WorldWideScience

Sample records for total cancer mortality

  1. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  2. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  3. Cancer mortality studied by Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; Smith, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given of a cancer mortality study in Caithness, Sutherland, Orkney and Shetland between 1958 and 1982. For Caithness and Sutherland, the numbers of male deaths from all kinds of cancer was significantly less than the numbers expected from figures for Scotland as a whole; for females no difference was observed; the parish of Latheron showed an excess of leukaemia cases. For Orkney and Shetland, the total number of cancer deaths for both sexes was significantly less than for Scotland as a whole. In Shetland, there was an excess of lymphatic leukaemia in Northmaven based on four deaths observed. In Orkney, one parish showed an excess of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers. (UK)

  4. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cancer mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    Personnel and radiation exposure data for past and present employees of the Hanford plant have been collected and analysed for a possible relationship of exposure to mortality. The occurrence of death in workers was established by the Social Security Administration and the cause of death obtained from death certificates. Mortality from all causes, all cancer cases and specific cancer types was related to the population at risk. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for white males, using age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates for the U.S. population in the calculation of expected deaths. This analysis showed a substantial 'healthy worker effect' and no significantly high standardized mortality ratios for specific disease categories. A test for association of mortality with levels of radiation exposure revealed no correlation for all causes and all cancer. In carrying out this test, adjustment was made for age and calendar year of death, length of employment and occupational category. A statistically significant test for trend was obtained for multiple myeloma and carcinoma of the pancreas. However, in view of the absence of such a correlation for diseases more commonly associated with radiation exposure such as myeloid leukaemia, as well as the small number of deaths in higher exposure groups, the results cannot be considered definitive. Any conclusions based on these associations should be viewed in relation to the results of other studies. These results are compared with those of other investigators who have analysed the Hanford data. (author)

  7. Use of BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 in radiation risk assessment: Lifetime total cancer mortality risk estimates at low doses and low dose rates for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In November 1986, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to develop a coordinated Federal position on risk assessment for low levels of ionizing radiation. Since Federal risk assessment activities are based primarily on the scientific data and analyses in authoritative review documents prepared by groups like the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations' Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), DoD proposed that the CIRRPC Science Panel undertake the task of providing coordinated interagency positions on the use of information in the reports of such groups. The practice has been for individual Federal agencies to interpret and decide independently how to use the information provided in such reports. As a result of its deliberations, the Subpanel recommends two nominal risk estimates for lifetime total cancer mortality following whole-body exposure to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation, one for the general population and one for the working-age population (see Section II). The recommended risk estimates reflect the general agreement of information in BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 for total cancer mortality. The Subpanel's risk estimates and associated statements are intended to meet the needs of the Federal agencies for: (a) values that are current; (b) values that are relevant to the low-dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposures principally encountered in carrying out Federal responsibilities; (c) a statement of the change in the estimates of lifetime total cancer mortality relative to estimates in previous authoritative review documents; and (d) a practical statement on the scientific uncertainty associated with applying the lifetime total cancer mortality values at very low doses

  8. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M.; Alonso, R.; Musetti, C.; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  10. Cancer mortality around nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; LaPlanche, A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies (including that of Gardner) of cancer mortality around individual nuclear sites in Britain show an excess of childhood leukemia near such sites. These have been attributed to radioactive discharges, increased radiation doses and radiation doses to the fathers of affected children. However, no such excess has been found in studies in other countries including France, Canada and the USA where similar radiation doses could have been received. Several explanations of this discrepancy are reviewed. It is possible that results from the small UK samples may be due to chance. A difference in external and internal doses for reprocessing plant workers may also be a factor. The possibility of a viral infection for leukemia spreading in new town populations is also mentioned. Whilst the studies in other countries are reassuring, the childhood leukemia excesses found in Britain round nuclear sites are still unexplained. (UK)

  11. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.; Herity, B.; Moriarty, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  12. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  13. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    Objective: The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively. Results: Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And

  14. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality After Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty in a Large Integrated Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Dillon, Mark T; Miric, Alex; Navarro, Ronald A; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2017-01-01

    The number of excess deaths associated with elective total joint arthroplasty in the US is not well understood. To evaluate one-year postoperative mortality among patients with elective primary and revision arthroplasty procedures of the hip and knee. A retrospective analysis was conducted of hip and knee arthroplasties performed in 2010. Procedure type, procedure volume, patient age and sex, and mortality were obtained from an institutional total joint replacement registry. An integrated health care system population was the sampling frame for the study subjects and was the reference group for the study. Standardized 1-year mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 10,163 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), 4963 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs), 606 revision TKAs, and 496 revision THAs were evaluated. Patients undergoing primary THA (SMR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7) and TKA (SMR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5) had lower odds of mortality than expected. Patients with revision TKA had higher-than-expected mortality odds (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5), whereas patients with revision THA (SMR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.4-1.5) did not have higher-than-expected odds of mortality. Understanding excess mortality after joint surgery allows clinicians to evaluate current practices and to determine whether certain groups are at higher-than-expected mortality risk after surgery.

  17. Cancer Mortality Pattern in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinde, O. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Oguntunde, O. A.; Afolayan, O. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000-2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female ratio was 1:2.2 and the peak age of death was between 51 and 60 years. Overall, breast cancer was responsible for most of the deaths. Conclusion. The study shows that the cancers that accounted for majority of death occurred in organs that were accessible to screening procedures and not necessary for survival. We advise regular screening for precancerous lesions in these organs so as to reduce the mortality rate and burden of cancer.Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000-2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female

  18. [Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X Y; Zheng, R S; Sun, K X; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China based on the cancer registry data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted cervical cancer incidence and deaths in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of cervical cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 86.07% and 1.01%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.30. The estimates of new cases were about 102 000 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 15.30/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of cervical cancer were 11.57/100 000 and 10.61/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer in China was 1.11%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 15.27/100 000 and 11.16/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 15.34/100 000 and 12.14/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of cervical cancer deaths were about 30 400 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 4.57/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 3.12/100 000 and 2.98/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.33%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 4.44/100 000 and 2.92/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 4.72/100 000 and 3.39/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of

  19. Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M.; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the NHS 2, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were non-linearly associated with mortality. Compared to non-drinkers, coffee consumption one to five cups/d was associated with lower risk of mortality, while coffee consumption more than five cups/d was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers, compared to non-drinkers, the HRs of mortality were 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for ≤ 1 cup/d, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97) for 1.1-3 cups/d, 0.85 (0.79 to 0.92) for 3.1-5 cups/d, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) for > 5 cups/d (p for non-linearity = 0.32; p for trend coffee (p for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Conclusions Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. PMID:26572796

  20. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in 3 Large Prospective Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-15

    The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were nonlinearly associated with mortality. Compared with nondrinkers, coffee consumption of 1 to 5 cups per day was associated with lower risk of mortality, whereas coffee consumption of more than 5 cups per day was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers compared with nondrinkers, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of mortality were 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for 1.0 or less cup per day, 0.92 (0.87-0.97) for 1.1 to 3.0 cups per day, 0.85 (0.79-0.92) for 3.1 to 5.0 cup per day, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for more than 5.0 cup per day (P value for nonlinearity = 0.32; P value for trend coffee (P value for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease, neurologic diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Cancer mortality of Swiss men by occupation, 1979-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, C E; Beer-Porizek, V

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of male cancer mortality are presented by occupation. The data base consisted of the 1979-1982 mortality register and 1980 census data from Switzerland. In a novel approach, a linked subset of death certificates and census records was used to correct the numerator-denominator bias of standardized mortality ratios and their confidence intervals. Agricultural occupations exhibited low cancer mortality (exception: stomach cancer). Electricians suffered excess mortality from cancer of several sites. Foundry and chemical workers had elevated mortality risks for digestive tract cancers. Other metal workers suffered from high mortality from cancers of the respiratory organs. Construction workers were subject to high mortality from cancers of the upper digestive tract and lungs. Innkeepers, cooks, and owners or managers of guest houses had high rates of cancers of the digestive system. Occupations using combustion-powered equipment suffered from excess lung cancer mortality. In general the results of the study agree with those of several other studies.

  2. The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, G; Moss, S M; Otten, J D M; Donders, R; Paap, E; den Heeten, G J; Holland, R; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Favourable outcomes of breast cancer screening trials in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the launch of population-based service screening programmes in many Western countries. We investigated whether improvements in mammography and treatment modalities have had an influence on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening from 1975 to 2008. Methods: In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 55 529 women received an invitation for screening between 1975 and 2008. We designed a case–referent study to evaluate the impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality over time from 1975 to 2008. A total number of 282 breast cancer deaths were identified, and 1410 referents aged 50–69 were sampled from the population invited for screening. We estimated the effectiveness by calculating the odds ratio (OR) indicating the breast cancer death rate for screened vs unscreened women. Results: The breast cancer death rate in the screened group over the complete period was 35% lower than in the unscreened group (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87). Analysis by calendar year showed an increasing effectiveness from a 28% reduction in breast cancer mortality in the period 1975–1991 (OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47–1.09) to 65% in the period 1992–2008 (OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.19–0.64). Conclusion: Our results show an increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality over time because of mammographic screening. PMID:21343930

  4. Excess mortality after curative surgery for colorectal cancer changes over time and differs for patients with colon versus rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrebø, Bjørn Steinar; Søreide, Kjetil; Eriksen, Morten Tandberg; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Søreide, Jon Arne; Kørner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Improved management of colorectal cancer patients has resulted in better five-year survival for rectal cancer compared with colon cancer. We compared excess mortality rates in various time intervals after surgery in patients with colon and rectal cancer. We analysed all patients with curative resection of colorectal cancers reported in the Cancer Registry of Norway before (1994-1996) and after (2001-2003) national treatment guidelines were introduced. Excess mortality was analysed in different postoperative time intervals within the five-year follow-up periods for patients treated in 1994-1996 vs. 2001-2003. A total of 11 437 patients that underwent curative resection were included. For patients treated from 1994 to 1996, excess mortality was similar in colon and rectal cancer patients in all time intervals. For those treated from 2001 to 2003, excess mortality was significantly lower in rectal cancer patients than in colon cancer patients perioperatively (in the first 60 days: excess mortality ratio = 0.46, p = 0.007) and during the first two postoperative years (2-12 months: excess mortality ratio = 0.54, p = 0.010; 1-2 years: excess mortality ratio = 0.60, p = 0.009). Excess mortality in rectal cancer patients was significantly greater than in colon cancer patients 4-5 years postoperatively (excess mortality ratio = 2.18, p = 0.003). Excess mortality for colon and rectal cancer changed substantially after the introduction of national treatment guidelines. Short-term excess mortality rates was higher in colon cancer compared to rectal cancer for patients treated in 2001-2003, while excess mortality rates for rectal cancer patients was significantly higher later in the follow-up period. This suggests that future research should focus on these differences of excess mortality in patients curatively treated for cancer of the colon and rectum.

  5. [Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Sun, K X; Xia, C F; Yang, Z X; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for breast cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitting female breast cancer incidence and deaths data occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of female breast cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas) in 2014. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 87.42% and 0.59% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.24. The estimates of new breast cancer cases were about 278 900 in China in 2014, accounting for 16.51% of all new cases in female. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of breast cancer were 41.82/100 000, 30.69/100 000, and 28.77/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 3.12%. The crude incidence rates and ASRIC in urban areas were 49.94 per 100 000 and 34.85 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 31.72 per 100 000 and 24.89 per 100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of breast cancer deaths were about 66 000 in China in 2014, accounting for 7.82% of all the cancer-related deaths in female. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and age

  6. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  7. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted......, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. RESULTS: Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post...

  8. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  9. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation...... to screening....

  10. Incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ron; Kapiev, Andronik; Poluksht, Natan; Halevy, Ariel; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide. The incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel have not been studied in depth. The aim of our study was to try and investigate the aforementioned issues in Israel in different ethnic groups. This retrospective study is based on the data of The Israel National Cancer Registry and The Central Bureau of Statistics. Published data from these two institutes were collected, summarized, and analyzed in this study. Around 650 new cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed yearly in Israel. While we noticed a decline during the period 1990-2007 in the incidence in the Jewish population (13.6-8.9 and 6.75-5.42 cases per 100,000 in Jewish men and women, respectively), an increase in the Arab population was noticed (7.7-10.2 and 3.7-4.2 cases per 100,000 in men and women, respectively). Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 cases of gastric cancer decreased significantly, from 7.21 in 1990 to 5.46 in 2007, in the total population. The 5-year relative survival showed a slight increase for both men and women. There is a difference in the incidence and outcome of gastric cancer between the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. The grim prognosis of gastric cancer patients in Israel is probably due to the advanced stage at which gastric cancer is diagnosed in Israel.

  11. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    young adult life into old age. One-year age-specific mortality rates between 30 and 79 years of age were computed for 14 different cancer sites among both males and females, in five ten-year birth cohorts and for the capital and provinces. The number of deaths at a particular age were found to follow...... a Poisson distribution and the mortality rate could be expressed by the function lx = bxk, where lx is the mortality rate at age x, and b and k are parameters to be estimated. With this model a straight line is obtained, when mortality and age are plotted on a double logarithmic scale. The maximum...

