-controlled glucose (2-h glucose values ≤6.6 mmol/L), no association between carbohydrate intake and offspring fat mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). In obese women, even those

  10. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of synthesis, from [ 14 C]glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased ∼80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis

  11. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  12. Is the Proportion of Carbohydrate Intake Associated with the Incidence of Diabetes Complications?—An Analysis of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Horikawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate proportions of macronutritional intake have been controversial in medical nutritional therapy for diabetes, and evidence of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on diabetes complications in prospective settings is sparse. We investigated the relationships between proportions of carbohydrate intake as the % of total energy and diabetes complications in a nationwide cohort of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years with hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. The analysis was of 1516 responders to a baseline dietary survey assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups. Primary outcomes were times to overt nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and cardiovascular disease (CVD after 8 years. Hazard ratios (HRs for proportions of carbohydrate intake were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for confounders. High carbohydrate intake was significantly related to higher intakes of grain, fruits, and sweets/snacks and lower intakes of soybean and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, meat and processed meat, fish and processed fish, eggs, milk and dairy products, oil, and alcoholic beverages. During the eight-year follow-up, there were 81, 275, and 129 events of overt nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and CVD, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, HRs for complications in patients with carbohydrate intake in the second or third tertiles (51.0%–56.4% and ≥56.5%, respectively compared with carbohydrate intake in the first tertile (<50.9%, referent were analyzed. No significant associations were shown in the second and third tertiles relative to first tertile (overt nephropathy: 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.54–2.06 and 0.98 (0.40–2.44; diabetic retinopathy: 1.30 (0.90–1.88 and 1.30 (0.78–2.15; and CVD: 0.95 (0.55–1.63 and 1.37 (0.69–2.72. By exploring potentially nonlinear relationships, trends for the incidence of diabetes complications according to proportions of carbohydrate intake were not

  13. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, S D; Rickstrew, J; Slaughter, J C; Vaezi, M F; Silver, H J

    2016-11-01

    Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women. About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly. About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMA IR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women. GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  16. Quantity and Quality of Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy, Newborn Body Fatness and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Conferred Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M. Mckenzie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers of cardio-metabolic risk include newborn body fatness and cardiac autonomic control. We sought to determine whether maternal dietary carbohydrate quantity and/or quality during pregnancy are associated with newborn body composition and cardiac autonomic function. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed in 142 mother-infant pairs using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Infant adiposity and body composition were assessed at birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability. The quantity of carbohydrates consumed during pregnancy, as a percentage of total energy intake, was not associated with meaningful differences in offspring birth weight, adiposity or heart rate variability (p > 0.05. There was some evidence that maternal carbohydrate quality, specifically higher fibre and lower glycemic index, is associated with higher heart rate variability in the newborn offspring (p = 0.06. This suggests that poor maternal carbohydrate quality may be an important population-level inter-generational risk factor for later cardiac and hemodynamic risk of their offspring.

  17. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise and deficient carbohydrate storage and intake as causes of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J B

    1989-03-01

    Exercise is associated with a marked increase in glucose uptake by muscle, which is initially supported by breakdown of hepatic glycogen and subsequently by increased gluconeogenesis. If hepatic glucose production is inadequate, hypoglycemia results. During exercise there is decreased plasma insulin and increased catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone, which contribute to but are not essential for the increased hepatic output of glucose. Although insulin concentrations fall, insulin sensitivity is increased. However, the augmented glucose uptake by muscle is due to other factors. The symptoms of exhaustion during exercise are not due to hypoglycemia, and prevention of hypoglycemia may not prolong the time of exercise to exhaustion. During severe caloric restriction, hepatic glucose production decreases and free fatty acids and ketone bodies become important sources of calories. Although under these circumstances hepatic gluconeogenesis is usually sufficient to prevent hypoglycemia, with very severe caloric restriction hypoglycemia can result. With starvation, insulin concentrations fall while growth hormone and glucagon increase. Frequently the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia are absent in individuals with hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction. Hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction has not been totally restricted to underdeveloped areas of the world. In such patients no endocrine abnormalities have been found, and hypoglycemia has persisted despite administration of large amounts of carbohydrate. Pregnancy and lactation could predispose to hypoglycemia in the face of inadequate caloric intake.

  19. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  20. Energy substrate utilization with and without exogenous carbohydrate intake in boys and men exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Chu, Lisa; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about energy yield during exercise in the heat in boys compared with men. To investigate substrate utilization with and without exogenous carbohydrate (CHO exo ) intake, seven boys [11.2 ± 0.2 (SE) yr] and nine men (24.0 ± 1.1 yr) cycled (4 × 20-min bouts) at a fixed metabolic heat production (Ḣ p ) per unit body mass (6 W/kg) in a climate chamber (38°C and 50% relative humidity), on two occasions. Participants consumed a 13 C-enriched 8% CHO beverage (CARB) or placebo beverage (CONT) in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Substrate utilization was calculated for the last 60 min of exercise. CHO exo oxidation rate (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mg·kg fat-free mass -1 ·min -1 , P = 0.02) and CHO exo oxidation efficiency (12.8 ± 0.6 vs. 16.0 ± 0.9%, P = 0.01) were lower in boys compared with men exercising in the heat. Total carbohydrate (CHO total ), endogenous CHO (CHO endo ), and total fat (Fat total ) remained stable in boys and men (P > 0.05) during CARB, whereas CHO total oxidation rate decreased (P exercise in the heat may be as beneficial for boys as men to spare endogenous substrate. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  2. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ramos-Lopez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG. This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively. Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  3. Intake and total apparent digestibility in lambs fed six maize varieties in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dantas dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, energy intake and nitrogen balance of silages of six maize varieties with early or super early cycles recommended to Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four male castrated lambs were lodged in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used, with means compared by Tukey test at 5%. There were no differences among varieties for any of the evaluated variables regarding intake and apparent digestibility. Concerning the intake of digestible energy, metabolizable energy and the ratio content of digestible and metabolizable energy, significant differences were observed between varieties and BRS Assum Preto showed highest values of metabolizable energy (2.650,8 kcal/day. All of the treatments presented positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among themselves. The varieties asessed can be an additional option to the semiarid regions in Brazil.

  4. Sex-specific interactions between the IRS1 polymorphism and intakes of carbohydrates and fat on incident type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Ulrika; Rukh, Gull; Stojkovic, Ivana; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Wallström, Peter; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2013-01-01

    The minor T allele of rs2943641 near the gene encoding for insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adiposity in genome-wide association studies. Dietary intake can influence the regulation of IRS1, and studies have indicated sex-specific associations between IRS1 and adiposity. The objective was to examine the interaction between IRS1 rs2943641 and macronutrient intakes on incident T2D and percentage body fat in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The study included 15,227 women and 9614 men aged 45-74 y without prevalent diabetes. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method. During 12 y of follow-up, 1567 incident T2D cases were identified. The T allele was associated with lower incidence of T2D (P-trend = 0.003) and, in men, with higher percentage body fat (P-trend = 0.00002). We observed 3-way interactions between sex, rs2943641, and carbohydrate intake (P = 0.01) as well as between sex, rs2943641, and fat intake (P = 0.01) on incident T2D. Among women, the T allele was associated with decreased risk only in the lower tertiles of carbohydrate intake (P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.01). In contrast, among men, the T allele was associated with decreased risk in the lowest tertile of fat intake (P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.02). No interaction was observed between macronutrient intakes and rs2943641 on percentage body fat. Our results indicate that IRS1 rs2943641 interacts with carbohydrate and fat intakes on incident T2D in a sex-specific fashion. A protective association between the rs2943641 T allele and T2D was restricted to women with low carbohydrate intake and to men with low fat intake.

  5. The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Marjet J M; Saris, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were allocated to a control (habitual) diet group (CD), a low-fat (-10 energy percent, En%) high simple carbohydrate (SCHO) or low-fat high complex carbohydrate group (CCHO) (SCHO vs. CCHO: 1.5 vs. 0.5) using a controlled laboratory shop system. Reanalyses were made for the energy, amount and density of all drinks and in particular of sweetened beverages (SBs). The SCHO and CD group could select non-diet SBs, including soft drinks and fruit juices, while the CCHO group received SB alternatives. Energy intake decreased in the CCHO and SCHO groups versus the CD group (-2.7 ± 0.4 MJ/day CCHO group vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 MJ/day CD group, p carbohydrate intake increased significantly in the SCHO group versus the CCHO and CD groups (+10.8 ± 1.6 vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 and -0.5 ± 1.1 En%; p carbohydrate intake increased through enhanced intake of non-diet SBs in the SCHO group. Fat reduction combined with only diet SBs in an ad libitum situation has a greater impact on energy intake than fat reduction combined with non-diet SBs. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  7. Magnesium Intake, Quality of Carbohydrates, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three U.S. Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; McKeown, Nicola M; Hu, Frank B

    2017-12-01

    Magnesium intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in many observational studies, but few have assessed this association in the context of the carbohydrate quality of the diet. We hypothesized that higher magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of a poor carbohydrate-quality diet characterized by low cereal fiber or high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL). In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2012, n = 69,176), NHS2 (1991-2013, n = 91,471), and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (1986-2012, n = 42,096), dietary intake was assessed from food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained by biennial and supplementary questionnaires. We calculated multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) of magnesium intake and incident diabetes, adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, GL, energy intake, alcohol, cereal fiber, polyunsaturated fats, trans fatty acids, and processed meat, and we considered the joint associations of magnesium and carbohydrate quality on diabetes risk. We documented 17,130 incident cases of type 2 diabetes over 28 years of follow-up. In pooled analyses across the three cohorts, those with the highest magnesium intake had 15% lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with those with the lowest intake (pooled multivariate HR in quintile 5 vs. 1: 0.85 [95% CI 0.80-0.91], P magnesium intake was more strongly associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with high GI or low cereal fiber than among those with low GI or high cereal fiber (both P interaction magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of lower carbohydrate-quality diets. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efka AR

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of  liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd  2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of  energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001 Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

  9. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO 2 , RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  10. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  11. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  12. Dietary carbohydrate modifies the inverse association between saturated fat intake and cholesterol on very low-density lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mea...

  13. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: In obese women, even those without gestational diabetes but with impaired glucose tolerance, a lower carbohydrate...

  14. Contributions to total phosphorus intake: all sources considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    High serum phosphorus is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Dietary intake of phosphorus, a major determinant of serum phosphorus, seems to be systematically underestimated using the available software tools and generalized nutrient content databases. Several sources of dietary phosphorus including the addition of phosphorus ingredients in food processing, and phosphorus content of vitamin and mineral supplements and commonly used over-the-counter or prescription medications are not fully accounted for by the nutrient content databases and software programs in current clinical use or used in large population studies. In this review, we explore the many unknown sources of phosphorus in the food supply to identify all possible contributors to total phosphorus intake of Americans that have escaped inclusion in past intake estimates. Our goal is to help delineate areas for future interventions that will enable tighter control of dietary phosphorus intake, a critical factor to maintaining health and quality of life in CKD and dialysis patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of Boiling and Frying on the Total Carbohydrate, Vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the total carbohydrate content of the boiled and fried sweet and Irish potatoes compared with their raw tubers. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the vitamin C content of the boiled and ...

  16. Total energy intake may be more associated with glycemic control compared to each proportion of macronutrients in the korean diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Major macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans. A total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years) who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire. High total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002). Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted. Total energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  17. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  18. Effects of total fat intake on bodyweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Visser, Marianne E; Nguyen, Kim A; Durao, Solange; Schoonees, Anel

    2018-02-15

    As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017). No language and publication status limits were applied. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing and unpublished studies (5 June 2017). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children aged 24 months to 18 years, with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease, randomised to a lower fat (30% or less of total energy (TE)) versus usual or moderate-fat diet (greater than 30%TE), without the intention to reduce weight, and assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We included prospective analytical cohort studies in these children if they related baseline total fat intake to weight or body fatness at least 12 months later. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion with other authors. We extracted data on participants, interventions or exposures, controls and outcomes, and trial or cohort quality characteristics, as well as data on potential effect modifiers, and assessed risk of bias for all included studies. We extracted outcome data using the following time point ranges, when available: RCTs: baseline to six months, six to 12 months, one to two years, two to five years and more than five years; cohort studies: baseline to one year, one to two years, two to five years, five to 10 years and more than 10 years. We planned to perform random-effects meta-analyses with relevant subgrouping, and sensitivity and funnel plot

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on total carbohydrate concentration of finger millet flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathika; Patil, Shrikant L.; Bhasker Shenoy, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ragi or finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is one of the common millets in several regions of India. The effect of gamma irradiation, on ragi flour was investigated in the study. Ragi flour is procured from market. Flour samples of 50 gms were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 30 and 90 days. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for total carbohydrate concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The same was repeated after 30 and 90 days of storage. The comparative study showed that, at 0 day, total carbohydrate concentration has decreased slightly when compared to the non-irradiated sample (0.024 mg/ml). The lowest concentration of carbohydrate is seen at 0.025 kGy (0.019mg/ml). The samples stored in polyethylene bag, after 30 days showed both increase (0.056 mg/ml at 0.025 kGy) and decrease (0.04 mg/ml at 10 kGy) in total carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.046 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed increase in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.029 mg/ml). The highest carbohydrate concentration is seen in 1 kGy dose (0.037 mg/ml). The samples stored at container after 30 days showed both increase (0.045 mg/ml at 5 kGy) and decrease (0.034 mg/ml at 0.025 mg/ml) of carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.043 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed decrease in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.034 mg/ml). The lowest concentration is seen at 5 kGy (0.022 mg/ml). (author)

  20. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. The relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Putri Noer Fadilah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of dental caries among children has increased in the past decades. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology, including host (saliva and teeth, microbiology (plaque, substrate (diet, and time. The role of fermentable carbohydrates intake as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia. Methods: The method used was an analytical cross-sectional study with pathfinder survey based on the WHO basic methods of oral health surveys. The data were collected through intraoral examination, and nutritional status measurement was done by using food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis used was the chi-square test. Results: From the study towards 100 preschool children resulted the prevalence of dental caries in rural and urban area respectively was 96% and 92%. The average value of def-t index in urban area was as much as 8.46 (95% CI:7.00-9.91 and was as much as 7.98 (95% CI:6.50-9.45 in rural area. The average value of sucrose intake frequency in urban area was as much as 237.14 (95% CI:204.95-269.32, whilst in rural area was as much as 177.54 (95% CI:155.66-199.41. There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake in the rural and urban area (p < 0,05. Conclusion: There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in the rural and urban area of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia.

  2. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaohe; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Li, Wei; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Kumar, Rajesh; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Rosengren, Annika; Amma, Leela Itty; Avezum, Alvaro; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Khatib, Rasha; Lear, Scott; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Liu, Xiaoyun; Gupta, Rajeev; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gao, Nan; Oguz, Aytekin; Ramli, Anis Safura; Seron, Pamela; Sun, Yi; Szuba, Andrzej; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yusuf, Rita; Hussein Yusufali, Afzal; Teo, Koon K; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dagenais, Gilles; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Islam, Shofiqul; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-11-04

    The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], p trend =0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], p trend fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], p trend =0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], p trend fat: HR 0·80 [0

  3. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  4. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ronneby, Helle

    2015-01-01

    of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic...... control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic...... carbohydrate counting can be recommended for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  5. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  6. Evidence-Based Guideline of the German Nutrition Society: Carbohydrate Intake and Prevention of Nutrition-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hauner, Hans;Bechthold, Angela;Boeing, Heiner;Brönstrup, Anja;Buyken, Anette;Leschik-Bonnet, Eva;Linseisen, Jakob;Schulze, Matthias;Strohm, Daniela;Wolfram, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition – next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabol...

  7. The predictive value of hunger score on gastric evacuation after oral intake of carbohydrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiji, Qiu; Shitong, Li; Yu, Luo; Tianfang, Hua; Ning, Kong; Lina, Zhang

    2018-01-12

    Surgical patients are asked to fast for a sufficient duration to ensure that the amount of residual liquid in the stomach is within the safe range, thereby reducing the risk of gastric reflux perioperatively. The authors hypothesized that subjective hunger numerical rating scale (NRS) score could also help assess the process of gastric emptying and determine the amount of fluid remaining in the stomach. The current study consisted of healthy volunteers recruited by advertisement and mutual introduction. Participants were asked to rate their subjective hunger feeling every 30 min after oral administration of 8 mL/kg carbohydrate nutrient solution that contained 10% maltodextrin and 2.5% sucrose. Consecutively, the gastric residual fluid was measured by magnetic resonance imagining (MRI). The Spearman's correlation coefficient, the ROC curves and the stepwise regression were used to analyze the predictive value of NRS for the gastric emptying process. The cohort consisted of 29 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study. The area under ROC curves estimated by the NRS score for the gastric residual volume of 2 mL/kg, 1 mL/kg, and 0.5 mL/kg were AUC 2.0  = 0.78, AUC 1.0  = 0.76, and AUC 0.5  = 0.72, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the NRS score and the residual liquid in the stomach was -0.57 (P hunger NRS score can not accurately predict the gastric residual volume, but it can provide a reference for clinicians to judge the gastric emptying process and it should be used as a second check after oral intake of clear fluids before surgery according to the new fasting protocol.

  8. [Effect of meal frequency and carbohydrate intake on the metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Tamara; Basfi-Fer, Karen; Rojas, Pamela; Carrasco, Fernando; Ruz O, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Increasing meal frequency is commonly used in the clinical practice as part of the nutritional treatment of patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), although its effect on metabolic control parameters is controversial. To evaluate the association of energy intake, meal frequency, and amount of carbohydrates with fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a group of patients with DM2 without insulin therapy. Dietary intake was evaluated in 60 subjects with DM2 through three-day food records. The meal frequency was estimated establishing the main meal times considering snacks. Meal frequency was 4.7 ± 1.1 times per day. There was a positive association between glycosylated and fasting blood glucose levels (p Meal frequency was associated with energy intake (p meal frequency, available carbohydrates and energy intake, body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model, fasting blood glucose was the variable that best predicted changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (45.5%). Meal frequency had no association with glycosylated hemoglobin. Meal frequency showed no association with metabolic control parameters in DM2 patients.

  9. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  10. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Funnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202. Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122 was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297 or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172 for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001 at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  11. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  12. Gut feedback mechanisms and food intake: a physiological approach to slow carbohydrate bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genyi; Hasek, Like Y; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-04-01

    Glycemic carbohydrates in foods are an important macronutrient providing the biological fuel of glucose for a variety of physiological processes. A classification of glycemic carbohydrates into rapidly digestible carbohydrate (RDC) and slowly digestible carbohydrate (SDC) has been used to specify their nutritional quality related to glucose homeostasis that is essential to normal functioning of the brain and critical to life. Although there have been many studies and reviews on slowly digestible starch (SDS) and SDC, the mechanisms of their slow digestion and absorption were mostly investigated from the material side without considering the physiological processes of their in vivo digestion, absorption, and most importantly interactions with other food components and the gastrointestinal tract. In this article, the physiological processes modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates, specifically the rate and extent of their digestion and absorption as well as the related locations, in a whole food context, will be discussed by focusing on the activities of the gastrointestinal tract including glycolytic enzymes and glucose release, sugar sensing, gut hormones, and neurohormonal negative feedback mechanisms. It is hoped that a deep understanding of these physiological processes will facilitate the development of innovative dietary approaches to achieve desired carbohydrate or glucose bioavailability for improved health.

  13. Effect of feeding a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet on subsequent food intake and blood concentration of satiety-related hormones in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Jimenez, E; Latorre, M A; Castrillo, C

    2018-02-01

    Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement. In week 7 of each period, blood concentrations of active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were determined before and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min post-feeding. The following week, intake of a challenge food offered 180 min after the HC and HF diets was recorded over two days. In comparison to the dogs on the HC diet, those on the HF diet had a higher basal concentration of GLP-1 (p = .010) and a higher total area under the curve over 180 min post-prandial (tAUC 0-180 ) (p = .031). Dogs on the HC diet showed a higher elevation of ghrelin at 180 min (p = .033) and of insulin at 360 min (p = .041), although ghrelin and insulin tAUC 0-180 did not differ between the two diets (p ˃ .10). Diet had no effect on challenge food intake (p ˃ .10), which correlated with the tAUC 0-180 of ghrelin (r = .514, p = .010), insulin (r = -.595, p = .002), and glucose (r = -.516, p = .010). Feeding a diet high in carbohydrate or fat at these inclusion levels does not affect the feeding response at 180 min post-prandial, suggesting a similar short-term satiating capacity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data a...

  16. Comprehensive measurement of total nondigestible carbohydrates in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibata, Toyohide; Tashiro, Kouichi; Kanahori, Sumiko; Hashizume, Chieko; Kitagawa, Machiko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Gordon, Dennis T

    2009-09-09

    Total nondigestible carbohydrate (NDC) in foods was determined by combining, not modifications, AOAC Official Methods 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02. Total NDC included insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) + high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF), nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) not precipitated in ethanol solution, and resistant starch (RS). Eight sources of NDC (cellulose, wheat bran, gum arabic, resistant maltodextrin, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharides, and RS) were incorporated in different combinations into standard formula bread samples. All of the NDC sources and bread samples were analyzed for their (1) IDF + HMWSDF content with corrections for residual RS amount using AOAC Official Method 991.43, (2) NDO by liquid chromatography (LC) in AOAC Official Method 2001.03, and (3) RS by AOAC Official Method 2002.02. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) comparing calculated amounts versus measured amounts of total NDC in 11 bread samples was 0.92. Analysis of commercial food samples was also well matched with the DF + NDO value on their nutritional label. Consequently, we confirmed a single measurement of LC can determine all NDO in foods, and total NDC in foods can be determined by unifying existing AOAC Official Methods.

  17. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  18. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  19. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the

  20. Preservation of the gut by preoperative carbohydrate loading improves postoperative food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhold, J.; Oosting, A.; Braak, van den C.C.M.; Norren, van K.; Rijna, H.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Bouritius, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims A carbohydrate (CHO) drink given preoperatively changes the fasted state into a fed state. The ESPEN guidelines for perioperative care include preoperative CHO loading and re-establishment of oral feeding as early as possible after surgery. An intestinal ischaemia reperfusion

  1. Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Elin V; Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Björck, Inger M E

    2013-04-11

    Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum free fatty acids (FFA) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, appetite sensations, voluntary energy intake and breath H2 were determined. BK as evening meal increased plasma GLP-1 at fasting (P < 0.05) and during the experimental day (P < 0.01) compared with WWB. In addition the BK evening meal decreased fasting serum FFA (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease fasting serum IL-6 (P = 0.06). At lunch, preceded by BK evening meal, voluntary energy intake was decreased (P < 0.05) when compared to WWB evening meal. The BK evening meal decreased incremental blood glucose area (P < 0.01), promoted higher breath H2 (P < 0.001), maintained adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05) and reduced perceived hunger (P < 0.05) during 10.5-16 h after the meal. The results indicate that the BK evening meal, facilitate glucose regulation, increase the release of GLP-1, reduce subsequent energy intake while at the same time decreasing hunger over 2 subsequent meals, and reduce fasting FFA the subsequent morning, possibly mediated through gut microbial fermentation of the indigestible carbohydrates.

  2. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all Padded sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  3. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-day Training Period

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Robert; Drust, Barry; O’Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G.; Morton, James P.; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using seven-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n=13), U15/16 (n=25) and U13/14 squads (n=21). Total energy (43.1±10.3, 32.6±7.9, 28.1±6.8 kcal∙kg-1∙day...

  4. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  5. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF and undegraded dietary protein (UDP on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7 and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]. Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN synthesis was estimated using 15N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM intake (p = 0.002 and CP intake (p = 0.005. Ruminal pH (p<0.001, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008, and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001 were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001. The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007 was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02 or UDP (p = 0.04. In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7 and UDP (50% of CP improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  6. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: I. Autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the microalgae-growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on accumulation of total carbohydrates and starch in two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana), when the bacterium and each microalga were jointly immobilized in alginate beads was studied under autotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic medium. The interaction of the bacterium with the microalgae enhanced accumulation of total carbohydrate and starch. Cells of Chlorella accumulated the highest amounts of carbohydrate after incubation for 24h. Yet, this did not coincide with the highest affinity and volumetric productivity measured in these cultures. However, after incubation for 72 h, mainly in jointly immobilized treatments of both microalgae species, the cultures reached their highest total carbohydrate content (mainly as starch) and also the highest affinity and volumetric productivity. These results demonstrate the potential of A. brasilense to affect carbohydrates and starch accumulation in Chlorella spp. when both microorganisms are co-cultured, which can be an important tool for applications of microalgae. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Effect of Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Patient Comfort: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Emel; Yilmaz, Emel; Çakar, Ekrem; Baydur, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were divided into three groups: (1) those receiving a carbohydrate-rich drink (CHD), (2) those receiving an overnight 5% glucose intravenous infusion, and (3) those fasting from midnight. The preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The patients' vital signs and blood glucose levels were measured perioperatively. In the preoperative assessment, hunger, thirst, mouth dryness, chill, and headache adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and duration of the operation were all found to be significantly higher in the glucose and fasting groups than the CHD group (P hunger, thirst, dry mouth, fatigue and headache) and early postoperative complications (vomiting and pain). Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Moderate exercise and intake of either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates in sedentary women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, Briseidy; De León, Lidia G; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia E; Candia-Luján, Ramón

    2018-05-25

    To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. DISEñO: Cross-over type. SITE: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study. Four of adequate weight (AW) and 2 with obesity (OB) were excluded for not consuming the suggested carbohydrates (1gr/kg of weight) nor completed the programed exercise. There were n=10 in each group (AW/OB). Two treatments of 55minutes of aerobic exercise each were applied one day after consuming either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were determined before and after the scheduled exercise. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were higher in OB than in AW at baseline. Glucose was normalized in OB from 5.8±0.35 to 5.3±0.23 mmol/L (P=.001), only by eating foods with low glycemic index; triglycerides increased from 139.5±66.0 to 150.8±67.2mg/dl (P=.004) at the end of the exercise, after consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrates. Elevation of triglycerides secondary to exercise after consumption of low glycemic index seems to indicate an increase of lipid oxidation in OB. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; VanLangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty ac...

  10. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  12. SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION IS INFLUENCED BY ACUTE DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE IN ACTIVE, HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC and low-fat (LF meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP, and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G, insulin (IN, triglycerides (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein. The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein. No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (µU·mL-1 levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1 vs. 26.0 (21.0]. Postexercise (PE FFA (mEq·L-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3 vs. 0.5 (0.3]. PE TG (mg·dL-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1 vs. 114.4 (40.9]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization.

  13. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; Vanlangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL(-1)) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key pointsThe relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females.A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response.Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  14. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  15. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  16. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  17. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  18. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  19. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  20. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Given its potential effect on nutrient and energy density, the sugar content of the diet is a subject of controversy. The aim of this review was to examine the cross-sectional or prospective evidence for associations between the intake of total sugar or added sugar (high vs low intakes) and diet quality or nutrient intakes in the general population. The following databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1972 and 2012: CINAHL Plus, EBM Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The search identified studies that examined the association between intake of total sugar and/or added sugar and diet quality (n = 22) or nutrient intakes (n = 30). The following data were extracted: sample size and population, dietary assessment method, source of added sugar data, source of funding, comparator, association between total sugar or added sugar and diet quality, and the direction and magnitude of the association. Of 22 studies, all except 1 found a higher intake of added sugar to be associated with poorer diet quality, and the exceptional study did not adjust for total energy intake. Twenty-one of 30 studies found a negative association between added sugar and micronutrient intakes. The same association was not found for total sugar intake. Any negative association between dietary sugar and diet quality is better exposed by referring to added sugar rather than total sugar. There was substantial variation in features of study quality, including sample size, so the magnitude of the observed effect was generally small and may not be of clinical significance. Furthermore, the positive influence that core foods such as fruit and milk exert on total sugar values may bias the association between total sugar and diet quality. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Determination of dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and total mercury in the Chilean school meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, J M; Bermúdez, M; Carrasco, J; Espinoza, O; Muñoz, M; Galotto, M J; Muñoz, O

    2010-10-01

    The dietary intake of total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total mercury (tHg) in lunch and breakfast servings provided by the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) was estimated, using the duplicate-portion variant of the total diet study. Lunch and breakfast samples were collected from 65 schools throughout the country in 2006. The population sample was a group of girls and boys between 6 and 18 years old. The tAs concentration was measured via hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The total mercury concentration was measured via cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The estimated iAs intake was 12.5% (5.4 μg/day) of the Provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) as proposed by the FAO/WHO, and the tHg intake was 13.2% (1.9 μg/day) of the PTDI as proposed by the FAO/WHO. It was therefore concluded that tAs, iAs and tHg intake from food provided by the SMP do not pose risks to student health.

  2. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie 120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  3. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G; Morton, James P; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using 7-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25) and U13/14 squads (n = 21). Total energy (43.1 ± 10.3, 32.6 ± 7.9, 28.1 ± 6.8 kcal·kg -1 ·day -1 ), CHO (6 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.4, 3.2 ± 1.3 g·kg - 1 ·day -1 ) and fat (1.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1 ·day -1 ) intake exhibited hierarchical differences (p U15/16 > U18. In addition, CHO intake in U18s was lower (p lunch (~0.5 g·kg -1 ) > breakfast (~0.3 g·kg -1 ). We conclude elite youth soccer players do not meet current CHO guidelines. Although daily protein targets are achieved, we report a skewed daily distribution in all ages such that dinner > lunch > breakfast. Our data suggest that dietary advice for elite youth players should focus on both total daily macronutrient intake and optimal daily distribution patterns.