  12. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  13. Statin use and reduced cancer-related mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    A reduction in the availability of cholesterol may limit the cellular proliferation required for cancer growth and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that statin use begun before a cancer diagnosis is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality.......A reduction in the availability of cholesterol may limit the cellular proliferation required for cancer growth and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that statin use begun before a cancer diagnosis is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality....

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  15. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Su, Shu; Zhao, Hongxin; Wang, Dennis; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Fujie; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Cancer is responsible for elevated HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Research on HIV-infected patients with concurrent cancer is rare in China. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, and to investigate the mortality and risk factors among HIV-infected inpatients with cancer. Hospital records from a total of 1946 HIV-infected patients were collected from the Beijing Ditan Hospital. The data, from 2008 to 2013, were collected retrospectively. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predicting the concurrence of cancer with HIV. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. 7.7 % (149 cases) of all HIV-infected inpatients had concurrent cancer at their first hospital admission; of those, 33.6 % (50 cases) had ADCs, and 66.4 % (99 cases) had NADCs. The most prevalent NADCs were Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Patients who did not accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to suffer from cancer [AOR = 2.07 (1.42-3.01), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the survival probability of HIV-positive cancer patients was significantly lower than that of HIV-positive cancer-free patients (log-rank test, p cancer, the mortality was also higher among those who did not receive ART [AHR = 2.19 (1.84-2.61), p cancer concurrence among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was 7.7 %. Concurrent cancer also increased mortality among HIV-infected patients. ART was protective against concurrent cancer as well as mortality among HIV-infected cancer patients. These results highlight the importance of promoting cancer screening and early ART initiation among HIV-infected patients.

  17. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  18. Cancer mortality among women in the Russian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulyan, M A; Ilychova, S A; Zahm, S H; Astashevsky, S V; Zaridze, D G

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluates cancer mortality among women employed in two large printing plants in Moscow. A total of 3,473 women who were actively employed as of December 31, 1978, with a minimum of 2 years employment were followed from 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1993. There were 47,791 person-years observed, with only 51 women lost to follow-up (1.5%). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the population of Moscow to generate expected numbers. Analyses by job (compositors, press operators, and bookbinders), age hired, latency, and duration of employment were conducted. Among women employed in the two printing plants, there was a significant excess of esophageal cancer, based on seven deaths (expected = 2.7, SMR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-5.4). Four of the seven esophageal cancer deaths occurred among bookbinders (expected = 1.0, SMR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.1-10.4), all among workers hired before 1957 (expected = 0.6, SMR = 7.1, 95% CI = 1.9-18.3), the last year benzene was used in bookbinding. Ovarian cancer was also significantly elevated among bookbinders (12 observed, 4.2 expected, SMR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.5-5.0), which, along with one death from mesothelioma of the abdomen, might be related to the use of asbestos-contaminated talc fillers in paper. Press operators had significantly elevated mortality from stomach cancer (observed = 9, expected = 4.1, SMR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.2) and, based on two deaths each, melanoma and bladder cancer. Women in this printing industry cohort experienced excess mortality of cancer of the esophagus and stomach, with suggested increases of melanoma and bladder cancer. Further follow-up of this cohort, which would allow more in-depth analysis of rare cancer sites, latency, and duration of employment, is warranted. Gender comparisons within the cohort should also be conducted to clarify the role of occupational and lifestyle factors in the etiology of cancer among workers in the printing industry.

  19. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  20. Background radiation and childhood cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer estimated an ''extra'' cancer risk of 572 per million man-rad of juvenile cancer deaths under 10 years of age. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 36.9 juvenile cancers were expected out of 64,490 man-rad of exposed mothers. Observed cancer was, however, only one. The discrepancy was explained partly by possible overlapping of confidence intervals of two samples and partly by excessive doses received by exposed fetuses in Japan. If A-bomb radiation sterilized preleukemic cells induced in fetuses, it must also killed those cells in irradiated adults. Leukemogenic efficiency in adults, about 2.10 -5 per rad, is not different either in A-bomb survivors or in irradiated patients. We examined a dose-effect relationship in childhood cancer mortality (0 - 4 yrs) in Miyagi Prefecture Japan. Ninety two cancers were detected out of 1,214,157 children from 1968 to 1975. They were allocated to 8 districts with different background levels. Population at risk was calculated every year for every district. About 4 deaths occurred every 10,000 man-rad, which is comparable with 572 per million man-rad in Oxford Survey. One out of one thousand infants died from severe malformation in every year when they received 9.8 rad in embryonic stage, the doubling dose is estimated as 20 rad. Clinical and biological significance of the statistical data must be examined in future. Fetal death decreased significantly from 110/1,000 in 1962 to 55/1,000 in 1975. Background radiation plays no role in fetal death in Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  1. Surgical inpatient cancer-related mortality in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer is a distressing condition that imposes so much physical, psychological and economic burden on the patients. Knowledge of the mortality pattern of cancers in any institution will enable the development of tailored preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aim: To present the cancer mortality patterns of ...

  2. Cancer mortality in a cohort of continuous glass filament workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Manzari, Marco; Gallus, Silvano; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina; Romano, Canzio; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    To examine cancer mortality in continuous glass filament workers. A cohort of 936 continuous glass filament workers employed in a plant from northern Italy since January 1976 was followed-up through December 2003, for a total of 19,987 man-years. Overall, 144 deaths were observed compared with 160.8 expected based on regional death rates (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.05). There were 53 deaths from all cancers (SMR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.32), and 21 from lung cancer (SMR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.89). There was no consistent relation with risk for age at first employment, time since first or last employment, or duration of employment for any of the causes considered. Although limited in size, this study provides no evidence that continuous glass filament workers experience a significant increased risk of cancer, including respiratory cancer.

  3. Can we rely on cancer mortality data? Checking the validity of cervical cancer mortality data for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primic Zakelj, M.; Pompe Kirn, V.; Skrlec, F.; Selb, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Valid inference on cervical cancer mortality is very difficult since - on the basis of death certificates - it is not always possible to distinguish between cervix, corpus and unspecified uterine cancer deaths. Our aim was to estimate the extent to which cervical cancer as the official cause of death reflects the true mortality from cervical cancer in Slovenia. Material and methods. The data on 2245 deaths from cervix, corpus uteri, and uterus-unspecified cancers for the period 1985-1999 were linked to the Cancer Registry of Slovenia database from the mortality database of Slovenia. Results. Officially, in the period 1985-1999, there were 878 cervical cancer deaths. The comparison of these causes of death with the cancer sites registered in the Cancer Registry revealed that they include only 87.7% patients with a previous diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of 650 corpus uteri cancer deaths, 17. 1 % of patients were registered to have cervical cancer, and of 717 unspecified uterine cancer deaths, 31.4% were registered. Taking into account the correctly identified cervical cancer cases among cervical cancer deaths and misclassified cervical cancer deaths as corpus uteri and unspecified uterine, the corrected number of deaths would be 1106. Conclusions. When evaluating the impact of cervical cancer mortality from national mortality rates, the stated underestimation should be taken into account. However, this does not hold for some other cancers. (author)

  4. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  5. [Trend of cancer mortality in Hebei province, 1973-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Li, D J; Shi, J; Zhang, Y C; Guo, T T; He, Y T

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in Serbia 1999-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Zivković, Snežana; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in cancer incidence in the last years in Serbia, no nation-wide, population-based cancer epidemiology data have been reported. In this study cancer incidence and mortality rates for Serbia are presented using nation-wide data from two population-based cancer

  7. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  8. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  9. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-12-29

    The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  10. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea.MethodsPopulation and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS population weights.ResultsThe crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010.ConclusionThyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  11. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and va...

  12. [Epidemiological analysis on mortality of cancer in China, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Zhao, F; Cai, Y; Wu, R X; Meng, Q

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of cancer deaths in China in 2015 and provide reference for the prevention and control of cancer. Methods: Based on the results of Global Burden of Disease 2015, the cancer death distributions in different age groups, sex groups, provinces or by different malignant tumor in Chinese were described. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of cancer was 159.01/100 000 in China in 2015. The mortality rate was highest in age group ≥70 years (1 102.73/100 000), and lowest in age group 5-14 years (5.40/100 000). The mortality rate in males was 2.15 times higher than that in females. The first 5 provinces with high cancer mortality rate were Anhui, Qinghai, Sichuan, Guangxi and Henan. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer ranked 1-5 in term of mortality rate. Conclusion: The cancer mortality differed with age, gender, area and different malignant tumors, suggesting the necessity to develop targeted prevention and control strategies.

  13. Cancer mortality among immigrant populations in Ontario, 1969 through 1973.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, A. M.; Spengler, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Ontario is home to a sizeable, recently established immigrant population whose cancer mortality has until now remained unexamined. The province's six largest immigrant groups (British, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish and Soviet) were investigated to compare their cancer mortality experience with that prevailing in Ontario and in their countries of birth for the period 1969 through 1973. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed from data from Statistics Canada and the World Health Org...

  14. Cancer mortality among nuclear workers in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.; Holmstock, L.; Mieghem, E. Van; Swaen, G.M.; Wambersie, A.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate long term health effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation, the Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN) in Mol set up a retrospective cohort study in 5 nuclear facilities in Belgium (SCK.CEN, Belgonucleaire, Belgoprocess, 2 Electrabel nuclear power plants). Cancer mortality among nuclear workers is studied in relation to occupational exposure to ionising radiation. This study is part of the 'International Collaborative Study on Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers', coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), pooling data of 14 countries. During the period 1953-1994, all workers registered in one of the participating facilities were included in the study (n=7361). Data have been collected from different information sources: personnel registries (identification, occupational history), dosimetry records (e.g. annual effective dose), National Population Registry and local authorities (vital status). National Institute of Statistics (causes of death from the death certificates), National Radiation Registry/Ministry of Labour (transfer doses), questionnaires (e.g. smoking habits). Retrospective collection of data and privacy protection regulations specific to Belgium hampered the conduct of this study, causing labour intensive and time consuming procedures. Written informed consent of next-of-kin is required to obtain information from the death certificates. Before 1969 only family reported causes of death are available. Despite the above mentioned constraints, first results of Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) calculations are now available for SCK.CEN workers for the period 1969-1994 (n=3270, vital status ascertainment: 95%, underlying cause of death ascertainment: 80%). Available SMR's can be summarised as follows: male workers, no measurable dose (n=785): SMR all causes=75% (95%CI: 61-91), SMR all tumours=64% (95%CI: 42-93), 2 leukemia deaths were observed, whereas 1 is expected, male workers, measurable

  15. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  16. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  17. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  18. Mortality and cancer morbidity among cement production workers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Francesca; Garzaro, Giacomo; Pira, Enrico; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    To analyze overall and cause-specific mortality, especially from cancer, among cement production workers. Results from some epidemiological studies suggested an increased risk of overall mortality and of stomach cancer associated with employment in the cement production, but the presence of a hazard and, if present, the magnitude of a risk have not been precisely quantified. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of data on mortality from all causes, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, and cancer among cement workers. The literature search in PubMed and Scopus up to February 2016 and with appropriate keywords on mortality among cement workers revealed 188 articles which were screened. A total of 117 articles were reviewed in full text and 12 articles, referring to 11 study populations, were found to be relevant and of sufficient quality for further analysis. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Eight cohort studies, one proportionate mortality study, and two case-control studies were identified. The summary RRs were 0.89 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.01] for all-cause mortality, 0.94 (95 %, CI 0.80-1.08) for cancer mortality, 1.07 (95 % CI 0.79-1.35) for lung cancer mortality, and 0.93 (95 % CI 0.70-1.17) for stomach cancer mortality, respectively. Significant heterogeneity in results was observed among studies. The present meta-analysis does not provide evidence of increased risk of overall mortality, as well as cancer, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality in relation to employment in cement production.

  19. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    -cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78–1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08). There was little evidence...