  5. MBTH: A novel approach to rapid, spectrophotometric quantitation of total algal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Long, William; Black, Stuart K; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2017-02-01

    A high-throughput and robust application of the 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) method was developed for carbohydrate determination in microalgae. The traditional phenol-sulfuric acid method to quantify carbohydrates is strongly affected by algal biochemical components and exhibits a highly variable response to microalgal monosaccharides. We present a novel use of the MBTH method to accurately quantify carbohydrates in hydrolyzate after acid hydrolysis of algal biomass, without a need for neutralization. The MBTH method demonstrated consistent and sensitive quantitation of algae-specific monosaccharides down to 5 μg mL -1 without interference from other algae acidic hydrolyzate components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2014-01-01

    ; an animal LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat; and a vegetable LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, vegetable protein, and vegetable fat. A higher score reflected a higher intake of fat and protein and a lower intake of carbohydrate...... protein and fat from vegetable food sources is not associated with the risk. Women of reproductive age who follow a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern may consider consuming vegetable rather than animal sources of protein and fat to minimize their risk of GDM.......-carbohydrate dietary patterns with risk of GDM. DESIGN: We included 21,411 singleton pregnancies in the Nurses' Health Study II. Prepregnancy LCD scores were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires, including an overall LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, total protein, and total fat...

  7. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  8. Fructose and related food carbohydrates. Sources, intake, absorption, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to point out subjects consuming considerable quantities of fructose and sorbitol, and the intake seems to be increasing both from added and natural sources. Studies of the absorption of fructose in animals are inconsistent, and the mechanisms of fructose uptake seem to vary...... in accordance with the species. In most species fructose absorption takes place by a specific carrier (facilitated transport), but it may be active in the rat. In vitro studies of human intestine are very scarce; there is no evidence of active intestinal fructose transport in the human intestine. By means...... interest. Fructans are not absorbed in the small intestine but are strongly fermented in the large bowel. Fructans may be of potential benefit for large-bowel function and blood glucose regulation....

  9. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  10. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  13. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  14. Comparison of Alcian blue and total carbohydrate assays for quantitation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in biofouling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Skillman, Lucy; Li, Dan; Ela, Wendell P

    2018-04-15

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors are gel-like acidic polysaccharide particles. Both TEP precursors and TEP have been identified as causal factors in fouling of desalination and water treatment systems. For comparison between studies, it is important to accurately measure the amount and fouling capacity of both components. However, the accuracy and recovery of the currently used Alcian blue based TEP measurement of different surrogates and different size fractions are not well understood. In this study, we compared Alcian blue based TEP measurements with a total carbohydrate assay method. Three surrogates; xanthan gum, pectin and alginic acid; were evaluated at different salinities. Total carbohydrate concentrations of particulates (>0.4 μm) and their precursors (10 kDa) varied depending on water salinity and method of recovery. As xanthan gum is the most frequently used surrogate in fouling studies, TEP concentration is expressed as xanthan gum equivalents (mg XG eq /L) in this study. At a salinity of 35 mg/L sea salt, total carbohydrate assays showed a much higher particulate TEP fraction for alginic acid (38%) compared to xanthan gum (9%) and pectin (12%). The concentrations of particulate TEP therefore may only represent ∼10% of the total mass; while precursor TEP represents ∼80% of the total TEP. This highlights the importance of reporting both particulate and precursor TEP for membrane biofouling studies. The calculated concentrations of TEP and their precursors in seawater samples are also highly dependent on type of surrogate and resulting calibration factor. A linear correlation between TEP recovery and calibration factor was demonstrated in this study for all three surrogates. The relative importance and accuracy of measurement method, particulate size, surrogate type, and recovery are described in detail in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  17. Influence of night-time protein and carbohydrate intake on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Amber W; Eddy, Wyatt R; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Panton, Lynn B; Arciero, Paul J; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-08-14

    The present study investigated whether whey (WH) protein, casein (CAS) protein or a carbohydrate placebo (PLA) consumed 30 min before sleep could acutely alter appetite or cardiometabolic risk the following morning. A total of forty-four sedentary overweight and obese women (BMI: 25·7-54·6 kg/m2) completed this stratified, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (WH: n 16, age 27·4 (sd 5·0) years; CAS: n 15, age 30·3 (sd 8·1) years; PLA: n 13, age 28·5 (sd 7·2) years). The participants came to the laboratory at baseline (visit 1) and again in the morning after night-time ingestion of either protein or PLA (visit 2). Visit 2 was conducted at least 48 h after visit 1. During visits 1 and 2, the following parameters were measured: appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat); resting metabolism; blood lipid and glucose levels; the levels of insulin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, cortisol and adiponectin. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. No group × time interactions were observed for the measured variables; however, a main effect of time was observed for increased satiety (P= 0·03), reduced desire to eat (P= 0·006), and increased insulin levels (P= 0·004) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P= 0·01) after the consumption of either protein or PLA. The results of the present study reveal that night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate by sedentary overweight and obese women improves their appetite measures but negatively affects insulin levels. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of low-energy snacks at night on body composition and cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  19. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  20. A comparison of normal versus low dietary carbohydrate intake on substrate oxidation during and after moderate intensity exercise in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rachel; Potteiger, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    We compared the effects of consuming a 2-day low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (low-CHO; 20% CHO, 40% protein, 40% fat) versus an isocaloric 2-day moderate-CHO diet (mod-CHO; 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat) on substrate oxidation during and after exercise in ten active, young women. Subjects were 24.9 ± 6.2% body fat with a VO(2max) of 68.8 ± 13.8 ml/kg FFM/min. For 2 days prior to exercise, subjects consumed either the mod-CHO or the low-CHO diet and then completed treadmill exercise at 55% of VO(2max) until 350 kcal of energy was expended. During exercise and for 2 h post-exercise, expired gases were analyzed to determine oxidation rates for CHO (CHO-OX) and fat (FAT-OX). Significant differences (p FAT-OX (mg/kg FFM/min) during exercise, 1 h post-ex, and 2 h post-ex. During exercise, FAT-OX was higher (low-CHO 8.7 ± 2.2 vs. mod-CHO 6.2 ± 2.2) and CHO-OX was lower (low-CHO 25.1 ± 5.6 vs. mod-CHO 31.1 ± 6.2) following the low-CHO diet. A similar trend was observed during 1 h post-ex for FAT-OX (low-CHO 2.2 ± 0.5 vs. mod-CHO 1.6 ± 0.5) and CHO-OX (low-CHO 2.5 ± 1.2 vs. mod-CHO 4.1 ± 1.9), as well as 2 h post-ex for FAT-OX (low-CHO vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 mod-CHO 1.7 ± 0.4) and CHO-OX (low-CHO 2.5 ± 0.9 vs. mod-CHO 3.1 ± 1.1). Significant positive correlations were observed between VO(2max) and CHO-OX during exercise and post-exercise, as well as significant negative correlations between VO(2max) and FAT-OX post-exercise in the low-CHO condition. Waist circumference and FAT-OX exhibited a significant negative correlation during exercise in the low-CHO condition. Dietary macronutrient intake influenced substrate oxidation in active young women during and after moderate intensity exercise.

  1. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  2. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  3. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  4. [Total drinking water intake and sources of children and adolescent in one district of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Ailing; Pan, Hui; He, Shuang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-05-01

    To describe total drinking water intake among primary and middle school students in one district of Shenzhen and to provide scientific evidence for adequate intakes of drinking water for different people in China. A total of 816 students from three primary and middle schools of Shenzhen was selected using three-stage random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a 24 hours measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different ages and between boys and girls were analyzed. The average total drinking water of subjects was (1225+/-557) ml/d, and the consumption of total drinking water in boys ((1303+/-639) ml/d) was significantly higher than that in girls ((1134+/-478) ml/d, Pwater of secondary school students ((1389+/-541) ml/d) and high school student ((1318+/-641) ml/d) was no statistically difference, but was higher than primary school students ((1097+/-525) ml/d, Pwater and beverages of the subjects was (818+/-541) ml/d and (407+/-294) ml/d respectively. Major of fluid intake comes from drinking water in children and adolescenct of Shenzhen. The knowledge of drinking water of primary school students is need to comprehensive enough.

  5. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  7. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche.This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight.There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  8. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A total diet study to estimate dioxin-like compounds intake from Taiwan food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Furans (PCDFs), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the food consumption rate are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in food increases the population's risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan food (not including plant origin) in 2001 and 2002, In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. A total diet study (TDS) of DLCs intake from Taiwan food is, therefore, conducted for the first time. The DLCs concentrations in food of animal origin and the food consumption rate are collected. The average daily intake (ADI) and average weekly intake (AWI) of DLCs from food by Taiwan adults is determined.

  10. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  11. A pooled analysis of dietary sugar/carbohydrate intake and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma incidence and survival in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Petrick, Jessica L; Steck, Susan E; Bradshaw, Patrick T; McClain, Kathleen M; Niehoff, Nicole M; Engel, Lawrence S; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Risch, Harvey A; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wu, Anna H; Gammon, Marilie D

    2017-12-01

    During the past 40 years, esophageal/gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (EA/GCA) incidence increased in Westernized countries, but survival remained low. A parallel increase in sugar intake, which may facilitate carcinogenesis by promoting hyperglycaemia, led us to examine sugar/carbohydrate intake in association with EA/GCA incidence and survival. We pooled 500 EA cases, 529 GCA cases and 2027 controls from two US population-based case-control studies with cases followed for vital status. Dietary intake, assessed by study-specific food frequency questionnaires, was harmonized and pooled to estimate 12 measures of sugar/carbohydrate intake. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were calculated using multinomial logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. EA incidence was increased by 51-58% in association with sucrose (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.01-2.27), sweetened desserts/beverages (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.06-2.27) and the dietary glycaemic index (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.13-2.21). Body mass index (BMI) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) modified these associations (Pmultiplicative-interaction ≤ 0.05). For associations with sucrose and sweetened desserts/beverages, respectively, the OR was elevated for BMI desserts/beverages, and foods that contribute to a high glycaemic index, may be plausible EA risk reduction strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  12. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  13. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen

    2017-10-25

    Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  14. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  15. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  16. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  17. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-03-26

    Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  18. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  19. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  20. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  2. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  3. Carbohydrate Intake in Form of Gel Is Associated With Increased Gastrointestinal Distress but Not With Performance Differences Compared With Liquid Carbohydrate Ingestion During Simulated Long-Distance Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareban, Mahdi; Zügel, David; Koehler, Karsten; Hartveg, Paul; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Treff, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ). Nine well-trained triathletes participated in this randomized crossover study. Each participant completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment under 2 conditions, once while receiving 67.2 ± 7.2 g · h-1 (M ± SD) of CHO from GEL and once while receiving 67.8 ± 4.2 g · h-1 of CHO from LIQ. The amount of fluid provided was matched among conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose, and lactate as well as GI discomfort were assessed at regular intervals during the experiment. The distance covered during the final all-out run was not significantly different among participants ingesting GEL (11.81 ± 1.38 km) and LIQ (11.91 ± 1.53 km; p = .89). RER, blood glucose, and lactate did not differ significantly at any time during the experiment. Seven participants reported GI discomfort with GEL, and no athlete reported GI discomfort with LIQ (p = .016). This study suggests that administration of GEL does not alter long-distance triathlon performance when compared with LIQ, but GEL seems to be associated with reduced GI tolerance. Athletes should consider this a potential disadvantage of GEL administration during long-distance triathlon.

  4. Sedentary Lifestyle and High-Carbohydrate Intake are Associated with Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation in Post-Menopause: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Silva, Thaís Rasia da; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in post menopausal women, and inflammation is involved in the atherosclerosis process. Purpose to assess whether dietary pattern, metabolic profile, body composition and physical activity are associated with low-grade chronic inflammation according to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in postmenopausal women. Methods ninety-five postmenopausal participants, with no evidence of clinical disease, underwent anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal assessments. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, habitual physical activity was measured with a digital pedometer, and body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with hs-CRP ≥10 mg/L or using hormone therapy in the last three months before the study were excluded from the analysis. Participants were stratified according to hs-CRP lower or ≥3 mg/L. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as walking fewer than 6 thousand steps a day. Two-tailed Student's t-test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U or Chi-square (χ(2)) test were used to compare differences between groups. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of variables for high hs-CRP. Results participants with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L had higher body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), triglycerides, glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.01 for all variables) than women with hs-CRP sedentary lifestyle (p sedentary lifestyle (4.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4-15.5) and carbohydrate intake (2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.7). Conclusions sedentary lifestyle and high-carbohydrate intake were associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk in postmenopause. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  6. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of threecultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. Thecultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments withfour replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 wasfound in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found inGk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantlydifferent, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can beconcluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gkcultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. Atreproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase

  7. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  8. Dietary carbohydrate in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: In vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest that dietary carbohydrates play a role in cataractogenesis. Few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to evaluate this association. The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between total carbohydrate intake, ...

  9. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  10. Effect of excessive intake of dietary carbohydrates and fats on incidence of apoptosis and proliferation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the programmed cell death and cellular aging by estimating the relation between cell proliferation and cell death in tissue of pancreas and testis. All the biochemical parameters in this study were carried out on two aged groups (adult and senile) of male albino rats. Moreover, the study extended to emphasize the possible effect of certain dietary elements such as carbohydrate and fat on the rate of apoptosis and proliferation in some tissues and their physiological functions. Two aged groups of rats (adult and senile) were included in this study. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that excess dietary carbohydrate could be considered as a high risk factor when given to the adult and senile age, since it produced some significant changes in the blood chemistry with non-significant changes on the proliferative and apoptotic balance of the tested tissues. Moreover, excess dietary fat could be considered as high risk factor when given to adult and senile age groups

  11. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russnes, Kjell M.; Möller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Carlsen, Monica; Blomhoff, Rune; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Grönberg, Henrik; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case–control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was used to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of diet and supplements. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer across quintiles of antioxidant intake from all foods, from fruit and vegetables only, and from dietary supplements using unconditional logistic regression. Coffee comprised 62 % of the dietary antioxidant intake, tea 4 %, berries 4 %, chocolate 2 %, and boiled potatoes 2 %. In total 19 % and 13 % of the population took multivitamins and supplemental Vitamin C respectively, on a regular basis. Antioxidant intake from all foods and from fruits and vegetables separately measured by the FRAP assay was not associated with prostate cancer risk. For antioxidant intake from supplements we found a positive association with total, advanced, localized, high grade and low grade prostate cancer in those above median supplemental TAC intake of users compared to non-users (Adjusted ORs for total prostate cancer: 1.37, 95 % CI 1.08–1.73, advanced: 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11–2.06, localized: 1.36. 95 % CI 1.06–1.76, high grade 1.60, 95 % CI 1.06–2.40, low grade 1.36, 95 % CI 1.03–1.81). A high intake of coffee (≥6 cups/day) was associated with a possible risk reduction of fatal and significantly with reduced risk for high grade prostate cancer, adjusted OR: 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22–0.90), whereas a high intake of chocolate was positively associated with risk of total, advanced, localized and low grade disease (adjusted OR for total: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12–1.82, advanced: 1

  12. Effects of total vitamin A, vitamin C, and fruit intake on risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ham, Jung-O; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether the consumption of antioxidants prevents and alleviates metabolic syndrome (MetS) by reducing insulin resistance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of vitamin A (including β-carotene), vitamin C, fruits, or vegetables was negatively associated with MetS in Korean adults aged ≥ 20 y. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 27,656 adults ≥ 20 y of age who participated in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vitamin A and vitamin C was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated for log2-transformed vitamin A and C intake values and for the interaction of sex with vitamin A and C intake, after covariate adjustment. Interactions were seen between total vitamin A and C intake and sex for MetS. With a twofold increase in total vitamin A and C intake in women, the ORs (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 0.942 (0.901-0.985) and 0.933 (0.883-0.987), indicating decreases of 5.8% and 6.7% in MetS, respectively. There were no equivalent decreases in men. Women in the second and highest tertiles of fruit intake exhibited 17.5% and 21.8% lower incidences of MetS, respectively, compared with women in the lowest tertile. The intake of total vitamin A and C, as well as moderate and high fruit intake, may have alleviated MetS in women, but not in men, in a representative sample of the general South Korean population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children th...

  14. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The trends in total energy, macronutrients and sodium intake among Japanese: findings from the 1995-2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aki; Imai, Shino; Htun, Nay Chi; Okada, Emiko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-06-04

    Monitoring nutritional status of the population is essential in the development and evaluation of national or local health policies. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate analysis on the trends in dietary intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as Na, in Japanese population using the data of series of cross-sectional national surveys - the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the National Health Nutrition Survey (NHNS) - during the period from 1995 to 2016. The NNS and NHNS participants aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was estimated using 1-d household-based dietary record. The trend in total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients (fat and protein), Na intake and energy-adjusted Na intake were analysed using regression models adjusted to 2010 age distribution and anthropometry status. A total of 94 270 men and 107 890 women were included the analysis. Total energy intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. Similarly, energy intake from protein decreased, but energy intake (%) from fat increased in both sexes. Energy-adjusted Na intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. This study identified the decrease in total energy intake and energy intake from protein, whereas there were inverse trends in energy intake from fat among Japanese adults. Continued monitoring of trends in dietary intake will be needed, and there should be efforts to increase the accuracy of current survey procedures.

  16. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  17. Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Cayssials, Valerie; Jenab, Mazda

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and ...

  18. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  19. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes

  20. The J-shape association of ethanol intake with total homocysteine concentrations: the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsavos Christos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest a non-monotonic effect of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk, while there is strong evidence concerning the involvement of homocysteine levels on thrombosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association between usual ethanol consumption and homocysteine levels, in cardiovascular disease free adults. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 women, without any evidence of cardiovascular disease, stratified by age – gender (census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, Greece. Among the variables ascertained we measured the daily ethanol consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Results Data analysis revealed a J-shape association between ethanol intake (none, 48 gr per day and total homocysteine levels (mean ± standard deviation among males (13 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 4 vs. 18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 3 μmol/L, respectively, p Conclusion We observed a J-shape relationship between homocysteine concentrations and the amount of ethanol usually consumed.

  1. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population--results of an Italian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Massimo; Lanzi, Sabina; D'Evoli, Laura; Aguzzi, Altero; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra

    2006-05-01

    The present study focused on vitamin A and carotenoids (alpha-and beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) daily intake from the Italian total diet. The input of some food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, meat and meat products, fish) most responsible for major and minor contributions to the daily intake of these molecules was evaluated. Furthermore the contribution to the dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein of the most consumed vegetables in the market basket of the Italian total diet (beets, brassica vegetables, carrots, chicory, courgette (zucchini), green beans, lettuce, peas, pepper, spinach, tomatoes) was also investigated. Vitamin A daily intake was 855 mg/person/day. The vegetables food group made the greatest contribution (37%), followed by the meat and meat products food group (23%). The Italian total diet provided 14.3 mg/person/day of carotenoids; lycopene was the highest (7.4 mg/day), followed by lutein + zeaxanthin (4 mg/day), beta-carotene (2.6 mg/day), alpha-carotene (0.15 mg/day), and beta-cryptoxanthin (0.17 mg/day). Carrots and tomatoes were the main sources of beta-carotene in the diet, otherwise the daily consumption of leafy vegetables (spinach, beets, lettuce) made the main contribution to lutein + zeaxanthin daily intake.

  2. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  4. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  5. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  6. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  7. Estimation of Total Usual Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes in the United States1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Goldman, Joseph A.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged ≥1 y using NHANES 2003–2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005–2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estim...

  8. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Arredondo, Myriam Lucia; Pinilla Betancourt, Magda Catalina; Borrero Yoshida, Martha Lucia; Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza; García Vega, Ángela Sofía; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Juanita Carolina; Sequeda, Gonzalo; Diez, Ofelia; Lucci, Paolo; Salcedo-Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin...

  9. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  10. Development of NIR calibration models to assess year-to-year variation in total non-structural carbohydrates in grasses using PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to quantify total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in grass samples in order to overcome year-to-year variation. A total of 1103 above-ground plant and root samples were collected from different field and pot experiments...... and with various experimental designs in the period from 2001 to 2005. A calibration model was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The calibration model on a large data set spanning five years demonstrated that quantification of TNC using NIR spectroscopy was possible with an acceptable low...

  11. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  12. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  13. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Iyengar, G.V.; Aras, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  14. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  15. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  16. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  17. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  18. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  19. Adequacy of the dietary intake of total and added sugars in the Spanish diet to the recommendations: ANIBES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-10-15

    The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 17% Total TE: 7.3% for added, and 9.6% for the intrinsic sugar intake. Differences were observed for added sugar which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. A 58.2% of children fullfill WHO recommndations (sugar were milk and dairy products (23.2%), non-alcoholic beverages (18.6%), fruits (16.8%) and sugars and sweets (15.1%) and grains (12.0%). The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4.94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%). As for free sugars, sources were sugars and sweets (34.1%), non-alcoholic beverages (30.8%, mainly as sugar soft drinks, 25.5%) and grains (19.1%, principally as bakery and pastry, 15.2%). The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total and added sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations.

  20. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  1. Nutrient Intake and Contribution of Home Enteral Nutrition to Meeting Nutritional Requirements after Oesophagectomy and Total Gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Melanie L; Halliday, Vanessa; Robinson, Pauline; Smith, Karen; Bowrey, David J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study evaluated nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection and the influence of home jejunostomy feeding in the six months after surgery. Subjects/Methods Data on nutritional intake and physiologic measures were collected as part of a randomised trial with measurements taken before and up to six months after surgery. Results 41 participants (32 oesophagectomy, 9 total gastrectomy) received home jejunostomy feeding (n=18) or usual care without feeding (n=23). At hospital discharge, oral intakes were adequate for energy and protein in 9% and 6% respectively. By three and six months, these values had increased to 61% & 55%, 94% & 77% respectively. Six participants (26%) who received usual care required rescue feeding. Six weeks after hospital discharge, energy intakes were met in those who received jejunal feeding due to the contribution of enteral nutrition. Jejunal feeding did not affect oral intake, being similar in both groups (fed: 77% estimated need, usual care: 79%). At three months, inadequate micronutrient intakes were seen in over one third. Compared to baseline values, six weeks after surgery, weight loss exceeding 5% was seen in 5/18 (28%) who received feeding, 14/17 (82%) who received usual care and 5/6 (83%) of those who required rescue feeding, p=0.002. Weight loss averaged 4.1% (fed), 10.4% (usual care) and 9.2% (rescue fed), p=0.004. These trends persisted out to six months. Conclusions Supplementary jejunostomy feeding made an important contribution to meeting nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection. Importantly, oral nutritional intake was not compromised dispelling the assertion that jejunal feeding deincentivises patients from eating. PMID:28656968

  2. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  3. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1 Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clarke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously. In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K.

  4. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  5. Intake of total dietary sugar and fibre is associated with insulin resistance among Danish 8-10- and 14-16-year-old girls but not boys. European Youth Heart Studies I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the dietary intake of total sugar, added sugar, non-added sugar and starch as well as dietary fibre and glycaemic index (GI) and their respective associations with insulin resistance. Design: Mixed linear models were used to study both cross-sectional and prospective...... associations between carbohydrate components and insulin resistance separately in girls and boys. Diet was assessed by a single 24 h recall interview and insulin resistance was calculated using the homoestasis model assessment (HOMA). Setting: The Danish part of the European Youth Heart Studies (EYHS) I and II....... Subjects: Girls and boys at 8–10 and 14–16 years from EYHS I (n 651) and 8–10-year olds from baseline followed up 6 years later in EYHS II (n 233). Results: Among girls, a difference in dietary total sugar of 43 g/MJ was associated with a 1 SD difference of HOMA and a difference in dietary fibre of 28g...

  6. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A.; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Objectives: Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-b...

  8. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  9. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (2005, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  12. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  13. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  14. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  15. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  16. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  17. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous  Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-02-20

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min-1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min-1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g∙min-1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min-1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g∙min-1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min-1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min-1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min-1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min-1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.

  18. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous  Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Trommelen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co‐ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min−1 of glucose (GLU, 1.2 g∙min−1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU, 0.6 g∙min−1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC, or water (WAT. Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min−1, respectively, p = 0.999, but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min−1: p < 0.05. In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min−1, respectively, p < 0.05. We conclude that fructose co‐ingestion (0.6 g∙min−1 with glucose (1.2 g∙min−1 provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.

  19. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  20. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  1. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Intakes of Total and Free Sugars in Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, Gemma; Mukhtar, Aqif; Begley, Andrea; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2017-11-08

    Background : Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods : The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report. Ninety-five parents of Australian toddlers completed the questionnaire online before and after providing three 24-h recalls (24HR), collected on non-consecutive days using the multipass method. Total and free sugars were compared between the two SMILE-FFQ administrations and between each SMILE-FFQ and the 24HR using multiple statistical tests and standardised validity criteria. Correlation (Pearson), mean difference (Wilcoxon rank test) and Bland Altman analyses were conducted to compare absolute values, with cross-classification (Chi-Square and Weighted Kappa) used to compare agreement across tertiles. Results : All reproducibility tests showed good agreement except weighted kappa, which showed acceptable agreement. Relative validity tests revealed a mix of good and acceptable agreement, with total sugars performing better at the individual level than free sugars. Compared to the 24HR, the SMILE-FFQ tended to underestimate absolute values at lower levels and overestimate them at higher levels. Conclusions : The combined findings of the various tests indicate that the SMILE-FFQ performs comparably to the 24HR for assessing both total and free sugars among individuals, is most effective for ranking participants rather than determining absolute intakes, and is therefore suitable for use in observational studies of Australian toddlers.

  3. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site...... and histological type in the EPIC study. Coffee and tea consumption was assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found......) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive...

  5. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  6. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  7. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes total e parciais do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Intake, total and partial apparent digestibilities of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se sete carneiros, sem raça definida, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, para avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL e hemicelulose (HCEL do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis. Os animais receberam apenas feno de S. guianensis mais sal mineral como componentes da dieta. O fornecimento do feno foi ad libitum, sendo a quantidade calculada para permitir sobras de 20%. Utilizou-se óxido crômico como indicador para estimar a produção de fezes e o fluxo de digesta no duodeno. Os consumos de MS e MO do S. guianensis foram 67,71 e 64,70 g/kg0,75, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA foram 49,2, 51,3, 61,2, 42,0 e 42,7%, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminais da MS, MO, FDN e FDA foram 75,8, 84,7, 89,6 e 90,6%, respectivamente, em função do total digerido. A digestibilidade ruminal da PB foi 21,3%. Concluiu-se que o feno de S. guianensis, colhido em estádio de maturidade avançada, pode ser indicado para ruminantes, pois seu consumo é capaz de atender às necessidades energéticas de mantença já que seus valores, apesar de sua digestibilidade não ser elevada, são ligeiramente maiores do que os de outras forrageiras tropicais.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs were used to evaluate the intake and the total and the partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL and hemicellulose (HCEL of the Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The diet was composed by the hay of S. guianensis plus mineral salt. The hay was offered ad libitum with the refusals estimated for being 20%. Chromium oxide was used as an external marker, to estimate fecal production and digesta

  8. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  9. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  10. Dietary intake estimations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) based on a total diet study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, K; Takatori, S; Nakazawa, H; Hayakawa, K; Izumi, S; Makino, T

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a total diet study performed for estimating the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of 36 PBDEs were measured in samples from 14 food groups (Groups I-XIV). PBDEs were detected only in Groups IV (oils and fats), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 1.8, 0.03, 0.48, and 0.01 ng g⁻¹, respectively. For an average person, the lower bound dietary intakes of penta- and deca-formulations were estimated to be 46 and 21 ng day⁻¹, respectively. A high proportion of the decabrominated congener (DeBDE-209) was observed in Group IV. To confirm the presence of DeBDE-209 in vegetable oils, an additional analysis was performed using 18 vegetable oil samples. Of these, seven contained ng g⁻¹ levels of DeBDE-209.

  11. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  12. A critical review of low-carbohydrate diets in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, H J; Davis, R E; Davies, J S

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) in people with Type 2 diabetes has divided the nutrition community. This review seeks to re-examine the available data to clarify understanding. A comprehensive search of databases was used to identify meta-analyses of LCD in Type 2 diabetes. To improve the quality of the studies analysed, the following inclusion criteria were applied: randomized control trials ≥ 4 weeks in people aged > 18 years with Type 2 diabetes; a carbohydrate intake ≤ 45% of total energy intake per day; and a dietary intake assessment at the end of the study. The resulting studies were subjected to a thematic analysis. Nine meta-analyses were identified containing 153 studies. Twelve studies met our amended inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in metabolic markers, including glycaemic control, between the two diets, although weight loss with a LCD was greater in one study. Carbohydrate intake at 1 year in very LCD (diets was as little as 8 g/day of carbohydrates. Total energy intake remains the dietary predictor of body weight. A LCD appears no different from a high-carbohydrate diet in terms of metabolic markers and glycaemic control. Very LCDs may not be sustainable over a medium to longer term as carbohydrate intake in diets within studies often converged toward a more moderate level. The variable quality of studies included in earlier meta-analyses likely explains the previous inconsistent findings between meta-analyses. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  13. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  14. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  15. Increased Protein Consumption during the Day from an Energy-Restricted Diet Augments Satiety but Does Not Reduce Daily Fat or Carbohydrate Intake on a Free-Living Test Day in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Jess A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety. Methods: Seventeen overweight women [mean ± SEM age: 36 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 28.4 ± 0.1] completed a randomized, controlled-feeding crossover study. Participants were provided with the following ∼1250-kcal/d energy-restricted (-750-kcal/d deficit) diets, each for 6 d: HP [124 g protein/d; 60% from beef and 40% from plant sources (HP-BEEF)] or NP (48 g protein/d) that was protein-type matched (NP-BEEF) or unmatched [100% from plant-based sources (NP-PLANT)]. On day 6 of each diet period, participants completed a 12-h testing day containing repetitive appetite, satiety, and food-craving questionnaires. On day 7, the participants were asked to consume their protein requirement within each respective diet but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, at each eating occasion across the day. All outcomes reported were primary study outcomes. Results: The HP-BEEF diet reduced daily hunger by 16%, desire to eat by 15%, prospective food consumption by 14%, and fast-food cravings by 15% but increased daily fullness by 25% compared with the NP-BEEF and NP-PLANT diets (all P protein throughout the day did not reduce the energy consumed ad libitum from the fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods (HP-BEEF: 2000 ± 180 kcal/d; NP-BEEF: 2120 ± 190 kcal/d; NP-PLANT: 2070 ± 180 kcal/d). None of the outcomes differed

  16. Determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages by HPLC with a refractive index detector: First Action 2013.12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupina, Steve; Roman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of an HPLC-refractive index (RI) detector method for the determination of the combined amounts of sugars, glycerol, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in wines and wine-like beverages. Nine collaborating laboratories representing major winery, contract laboratories, and government laboratories tested eight different materials as blind duplicates using the proposed method. Sample materials included red and white wines, port, wine cooler, and nonalcoholic wine. One material was a negative control, and one material was a reference material. Samples were either treated with an ion-exchange resin to remove interfering organic acids prior to analysis or left untreated to include organic acids and phenolics. Red wine samples were treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove potential interferences from phenolics prior to analysis. The HPLC analyses were performed on a Bio-Rad Fast Acid Analysis Column using RI detection. Reproducibility (RSD(R)) for untreated samples (sugars + phenolics + organic acids) ranged from 6.6% for Titrivin AA4 reference material to 11.0% for dry red wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) ranged from 6.8% for white zinfandel to 18.9% for dry white wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) + glycerol ranged from 6.4% for white zinfandel to 19.8% for dry red wine. Based on these results, the method was adopted as Official First Action status for determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages.