  20. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  1. The influence of death-certificate errors on cancer mortality trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Hoel, D.G.; Carter, R.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past few years, several reports have suggested a recent increase in cancer mortality based on death-certificate diagnoses. To explore the effect of death-certificate errors on temporal trends in cancer mortality rates, we analyzed the data from the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation's autopsy program in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This series includes 5886 autopsies conducted between 1961 and 1987. Our analyses were focused on lymphoma, cancer of the breast, neoplasms of the brain, multiple myeloma, and melanoma (172 cases, total) because of concern over reports of their increased mortality. These 172 autopsy cases were referred to as Cancers of Interest. A significant increase in detection rates was observed for these Cancers of Interest primarily due to a large rise in mortality between 1976 and 1987. For the remaining cancers excluding stomach and lung (defined as Other), the pattern was similar to that seen for Cancers of Interest, but the fluctuation over time was not statistically significant. Confirmation rates generally increased with time except for Cancers of Interest. As a measure of bias in mortality rates due to death-certification errors and as a method to quantify under- or overestimation of death-certificate-based mortality rates,an adjustment factor (confirmation rate divided by detection rate) was calculated. The higher the adjustment factor, the greater the need to compensate for underreporting. For Cancers of Interest the adjustment factor decreased dramatically over time, but it did not change significantly for Other cancers. When the adjustment factors for Cancers of Interest and Other were compared, a statistically significant difference was found. For Cancers of Interest, a significant interaction between type of cancer and period was seen. Our findings indicate that considerable care must be shown when interpreting temporal trends in cancer vital statistics. (author)

  2. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Mortality from cancer and other causes in an Italian cohort of male rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Pelucchi, Claudio; Romano, Canzio; Manzari, Marco; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    To investigate mortality among workers of an Italian rubber tire factory employed between 1954 and 2008. This cohort study included 6246 men, totaling 190,512 man-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from personnel records, whereas vital status and causes of death were ascertained from local authorities. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using national and regional death certification rates. Mortality was significantly lower than expected for all cancers (SMR = 79) and all causes (SMR = 85). The SMRs were 99 for cancer of stomach, 78 for lung, 121 for urinary bladder, 116 for lymphoma, and 89 for leukemia, none being significant. Decreased mortality emerged for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (SMR = 45), esophagus (SMR = 29), colorectum (SMR = 71), liver (SMR = 57), and kidney (SMR = 33). This study shows no excess cancer risk among male rubber tire workers employed after 1954.

  4. Incidence and Mortality of Testicular Cancer and Relationships with Development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Gandomani, Hamidreza Sadeghi; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers among young men between ages 20-34 in countries with high or very high levels of the Human Development Index (HDI). This study investigated the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and the relationship with the HDI and its dimensions in Asia in 2012. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Standardized incidence and mortality rates of testicular cancer were calculated for Asian countries. Correlations between incidence and/ormortality rates, and the HDI and its components were assessed with the use of the correlation test, using SPSS software. There was a total of 14902 incidences and 5832 death were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Among the Asian countries, the five countries with the highest standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer were Israel, Georgia, Turkey, Lebanon and Kazakhstan and the five countries with the highest standardized mortality rates were Turkey, Georgia, Jordan, Cambodia and the Syrian Arab Republic. A positive correlation of 0.382 was observed between the standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer and the HDI (p=0.009). Also a negative correlation of 0.298 between the standardized mortality rate of testicular cancer and the Human Development Index was noted although this relation was statistically non-significant (p=0.052). There is a positive correlation between HDI and the standardized incidence rate of testicular cancer and negative correlation with standardized mortality rate.

  5. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries.

  6. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women.We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996-2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake. The score ranged from zero (least healthy to five (most healthy points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44-0.74 for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16-0.54 for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54-1.06 for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths.In this first study, to our knowledge, to

  7. The cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality: an economic measure of the cancer burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul A; Sharp, Linda

    2014-03-26

    Most measures of the cancer burden take a public health perspective. Cancer also has a significant economic impact on society. To assess this economic burden, we estimated years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL) and costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland. All cancers combined and the 10 sites accounting for most deaths in men and in women were considered. To compute YPPLL, deaths in 5-year age-bands between 15 and 64 years were multiplied by average working-life expectancy. Valuation of costs, using the human capital approach, involved multiplying YPPLL by age-and-gender specific gross wages, and adjusting for unemployment and workforce participation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted around retirement age and wage growth, labour force participation, employment and discount rates, and to explore the impact of including household production and caring costs. Costs were expressed in €2009. Total YPPLL was lower in men than women (men = 10,873; women = 12,119). Premature cancer-related mortality costs were higher in men (men: total cost = €332 million, cost/death = €290,172, cost/YPPLL = €30,558; women: total cost = €177 million, cost/death = €159,959, cost/YPPLL = €14,628). Lung cancer had the highest premature mortality cost (€84.0 million; 16.5% of total costs), followed by cancers of the colorectum (€49.6 million; 9.7%), breast (€49.4 million; 9.7%) and brain & CNS (€42.4 million: 8.3%). The total economic cost of premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland amounted to €509.5 million or 0.3% of gross domestic product. An increase of one year in the retirement age increased the total all-cancer premature mortality cost by 9.9% for men and 5.9% for women. The inclusion of household production and caring costs increased the total cost to €945.7 million. Lost productivity costs due to cancer-related premature mortality are significant. The higher premature mortality cost in males than

  8. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  9. Bladder cancer mortality after spinal cord injury over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Laura S; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Lloyd, L Keith

    2015-06-01

    We estimate bladder cancer mortality in people with spinal cord injury compared to the general population. Data and statistics were retrieved from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the National Center for Health Statistics. The mortality experience of the 45,486 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model System or Shriners Hospital was compared to the general population using a standardized mortality ratio. The standardized mortality ratio data were further stratified by age, gender, race, time since injury and injury severity. Our study included 566,532 person-years of followup between 1960 and 2009, identified 10,575 deaths and categorized 99 deaths from bladder cancer. The expected number of deaths from bladder cancer would have been 14.8 if patients with spinal cord injury had the same bladder cancer mortality as the general population. Thus, the standardized mortality ratio is 6.7 (95% CI 5.4-8.1). Increased mortality risk from bladder cancer was observed for various ages, races and genders, as well as for those injured for 10 or more years and with motor complete injuries. Bladder cancer mortality was not significantly increased for ventilator users, those with motor incomplete injuries or those injured less than 10 years. Individuals with a spinal cord injury can potentially live healthier and longer by reducing the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. Study findings highlight the need to identify at risk groups and contributing factors for bladder cancer death, leading to the development of prevention, screening and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  11. Projecting productivity losses for cancer-related mortality 2011 - 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Bradley, Cathy; Hanly, Paul; O'Neill, Ciaran; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-18

    When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach. National data were used for cancer, population and economic inputs. Both paid work and unpaid household activities were included. Sensitivity analyses estimated the impact of assumptions around future cancer mortality rates, retirement ages, value of unpaid work, wage growth and discounting. The 233,000 projected deaths from all invasive cancers in Ireland between 2011 and 2030 will result in lost productivity valued at €73 billion; €13 billion in paid work and €60 billion in household activities. These losses represent approximately 1.4 % of Ireland's GDP annually. The most costly cancers are lung (€14.4 billion), colorectal and breast cancer (€8.3 billion each). However, when viewed as productivity losses per cancer death, testis (€364,000 per death), cervix (€155,000 per death) and brain cancer (€136,000 per death) are most costly because they affect working age individuals. An annual 1 % reduction in mortality reduces productivity losses due to all invasive cancers by €8.5 billion over 20 years. Society incurs substantial losses in productivity as a result of cancer-related mortality, particularly when household production is included. These estimates provide valuable evidence to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer prevention and control.

  12. Incidence and mortality of gastric cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China, based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a ...

  13. Cancer mortality disparities among New York City's Upper Manhattan neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall; Lucchini, Roberto; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES) neighborhoods of New York City are geographically contiguous to tertiary medical care, but are characterized by cancer mortality rate disparities. This ecological study aims to disentangle the effects of race and neighborhood on cancer deaths. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were determined using neighborhood-specific data from the New York State Cancer Registry and Vital Records Office (2007-2011). Ecological data on modifiable cancer risk factors from the New York City Community Health Survey (2002-2006) were stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood and modeled against stratified mortality rates to disentangle race/ethnicity and neighborhood using logistic regression. Significant gaps in mortality rates were observed between the UES and both CH and EH across all cancers, favoring UES. Mortality-to-incidence ratios of both CH and EH were similarly elevated in the range of 0.41-0.44 compared with UES (0.26-0.30). After covariate and multivariable adjustment, black race (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-1.93) and EH residence (odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.35) remained significant risk factors in all cancers' combined mortality. Mortality disparities remain among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Both neighborhood and race are significantly associated with cancer mortality, independent of each other. Multivariable adjusted models that include Community Health Survey risk factors show that this mortality gap may be avoidable through community-based public health interventions.

  14. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Freedman, Neal D; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2017-08-15

    Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse. To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death. The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996. Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. 185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment. Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. 58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. National Cancer Institute.

  15. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Female breast cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ting‐Ting; Zheng, Rong‐Shou; Zeng, Hong‐Mei; Zhang, Si‐Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Population‐based cancer registration data from the National Central Cancer Registry were used to analyze and evaluate the incidence and mortality rates in China in 2013, providing scientific information for cancer prevention and control. Methods Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. National new cases and deaths were estimated using age‐specific rates and the corresponding population in 2013. The Chinese population in 2000 and Segi's world population were used to calculate age‐standardized rates. Results The estimated number of new breast cancer cases was about 278 800 in China in 2013. The crude incidence, age‐standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of incidence by world standard population were 42.02/100 000, 30.41/100 000, and 28.42/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of breast cancer deaths was about 64 600 in China in 2013. The crude mortality, age‐standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of mortality by world standard population were 9.74/100 000, 6.54/100 000, and 6.34/100 000, respectively. Both incidence and mortality were higher in urban than in rural areas. Age‐specific breast cancer incidence significantly increased with age, particularly after age 20, and peaked at 50–55 years, while age‐specific mortality increased rapidly after 25 years, peaking at 85+ years. Conclusions Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Chinese women, especially women in urban areas. Comprehensive measures are needed to reduce the heavy burden of breast cancer. PMID:28296260

  17. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  18. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro.

    1987-01-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  19. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro

    1987-03-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them.

  20. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961-1990. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  1. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Onishi, Masaaki; Sairenji, Eiko

    1986-01-01

    In the previous study, a statistically significant positive correlation between natural background radiation exposure rates and crude (non-age-adjusted) cancer mortality rates was observed in 46 Japanese prefectures over the period from 1968 until 1978. In the present investigation, however, the significance of this correlation mostly disappeared through age adjustment with only the two exceptions of female stomach and uterine cancers. Age adjusted male esophagus cancer mortality rate still showed a significant negative correlation. Female esophagus and pancreas cancers became negatively correlated with exposure rate through age adjustment. It was suggested that natural radiation levels are positively correlated with prefectural population component ratios older than 40, 50 and 65 years, which was considered to be one of the causes of apparent correlation between exposure rates and crude cancer mortality rates. (author)

  2. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  3. Total mesorectal excision for the treatment of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedan, Ali; Salah, Tareq

    2015-12-01

    In the surgical treatment of rectal cancer, a clear circumferential resection margin and distal resection margin should be obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the morbidity, mortality, survival outcome, and local failure after total mesorectal excision (TME) in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. This retrospective study was conducted on 101 patients treated for rectal cancer using low anterior resection (LAR), abdominoperinial resection (APR), or Hartmaan's technique. In all operative procedures, total mesorectal excisions (TMEs) were done. The patients were treated from November 2000 to April 2011 in the South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI) of Assuit University (Egypt). Neo-adjuvant therapy was given to those patients with serosalin filtration, lymph node involvement, and sexual and urinary function impairment. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21, and survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. One hundred one patients were evaluable (61 males, 40 females). Regarding the operative procedure used, it was: (APR), LAR, Hartmaan's technique in 15.8%, 71.3%, and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Operation-related mortality during the 30 days after surgery was 3%. The operations resulted in morbidity in 25% of the patients, anastomotic site leak in 5.9% of the patients, urinary dysfynction in 9.9% of the patients, and erectile dysfunction in 15.8% of the male patients. Regarding safety margin, the median distances were distal/radial margin, 23/12 mm, distal limit 7 cm. Median lymph nodes harvest 19 nodes. Primary tumor locations were anteriorly 23.8%, laterally 13.9%, posteriorly 38.6%, and circumferential 23.8%. Protective stoma 16.8%. Primary Tumor TNM classification (T1, T2, T3, and T4; 3, 28.7, 55.4, and 12.9%, respectively). Nodes Metastases (N0, N1, and N2; 57.4, 31.7, and 10.9%, respectively). TNM staging (I, II, III, and IV; 15.8, 29.7, 46.5, and 7.9%, respectively). Chemotherapy was administered to 67.3% of the

  4. Cancer-Specific and All-Cause Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients With and Without Previous Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Lim, Wai H; Macaskill, Petra; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Clayton, Philip; Cohney, Solomon; Carroll, Robert; Wong, Germaine

    2015-12-01

    For dialysis patients with a cancer history, a period of surveillance is generally recommended before listing for transplantation. However, the outcomes of patients with cancer recurrence and/or a second primary cancer after transplantation are unknown. To determine the prognosis of kidney transplant recipients who developed cancer after transplantation and whether this varied with cancer types (first cancer, recurrence, second primary cancer). Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we compared the cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among recipients with different cancer types using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Of the 21,415 recipients transplanted between 1965 and 2012, 3% (651 of 21,415) had a previous cancer history. A total of 2840 (13%) recipients developed cancer after the first transplant, of whom 2760 (97.2%) developed a first cancer, 23 (0.8%) experienced cancer recurrence, and 57 (2%) developed a second primary cancer. There were no significant differences in the risks of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality between recipients who developed their first cancer after transplant, those with cancer recurrence (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-1.67; P = 0.54 and aHRs, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.66; P = 0.66, respectively) and recipients who developed a second primary cancer after transplantation (aHRs, 1.01; 95%CI, 0.63-1.62; P = 0.95 and aHRs, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.69; P = 0.45, respectively). Among patients with a previous history of malignancy, recurrent and second primary cancers are infrequent after renal transplantation. A history of previous malignancy does not have an additive effect on the cancer-specific and overall survival of kidney transplant recipients who develop cancer.