  17. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  18. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  20. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M. C.; Koyratty, B. N. S.; Wang, D.; Jacquier, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Results Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d−1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d−1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d−1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar‐sweetened beverages and milk‐based beverages among Mexican and US children. Conclusions These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country‐specific public health recommendations on sugars. PMID:28960843

  1. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M C; Koyratty, B N S; Wang, D; Jacquier, E F; Lê, K-A

    2018-04-01

    Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d -1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d -1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d -1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar-sweetened beverages and milk-based beverages among Mexican and US children. These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country-specific public health recommendations on sugars. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  2. Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio is estimated from 300-400 divided by total daily insulin dose in type 1 diabetes patients who use the insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Kasami, Ryuichi; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kondo, Eri; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Endo, Itsuro; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2012-11-01

    To optimize insulin dose using insulin pump, basal and bolus insulin doses are widely calculated from total daily insulin dose (TDD). It is recommended that total daily basal insulin dose (TBD) is 50% of TDD and that the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) equals 500 divided by TDD. We recently reported that basal insulin requirement is approximately 30% of TDD. We therefore investigated CIR after adjustment of the proper basal insulin rate. Forty-five Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated during several weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served standard diabetes meals (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight). Each meal omission was done to confirm basal insulin rate. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 and 150 mg/dL before and 2 h after each meal, respectively. After the basal insulin rate was fixed and target blood glucose levels were achieved, TBD, CIR, TDD, and their products were determined. Mean (±SD) blood glucose levels before and 2 h after meals were 121±47 and 150±61 mg/dL, respectively. TDD was 31.5±9.0 U, and TBD was 27.0±6.5% of TDD. CIR×TDD of breakfast was significantly lower than those of lunch and supper (288±73 vs. 408±92 and 387±83, respectively; Plunch and supper in type 1 diabetes patients. These results indicate that the insulin dose has been underestimated by using previously established calculations.

  3. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  4. Association between Type, Amount, and Pattern of Carbohydrate Consumption with Dental Caries in 12-Year-Olds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Morou-Bermúdez, Evangelia; Colon, Alina M; Torres, Roxana Y; Elías-Boneta, Augusto R

    2016-01-01

    To identify the types, food sources, and pattern of carbohydrates that significantly contribute to dental caries in Puerto Rican children. As part of an island-wide cross-sectional oral health study in 1,587 twelve-year-olds, diet intake was assessed in a representative subset (n = 801) with a 24-hour dietary recall. Carbohydrate intake was quantified using a computer-based diet analysis program. Caries was assessed using the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. Odds ratios were used to associate carbohydrate intake quartiles with caries, after controlling for important confounders. A total of 723 subjects had complete data. Most were females (54%) and attended public schools (77%). The caries prevalence was 33%. The highest quartile intake for the following sugars significantly increased the odds of caries compared to the lowest quartile: total carbohydrates (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.08-3.46), total sugars (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.01-351), sucrose (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.13-3.70), fructose (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.05-3.62), and inositol (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.38-4.63). The main food sources of these sugars were juices, including natural juices with no added sugars, and sweetened beverages. The odds of caries also increased significantly in children whose 10% of total energy intake was from total sugars (OR = 3.76, 95% CI = 1.03-13.7). After adjusting for important caries risk factors, total carbohydrates, total sugars, ≥10% kilocaloric energy from total sugars, and sucrose, fructose, and inositol intake significantly increased caries risk. Our findings can help raise awareness about the potential caries risk from the main sources of these sugars, natural fruit juices and sweetened beverages, which are consumed in great quantities in many societies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD, in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35 and 0.92 (0.82-1.03, respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05-1.89 and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.87. There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red

  6. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Salivary leptin and TAS1R2/TAS1R3 polymorphisms are related to sweet taste sensitivity and carbohydrate intake from a buffet meal in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Keast, Russell S J; Roura, Eugeni

    2017-11-01

    The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control). A period of 1 h after the preload, participants were offered a buffet meal consisting of foods varying in taste (sweet or non-sweet) and fat content. Subjective measures included hunger/fullness and SSS for sweetness. Saliva and buccal cells were collected to measure leptin level and to study the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 specific SNP, respectively. Salivary leptin concentrations were significantly higher in LS than HS participants (P<0·05). In addition, HS showed stronger sweet SSS compared with LH participants (P<0·05), and consumed less carbohydrate (% energy) and more non-sweet foods than LS (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). Alleles from each TAS1R2 locus (GG compared with AA alleles of rs12033832, and CT/CC compared with TT alleles of rs35874116) were related to higher consumption of carbohydrates (% energy) and higher amount of sweet foods, respectively (P<0·05). In contrast, no associations were found for the TAS1R3 alleles. These results contribute to understand the links between taste sensitivity, macronutrient appetite and food consumption.

  8. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  9. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  10. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for 5 cups/d (P-trend Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas lactantes Holandês-Gir com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de dietas formuladas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos no concentrado, associadas ou não à suplementação com óleo de soja, sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e a composição do leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados à base de milho ou farelo de trigo (FT ou polpa cítrica (PC, associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%. Não houve interação significativa entre a presença de óleo e a fonte de carboidratos em qualquer variável avaliada. O consumo de MS (18,4 kg/dia e a produção de leite (23,5 kg/dia não diferiram entre MI, FT ou PC, mas a dieta com FT proporcionou maior consumo de FDN e menor digestibilidade aparente total da MO e dos CHOT e reduziu o teor de lactose no leite. A síntese microbiana não foi influenciada pela fonte de carboidrato ou pelo óleo, sendo, em média, de 239,4 g N/dia. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo óleo apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca (19,0 vs 17,8 kg/dia e menores teores de lactose (4,49 vs 4,33% e gordura (3,34 vs 3,13% no leite, mas não diferiram quanto à produção de leite, ao teor de proteína, à digestibilidade dos nutrientes e à síntese microbiana. A presença de óleo promoveu maior eficiência alimentar (1,35 vs 1,23 e aumentou a relação proteína:gordura do leite (0,94 vs 1,00. Do ponto de vista econômico, PC e FT podem substituir totalmente o milho no concentrado em dietas para vacas com produção de até 24 kg/dia. O óleo na dieta diminui o consumo e mantém o nível de produção, aumentando a eficiência alimentar e alterando a composição do leite.Twelve Holstein-Zebu lactating dairy cows were used to study the effects of different carbohydrate sources and soybean oil on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition. The following carbohydrate sources were used: corn (CO, wheat bran (WB or citric pulp (CP

  12. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  13. Development of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID

  14. The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Whitney; Jacques, Paul F; Dallal, Gerard E; Sacheck, Jennifer; Must, Aviva

    2015-02-01

    The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality. The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9-11 years) and adolescents (12-15 years). Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA. One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9-15 years. Overall, 82% of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5% and a 9·4% increase in total energy intake, respectively (Pquality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006). Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.

  15. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  16. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  17. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P......Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  18. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  19. Comparison of efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet education programs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Chul; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Ahn, Sang Bong

    2018-02-01

    Composition of macronutrients is important in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Diet education programs that mainly emphasize reducing fat consumption have been used for NAFLD patients. We compared the efficacy of conventional low-fat diet education with low-carbohydrate diet education in Korean NAFLD patients. One hundred and six NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to low-fat diet education or low-carbohydrate education groups for 8 weeks. Liver chemistry, liver / spleen ratio, and visceral fat using abdominal tomography were measured. Intrahepatic fat accumulation decreased significantly in the low-carbohydrate group compared to low-fat group (liver/spleen 0.85 vs. 0.92, P low-carbohydrate and 16.7% for the low-fat group (P = 0.016). Not only liver enzyme, but also low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure levels significantly decreased in the low-carbohydrate group. Total energy intake was also further decreased in the low-carbohydrate group compared to the low-fat group. Although body weight changes were not different between the two groups, the carbohydrate group had a lower total abdominal fat amount. A low-carbohydrate diet program is more realistic and effective in reducing total energy intake and hepatic fat content in Korean NAFLD patients. This trial is registered with the National Research Institute of Health: KCT0000970 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp). © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  1. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  2. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  3. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  4. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  5. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  7. Imbalanced Nutrient Intake in Cancer Survivors from the Examination from the Nationwide Health Examination Center-Based Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the nutrient intake status of cancer survivors. A total of 5224 cancer survivors, 19,926 non-cancer individuals without comorbidities (non-cancer I, and 20,622 non-cancer individuals with comorbidities, matched by age, gender, and recruitment center location were included in the analysis. Generally, the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher and the proportion from fat was lower in cancer survivors. The odds ratios (ORs for total energy (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.86–0.99, proportion of total energy from fat (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35–0.83, and protein (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79–0.90 were significantly lower, and the OR for the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10–1.33 in the cancer survivors than in non-cancer I. Additionally, the cancer survivors’ protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and phosphorus intakes were lower, whereas their vitamin C intake was higher. When divided by cancer type, the ORs for the carbohydrate percentages were significantly higher in the colon and breast cancer survivors, whereas protein intake was lower in gastric, breast, and cervical cancer survivors. The nutrient intake patterns in Asian cancer survivors are poor, with higher carbohydrate and lower fat and protein intakes.

  8. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  9. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...... fruit and vegetable intakes (r(s) = 0.86, P flavonoids in morning urine also increased, but the association was weaker (r(s) = 0.59, P

  10. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  11. Carbohydrate, dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Luo, Hong; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2018-04-01

    A carbohydrate-rich diet results in hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia; it may further induce the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese population is quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, total fibre, starch, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in relation to colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2017, recruiting 1944 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 2027 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. There was no clear association between total carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted OR was 0·85 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·03, P trend=0·08) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Total fibre was related to a 53 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 0·47; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·58). However, dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 of 3·10 (95 % CI 2·51, 3·85). No significant association was found between the intakes of non-fibre carbohydrate, starch and dietary GL and colorectal cancer risk. This study indicated that dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no evidence supported that total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, starch or high dietary GL intake were related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.

  12. Associations between FTO genotype and total energy and macronutrient intake in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone K.M.; Celis-Morales C.; Lara J.; Ashor A.W.; Lovegrove J.A.; Martinez J.A.; Saris W.H.; Gibney M.; Manios Y.; Traczyk I.; Drevon C.A.; Daniel H.; Gibney E.R.; Brennan L.; Bouwman J.; Grimaldi K.A.; Mathers J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype

  13. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  14. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-11-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out" paradigm. Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  16. The effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on apparent total tract digestibility, feed mean retention time, nitrogen and water balance in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Austbø, D.; Bach Knudsen, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    obtained by partly substituting mature hay and barley with sugar beet pulp (SBP), a soluble fibre source. The diets investigated were hay only (HAY), hay (85% of dry matter intake (DMI)) and molassed SBP (15% of DMI) (SBP), hay (68% of DMI) and barley (32% of DMI) (BAR), and hay (68% of DMI), barley (26...

  17. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  18. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  20. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Acceptability of Carbohydrate Gels During a 5-Day US Marine Corps Basic Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William

    2001-01-01

    ...). Low carbohydrate availability negatively affects physical performance (8,10). Soldiers may experience unnecessary loss of muscle mass and other problems due to inadequate carbohydrate intake when exercising vigorously (<300 g/d) (4,6,8,9,11...

  2. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  3. Total HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in healthy children - Associations with adiposity and dietary intakes of mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H; Murrin, C; O'Reilly, M; Viljoen, K; Segurado, R; O'Brien, J; Somerville, R; McGillicuddy, F; Kelleher, C C

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was determined at age 9 by incubating serum-derived HDL-supernatants with 3 H-cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and percentage efflux determined. Mothers provided dietary information by completing food frequency questionnaires in early pregnancy and then 5 years later on behalf of themselves and their children. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted to confirm independent associations with HDL efflux. There was a negative correlation between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and waist circumference at age 5 (r = -0.3, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and BMI at age 5 (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.19, p = 0.1). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI at age 5 remained significantly associated with reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). HDL-C was negatively correlated with energy-adjusted fat intake (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with energy-adjusted protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.04) and starch (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) intakes during pregnancy. HDL-C was not significantly correlated with children dietary intake at age 5. There were no significant correlations between maternal or children dietary intake and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity. This novel analysis shows that efflux capacity is negatively associated with adiposity in early childhood independent of HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the

  4. Dietary Polyphenol Intake, but Not the Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity, Is Inversely Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Polish Women: Results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the dietary polyphenol intake (DPI and the dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in postmenopausal women. Participants were 916 postmenopausal women diagnosed with CVD and 1683 postmenopausal women without history of CVD, who took part in the population-based studies carried out in Poland: WOBASZ (2003–2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014. Nutritional data were collected using a single 24-hour dietary recall. DPI and DTAC in the CVD women were significantly lower and accounted for 1766.39 mg/d and 10.84 mmol/d, respectively, versus 1920.57 mg/d and 11.85 mmol/d in the women without CVD, but these differences disappeared after the standardization for energy input. Also, in the multiple-adjustment model, higher DPI, but not DTAC, was associated with the reduced odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. Beverages, mainly coffee and tea, contributed in more than 40% to DPI and in more than a half to DTAC. In this study, higher dietary polyphenol intake, but not the dietary total antioxidant capacity, was inversely associated with CVD in postmenopausal women, which points to the health benefits of increased polyphenol intake from food sources for these women.