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997-2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997-2010 for incidence and 1999-2010 for mortality. Two years' data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across circumpolar regions and countries. With its small

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Claudia; Osma, Sonia; Herrera, Víctor

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA) during 2003-2007. Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR). Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS). We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR(W)) and mortality (ASMR(W)) rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women). Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4%) were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1%) were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W) for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W) was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  9. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  10. Relapse and Mortality Risk of Stage I Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florvall, Cecilia; Frederiksen, Peder; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: - To assess the medical insurance risk for patients with stage I testicular cancer (TC), by calculating the overall mortality risk with and without relapse, and compare it to men from the Danish population. BACKGROUND: - Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young males...

  11. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  12. Patterns of breast cancer mortality trends in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joana; Severo, Milton; Vilela, Sofia; Fonseca, Sérgio; Fontes, Filipa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno

    2013-06-01

    To identify patterns of variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe (1980-2010), using a model-based approach. Mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization database and mixed models were used to describe the time trends in the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR). Model-based clustering was used to identify clusters of countries with homogeneous variation in ASMR. Three patterns were identified. Patterns 1 and 2 are characterized by stable or slightly increasing trends in ASMR in the first half of the period analysed, and a clear decline is observed thereafter; in pattern 1 the median of the ASMR is higher, and the highest rates were achieved sooner. Pattern 3 is characterised by a rapid increase in mortality until 1999, declining slowly thereafter. This study provides a general model for the description and interpretation of the variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe, based in three main patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kuangrong; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Liang, Zhiheng; Cen, Huishan; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate and analyze ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2011 using ovary cancer data from population-based cancer registration in China, and to provide scientific information for its control and prevention. Invasive cases of ovary cancer were extracted and analyzed from the overall Chinese cancer database in 2011, which were based on data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributing in 28 provinces. The crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities et al. were calculated and new and deaths cases from ovary cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2011 were estimated using Chinese practical population. The estimates of new ovary cancer cases and deaths were 45,223 and 18,430, respectively, in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR-C) and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR-W) incidence were 6.89/100,000, 5.35/100,000 and 5.08/100,000, respectively; the crude, ASR-C and ASR-W mortalities were 2.81/100,000, 2.01/100,000 and 1.99/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. The age-specific incidence and mortality increased rapidly from age 35-39 and peaked at age 60-64 or 75-79 years. After age 45 or 55, the age-specific incidence and death rates in urban were much higher than those in rural areas. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the ovary cancer incidence in China in 2011 was at middle level, but its mortality was at low level worldwide.

  14. Transferrin saturation ratio and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality in the general population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, A G

    2014-08-01

    The transferrin saturation (TSAT) ratio is a commonly used indicator of iron deficiency and iron overload in clinical practice but precise relationships with total and cardiovascular mortality are unclear.

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in Mongolia - National Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandagdorj, Tuvshingerel; Sanjaajamts, Erdenechimeg; Tudev, Undarmaa; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Roder, David

    2010-01-01

    The National Cancer Registry of Mongolia began as a hospital-based registry in the early 1960s but then evolved to have a population-wide role. The Registry provides the only cancer data available from Mongolia for international comparison. The descriptive data presented in this report are the first to be submitted on cancer incidence in Mongolia to a peer-reviewed journal. The purpose was to describe cancer incidence and mortality for all invasive cancers collectively, individual primary sites, and particularly leading sites, and consider cancer control opportunities. This study includes data on new cancer cases registered in Mongolia in 2003-2007. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated as mean annual numbers per 100,000 residents. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and age-standardized mortality (ASMR) rates were calculated from age-specific rates by weighting directly to the World Population standard. Between 2003 and 2007, 17,271 new cases of invasive cancer were recorded (52.2% in males, 47.7% in females). The five leading primary sites in males were liver, stomach, lung, esophagus, and colon/rectum; whereas in females they were liver, cervix, stomach, esophagus and breast. ASRs were lower in females than males for cancers of the liver at 63.0 and 99.1 per 100,000 respectively; cancers of the stomach at 19.1 and 42.1 per 100,000 respectively; and cancers of the lung at 8.3 and 33.2 per 100,000 respectively. Liver cancer was the most common cause of death in each gender, the ASMR being lower for females than males at 60.6 compared with 94.8 per 100,000. In females the next most common sites of cancer death were the stomach and esophagus, whereas in males, they were the stomach and lung. Available data indicate that ASRs of all cancers collectively have increased over the last 20 years. Rates are highest for liver cancer, at about four times the world average. The most common cancers are those with a primary site of liver, stomach and esophagus, for which

  16. Depression as a Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, K.; Andersen, E.W.; Keiding, N.

    2003-01-01

    of data from three central registers and found that breast cancer patients with depression had a modestly but significantly higher risk of mortality depending on stage of breast cancer and time of depression. The same result was found after censoring unnatural causes of death such as accident, suicide......It is unclear if depression or depressive symptoms have an effect on mortality in breast cancer patients. In this population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Denmark, depression was defined as affective or anxiety disorders that necessitated psychiatric hospital admission. All...

  17. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund

    2009-02-01

    To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.

  18. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    and risk of cancer and all-cause mortality were calculated using Cox regression, Fine and Gray competing-risks regression, and instrumental variable analyses. Results: During a median follow-up time of 3.9 years for cancer and 4.9 years for all-cause mortality, 3243 individuals received a diagnosis...... of cancer and 3978 died. Observationally, 50% higher plasma urate was associated with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05-1.18) for cancer incidence and 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for all-cause mortality. Each A-allele of the SLC2A9 rs7442295 was associated with 9% higher plasma urate...

  19. Prediagnosis Sleep Duration, Napping, and Mortality Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors in a Large US Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Matthews, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Prediagnosis lifestyle factors can influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Sleep deficiency is linked to metabolic dysfunction and chronic inflammation, which may contribute to higher mortality from cardiometabolic conditions and promote tumor progression. We hypothesized that prediagnosis sleep deficiency would be associated with poor CRC survival. No previous study has examined either nighttime sleep or daytime napping in relation to survival among men and women diagnosed with CRC. We examined self-reported sleep duration and napping prior to diagnosis in relation to mortality among 4869 CRC survivors in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Vital status was ascertained by linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File and the National Death Index. We examined the associations of sleep and napping with mortality using traditional Cox regression (total mortality) and Compositing Risk Regression (cardiovascular disease [CVD] and CRC mortality). Models were adjusted for confounders (demographics, cancer stage, grade and treatment, smoking, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) as well as possible mediators (body mass index and health status) in separate models. Compared to participants reporting 7-8 hours of sleep per day, those who reported napping, napping 1 hr or more per day was associated with significantly higher total and CVD mortality but not CRC mortality. Prediagnosis short sleep and long napping were associated with higher mortality among CRC survivors. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Measuring the societal burden of cancer: the cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda

    2015-02-15

    Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Partitioning of excess mortality in population-based cancer patient survival studies using flexible parametric survival models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloranta Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative survival is commonly used for studying survival of cancer patients as it captures both the direct and indirect contribution of a cancer diagnosis on mortality by comparing the observed survival of the patients to the expected survival in a comparable cancer-free population. However, existing methods do not allow estimation of the impact of isolated conditions (e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality on the total excess mortality. For this purpose we extend flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which use restricted cubic splines for the baseline cumulative excess hazard and for any time-dependent effects. Methods In the extended model we partition the excess mortality associated with a diagnosis of cancer through estimating a separate baseline excess hazard function for the outcomes under investigation. This is done by incorporating mutually exclusive background mortality rates, stratified by the underlying causes of death reported in the Swedish population, and by introducing cause of death as a time-dependent effect in the extended model. This approach thereby enables modeling of temporal trends in e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality simultaneously. Furthermore, we illustrate how the results from the proposed model can be used to derive crude probabilities of death due to the component parts, i.e., probabilities estimated in the presence of competing causes of death. Results The method is illustrated with examples where the total excess mortality experienced by patients diagnosed with breast cancer is partitioned into excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality. Conclusions The proposed method can be used to simultaneously study disease patterns and temporal trends for various causes of cancer-consequent deaths. Such information should be of interest for patients and clinicians as one way of improving prognosis after cancer is

  2. Breast Cancer Mortality In Brazil: Correlation With Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality from breast cancer decreased in high-income countries, while countries with middle and low incomes as Brazil still has upward trend. However, large geographical variations among the federal units are observed in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of specific mortality from breast cancer in women over 20 years old years among different states of Brazil from 1996 to 2012.  Methods and Findings: Ecological study, using linear regression model for temporal analysis of specific mortality coefficient from malignant neoplasm of breast. We also checked the degree of its correlation with the HDI for the states of Brazil during the stated period. There was an increase in the specific mortality rate for malignant neoplasm of the breast in order of 33%, with range from 23.2 to 30.8 / 100,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest human development HDI in 2010, showed the largest specific mortality rates of breast cancer. Conclusion: Taking the trends of mortality from cancer an important role, this study confirms the need for improvements in mammography coverage, following radiological lesions suspected and access to appropriate therapy.

  3. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  4. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Malvezzi, Matteo; Rosso, Tiziana; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total and cause-specific mortality of U.S. nurses working rotating night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fangyi; Han, Jiali; Laden, Francine; Pan, An; Caporaso, Neil E; Stampfer, Meir J; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Speizer, Frank E; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2015-03-01

    Rotating night shift work imposes circadian strain and is linked to the risk of several chronic diseases. To examine associations between rotating night shift work and all-cause; cardiovascular disease (CVD); and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort study of 74,862 registered U.S. nurses from the Nurses' Health Study. Lifetime rotating night shift work (defined as ≥3 nights/month) information was collected in 1988. During 22 years (1988-2010) of follow-up, 14,181 deaths were documented, including 3,062 CVD and 5,413 cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. All-cause and CVD mortality were significantly increased among women with ≥5 years of rotating night shift work, compared to women who never worked night shifts. Specifically, for women with 6-14 and ≥15 years of rotating night shift work, the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI=1.06, 1.17) and 1.11 (95% CI=1.05, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI=1.07, 1.33) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.09, 1.38) for CVD mortality. There was no significant association between rotating night shift work and all-cancer mortality (HR≥15years=1.08, 95% CI=0.98, 1.19) or mortality of any individual cancer, with the exception of lung cancer (HR≥15years=1.25, 95% CI=1.04, 1.51). Women working rotating night shifts for ≥5 years have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality; those working ≥15 years of rotating night shift work have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Mortality rate of gastric cancer in the population of Belgrade for 1990-2002 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth leading cause of diseases, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Aim. To analyze the differences between men and women in mortality rate of gastric cancer in Belgrade from 1990−2002. Methods. Mortality rates standardized directly to the „World population“, and regression analysis were used. Results. In Belgrade population, 29.2% out the total number of deaths attributable to cancer were caused by gastric cancer. Gastric cancer was the second most common cause of death among digestive tract cancers. In women, in the period between 1990 and 1993, an average annual decline of mortality was 9.0% (95% confidence interval (CI = 5.9−13.1, and between 1994 and 2002, an average annual increase was 10.3% (CI = 8.4−12.6. Mortality rate series of gastric cancer in men did not fit any of the usual trend functions. The male/female gastric cancer mortality ratio was 1.7 : 1. Mortality rates for gastric cancer rose with age in both sexes and they were highest in the age group of 70 and more years. From 1990−2002, in both sexes aged 70 years and more, mortality from gastric cancer rose by 67.2% (CI = 58.0−76.4 in men and by 69.6% (CI = 60.6−78.6 in women. During the same period, the death rates in men decreased by 75.9 % (CI = 67.5−84.4 in the age group of 30−39 years, and by 48.1% (CI = 38.4−57.9 in women aged 50−59 years. In both sexes mortality rate series of all other age groups did not fit any of the usual trend functions. Conclusions. The increase in mortality rate of gastric in women over the past few years, showed the necessity of instituting primary and secondary preventive measures.

  7. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Wong, Natalie Z; Abelson, Jonathan S; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-06-01

    Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but its effect on colorectal cancer mortality is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on survival from colorectal cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a large multicenter randomized trial run from 1993 to 2001, with follow-up data recently becoming mature. Participants were women aged 55 to 74 years, without recent colonoscopy. Data from the trial were analyzed to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality based on subjects' use of hormone replacement therapy at the time of randomization: never, current, or former users. A total of 75,587 women with 912 (1.21%) incident colorectal cancers and 239 associated deaths were analyzed, with median follow-up of 11.9 years. Overall, 88.6% were non-Hispanic white, and colorectal cancer incidence in current users compared to never-users was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.94; P = .005), as was death from colorectal cancer (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; P colorectal cancer incidence and improved colorectal cancer-specific survival, as well as all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN BREAST CANCER MORTALITY IN NORTHWEST PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by genetic mutation of cellular DNA, and breast cancer usually painless. The objective was to analyze the behavior of mortality from breast cancer in women living in Maringá-PR in the period 2000 to 2009. We used the Information System of the Unified Health System (DATASUS for variables related to race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, place of occurrence of death. Data were analyzed descriptively and by chi-square Yates Fixed considering a confidence interval of 95% with a significance level of 5%. There were 216 deaths from breast cancer with a higher prevalence in women 60-80 years (58.4%, race white (90.2% and married (53.8%. Women over 60 with low education were more likely to breast cancer mortality was statistically significant (OR95% = 4.45, p = <0.0001

  11. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Childhood cancer mortality in relation to the St Lucie nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, John D Jr; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J; Heath, Clark W Jr

    2005-01-01

    An unusual county-wide excess of childhood cancers of brain and other nervous tissue in the late 1990s in St Lucie County, Florida, prompted the Florida Department of Health to conduct a case-control study within the county assessing residential chemical exposures. No clear associations were found, but claims were then made that the release of radioactive substances such as strontium 90 from the St Lucie nuclear power station, which began operating in 1976, might have played a role. To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we extended by 17 years a previous study of county mortality conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Rates of total cancer, leukaemia and cancer of brain and other nervous tissue in children and across all ages in St Lucie County were evaluated with respect to the years before and after the nuclear power station began operation and contrasted with rates in two similar counties in Florida (Polk and Volusia). Over the prolonged period 1950-2000, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were found for St Lucie County as a whole. In particular, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were seen in relation to the start-up of the St Lucie nuclear power station in 1976. Further, there were no significant differences in mortality between the study and comparison counties for any cancer in the time period after the power station was in operation. Relative rates for all childhood cancers and for childhood leukaemia were higher before the nuclear facility began operating than after, while rates of brain and other nervous tissue cancer were slightly lower in St Lucie County than in the two comparison counties for both time periods. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive studies, these data provide no support for the hypothesis that the operation of the St Lucie nuclear power station has adversely affected the cancer mortality experience of county residents

  13. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for 5 cups/d (P-trend Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and its relationship with development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men in the world. It is rapidly increasing. This study investigated the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and the relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its dimensions in Asia in 2012. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). The standardized incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer were calculated for Asian countries. The correlation between incidence, mortality rates, and the HDI and its components were assessed with the use of the correlation test, using SPSS software. There was a total of 191,054 incidences and 81,229 death were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Among the Asian countries, the five countries with the highest standardized incidence rates of prostate cancer were Israel, Turkey, Lebanon, Singapore, and Japan, and the five countries with the highest standardized mortality rates were Turkey, Lebanon, Timor-Leste, Armenia, and the Philippines. The correlation between standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer and the HDI was 0.604 (P ≤ 0.001), with life expectancy at birth 0.529 (P = 0.002), with mean years of schooling 0.427 (P = 0.001), and with level of income per each person of the population 0.349 (P = 0.013). Also, between the standardized mortality rate and the HDI, it was 0.228 (P = 0.127). A significant and positive correlation was observed between the standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer, and the HDI and its dimensions, such as life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and income level of the population per each person of population. However, there was no significant correlation between the standardized mortality rate, and the HDI and its dimensions.

  16. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors: report 7. Mortality, 1950-1978: part II. Mortality from causes other than cancer and mortality in early entrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Brown, C.C.; Hoel, D.G.; Shull, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deaths in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Life Span Study (LSS) sample have been determined for the 4 years 1975-1978, and mortality examined for the 28 years since 1950. An analysis of cancer mortality is presented separately. In this report, we examine whether mortality from causes other than cancer is also increased or whether a nonspecific acceleration of aging occurs. 1. Cumulative mortality from causes other than cancer, estimated by the life table method, does not increase with radiation dose in either city, in either sex, or in any of the five different age-at-the-time-of-bomb groups. 2. No specific cause of death, other than cancer, exhibits a significant relationship with A-bomb exposure. Thus there is still no evidence of a nonspecific acceleration of aging due to radiation in this cohort. 3. Mortality before the LSS sample was established has been reanalyzed using three supplementary mortality surveys to determine the magnitude of the possible bias from the exclusion of deaths prior to 1950. It is unlikely that such a bias seriously affects the interpretation of the radiation effects observed in the cohort after 1950. 4. No excess of deaths from leukemia or other malignant tumors is observed among early entrants into these cities in this cohort

  17. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  18. Prevalence of cervical cancer and associated mortality in Grenada, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahadoor-Yetman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cervical cancer prevalence and associated mortality in Grenada, West Indies during 2000–2010. Methods Records of visits to hospital and clinical facilities were obtained from the histopathology laboratory of the Grenada General Hospital. Records were de-identified and electronically compiled. Cervical cancer prevalence was assessed via cross-sectional analysis of this secondary data. Of a total 12 012 records, 2 527 were selected for analysis using sampling without replacement. Cases were matched to corresponding patient data from death registries, where possible, and used to calculate associated mortality rates. Results The observed prevalence of cervical cancer was 52.4 per 100 000 women (ages 15 and above. The highest rates of cervical cancer occurred in the 35–44 age group, with the second highest among 45–64-year-olds. A total of 65 deaths were attributable to cervical cancer during 2000–2010, more than 50% of which were among women > 65 years old. The observed mortality rate was 16.7 per 100 000, almost twice the rate estimated by WHO for the region. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a comprehensive cervical cancer-screening program in Grenada. Results should contribute to informing future studies on how to appropriately generate and execute public health policy for education, screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer in Grenada.

  19. Effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Seon Ok; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2018-05-17

    Malignancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Inferior vena cava filters are a viable alternative when anticoagulation is infeasible because of the risk of bleeding. Although the current guidelines recommend that all patients with a vena cava filter be treated with anticoagulation treatment when the risk of bleeding is reduced, studies concerning the role of concomitant anticoagulation after vena cava filter insertion in high-risk patients are scarce. Since many cancer patients suffer from a high risk of hemorrhagic complications, we aimed to determine the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with a malignant solid tumor. A retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary embolism was performed between January 2010 and May 2016. Patients with a solid tumor and vena cava filter inserted because of pulmonary embolism were included. Using Cox proportional hazards model, the prognostic effect of clinical variables was analyzed. A total of 180 patients were analyzed, with 143 patients receiving and 37 patients not receiving post-filter anticoagulation treatment. Mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. The presence of metastatic cancer and that of pancreatobiliary cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. However, post-filter anticoagulation did not show significant effect on mortality regardless of the stage of cancer. In patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism, the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality may not be critical, especially in patients with a short life expectancy.

  20. Cancer Mortality in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Jinzu River Basin in Toyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After 26 years, we followed up 7348 participants in a 1979–1984 health screening survey in the Jinzu River basin, the heaviest cadmium-polluted area in Japan. We assessed the associations of cadmium exposure levels and mortality from cancer and renal damage, indicated by records of proteinuria and glucosuria in the original survey. Mortality risks (hazard ratios were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by sex, after adjusting for age, smoking status, and hypertension, as indicated in the original survey records. In men, the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality from lung cancer was significantly lower in individuals residing in an area of historically high cadmium exposure and in subjects with a historical record of proteinuria, glucosuria, and glucoproteinuria. The risk of mortality from prostate cancer was borderline higher in cadmium-exposed men. In women, historical cadmium exposure was not associated with an increased risk of mortality from malignant neoplasms, but the adjusted hazard ratios for death from total malignant neoplasms or from renal and uterine cancers were significantly higher in exposed subjects with a historical record of proteinuria, glucosuria, and glucoproteinuria. These findings suggest that women residing in cadmium-polluted areas who exhibit markers of renal damage may be at risk of dying of cancer.

  1. The Impact of Exercise on Cancer Mortality, Recurrence, and Treatment-Related Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Zopf, Eva M; Zhang, Xiaochen; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-01-01

    The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer. Literature searches focused on determining the potential impact of exercise on 1) cancer mortality and recurrence and 2) adverse effects of cancer and its treatment. A total of 100 studies were reviewed involving thousands of individual patients whose exercise behavior was assessed following the diagnosis of any type of cancer. Compared with patients who performed no/less exercise, patients who exercised following a diagnosis of cancer were observed to have a lower relative risk of cancer mortality and recurrence and experienced fewer/less severe adverse effects. The findings of this review support the view that exercise is an important adjunct therapy in the management of cancer. Implications on cancer care policy and practice are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Will the climate change affect the mortality from prostate cancer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arrontes, Daniel; García González, Jesús Isidro; Martín Muñoz, Manuel Pablo; Castro Pita, Miguel; Mañas Pelillo, Antonio; Paniagua Andrés, Pedro

    2007-03-01

    The global heating of the atmosphere, as well as the increase of the exposition to sunlight, will be associated with a decrease of the mortality from prostate cancer, due to an increase of the plasmatic levels of vitamin D. To evaluate if climatological factors (temperature, rainfall, and number of sunlight hours per year) may influence the mortality associated with prostate cancer over a five-year period. In this ecology type study we will evaluate the trends of prostate tumors associated mortality in the period between January 1st 1998 and December 31st 2002, in the geographic area of Spain (17 Autonomic communities-CA-and 2 Autonomic cities- Ceuta and Melilla-, 43 million inhabitants). Demographic and mortality data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (INE) and climatological data about temperature and rainfall were obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology (INM). The provinces were classified using the climatic index of Martonne (defined as the quotient between annual rainfall and mean annual temperature plus 10). Areas with a quotient below 5 ml/m2/o C are considered extremely arid zones; between 5 and 15 ml/m2/o C are considered arid zones, between 15 and 20 ml/m2/o C semiarid zones; between 20 and 30 ml/m2/o C subhumid zones; between 30 and 60 ml/m2/o C humid zones; and over 60 ml/m2/o C superhumid zones. We compared mortality rates between different climatic areas using the Jonckheere-Terpstra test for six independent samples following the index of Martonne. All calculations were performed using the SPSS v 13.0 for Windows software. A logistic regression model was performed to identify climate factors associated with prostate cancer mortality. A likeliness of the null hypotheses inferior to 0.05 was considered significant. Prostate cancer mortality presented statistically significant differences, being higher in provinces with higher Martonne index (p sunlight hours per year (p = 0.041). The adjusted mortality rate associated

  3. Vegetable intake, but not fruit intake, is associated with a reduction in the risk of cancer incidence and mortality in middle-aged Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Li, Zhong-Min; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Moo-Song; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Shin, Myung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the preventive role of fruit and vegetable intakes against cancer in Asian populations. This prospective study evaluated the associations between total fruit intake, total vegetable intake, and total fruit and vegetable intake and total cancer incidence and mortality. This prospective cohort study included 14,198 men 40-59 y of age enrolled in the Seoul Male Cohort Study from 1991 to 1993. Fruit and vegetable intakes were assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute RR ratios and 95% CIs. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2008, 1343 men were diagnosed with cancer, and 507 died of cancer. Total vegetable intake was linearly associated with cancer incidence but was nonlinearly associated with cancer mortality; by comparing ≥ 500 g/d with Korean men. However, total fruit intake is not associated with total cancer incidence or mortality. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. The Effect of Gynecologic Oncologist Availability on Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Cooney, Darryl; Hirsch, Shawn; Westervelt, Lauren; Richards, Thomas B.; Rim, Sun Hee; Thomas, Cheryll C.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the distribution of gynecologic oncologist (GO) and population-based ovarian cancer death rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data on ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in the United States (U.S.) was supplemented with U.S. census data, and analyzed in relation to practicing GOs. GO locations were geocoded to link association between county variables and GO availability. Logistic regression was used to measure areas of high and low ovarian cancer mortality, adjusting for contextual variables. RESULTS Practicing GOs were unevenly distributed in the United States, with the greatest numbers in metropolitan areas. Ovarian cancer incidence and death rates increased as distance to a practicing GO increased. A relatively small number (153) of counties within 24 miles of a GO had high ovarian cancer death rates compared to 577 counties located 50 or more miles away with high ovarian cancer death rates. Counties located 50 or more miles away from a GO practice had an almost 60% greater odds of high ovarian cancer mortality compared to those with closer practicing GOs (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18–2.15). CONCLUSION The distribution of GOs across the United States appears to be significantly associated with ovarian cancer mortality. Efforts that facilitate outreach of GOs to certain populations may increase geographic access. Future studies examining other factors associated with lack of GO access (e.g. insurance and other socioeconomic factors) at the individual level will assist with further defining barriers to quality ovarian cancer care in the United States. PMID:26478860

  5. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  6. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  7. The burden of mortality with costs in productivity loss from occupational cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Scarselli, Alberto; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2013-11-01