  5. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  6. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  7. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Jian; Huang, Yao; Yu, Hong-Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Tang, Bo-Wen; Wang, Pei-Gang; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between dietary total flavonoids intake and the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases from January 1966 through May 2016 and examined the references of retrieved articles to identify relevant prospective cohort studies. The random-effect model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and dose-response analysis was performed. Ten studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality for the highest versus lowest category of total flavonoids intake was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.92). Dose-response analysis showed that those consuming 200 mg/day of total flavonoids had the lowest risk of all-cause mortality. Furthermore, a marginally significant association was found between dietary total flavonoids consumption and risk of death from CVD (summary RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.03; P = 0.099) and coronary heart diseases (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54-1.02; P = 0.069), respectively. The meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the recommendation of consuming flavonoids-rich food to reduce risks of mortality from all causes as part of a healthy diet among general adults. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With Eating More Carbohydrates and Less Dietary Fat in Mexican American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Tschann, Jeanne M; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steve E; Penilla, Carlos; Flores, Elena; Greenspan, Louise C; Pasch, Lauri A; Deardorff, Julianna

    2017-02-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 year olds. This cross-sectional study measured diet using two 24-hour recalls and estimated sleep duration using hip-worn accelerometry in MA children (n = 247) who were part of a cohort study. Child and maternal anthropometry were obtained; mothers reported on demographic information. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship of sleep duration with energy intake, sugar intake, and the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Children were 47% male; mean age was 10 (SD = 0.9) years. Mean sleep duration was 9.6 (SD = 0.8) hours; 53% were overweight/obese, with a mean energy intake of 1759 (SD = 514) calories. Longer sleep duration was independently associated with a lower percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates (β = -0.22, p fat (β = 0.19, p children who slept longer consumed diets with a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a higher percentage from fat, especially from PUFA. Short sleep duration may be a risk factor for food cravings that are high in carbohydrate content and may displace heart-healthy dietary fat, and thereby increase obesity risk among children. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5. No início do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ± 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e período de lactação em torno de 110 dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez dias para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminuíram linearmente conforme aumentaram os níveis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclusão da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ± 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  10. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  11. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  12. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  13. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  14. Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2018-06-01

    Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. A total of 8,165 subjects ≥ 30 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation ( P energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles ( P energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

  15. Dietary Macronutrient and Energy Intake and Urinary Incontinence in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McVary, Kevin T.; McGrother, Catherine; McKinlay, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss involving diet modification improves urinary incontinence (UI) in women, but little is known about dietary correlates of UI. The authors examined intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fats in relation to UI in a cross-sectional sample of 2,060 women in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Data were collected from in-person home interviews and food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% ...

  16. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Macronutrient Intake-Associated FGF21 Genotype Modifies Effects of Weight-Loss Diets on 2-Year Changes of Central Adiposity and Body Composition: The POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Smith, Steven R; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is involved in the regulation of energy balance and adipose metabolism. Our previous genome-wide association study identified genetic variants in the FGF21 region associated with macronutrient intake preference. We investigated whether the FGF21 genotype modified effects of weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on changes in adiposity in a 2-year randomized diet intervention trial. We genotyped FGF21 rs838147 in 715 overweight or obese individuals who were assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient contents. A DEXA scan was performed to evaluate body composition. We observed a significant interaction between the FGF21 genotype and carbohydrate/fat intake on 2-year changes in waist circumference (WC), percentage of total fat mass, and percentage of trunk fat (P = 0.049, P = 0.001, and P = 0.003 for interaction, respectively). In response to the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing C allele of rs838147 was marginally associated with less reduction in WC (P = 0.08) and significantly associated with less reduction of total fat mass (P = 0.01) and trunk fat (P = 0.02). Opposite genetic associations with these outcomes were observed among the high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet group; carrying the C allele was associated with a greater reduction of WC, total body fat mass, and trunk fat. Our data suggest that FGF21 genotypes may interact with dietary carbohydrate/fat intake on changes in central adiposity and body fat composition. A low-calorie, high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet was beneficial for overweight or obese individuals carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing allele of the FGF21 variant to improve body composition and abdominal obesity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  19. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants. Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs. Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake. Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered

  20. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  1. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lee S; Li, Li; Ford, Earl S; Liu, Simin

    2004-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic that is affecting an ever-increasing proportion of the US population. Although consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased and is thought to be related to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the ecologic effect of changes in the quality of carbohydrates in the food supply on the risk of type 2 diabetes remains to be quantified. The objective was to examine the correlation between consumption of refined carbohydrates and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States. In this ecologic correlation study, the per capita nutrient consumption in the United States between 1909 and 1997 obtained from the US Department of Agriculture was compared with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In a univariate analysis, a significant correlation with diabetes prevalence was observed for dietary fat (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), carbohydrate (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), protein (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), fiber (r = 0.16, P = 0.03), corn syrup (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), and total energy (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) intakes. In a multivariate nutrient-density model, in which total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup was positively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (beta = 0.0132, P = 0.038). Fiber (beta = -13.86, P < 0.01) was negatively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, protein (P = 0.084) and fat (P = 0.79) were not associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes when total energy was controlled for. Increasing intakes of refined carbohydrate (corn syrup) concomitant with decreasing intakes of fiber paralleled the upward trend in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes observed in the United States during the 20th century.

  2. Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Alez, Carlos A. Gonz; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Overvad, Kim; Nneland, Anne Tj; Roswall, Nina; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuehn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Huerta, Jose Maria; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallstrom, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Huybrechts, Inge; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and

  3. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  4. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  5. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  6. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L M; Winkvist, A; Eliasson, M; Jansson, J-H; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Lindahl, B; Lenner, P; Van Guelpen, B

    2012-06-01

    Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality. This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression. Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010). Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.

  7. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square. Each experimental period lasted 20 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and 10 days for sample collection (feces, abomasum digesta, ruminal content, and urine. Chromium oxide was used as the external marker for determination of fecal excretion. Increasing dietary levels of CP did not change significantly the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN. However, intake of CP increased while that of ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC decreased with the increment of dietary CP. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP all increased linearly by increasing the dietary CP from 10.5 to 15%. Except for intestinal digestibility of CP that increased 2.77 percentage units for each 1% increment in the diet CP, the different dietary CP levels did not affect intestinal and ruminal digestibilities of all remaining nutrients in the current trial.

  9. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  10. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  11. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  12. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on respiratory quotient of infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Sirimongkol, Pathama; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2015-01-01

    To compare the respiratory quotient in infants with chronic lung disease before and after receiving a modular diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content. Infants with chronic lung disease from the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled and assessed for nutritional status, severity of chronic lung disease and dietary intake. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a custom-made airtight canopy with O2 and CO2 sensors. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated from VCO2/VO2 during the period they were fed low carbohydrates (37% of total calories) for at least 24 hours vs. a standard diet (47% carbohydrate). These two formulas were similar in terms of caloric density and protein content. Each patient received at least 100-150 kcal/ kg/day during the study period. Respiratory quotients of the same patient receiving the two diets were compared by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 14 patients (median age 7 months, range 1-26 months) were recruited. Twelve children had weight for age Z-score below-2SD. Their median weight for age Z-score, length for age Z-score and weight for length Z-score were -2.89, -3.08 and -1.24, respectively. The median RQ measured during the low carbohydrate diet was 0.96 (interquartile range 0.95-0.97), significantly lower than the median RQ during the standard diet, which was 1.04 (0.97-1.10). However, the respiratory rate revealed no significant difference. Two participants with underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease showed higher RQ after low carbohydrate formula feeding, which might be a result of hypersecretion due to its high fat content. Diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content can reduce the RQ in infants with chronic lung disease compared to the standard enteral formula. A 10-percent reduction of carbohydrate content may provide a sizeable effect in this group of patients. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation.

  13. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Singh, Betsy B

    2007-01-01

    A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of Phaseolus vulgaris has been shown in vitro to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase. This may prevent or delay the digestion of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. A 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a proprietary fractioned white bean extract or an identical placebo twice a day before meals in conjunction with a multi-component weight-loss program, including diet, exercise, and behavioral intervention, was conducted. Both groups reduced their weight and waist size significantly from baseline. The active group lost 6.0 lbs (P=.0002) and 2.2 in (P=.0050), and the placebo group lost 4.7 lbs (P=.0016) and 2.1 in (P=.0001). The differences between groups were not significant (weight P=.4235, waist size P=.8654). Through subsequent exploratory analysis to investigate group findings further, subjects were stratified by total dietary carbohydrate intake. This probative analysis revealed that the tertile of subjects who had consumed the most carbohydrates demonstrated significant reductions in both weight (8.7 lbs vs 1.7 lbs, P=.0412) and waist size (3.3 in vs 1.3 in P=.0100) compared with placebo subjects in the same tertile of carbohydrate intake. Subjects who adhere to a program including dietary modification, exercise, and behavioral intervention can significantly reduce their weight and waist size in a short period of time. In an exploratory analysis of data, the tertile of subjects who ate the most carbohydrates experienced a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to the placebo group of the same tertile of carbohydrate consumption. Longer studies with a larger pool of subjects are required to validate these findings.

  14. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo alimentar, a digestibilidade parcial e total e o balanço de nitrogênio, em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados três novilhos de corte cruzados, canulados no rúmen e no duodeno, distribuídos em dois delineamentos em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As dietas experimentais foram constituídas de 60% de silagem de milho, tendo como fonte de proteína o farelo de girassol e, como fonte de energia, o milho (MI. O milho foi substituído parcialmente pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho (FGM. Quatro indicadores internos (lignina e FDA, FDN e lignina indigestíveis foram submetidos a 144 horas de digestão in vitro, para estimativa da digestibilidade parcial e total das dietas. Houve maior ingestão dos componentes fibrosos na dieta CS, porém não foi observado efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca. A lignina subestimou significativamente a digestibilidade. A utilização da FDAi, FDNi e lignina-i para estimar a digestibilidade total é viável, no entanto, a FDAi e lignina-i não estimaram adequadamente as digestibilidades parciais. Houve efeito significativo na digestibilidade ruminal da FDA, com valores mais elevados para CS e semelhantes para FGM, em relação à dieta MI. A digestibilidade total da FDA foi maior na dieta CS, porém, as digestibilidades dos demais componentes não foram afetadas pelas diferentes fontes energéticas. Não houve diferença significativa para a digestibilidade da energia e nos valores obtidos de NDT, com média de 61,5%. A casca de soja e o farelo de gérmen de milho, em substituição parcial do milho, mostraram-se fontes alternativas satisfatórias para a inclusão na dieta de bovinos.Feed intake, partial and total digestibility and nitrogen balance were evaluated in confined steers. Three crossbreed steers, rumen and duodenum cannulated, were allotted to two 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (60% and concentrate

  15. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  17. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  18. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-10-04

    Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population's BMI (body mass index). We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012-2014) regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener) and complex (cereal) carbohydrates in each country's total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1) estimate the impact of these shares on the country's prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2) compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3) measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a 'normal good' in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index) countries, but as an 'inferior good' in very high-HDI countries.

  20. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  1. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  2. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  3. Dietary intake in infants and young children in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammino, Victoria M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Langidrik, Justina R

    2007-09-01

    Changes in traditional foodways associated with increasing modernization have affected the feeding patterns of infants and young children. Declines in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been associated with poor nutritional status and increased morbidity from infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in children under six in four settings in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia. The mean duration of breastfeeding in the sample was 11 months, however only 16% of subjects were exclusively breastfed for the first six months, which is recommended by the WHO, UNICEF and other policymakers. Among non-exclusively breastfed infants, supplemental foods were introduced as early as 2 months. Mean intakes for total energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat and iron were calculated for subjects providing recalls. Intake levels for energy, protein, carbohydrates and iron varied by location. Recommendations for future research and program intervention are outlined.

  4. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  5. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  6. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  7. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  8. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  9. Relative Intake of Macronutrients Impacts Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Roberts, Lewis A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; O’Connor, Helen M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    High caloric intake has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Total caloric intake is determined by the calories derived from macronutrients. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between percent of daily energy (calories) from macronutrients and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Participants were a population-based prospective cohort of elderly persons who were followed over a median 3.7 years (interquartile range, 2.5–3.9) of follow-up. At baseline and every 15 months, participants (median age, 79.5 years) were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing for a diagnosis of MCI, normal cognition, or dementia. Participants also completed a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; total daily caloric and macronutrient intakes were calculated using an established database. The percent of total daily energy from protein (% protein), carbohydrate (% carbohydrate), and total fat (% fat) was computed. Among 937 subjects who were cognitively normal at baseline, 200 developed incident MCI or dementia. The risk of MCI or dementia (hazard ratio [HR], [95% confidence interval]) was elevated in subjects with high % carbohydrate (upper quartile: 1.89 [1.17–3.06]; P for trend=0.004), but was reduced in subjects with high % fat (upper quartile: 0.56 [0.34–0.91]; P for trend=0.03), and high % protein (upper quartile 0.79 [0.52 – 1.20]; P for trend=0.03) in the fully adjusted models. A dietary pattern with relatively high caloric intake from carbohydrates and low caloric intake from fat and proteins may increase the risk of MCI or dementia in elderly persons. PMID:22810099

  10. Coffee and Tea Consumption and the Contribution of Their Added Ingredients to Total Energy and Nutrient Intakes in 10 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landais, Edwige; Moskal, Aurélie; Mullee, Amy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected...... (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.......1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee...

  11. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  12. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  13. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  14. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  15. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  16. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  17. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  18. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  19. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  20. Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2013-01-01

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources...

  1. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  2. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  3. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  4. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  5. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  6. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  7. Pengaruh penerapan carbohydrate loading modifikasi terhadap kesegaran jasmani atlet sepak bola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Febri Utoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reduction of glycogen stores gradually during sports activities affect the performance of athletes. Carbohydrate loading is a method that aims to increase the glycogen stores are expected to delay fatigue and prevent hypoglycemia at the time of the match Purpose: The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of modification carbohydrate loading to the physical fitness and some indicators of nutritional status soccer athletes Methods: Experimental studies with approaches one group pre and post test design on 23 athletes aged 14-20 years in Diklat Sepak Bola Bintang Pelajar Semarang Regency  in July 2011. During one week the subjects were given a high carbohydrate intake approximately 70% of the total energy requirement (protein and fat are given to normal and soccer practice programmed with moderate intensity in the first three days and continued the intensity of light at the second of three days. Measurements included weight, height, percent body fat, lean body mass, blood glucose levels and physical fitness with Asian Committee on the Standarization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT method Results: There were significant differences  of physical fitness, physical fitness components (speed and cardiorespiratory endurance, body mass index, percent fat, lean body mass and blood glucose levels before and after treatment with p <0.05 Conclusion: Modified carbohydrate loading effected on physical fitness of soccer athletes. Fat mass and lean body mass to be the most influence factors on physical fitness

  8. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  9. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-01-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  10. A Simulation Study of the Potential Effects of Healthy Food and Beverage Substitutions on Diet Quality and Total Energy Intake in Lower Mississippi Delta Adults1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol L.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1,689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with their replacements’ profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population. PMID:22031664

  11. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    -product of fresh fruit (pineapple, guava, papaya, mango and passion fruit used in the diet for bovines partly replacing corn silage on intake and total nutrient digestibility, on the production of microbial protein and the nitrogen balance and on prediction of digestible fractions and total digestible nutrients (TDN of these by-products. All animals received corn silage and the urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1 mixture so diets would remain isonitrogenous. The intakes of dry matter (DM (kg/day, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and TDN, and the digestibility of CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and ether extract (EE were affected by the source of the by-product. There was an effect for the level of inclusion of products in the digestibility of CP and EE. The by-products of papaya, mango and pineapple showed energy values of 23.1, 18.0 and 7.1% respectively, higher than corn silage. The source of the by-product influenced urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and production of microbial protein, in addition to the intake (g/day, the excretion in feces and urine (g/day of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen balance (g/day. The level of inclusion of the by-product in the diet affect the urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and microbial protein production. The by-products of pineapple, papaya and mango have energy value higher than corn silage and they can partly replace energy concentrates in diets for ruminants. The by-product of passion fruit has the potential to partly replace roughage in the diets of ruminants. The by-product of guava has use limitations in diets of ruminants.