    The costs of productivity loss due to occupational cancer mortality are rarely investigated. An estimate of occupational cancer deaths in Italy in 2006 and an approximation of the resultant costs from medical and non-medical expenditures together with figures of remuneration lost are provided. Occupational cancer deaths, obtained from the application of the attributable fraction (AF) to mortality data (source: Italian National Institute of Statistics), were used to calculate the Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLLs), the Potential Years of Working Life Lost (PYWLLs) and the costs of the loss of productive life. The health care costs for any cancer was applied to the estimated number of occupational cancer cases to obtain the total cost. Around 8,000-8,500 deaths/year from occupational cancer are estimated to occur in Italy, corresponding to 170,000 PYLLs and more than 16,000 PYWLLs, leading to around 360,000,000 euros in indirect economic loss. Health care costs of occupational cancer are estimated at 456,000,000 euros. Occupational cancer is of major concern in terms of mortality and economic productivity loss. Preventive efforts in evaluating ongoing risks and current exposures are strongly recommended to health policy-makers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Postdiagnosis social networks and breast cancer mortality in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Michael, Yvonne L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Nechuta, Sarah; Leas, Eric; Caan, Bette J; Pierce, John; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Wendy Y

    2017-04-01

    Large social networks have been associated with better overall survival, though not consistently with breast cancer (BC)-specific outcomes. This study evaluated associations of postdiagnosis social networks and BC outcomes in a large cohort. Women from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project (n = 9267) provided data on social networks within approximately 2 years of their diagnosis. A social network index was derived from information about the presence of a spouse/partner, religious ties, community ties, friendship ties, and numbers of living first-degree relatives. Cox models were used to evaluate associations, and a meta-analysis was used to determine whether effect estimates differed by cohort. Stratification by demographic, social, tumor, and treatment factors was performed. There were 1448 recurrences and 1521 deaths (990 due to BC). Associations were similar in 3 of 4 cohorts. After covariate adjustments, socially isolated women (small networks) had higher risks of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.77), BC-specific mortality (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.33-2.03), and total mortality (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.43-1.99) than socially integrated women; associations were stronger in those with stage I/II cancer. In the fourth cohort, there were no significant associations with BC-specific outcomes. A lack of a spouse/partner (P = .02) and community ties (P = .04) predicted higher BC-specific mortality in older white women but not in other women. However, a lack of relatives (P = .02) and friendship ties (P = .01) predicted higher BC-specific mortality in nonwhite women only. In a large pooled cohort, larger social networks were associated with better BC-specific and overall survival. Clinicians should assess social network information as a marker of prognosis because critical supports may differ with sociodemographic factors. Cancer 2017;123:1228-1237. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  10. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Kato, H.; Kopecky, K.; Fujita, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality: A cohort study in China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Zhibin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) was the only available source of cancer monitoring in China, even though only about 70% of cancer registration sites were qualified by now. In this study, based on a national large prospective cohort-the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we aimed to provide additional cancer statistics and compare the difference of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. A total of 497,693 cancer-free participants aged 35-74 years were recruited and successfully followed up from 2004 to 2013 in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China. Except for traditional registration systems, the national health insurance system and active follow-up were used to determine new cancer incidents and related deaths. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was used to compare the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. We found that cancer mortality coincided well between our cohort and NCCR, while the incidence was much higher in our cohort. Based on CKB, we found the MIR of all cancers was 0.54 in rural areas, which was approximately one-third higher than that in urban areas with 0.39. Cancer profiles in urban areas were transiting to Western distributions, which were characterized with high incidences of breast cancer and colorectal cancer; while cancers of the esophagus, liver and cervix uteri were still common in rural areas of China. Our results provide additional cancer statistics of China and demonstrate the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico: 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rizo-Ríos

    2015-04-01

    Discussion: In Mexico, cancer is a major public health problem. Although mortality is an indicator of the access and effectiveness of medical care, it is necessary to create population-based cancer registries to have basic information in the planning and quality assessment of medical services such as prevention, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as to develop strategies to allocate resources and necessities to fulfil the population's demand for medical assistance.

  13. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2011-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50 + ) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p ...

  14. Social network diversity and risks of ischemic heart disease and total mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Jensen, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    Measures of various types of social contacts were used as predictors of ischemic heart disease events and total mortality in an age-stratified random sample of 9,573 adults enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Copenhagen, Denmark). Baseline examinations were conducted in 1991-1994, and pa......Measures of various types of social contacts were used as predictors of ischemic heart disease events and total mortality in an age-stratified random sample of 9,573 adults enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Copenhagen, Denmark). Baseline examinations were conducted in 1991...

  15. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez, Gudelia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). During 1990-2000 a total of 48,761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990 = 4,280 deaths/year; 2000 = 4,620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference = Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR] = 10.99; Nayarit, RR = 10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  16. Analysis of cancer mortality risk among workers of a research uranium metallurgy division in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jejati, H.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Giraud, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This cohort study has been undertaken in response to a suspected cluster of cancers mentioned by workers involved in research activities concerning the metallurgy of uranium. The studied population included all persons having worked between 1950 and 1968 at the Metallurgy Division of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Exposures were registered on an individual annual basis. For analysis, they were grouped in three categories: use of chemicals agents (Benzene, beryllium, alcohols, solvents ...), manipulation of radioactive materials (uranium, thorium, fission decay products), and exposure to external radiation. This relatively small cohort included 356 workers followed up to December 1990. Out of observed deaths, 21 were from cancer. Total mortality from cancer was less than expected from national rates (Standardised Mortality Ratio = 0.73). Cancer mortality did not increase with duration of exposure to external radiation or with duration of manipulation of radioactive materials. Risk of cancer was increasing with the number of years of exposure to chemicals. The small size of this cohort limits the conclusion of the observed results. The purpose, despite this lack of power, was to answer a worry of the workers, more than to estimate a clear dose-response relationship linked to a specific cancer site. The effect studied here is ''all cancers'', a distinction of the different sites being uninformative because of the very small number of cases observed. Nevertheless, this study suggests some routes for further research: it highlights the importance of considering concomitant exposures like chemical ones in studies of nuclear workers. (author)

  17. Unemployment, public-sector health-care spending and breast cancer mortality in the European Union: 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan A; Waqar, Mueez; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Atun, Rifat; Faiz, Omar; Zeltner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The global economic crisis has been associated with increased unemployment, reduced health-care spending and adverse health outcomes. Insights into the impact of economic variations on cancer mortality, however, remain limited. We used multivariate regression analysis to assess how changes in unemployment and public-sector expenditure on health care (PSEH) varied with female breast cancer mortality in the 27 European Union member states from 1990 to 2009. We then determined how the association with unemployment was modified by PSEH. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographic structure were controlled for, and 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year lag analyses were conducted. Several robustness checks were also implemented. Unemployment was associated with an increase in breast cancer mortality [P unemployment rises (P unemployment and breast cancer mortality remained in all robustness checks. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant short- and long-term increases in breast cancer mortality, while increases in PSEH are associated with reductions in breast cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment and maintain total health-care expenditure may help minimize increases in breast cancer mortality during economic crises. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

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    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  19. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited. PMID:23519821

  1. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  2. Fibrosis-Related Biomarkers and Risk of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Isha; Glazer, Nicole L.; Barasch, Eddy; Biggs, Mary L.; Djoussé, Luc; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Gottdiener, John S.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Rimm, Eric B.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis has been implicated in diverse diseases of the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart, but its importance as a risk factor for mortality remains unconfirmed. We determined the prospective associations of 2 complementary biomarkers of fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), with total and cause-specific mortality risks among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (1996–2010). We measured circulating TGF-β and PIIINP levels in plasma samples collected in 1996 and ascertained the number of deaths through 2010. Both TGF-β and PIIINP were associated with elevated risks of total and pulmonary mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical risk factors. For total mortality, the hazard ratios per doubling of TGF-β and PIIINP were 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.17; P = 0.02) and 1.14 (CI: 1.03, 1.27; P = 0.01), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for pulmonary mortality were 1.27 (CI: 1.01, 1.60; P = 0.04) for TGF-β and 1.52 (CI: 1.11, 2.10; P = 0.01) for PIIINP. Associations of TGF-β and PIIINP with total and pulmonary mortality were strongest among individuals with higher C-reactive protein concentrations (P for interaction < 0.05). Our findings provide some of the first large-scale prospective evidence that circulating biomarkers of fibrosis measured late in life are associated with death. PMID:24771724

  3. The colorectal cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio as an indicator of global cancer screening and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Vasu; Hébert, James R

    2015-05-15

    Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) has been used previously to evaluate such disparities. The MIR for colorectal cancer is calculated for all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using the 2012 GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality statistics. Health system rankings were obtained from the World Health Organization. Two linear regression models were fit with the MIR as the dependent variable and health system ranking as the independent variable; one included all countries and one model had the "divergents" removed. The regression model for all countries explained 24% of the total variance in the MIR. Nine countries were found to have regression-calculated MIRs that differed from the actual MIR by >20%. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs were found to have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs lack screening programs. When these divergent points were removed from the data set, the recalculated regression model explained 60% of the total variance in the MIR. The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in cancer screening and treatment internationally. It has potential as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs and may be extended to other cancer types for these purposes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Relation between total shock energy and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Taro; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Masaya; Mizukami, Kazuya; Kamada, Rui; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Maeno, Motoki; Okamoto, Kaori; Chiba, Yuki; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2018-05-15

    Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) shocks have been associated with mortality. However, no study has examined the relation between total shock energy and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the association of total shock energy with mortality, and to determine the patients who are at risk of this association. Data from 316 consecutive patients who underwent initial ICD implantation in our hospital between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. We collected shock energy for 3 years from the ICD implantation, and determined the relation of shock energy on mortality after adjusting confounding factors. Eighty-seven ICD recipients experienced shock(s) within 3 years from ICD implantation and 43 patients had died during the follow-up. The amount of shock energy was significantly associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.26 (per 100 joule increase), p energy accumulation (≥182 joule) was lower (p energy accumulation (energy accumulation and all-cause death was remarkable in the patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) or atrial fibrillation (AF). Increase of shock energy was related to mortality in ICD recipients. This relation was evident in patients with low LVEF or AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Waldren, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  6. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

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    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  7. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  8. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

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    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  9. Associations of Walking Speed, Grip Strength, and Standing Balance With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a General Population of Japanese Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuji, Yu; Shinkai, Shoji; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance are key components of physical performance in older people. The present study aimed to evaluate (1) associations of these physical performance measures with cause-specific mortality, (2) independent associations of individual physical performance measures with mortality, and (3) the added value of combined use of the 3 physical performance measures in predicting all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 10.5 years. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (TMIG-LISA), Japan. A total of 1085 initially nondisabled older Japanese aged 65 to 89 years. Usual walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance were measured at baseline survey. During follow-up, 324 deaths occurred (122 of cardiovascular disease, 75 of cancer, 115 of other causes, and 12 of unknown causes). All 3 physical performance measures were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not with cancer mortality, independent of potential confounders. When all 3 physical performance measures were simultaneously entered into the model, each was significantly independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The C statistics for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased by adding grip strength and standing balance to walking speed (P balance predicted all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not cancer mortality, independent of covariates. Moreover, these 3 components of physical performance were independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and their combined use increased prognostic power. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

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    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  11. A statistical study of the macroepidemiology of air pollution and total mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Malone, R.G.; Daum, M.L.; Mendell, N.R.; Yang, Chin-Chun

    1988-04-01

    A statistical analysis of spatial patterns of 1980 US urban total mortality (all causes) was performed, evaluating demographic, socioeconomic and air pollution factors as predictors. Specific mortality predictors included cigarette smoking, drinking water hardness, heating fuel use, and 1978-1982 annual concentrations of the following air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfate aerosol, particulate concentrations of lead, iron, cadmium, manganese, vanadium, as well as total and fine particle mass concentrations from the inhalable particulate network (dichotomous samplers). In addition, estimates of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfate aerosol were made for each city using the ASTRAP long-range transport diffusion model, and entered into the analysis as independent variables. Because the number of cities with valid air quality and water hardness data varied considerably by pollutant, it was necessary to consider several different data sets, ranging from 48 to 952 cities. The relatively strong associations (ca. 5--10%) shown for 1980 pollution with 1980 total mortality are generally not confirmed by independent studies, for example, in Europe. In addition, the US studies did not find those pollutants with known adverse health effects at the concentrations in question (such as ozone or CO) to be associated with mortality. The question of causality vs. circumstantial association must therefore be regarded as still unresolved. 59 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Conley, Jamison; Fedorko, Evan; Luo, Juhua; Armistead, Matthew

    2012-04-02

    The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted

  13. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendryx Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer

  14. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  15. Lung cancer mortality among U.S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters [in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(- 2 ) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(- 3 ) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures

  16. [Trends in the mortality of liver cancer in Qidong, China: an analysis of fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-guo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-hui; Chen, Yong-sheng; Ding, Lu-lu; Lu, Jian-hua; Zhu, Yuan-rong

    2012-07-01

    To describe and analyze the charecteristics and trends of liver cancer mortality during the past fifty years in Qidong, China. Retrospective mortality survey was conducted to get the data on liver cancer death in the period of 1958-1971, and the data from 1972 to 2007 were obtained from the records of cancer registration in Qidong. The crude mortality rate (CR) of liver cancer, and age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR) were calculated and analyzed. The total percent changes (PC) and annual percent changes (APC) were used for evaluating the increasing trends of the mortality. The sex-specific rate, age-specific rate, truncated rate of the age group 35 - 64, cumulative rate of the age group 0-74, cumulative risk, period-rate, and the rate for age-birth cohort were compared. The natural death rate in Qidong residents for the past five-decade period experienced a wave interval of 8.62‰ in 1958 down to 5.37‰ in 1979, and up to 7.75‰ in 2007. The mortality rate for all-site cancers was increased from 56.69 per 100, 000 to 234.97 per 100, 000. The mortality rate of liver cancer, being 20.45 per 100, 100 in 1958 was increased to 49.04 per 100, 000 in 1972, and up to 69.29 per 100, 000 in 2007. According to the registration data of 1972 - 2007, the death from liver cancer was accounted for 34.88% of all deaths due to cancers, with a CR of 58.86 per 100, 000, CASR of 38.36 per 100, 000, and WASR, 49.37 Per 100, 000 in Qidong. The truncated rate for the age group 35 - 64 was 117.08 per 100, 000, and the cumulative rate for the age group 0-74 and the cumulative risk were 5.15% and 5.02%, respectively. The CRs for males was 90.52 per 100, 000 and for females was 27.93 per 100, 000, with a sex ratio of 3.24:1. For the period of 1972 - 2007, the PC for CR was 49.71%, and APC was +1.41%, showing an increasing variation tendency. The APCs for CASR and WASR, however, were decreasing, with a percentage of -1.11%, and -0

  17. Low to moderate alcohol intake is not associated with increased mortality after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Gold, Ellen B; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Patterson, Ruth E; Saquib, Nazmus; Caan, Bette J; Pierce, John P

    2010-03-01

    Both alcohol consumption and obesity have been linked with breast cancer morbidity and mortality. An inverse association between alcohol intake and obesity suggests possible confounding between these variables (and perhaps other factors) with breast cancer outcomes. Alcohol intake (beer, wine, spirits, and total) was examined in 3,088 women previously diagnosed and treated for breast cancer within an intervention trial that targeted vegetables, fiber, and fat but not alcohol or weight loss. Factors associated with baseline alcohol intake were included in Cox proportional hazards models for recurrence and mortality. Alcohol intake was significantly associated with higher education and physical activity levels. Neither light alcohol intake nor obesity was significantly associated with breast cancer recurrence, but moderate alcohol intake >300 g/mo was protective against all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence intervals, 0.49-0.97) in a proportional hazards model adjusted for obesity. Obese women were 61% more likely to be nondrinkers than drinkers, and 76% more likely to be light drinkers than moderate/heavy drinkers. In nonobese women, alcohol intake >10 g/mo was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51-0.91). Light alcohol intake, regardless of body weight, did not increase the risk of breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality in this cohort of middle-aged women previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Alcohol intake was associated with other favorable prognostic indicators, which may explain its apparent protective effect in nonobese women.

  18. Nutritional assessment methods as predictors of postoperative mortality in gastric cancer patients submitted to gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Kirjner Poziomyck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to determine the nutritional evaluation method that best predicts mortality in 90 days of patients submitted to gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: we conducted a prospective study with 44 patients with gastric cancer, stages II to IIIa, of whom nine were submitted to partial gastrectomy, 34 to total gastrectomy, and one to esophago-gastrectomy. All patients were nutritionally evaluated through the same protocol, up to 72h after hospital admission. The parameters used were Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA, classical anthropometry, current weight and height, percentage of weight loss (%WL and body mass index (BMI. We also measured the thickness of the thumb adductor muscle (TAM in both hands, dominant hand (TAMD and non-dominant hand (TAMND, as well as the calculated the prognostic nutritional index (PNI. The laboratory profile included serum levels of albumin, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes, and total lymphocytes count (TLC. Results: of the 44 patients studied, 29 (66% were malnourished by the subjective method, 15 being grade A, 18 grade B and 11 grade C. Cases with PGSGA grade B and TAMD 10.2±2.9 mm were significantly associated with higher mortality. The ROC curves (95% confidence interval of both PGSGA and TAMD thickness reliably predicted mortality at 30 and 90 days. No laboratory method allowed predicting mortality at 90 days. Conclusion: PGSGA and the TAMD thickness can be used as preoperative parameters for risk of death in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  19. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  20. Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Mortality Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Eric; Hallisey, Elaine; Peipins, Lucy A; Flanagan, Barry; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Wilt, Grete; Graham, Shannon

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents with cancer have had less improvement in survival than other populations in the United States. This may be due, in part, to adolescents not receiving treatment at Children's Oncology Group (COG) institutions, which have been shown to increase survival for some cancers. The objective of this ecologic study was to examine geographic distance to COG institutions and adolescent cancer mortality. We calculated cancer mortality among adolescents and sociodemographic and healthcare access factors in four geographic zones at selected distances surrounding COG facilities: Zone A (area within 10 miles of any COG institution), Zones B and C (concentric rings with distances from a COG institution of >10-25 miles and >25-50 miles, respectively), and Zone D (area outside of 50 miles). The adolescent cancer death rate was highest in Zone A at 3.21 deaths/100,000, followed by Zone B at 3.05 deaths/100,000, Zone C at 2.94 deaths/100,000, and Zone D at 2.88 deaths/100,000. The United States-wide death rate for whites without Hispanic ethnicity, blacks without Hispanic ethnicity, and persons with Hispanic ethnicity was 2.96 deaths/100,000, 3.10 deaths/100,000, and 3.26 deaths/100,000, respectively. Zone A had high levels of poverty (15%), no health insurance coverage (16%), and no vehicle access (16%). Geographic access to COG institutions, as measured by distance alone, played no evident role in death rate differences across zones. Among adolescents, socioeconomic factors, such as poverty and health insurance coverage, may have a greater impact on cancer mortality than geographic distance to COG institution.

  1. Platelet count is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P J; Hvas, A M; Frederiksen, H

    2016-01-01

    count (100-450×10(9)/L) and mortality, development of future cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease), venous thromboembolism, bleeding or cancer in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a register-based cohort study of 21......,252 adults (≥20years) from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS). Laboratory results from GESUS were linked to information from national registers regarding morbidity and death. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, haemoglobin......, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: We found a U-shaped relationship between mortality and platelet count. Mortality was significantly increased for platelet count 300×10(9)/L. When categorizing platelet count using the interval 201-250×10(9)/L...

  2. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R. M.; Gonzales, M.; Wiggins, C. L.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses indicated that New Mexican Hispanics and American Indians (AI) did not experience the declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates observed among non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated more recent data to determine whether racial/ethnic differences persisted. Methods. We used New Mexico Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data from 1995 to 2009 to calculate age-specific incidence rates and age-adjusted incidence rates overall and by tumor stage. We calculated mortality rates using National Center for Health Statistics’ data. We used join point regression to determine annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted incidence rates. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Incidence rates continued declining in NHW (APC −1.45% men, −1.06% women), while non significantly increasing for AI (1.67% men, 1.26% women) and Hispanic women (0.24%). The APC initially increased in Hispanic men through 2001 (3.33%, P = 0.06), before declining (−3.10%, P = 0,003). Incidence rates declined in NHW and Hispanics aged 75 and older. Incidence rates for distant-stage cancer remained stable for all groups. Mortality rates declined significantly in NHW and Hispanics. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC persist in New Mexico. Incidence differences could be related to risk factors or access to screening; mortality differences could be due to patterns of care for screening or treatment.

  3. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid; Momenimovahed, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the most common cancer in less developed countries. It is necessary to understand epidemiology of the cancer for planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer, and its relationship with Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This study was an Ecological study, which conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian counters. We assess the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of esophageal cancer with HDI and its components with using of SPSS18. A total of 337,698 incidence (70.33% were males and 29.87% females. Sex ratio was 2.37) and 296,734 death (69.45% in men and 30.54% in women. The sex ratio was 2.27) esophageal cancer was recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR and SMR of esophageal cancer were Turkmenistan, Mongolia and Tajikistan, Bangladesh and China respectively. Correlation between HDI and SIR was -0.211 (P=0.159), in men -0.175 (P=0.244) and in women -0.231 (P=0.123). Also between HDI and SMR -0.250 (P=0.094) in men -0.226 (P=0.131) and in women -0.251 (P=0.037). The incidence of esophageal cancer is more in less developed and developing countries. Statistically significant correlation was not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer, and HDI and its dimensions, except for life expectancy at birth.

  4. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  5. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, M.; Tekkel, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  6. All-Cause Mortality Among Men Whose Cohabiting Partner Has Been Diagnosed with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner.......Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner....

  7. Mortality from cancer and other causes among Italian chrysotile asbestos miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Donato, Francesca; Pelucchi, Claudio; Vecchia, Carlo La; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the long-term mortality of a cohort of Italian asbestos miners. The cohort included 1056 men employed in a chrysotile mine between 1930 and 1990, who were followed up during 1946-2014, for a total of 37 471 person-years of observation. Expected deaths and SMRs were computed using national and local (after 1980, when available) reference. A total of 294 (27.8%) subjects were alive and at the end of follow-up, 722 (68.4%) were dead and 40 (3.8%) were lost to follow-up. The SMR for overall mortality was 1.35 (95%CI 1.25 to 1.45). The SMR for pleural cancer, based on seven observed deaths, was 5.54 (95% CI 2.22 to 11.4) and related to time since first exposure, but not to duration of employment, cumulative exposure or time since last exposure. The SMR for lung cancer was 1.16 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.52; 53 observed deaths), with no excess among workers with cumulative exposure below 100 fibre/mL-years (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.40). The update of the follow-up of this cohort confirmed an increased mortality from pleural cancer mortality in miners exposed to chrysotile and a lack of significant increase in lung cancer mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Predictors of Total Mortality and Echocardiographic Response for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Gazzoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrate that up to 40% of patients do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, thus, appropriate patient selection is critical to the success of CRT in heart failure. Objective: Evaluation of mortality predictors and response to CRT in the Brazilian scenario. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil from 2008 to 2014. Survival was assessed through a database of the State Department of Health (RS. Predictors of echocardiographic response were evaluated using Poisson regression. Survival analysis was performed by Cox regression and Kaplan Meyer curves. A two-tailed p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 170 patients with an average follow-up of 1011 ± 632 days were included. The total mortality was 30%. The independent predictors of mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.05, p = 0.027, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (HR of 2.17, p = 0.049 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (HR of 3.13, p = 0.015. The percentage of biventricular stimulation at 6 months was identified as protective factor of mortality ([HR] 0.97, p = 0.048. The independent predictors associated with the echocardiographic response were absence of mitral insufficiency, presence of left bundle branch block and percentage of biventricular stimulation. Conclusion: Mortality in patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital was independently associated with age, presence of COPD and previous AMI. The percentage of biventricular pacing evaluated 6 months after resynchronizer implantation was independently associated with improved survival and echocardiographic response.

  10. Association between domains of physical activity and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Christine S; Baumert, Jens; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Fischer, Beate; Peters, Annette; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the independent effects of domain-specific physical activity on mortality. We sought to investigate the association of physical activity performed in different domains of daily living on all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer mortality. Using a prospective cohort design, 4,672 men and women, aged 25-74 years, who participated in the baseline examination of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Survey 1989/1990 were classified according to their activity level (no, light, moderate, vigorous). Domains of self-reported physical activity (work, transportation, household, leisure time) and total activity were assessed by the validated MOSPA (MONICA Optional Study on Physical Activity) questionnaire. After a median follow-up of 17.8 years, a total of 995 deaths occurred, with 452 from CVD and 326 from cancer. For all-cause mortality, hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (HR, 95% CI) of the highly active versus the inactive reference group were 0.69 (0.48-1.00) for work, 0.48 (0.36-0.65) for leisure time, and 0.73 (0.59-0.90) for total activity after multivariable adjustments. Reduced risks of CVD mortality were observed for high levels of work (0.54, 0.31-0.93), household (0.80, 0.54-1.19), leisure time (0.50, 0.31-0.79) and total activity (0.75, 0.55-1.03). Leisure time (0.36, 0.23-0.59) and total activity (0.62, 0.43-0.88) were associated with reduced risks of cancer mortality. Light household activity was related to lower all-cause (0.82, 0.71-0.95) and CVD (0.72, 0.58-0.89) mortality. No clear effects were found for transportation activities. Our findings suggest that work, household, leisure time and total physical activity, but not transportation activity, may protect from premature mortality.