  13. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  15. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  16. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M.; van Rijn, M. [=Margreet; Verkerk, P. H.; Bosch, A. M.; Mulder, M. F.; de Klerk, J. B. C.; de Koning, T. J.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; de Vries, M.; Sauer, P. J. J.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  17. Itens alimentares no consumo alimentar de crianças de 7 a 10 anos Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Fragas Hinnigi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os itens alimentares mais representativos para o consumo total de energia, carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios de crianças de 7 a 10 anos. MÉTODOS: Elaborou-se uma lista com todos os alimentos consumidos com suas respectivas quantidades e quantificou-se a composição da dieta em energia e macronutrientes. A lista foi baseada em informações fornecidas pelo preenchimento de três Diários Alimentares (DA por 85 escolares de 7 a 10 anos que frequentavam uma escola pública na cidade de São Paulo. Obteve-se o agrupamento dos alimentos em 129 itens, calculou-se o percentual de contribuição de cada item no consumo alimentar dos nutrientes e identificaram-se aqueles que contribuíram com até 95% da ingestão total de calorias e dos nutrientes selecionados. RESULTADOS: Os itens "Arroz branco, arroz à grega, arroz com legumes" e "Feijão marrom, preto, branco, lentilha" contribuíram de forma importante para o consumo de energia e carboidratos. O item "Leite integral fluido, leite integral em pó" foi representativo para o consumo de lipídios, além de proteínas e energia. Ressalta-se a importância no consumo em energia e carboidratos das bebidas doces (refrigerantes e sucos industrializados na dieta deste grupo populacional. CONCLUSÕES: É evidente a participação do arroz no consumo alimentar total de energia e carboidratos; do feijão em energia, carboidratos e proteínas; do leite em energia, proteínas e lipídios; carnes em energia, proteínas e lipídios; e pão em energia e carboidratos. Merece destaque a participação das bebidas doces no consumo total de energia e carboidratos e das guloseimas no consumo total de lipídios.OBJECTIVE: To describe the most representative food items regarding the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in children with ages between 7 and 10 years. METHODS: A list was prepared with all food intake and quantities, and the diet composition in relation to energy

  18. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  19. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw)) -1 ) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  20. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  1. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.

  2. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  4. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  5. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  7. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, A.; Alles, M.; Graaf, de C.; Fleith, M.; Hadjilucas, E.; Isaacs, A.; Maffeis, C.; Zeinstra, G.G.; Gil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food

  8. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  9. Low-carbohydrate diet and type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available Evidence is sparse and contradictory regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet score and type 2 diabetes risk, and no prospective study examined the association among Asians, who consume greater amount of carbohydrate. We prospectively investigated the association of low-carbohydrate diet score with type 2 diabetes risk.Participants were 27,799 men and 36,875 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes. Dietary intake was ascertained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and low-carbohydrate diet score was calculated from total carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. The scores for high animal protein and fat or for high plant protein and fat were also calculated. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5-year were estimated by using logistic regression.During the 5-year period, 1191 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Low-carbohydrate diet score for high total protein and fat was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in women (P for trend <0.001; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile of the score were 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.84, compared with those for the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for dietary glycemic load attenuated the association (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.25. When the score separated for animal and for plant protein and fat, the score for high animal protein and fat was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in women, whereas the score for high plant protein and fat was not associated in both men and women.Low-carbohydrate diet was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women and this association may be partly attributable to high intake of white rice. The association for animal-based and plant-based low-carbohydrate

  10. Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elisabete; Costa, Andreia; Araújo, Joana; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003-2004 school year, including adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in the schools of Porto, Portugal. Time spent watching TV was collected by self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Included in the analysis were 1436 adolescents. Spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was significantly associated with higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and with lower intake of magnesium, in both sexes. Additionally, in girls, spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was associated with lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fiber, total vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. In boys, higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol was found among those spending more time watching TV. We found that television viewing is associated with higher consumption of foods containing more fats and sugars and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consequently, adolescents who watched more television had a higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and a lower intake of minerals and vitamins. This dietary behavior among adolescents may have long-term health implications, not only limited to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  12. Differential Effects of Two Fermentable Carbohydrates on Central Appetite Regulation and Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal

  13. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population’s BMI (body mass index. We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012–2014 regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener and complex (cereal carbohydrates in each country’s total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1 estimate the impact of these shares on the country’s prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2 compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3 measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a ‘normal good’ in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index countries, but as an ‘inferior good’ in very high-HDI countries.

  14. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential

  15. The gender-related differences of nutrient intakes in a group of Italian obese patients display the ongoing transition from Mediterranean to western dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giorgio; Canducci, Edgardo; Guida, Ada; Frascari, Ambra; Rossi, Angelo; Bersani, Gianluca; Ravani, Bruna; Alvisi, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutrients and energy intakes between obese women and men and the variation rates over or below the recommended dietary allowances. A retrospective survey was conducted on the records of obese patients, categorized into gender-related groups (36 women, 36 men). Total energy and nutrient intakes were determined. The highest variation rates were found for animal protein, averaging 225 % over the recommended dietary allowance, without significant differences between women and men. The simple carbohydrate intake was quite elevated in women with variations almost 80% over the RDA, significantly higher than in men (22%). The consumption of high-protein foods in both sexes, and even more the association with high-simple carbohydrate foods in women, display the Westernization of traditional eating habits.

  16. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP...... in their children. METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week...... 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft...

  17. Avaliação do modelo CNCPS na predição do consumo de matéria seca em vacas da raça Holandesa em pastejo Evaluation of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System on the prediction of dry matter intake of grazing lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Wyllie Elyas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o modelo Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS, versão 5.0, na predição do consumo de matéria seca de vacas da raça Holandesa, lactantes, em pastagem de capim coast-cross suplementada com silagem de milho e concentrado (3 ou 6 kg/vaca.dia. Foram realizados seis ensaios experimentais, cada um com 12 vacas. Em três das avaliações, os animais receberam, além do concentrado, 17 kg de silagem de milho/dia (base natural. As coletas de forragem selecionada na pastagem para análise da composição química foram realizadas por uma vaca com fístula esofágica. A estimativa do consumo voluntário foi realizada com sesquióxido de cromo (Cr2O3, administrado em doses de 5 g, duas vezes ao dia. Foram fornecidos ao programa dados (inputs referentes aos animais (peso vivo corporal, escore corporal, idade, produção e composição do leite e tipo racial, ao ambiente (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e manejo e à composição do alimento em cada período experimental. Os valores preditos pelo CNCPS para a ingestão voluntária de matéria seca foram próximos àqueles estimados, havendo pequena tendência do modelo em subestimar o valor determinado com o indicador.The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS version 5.0 to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI of grazing lactating Holstein cows, grazing coast-cross pasture supplemented with corn silage and concentrate (3 or 6 kg/cow/day. Six experiments were carried out, with 12 cows each. The cows were fed 17 kg/cow/day of corn ensilage in three experiments. The chemical composition of extrusa samples of forage was determined, obtained using an esophageous fistulated cow. The intake estimates were obtained using 5 g of chromium oxide (Cr2O3 methodology supplied two times a day. Data corresponding to animals (body weight, age, milk yield and composition and racial type

  18. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  19. Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Grioni, S; Boer, J M A; van Bakel, M M E; Ericson, U; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Rodríguez, L; Ardanaz, E; Sacerdote, C; Giurdanella, M C; Niekerk, E M; Peeters, P H M; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Deharveng, G; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Halkjaer, J; Jensen, A M; McTaggart, A; Crowe, F; Stratigakou, V; Oikonomou, E; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36,034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.

  20. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  1. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  2. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  4. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes proporções Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    364 kg were allotted to a randomized blocks design. At the ensiling process, an enzyme-bacterial inoculant Nutroeste 50 t was applied to the forage. For the determination of fecal dry matter, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. The animals were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided in three periods of 28 days after 15 days of adaptation. The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE and total carbohydrates (CHO average intakes increased linearly with the increment of the concentrate in the diets. The total apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CHO and non fiber carbohydrates also increased linearly with the increment of the concentrate levels in the diets. Similar behavior was observed for ADG, with increments of 0.0184 kg/unit of concentrate added. However, apparent digestibilities of CP, EE and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber were not affected by the diets, showing values of 77, 88 and 60%, respectively. No wilted Brachiaria brizantha silage in the 50:50 concentrate to forage ratio for beef cattle Holstein x Zebu steers, promoted average weight gain close to 1.0 kg/day.

  5. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  6. Distribution and seasonal variation of concentrations of particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Fernandes, V.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO), total particulate uronic acid (TPURA) and total particulate neutral carbohydrate (TPNCHO) concentrations and composition. Strong spatial, temporal and depth related variations were evident in the distribution...

  7. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-01-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in [ 3 H]leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis

  8. Changes in body weight and metabolic indexes in overweight breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized trial of low-fat vs. reduced carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Stopeck, Alison T; Bea, Jennifer W; Cussler, Ellen; Nardi, Emily; Frey, Georgette; Thompson, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Overweight status is common among women breast cancer survivors and places them at greater risk for metabolic disorders, cardiovascular morbidity, and breast cancer recurrence than nonoverweight survivors. Efforts to promote weight control in this population are needed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet counseling on weight loss, body composition, and changes in metabolic indexes in overweight postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Survivors (n = 40) were randomized to receive dietitian counseling for a low-fat or a reduced carbohydrate diet for 6 mo. Weight and metabolic measures, including glucose, insulin, HbA1c, HOMA, lipids, hsCRP, as well as blood pressure were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 wk. Dietary intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 24 and 76 g/day, respectively. Weight loss averaged 6.1 (± 4.8 kg) at 24 wk and was not significantly different by diet group; loss of lean mass was also demonstrated. All subjects demonstrated improvements in total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and significant reductions in HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA. Triglycerides levels were significantly reduced only in the low-carbohydrate diet group (-31.1 ± 36.6; P = 0.01). Significant improvements in weight and metabolic indexes can be demonstrated among overweight breast cancer survivors adherent to either a carbohydrate- or fat-restricted diet.

  9. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  10. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  11. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  12. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  13. How important is the relative balance of fat and carbohydrate as sources of energy in relation to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2016-05-01

    Both the intake of fat, especially saturated trans fatty acids, and refined carbohydrates, particularly sugar, have been linked to increased risk of obesity, diabetes and CVD. Dietary guidelines are generally similar throughout the world, restrict both intake of SFA and added sugar to no more than 10 and 35 % energy for total fat and recommend 50 % energy from carbohydrates being derived from unrefined cereals, tubers, fruit and vegetables. Current evidence favours partial replacement of SFA with PUFA with regard to risk of CVD. The translation of these macronutrient targets into food-based dietary guidelines is more complex because some high-fat foods play an important part in meeting nutrient requirements as well as influencing the risk of chronic disease. Some of the recent controversies surrounding the significance of sugar and the type of fat in the diet are discussed. Finally, data from a recently published randomised controlled trial are presented to show the impact of following current dietary guidelines on cardiovascular risk and nutrient intake compared with a traditional UK diet.

  14. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  15. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  16. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  17. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  18. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  19. Correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of pasture-grazed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida Santana Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers in grazing tropical. The experiment was conducted on the Princesa do Mateiro Farm, in the city of Ribeirão do Largo, Bahia. A total of 20 heifers with genetic makeup 5/8 dairy Guzerá and 3/8 Holstein, average age of 18 months and body weight of 187 ± 13.1 kg have been used. The experiment lasted 224 days and involved animals raised in a rotational grazing system with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú. Grazing time was not correlated with any of the variables associated with intake. Rumination time showed positive correlations with the intake of forage dry matter (DMIF and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI. Variables associated with the time spent on feeding at the trough, overall feeding and total chewing were not correlated with intake (P>0.05. There have been positive correlations between the number of grazing periods (NGP and rumination periods (NRP and total DM intake (TDMI, organic matter (OMI, forage (DMIF, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, total carbohydrates (TCHI and ether extract (EEI. Crude protein intake (CPI was positively correlated with NGP and NRP. The mouthful rate was positively correlated with TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI and CPI. Average time per swallow was negatively correlated with TDMI, OMI, NDFI, TCHI and EEI. Positive correlations have been observed between the number of mouthfuls per day and TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI. The number of chews per bolus showed negative correlations with DMIS and CPI. The time per cake ruminated has correlated negatively with the intake of crude protein. The number of chews per bolus showed positive correlations with the intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The number of boli per day showed positive correlations with DMIF and TCHI. The time spent on chewing showed no significant correlation with intake. In conflict with the national and international

  20. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  1. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  2. Dietary long-chain fatty acids and carbohydrate biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in participants from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Prentice, Ross L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate. Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake. A total of 41 PLFAs were measured with the use of gas chromatography in end-of-feeding-period fasting serum samples and expressed in both relative and absolute concentrations. R 2 values (percentages of variation explained) from linear regressions of (ln-transformed) consumed fatty acids (individual, groups, and broad categories) on (ln-transformed) corresponding measures of serum PLFAs alone and together with selected participant-related variables (age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, season of study participation, education level, and estimated energy intake from doubly labeled water) were used for evaluation against established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intake as benchmarks. Models to predict intakes of other nutrients were also explored. Results: Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid achieved the benchmark of R 2 > 36% with or without covariates. When all 41 serum PLFAs and participant-related covariates were initially included in the model for selection, cross-validated R 2 achieved >36% for consumed total carbohydrate (grams per day), total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), percentage of energy from SFAs, and total trans fatty acids with serum PLFAs in both relative and absolute concentrations. Conclusions: Serum PLFA biomarkers perform similarly to established energy and protein urinary

  3. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  4. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  5. Macronutrient intake in preschoolers with cystic fibrosis and the relationship between macronutrients and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigno, Stephanie S; Robson, Shannon M; Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Baker, Meredith A; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Kroner, John; Powers, Scott W

    2017-07-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential for growth in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The new CF Foundation Clinical Practice Guidelines bring attention to monitoring macronutrient intake as well as total energy. Dietary intake of 75 preschool children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency was examined and compared to the Clinical Practice Guidelines. Regression analyses examined relationships between macronutrient intake and growth. Approximately 45% of children met the 110% minimum recommended dietary allowance (RDA) recommendation. Children consumed 35.3% (6.1) of total daily energy intake from fat, 12.7% (1.7) from protein, and 52.0% (6.1) from carbohydrates. Percent energy from protein was associated with height growth. Many preschoolers with CF are not meeting nutrition benchmarks for total energy and fat. To optimize nutrition early, dietary monitoring with frequent individualized feedback is needed. Optimizing intake of macronutrients that promote growth, especially fat and protein, should be a primary clinical target. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Prado de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6% or glucose plus fructose (8%–10% beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics.

  7. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat) may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR) intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake. PMID:21615883

  8. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  9. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  10. Variação de carboidratos e ácido cianídrico em raízes de mandioca, após a poda da parte aérea Carbohydrates and hydrocyanic acid variation in cassava roots which aereal portions were totally pruned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados do estudo da variação de matéria seca, HCN, amido, carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores em raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz nos dias que sucederam à poda ou remoção total da parte aérea. Na amostragem foi utilizado o método convencional: raízes tomadas ao acaso e representativas da população. Diferentes tipos de raízes (da base e meio da maniva e da base das hastes coletadas 17 dias após a poda apresentaram teores de carboidratos bem diferentes, seja pela mobi-lização mais acentuada de reservas, seja pela sua constituição originalmente diversa, o que sugere pesquisas mais detalhadas sobre o método de amostragem das raízes para análise de laboratório. Verificou-se que, num período de quatorze dias após a poda de plantas com treze meses de idade e em época quente e chuvosa, as transformações mais profundas ocorreram no teor de amido, que decresceu de 79,06% para 62,52%, e nos carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores, que tiveram um incremento na matéria seca das raízes, respectiva-mente de 7,65% e 1,55% para 17,56% e 5,03%. 0 teor de carboidratos totais foi pouco afetado pela poda, Indicando perda pequena destinada a nova brotação ou a outros processos fisiológicos. O teor de HCN decresceu de 67 para 35 ppm.Data are presented on the variation of the level of dry matter, cyanide, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, and reducing sugars content in roots of 13 months old cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz at successive stages after the total removal of the aereal portions. During the 14 days following pruning starch percentage decreased from 79.06% to 62.52%; total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars showed a variation from 7.65% and 1.55% up to 17.56% and 5.03% respectively. Total carbohydrate presented small losses by pruning probably due to the new sprouting process. Root cyanid content decreased from 67 to 35 ppm. Its has also been observed

  11. [Comparison of the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake among university sport and sedentary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Sospedra, Isabel; Sanchis, Ignacio; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2012-06-16

    The study of the somatotype and food intake among university students is important to carry out internal policies about the improvement of health and prevention of diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake of university sport and sedentary students. The sample were 1,299 university students (420 males and 879 females) from University of Valencia, during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, who were evaluated for several anthropometric parameters, the somatotype and the nutritional and food intakes with a 7 day dietary diary. The somatotype was Endo-Mesomorph, Meso-Endomorph, Balanced Endomorph and Meso-Endomorph for sport and sedentary males, and sports and sedentary females, respectively. All groups had a high and low percentage of total calories in comparison with proteins plus lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively, as established in the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Low vitamin intakes, including E (in the sport males), A, D and E, folate and biotine (in the sedentary males) and A, D, E, folate and biotine (in the sport and sedentary females) were observed. All groups had a high intake of sodium and a deficit of potassium, calcium, iodine and magnesium. On the other hand, cereal groups were the most important in the energy dairy intake. Disequilibrium in macronutrients and micronutrients reflects the importance of developing food policies among University people to improve this situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-10-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery.

  13. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  14. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

    OpenAIRE

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  15. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  16. Enzymatic regulation of glucose disposal in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehleman, Tanya L; Peters, Sandra J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2005-01-01

    Whole body glucose disposal and skeletal muscle hexokinase, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and PDH kinase (PDK) activities were measured in aerobically trained men after a standardized control diet (Con; 51% carbohydrate, 29% fat, and 20% protein of total energy intake) and a 56-h eucaloric, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HF/LC; 5% carbohydrate, 73% fat, and 22% protein). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 1 g/kg) was administered after the Con and HF/LC diets with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies sampled pre-OGTT and 75 min after ingestion of the oral glucose load. The 90-min area under the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration vs. time curves increased by 2-fold and 1.25-fold, respectively, after the HF/LC diet. The pre-OGTT fraction of GS in its active form and the maximal activity of hexokinase were not affected by the HF/LC diet. However, the HF/LC diet increased PDK activity (0.19 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 min(-1)) and decreased PDH activation (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.10 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg wet muscle(-1).min(-1)) before the OGTT vs. Con. During the OGTT, GS and PDH activation increased by the same magnitude in both diets, such that PDH activation remained lower during the HF/LC OGTT (0.60 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.09 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg(-1).min(-1)). These data demonstrate that the decreased glucose disposal during the OGTT after the 56-h HF/LC diet was in part related to decreased oxidative carbohydrate disposal in skeletal muscle and not to decreased glycogen storage. The rapid increase in PDK activity during the HF/LC diet appeared to account for the reduced potential for oxidative carbohydrate disposal.

  17. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  18. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  19. Rats free to select between pure protein and a fat-carbohydrate mix ingest high-protein mixed meals during the dark period and protein meals during the light period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarios-Lahham, Lina; Roseau, Suzanne M; Fromentin, Gilles; Tome, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2004-03-01

    Rats that are allowed to select their diets [dietary self- selection (DSS)] often ingest >30% of their daily energy in the form of protein. Such an intake may seem unhealthy, but the consistency of this choice suggests that it is motivated by physiologic drives. To gain a clearer understanding of how protein selection is structured during DSS, we adapted 12 rats to a standard diet (14% Protein) and then allowed them to choose between two diets, i.e., total milk protein (P) and a mix of carbohydrates and lipids (FC). The protein intake during DSS rose above 40%; assuming an intermeal interval of 10 min, 70% of the energy intake occurred with meals that included both P and FC, with the sequence of FC followed by P preferred to the sequence of P followed by FC (70 vs. 30%, P energy intake during the light period was reduced to only 10% of the daily energy intake [vs. 30% with the control P14 diet or a with a high-protein diet (50%)], and 90% of the intake was in the form of pure protein meals. In complementary studies, we verified that the high protein intake also occurred when rats were offered casein and whey and was not due to the high palatability of the milk protein. We conclude that a specific feeding pattern accompanies high protein intake in rats allowed DSS. The mechanisms underlying this behavior and its potential beneficial/adverse consequences over the long term still must be clarified.

  20. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  2. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ELITE MEXICAN TEENAGERS SOCCER PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Mendez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-10-01

    nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. seventy-two young male soccer players (15-20 years) from four junior teams of a soccer Club from the Mexican National Soccer League were measured for height, seat height, weight, 6 skinfolds, 6 diameters and 7 circumferences, height-for-age and BMI-for-age values. Skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual tissue masses were calculated with the Ross and Kerr equation. Resting energy expenditure and intake was also measured. Daily dietary intake was self-recorded for 4 consecutive days (excluding the match day) using a digital food-weighing scale and a food record questionnaire. Dietary analysis was performed using the NutriBase 7 Clinical software. Several biochemical values were determined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing was performed using t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. all soccer players were within the normal range values for anthropometric parameters studies, when compared with other adolescent elite soccer teams. Values of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and total proteins were within normal range for young adult population, although albumin levels were high. Moreover, 14% and 20% of soccer players presented hyperuricemia and elevated total cholesterol levels respectively. Energy expenditure and intake were within normal range for all teenager elite soccer players. However, two teams shower significant lower intakes than demands. All macronutrient intakes were within recommendations, except protein that was higher. Micronutrient intake exceeded

  3. Analysis of Dietary Intake and Body Composition of Female Athletes over a Competitive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine dietary intake, body composition and bone mineral density changes at the beginning and end of a competitive season in female athletes of sports that have been less represented in the literature. NCAA Division I basketball (n=10 and softball (n=10 players mean age (20±1 years completed 3-day food records at the beginning and end of season. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean energy intake was significantly lower at the beginning compared to the end of the season (1925±466 vs. 2326±782 kcals/day; p=0.02. Lean, fat, and total body mass, and total and regional BMD were unaltered from the beginning to the end of season (p>0.05. Macronutrient consumption by percentage did not change across the season (p>0.05 with aggregate data equalling 3.5±1.3, 1.2±0.6, and 1.2±0.5 g/kg/day for carbohydrate, fat, and protein respectively. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were below the recommended levels. Low intake of fibre (17±6.3 g/day and high sodium (3700±1120 mg/day also raise concerns. Despite no major alterations in body composition or BMD many female athletes’ diets in the sports investigated while living on campus failed to meet recommended intake levels suggesting maximal athletic performance and health parameters may be stunted due to poor nutrient choices.

  4. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  6. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  7. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  8. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  9. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  10. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  11. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  12. Low Carbohydrate and Moderately Fat-Reduced Diets Similarly Affected Early Weight Gain in Varenicline-Treated Overweight or Obese Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggen, Eli; Svendsen, Mette; Klemsdal, Tor Ole; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Weight gain is common when stopping smoking. This study compared the effect of advising smokers to follow a diet low in carbohydrates versus a usual fat-reduced diet on weight gain and nicotine withdrawal. In a randomized clinical trial, 122 men and women smokers with body mass index 25-40kg/m(2) were assigned low-carbohydrate versus moderately fat-reduced diets. Within a week thereafter all participants started treatment with a 12-week course of varenicline 10 days prior to the target quit date. Brief dietary and motivational counseling was given at all visits. Self-reported abstinence was validated. Protein intake in the low-carbohydrate versus fat-reduced diets was 26.4% of total energy versus 20.0%, fat 38.2% versus 30.1%, and carbohydrates 29.0% versus 41.7% (all P carbohydrate versus fat-reduced groups were -1.2 (SD 2.2) versus -0.5 (SD 2.0) kg, -0.2 (SD 3.3) versus 0.5 (SD 2.6) kg, and 2.2 (SD 4.5) versus 2.1 (SD 3.9) kg at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the target quit date, respectively (not statistically significant). Smoking abstinence rates did not differ between diets. In the combined groups, point prevalence abstinence rates were 71.0% at 12 weeks and 46.3% at 24 weeks. The Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms score was lower in the fat-reduced group compared with the low-carbohydrate group at weeks 4 and 12. In overweight or obese smokers using varenicline a low-carbohydrate diet was no better than a fat-reduced diet in reducing weight gain but may result in more severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Compared to previous studies, cessation rates with varenicline were not impaired by dietary counseling. The study implies that a popular low-carbohydrate diet does not result in greater weight loss than a moderately fat-reduced diet in overweight and obese smokers who are attempting to quit smoking with the aid of varenicline. Dietary counseling combined with varenicline treatment did not appear to unfavorably influence quit rates compared to previous

  13. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  15. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  17. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  18. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2017-07-01

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  20. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  1. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  2. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bowen

    Full Text Available Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001. A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001, though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001, and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001. Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001, but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake and negative (higher energy and fat intake dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.

  4. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  5. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  6. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  7. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate: protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower...

  9. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  10. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013-2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren's mental health.

  11. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI, and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs; 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05, and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026, fiber (p < 0.001, vitamin C (p < 0.001, vitamin E (p = 0.004, magnesium (p = 0.018, and iron (p = 0.013. Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health.

  12. Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Rolls, B J; Moran, T H; Kelly, T H; McNelis, A L; Fischman, M W

    1992-02-01

    Six subjects participated in a residential study assessing the effects of covert macronutrient and energy manipulations during three required-eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, and afternoon snack) on total macronutrient and energy intakes. Overall, energy content of the occasions varied between approximately 3000 and approximately 7000 kJ (approximately 700 and approximately 1700 kcal) with the majority of the differential derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each condition (high, medium, and low fat; high, medium, and low CHO; and no required eating) was examined for 2 d. Subjects compensated for the energy content of the required occasions such that only under the low-CHO condition (11,297 +/- 3314 kJ) was total daily energy intake lower than that observed in the absence of required occasions (13,297 +/- 1356 kJ). Only total energy intake under the high-fat condition (12,326 +/- 2548 kJ) was significantly different from its matched CHO condition (high-CHO condition: 14,665 +/- 2686 kJ). In contrast to the clear evidence for caloric compensation, there were no differential effects of condition on macronutrient intake, ie, there was no macronutrient compensation.

  13. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  14. Low carbohydrate diet and improved glycaemic control in a patient with type one diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Eiswirth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an adult female with type 1 diabetes, whose HbA1c was trending at 58 mmol/mol (7.5% for the past 3 years. In August 2016, she reduced her total daily carbohydrate intake to 30–50 g and adjusted her other macronutrients to compensate for the calorific deficit. Her HbA1c fell to 34 mmol/mol (5.3% by January 2017 and average daily blood glucose readings decreased significantly from 10.4 to 6.1 mmol/L. Moreover, she observed a marked reduction of average daily glucose variability. Notably, there were no significant episodes of hypo- or hyperglycaemia and her lipid profile remained static. Subjectively, she described an improvement in her quality of life and the dietary transition was extremely well tolerated. We discuss these findings in detail and the potential clinical benefits for patients with type 1 diabetes that can be gained by following a low carbohydrate diet.

  15. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  16. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  17. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  18. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mupere Ezekiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV, wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively (p Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients.

  19. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  20. Circulating FGF21 in humans is potently induced by short term overfeeding of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Fritzen, Andreas M; Sjøberg, Kim A; Myrmel, Lene S; Madsen, Lise; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast-growth factor 21 (FGF21) is thought to be important in metabolic regulation. Recently, low protein diets have been shown to increase circulating FGF21 levels. However, when energy contribution from dietary protein is lowered, other macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, must be increased to meet eucaloric balance. This raises the possibility that intake of a diet rich in carbohydrates may induce an increase in plasma FGF21 levels per se. Here we studied the role of dietary carbohydrates on the levels of circulating FGF21 and concomitant physiologic effects by feeding healthy men a carbohydrate rich diet without reducing protein intake. A diet enriched in carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate; CHO) and a eucaloric control diet (CON) were provided to nine healthy men for three days. The energy intake during the CHO diet was increased (+75% energy) to ensure similar dietary protein intake in CHO and CON. To control for the effect of caloric surplus, we similarly overfed (+75% energy) the same subjects for three days with a fat-rich diet (78 E% fat; FAT), consisting of primarily unsaturated fatty acids. The three diets were provided in random order. After CHO, plasma FGF21 concentration increased 8-fold compared to CON (329 ± 99 vs. 39 ± 9 pg ml -1 , p FAT only a non-significant tendency (p = 0.073) to an increase in plasma FGF21 concentration was found. The increase in FGF21 concentration after CHO correlated closely (r = 0.88, p carbohydrate, but not fat, led to markedly increased FGF21 secretion in humans, notably without protein restriction, and affected glucose and lipid homeostais.

  1. Influence of various carbohydrates on the utilization of low protein diet by the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Akmal.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different dietary carbohydrates on food intake, body weight and nitrogen balance of adult rats fed 5 per cent protein diet ad-libitum for 14, 24, and 45 days or restricted to 70 per cent of their normal food intake for 10 and 31 days was studied. No significant difference in food intake and body weight on either of treatments was observed. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that rats fed ad-libitum or restricted diet having starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate utilized nitrogen more efficiently than sucrose fed animals. Possible explanations have been discussed. Regression equations were calculated and it was found from the regression lines that minimum calories and nitrogen intake to maintain nitrogen equilibrium under experimental conditions were 123 kcal and 270 mg N per kg 3/4/day on starch based diet compared with 136 kcal and 295 mg N per kg 3/4/day on sucrose diet respectively

  2. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  3. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  4. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  5. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta: Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Directory of Open Acc