  11. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  12. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  13. Colorectal cancer mortality trends in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Osella, Alberto Rubén; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Niclis, Camila; Diaz, María del Pilar

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide for men and women, and one of the most commonly diagnosed in Córdoba, Argentina. The aim of this work was to provide an up-to-date approach to descriptive epidemiology of colorectal cancer in Córdoba throughout the estimation of mortality trends in the period 1986-2006, using Joinpoint and age-period-cohort (APC) models. Age-standardized (world population) mortality rates (ASMR), overall and truncated (35-64 years), were calculated and Joinpoint regression performed to compute the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC). Poisson sequential models were fitted to estimate the effect of age (11 age groups), period (1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000 or 2001-2006) and cohort (13 ten-years cohorts overlapping each other by five-years) on colorectal cancer mortality rates. ASMR showed an overall significant decrease (EAPC -0.9 95%CI: -1.7, -0.2) for women, being more noticeable from 1996 onwards (EAPC -2.1 95%CI: -4.0, -0.1). Age-effect showed an important rise in both sexes, but more evident in males. Birth cohort- and period effects reflected increasing and decreasing tendencies for men and women, respectively. Differences in mortality rates were found according to sex and could be related to age-period-cohort effects linked to the ageing process, health care and lifestyle. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific age-, period- and cohort-related factors.

  14. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 μg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 μM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

  15. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data Asia for assessment the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We use of correlation bivariate method for assessment the correlation between ASIR and ASMR with HDI and its components. A total of 121 099 kidney cancer cases were recorded in Asian countries in 2012.Overall, 80 080 cases (66.12%) were males. Sex ratio was 1.95. The three countries with the highest number of new patients were china (66 466 cases), Japan (16 830 cases), India(9658 cases), respectively. Positive correlation were seen between HDI and ASIR of kidney cancer 0.655 ( P = 0.001), and HDI and ASMR of kidney cancer 0.285 ( P = 0.055). A positive relationship between ASIR and the HDI was seen. The relationship is due to risk factors in countries with high development such as older age, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diet. However, ASMR showed no significant relationship with HDI.

  16. Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Soheylizad, Mokhtar; Khazaei, Somayeh; Biderafsh, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.

  17. Lung Cancer Mortality Associated With Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among People Living With HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna P; Kong, Chung Yin; Hyle, Emily P; Baggett, Travis P; Huang, Mingshu; Parker, Robert A; Paltiel, A David; Losina, Elena; Weinstein, Milton C; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer has become a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). Over 40% of PLWH in the United States smoke cigarettes; HIV independently increases the risk of lung cancer. To project cumulative lung cancer mortality by smoking exposure among PLWH in care. Using a validated microsimulation model of HIV, we applied standard demographic data and recent HIV/AIDS epidemiology statistics with specific details on smoking exposure, combining smoking status (current, former, or never) and intensity (heavy, moderate, or light). We stratified reported mortality rates attributable to lung cancer and other non-AIDS-related causes by smoking exposure and accounted for an HIV-conferred independent risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer mortality risk ratios (vs never smokers) for male and female current moderate smokers were 23.6 and 24.2, respectively, and for those who quit smoking at age 40 years were 4.3 and 4.5. In sensitivity analyses, we accounted for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and for a range of HIV-conferred risks of death from lung cancer and from other non-AIDS-related diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease). Cumulative lung cancer mortality by age 80 years (stratified by sex, age at entry to HIV care, and smoking exposure); total expected lung cancer deaths, accounting for nonadherence to ART. Among 40-year-old men with HIV, estimated cumulative lung cancer mortality for heavy, moderate, and light smokers who continued to smoke was 28.9%, 23.0%, and 18.8%, respectively; for those who quit smoking at age 40 years, it was 7.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%; and for never smokers, it was 1.6%. Among women, the corresponding mortality for current smokers was 27.8%, 20.9%, and 16.6%; for former smokers, it was 7.5%, 5.2%, and 3.7%; and for never smokers, it was 1.2%. ART-adherent individuals who continued to smoke were 6 to 13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from traditional AIDS-related causes, depending on

  18. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  19. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-06

    Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p urban sprawl for total and obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer mortality within and between geographic regions is an ongoing public

  20. Cancer mortality in women after repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D.; Monson, R.R.; Rosenstein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Among 1,047 women fluoroscopically examined in average of 102 times during pneumothorax therapy for tuberculosis and followed up to 45 years (average . 27 yr), no increase in the total number of cancer deaths occurred when these women were compared to 717 women who received other treatments [relative risk (RR) . 0.8]. However, elevated risks of mortality from stomach cancer (RR . 2.3), rectal cancer (RR . 3.8), breast cancer (RR . 1.2), lung cancer (RR . 1.8), and leukemia (RR . 1.2) were observed, but none was statistically significant and all were based on very small numbers of deaths. These increases were balanced by decreases of genital cancer (RR . 0.2), pancreatic cancer (RR . 0.9), lymphoma (RR . 0.6), and all other cancers (RR . 0.1). Average cumulative absorbed doses were 110 rads for the lungs, 33 rads for the trunk, 13 rads for the active bone marrow, and 7 rads for the stomach. The following upper levels of excess risk could be excluded with 95% confidence: 3.5 deaths/10(6) woman-year (WY)-rad for lung cancer, 4.8 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for lymphoma, and 12 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for leukemia. These findings indicated that the carcinogenic effect of multiple low-dose X-ray exposures was not greater than that currently assumed

  1. Mortality causes in cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-05-01

    Cancer patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of death due to cancer. However, whether T2DM comorbidity increases other causes of death in cancer patients is the novel theme of this study. Patients with T2DM were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked with patients with cancer recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for death due to all causes among cancer patients with and without T2DM; both underlying and multiple causes of death were examined using the Cox regression model. A total of 13 325 cancer patients were identified with comorbidity of T2DM. The total number of deaths of cancer patients was 276 021. Of these, 5900 occurred after T2DM diagnosis. For underlying causes of death, except for T2DM, the highest cause-specific HRs were found for complications of bacterial disease (HR, 3.93; 95% CI, 3.04-5.09), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.78-4.12), and myocardial infarction (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.75-3.12). When risk of death was examined for both underlying and multiple causes of death, the highest HRs were found for hypertensive disease (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.15-3.72), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.17-3.63), and arterial disease (HR, 3.26; 95% CI, 3.08-3.46). The diagnosis of T2DM in cancer patients is associated with an increased risk of death due to various causes, including myocardial infarction, other bacterial disease, urinary system disease, hypertensive disease, arterial disease, and so on, which may be related to both cancer and treatment. Clinicians that treat cancer patients with T2DM should pay more attention to comorbidities.

  2. An overview of mortality & predictors of small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer among Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim I. Alghamdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer worldwide in terms of incidence and constitutes a major health problem. About 90% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at advance stage where treatment is not available. Despite evidence that lung cancer screening improves survival, guidelines for lung cancer screening are still a subject for debate. In Saudi Arabia, only 14% of lung cancers are diagnosed at early stage and researches on survival and its predictors are lacking. This overview analysis was conducted on predictors of lung cancer mortality according to the two major cancer types, small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs in Saudi Arabia. A secondary data analysis was performed on small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs and Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs registered in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR for the period 2009–2013 to estimate predictors of mortality for both lung cancer types. A total of 404 cases (197 SCLC and 207 NSCLC were included in the analysis, all Saudi nationals. A total of 213 (52.75% deaths occurred among lung cancer patients, 108 (54.82% among SCLCs and 105 (50.72% among NCSLCs. Three quarter of patients are diagnosis with advance stage for both SCLC & NSCLC. Univariate analysis revealed higher mean age at diagnosis in dead patients compared to alive patients for SCLCs (p = 0.04; but not NSCLCs, a lower mortality for NSCLCs diagnosed in 2013 (p = 0.025 and a significant difference in stage of tumor (p = 0.006 and (p = 0.035 for both SCLC and NSCLC respectively. In multiple logistic regression, stage of tumor was a strong predictor of mortality, where distant metastasis increased morality by 6-fold (OR = 5.87, 95% CI: 2.01 – 17.19 in SCLC and by 3-fold (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.22 – 8.85 in NSCLC, compared to localized tumors. Those with NSCLC who were diagnosed in 2013 were less likely to die by 64% compared to NSCLC diagnosed in 2009 (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.93. Age, sex, topography

  3. An overview of mortality & predictors of small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer among Saudi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Hatim I; Alshehri, Ali F; Farhat, Ghada N

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer worldwide in terms of incidence and constitutes a major health problem. About 90% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at advance stage where treatment is not available. Despite evidence that lung cancer screening improves survival, guidelines for lung cancer screening are still a subject for debate. In Saudi Arabia, only 14% of lung cancers are diagnosed at early stage and researches on survival and its predictors are lacking. This overview analysis was conducted on predictors of lung cancer mortality according to the two major cancer types, small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) in Saudi Arabia. A secondary data analysis was performed on small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) registered in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) for the period 2009-2013 to estimate predictors of mortality for both lung cancer types. A total of 404 cases (197 SCLC and 207 NSCLC) were included in the analysis, all Saudi nationals. A total of 213 (52.75%) deaths occurred among lung cancer patients, 108 (54.82%) among SCLCs and 105 (50.72%) among NCSLCs. Three quarter of patients are diagnosis with advance stage for both SCLC & NSCLC. Univariate analysis revealed higher mean age at diagnosis in dead patients compared to alive patients for SCLCs (p=0.04); but not NSCLCs, a lower mortality for NSCLCs diagnosed in 2013 (p=0.025) and a significant difference in stage of tumor (p=0.006) and (p=0.035) for both SCLC and NSCLC respectively. In multiple logistic regression, stage of tumor was a strong predictor of mortality, where distant metastasis increased morality by 6-fold (OR=5.87, 95% CI: 2.01 - 17.19) in SCLC and by 3-fold (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.22 - 8.85) in NSCLC, compared to localized tumors. Those with NSCLC who were diagnosed in 2013 were less likely to die by 64% compared to NSCLC diagnosed in 2009 (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.14 - 0.93). Age, sex, topography and laterality were not associated with

  4. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.; Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  5. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koln (Germany); Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Institut fur Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik des Klinikums (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  6. Total knee arthroplasty in patients with dialysis: Early complications and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA in patients on long-term hemodialysis may result in a high prevalence of complications which related to nature of the disease, and associated cardiovascular conditions. However, the result of total knee artrhopalsty (TKA in those patients is not clear. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the early mortality and complications of TKA performed in patients with dialysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 15 dialysis patients (18 knees who underwent TKA using antibiotic-loaded cement fixation. Fourteen patients had maintained hemodialysis and one patient had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The function of the knee was evaluated before operation and postoperatively using Knee Society evaluating system. Postoperative complications and mortality were recorded for all patients. The average follow up period was 25 months (6 to 59 months. Results: There were no mortalities including short-term (≤90 days or long-term (>90 days follow up. The mean knee and function scores improved from preoperative 36 points (27~46 and 19.4 points (10~35 to 79 points (68~87 and 81 points (70~95 respectively at the latest follow up. One (6.7% patient had early postoperative pneumonia (≤90 days. The late (>90 days complica-tion rate was 20% including 1 sepsis with toe gangrene, 1 recurrent stroke and 1 acute myocardiac infarction. There was no deep prosthetic joint infection or loosening of the components. Conclusion: TKA with antibiotic-loaded cement resulted in a substantial low short-term mortality and deep infections in 15 patients with dialysis. However, a longer term follow up is necessary.

  7. Beneficial effect of statins on total mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Sven Ross; Abdelnoor, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In this single center, retrospective cohort study we wished to compare early and total mortality for all patients treated for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with open surgery who were taking statins compared to those who were not. A cohort of 640 patients with AAA was treated with open surgery between 1999 and 2012. Patients were consecutively recruited from a source population of 390,000; 21.3% were female, and the median age was 73 years. The median follow-up was 3.93 years, with an interquartile range of 1.79-6.58 years. The total follow-up was 2855 patient-years. An explanatory strategy was used. The propensity score (PS) was implemented to control for selection bias and confounders. The crude effect of statin use showed a 78% reduction of the 30-day mortality. A stratified analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method on quintiles of the PS gave an adjusted effect of the odds ratio equal to 0.43 (95% CI: 0.18-0.96), indicating a 57% reduction of the 30-day mortality for statin users. The adjusted rate ratio was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45-0.83), indicating a reduction of long-term mortality of 38% for statin users compared to non-users for a median follow-up of 3.93 years. This retrospective cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of statin use on early and long-term survival for patients treated with open surgery. To be conclusive, our results need to be replicated by a randomized clinical trial.

  8. Incidence of Infection and Inhospital Mortality in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkocak, Omer F; Yoo, Joanne Y; Restrepo, Camilo; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-11-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) may require total joint arthroplasty (TJA) to treat degenerative joint disease, fractures, osteonecrosis, or amyloid arthropathy. There have been conflicting results, however, regarding outcomes of TJA in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of this case-controlled study was to determine the outcome of TJA in patients with CRF, with particular interest in the incidence of infections and inhospital mortality. We queried our electronic database to determine which patients among the 29,389 TJAs performed at our institution between January 2000 and June 2012 had a diagnosis of CRF. A total of 359 CRF patients were identified and matched for procedure, gender, age (±4 years), date of surgery (±2 years), and body mass index (±5 kg/m 2 ) in a 2:1 ratio to 718 control patients. The incidence of infection and inhospital mortality was not significantly different between the nondialysis CRF patients and controls, whereas it was significantly higher in dialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure patients compared to controls. Of the 50 CRF patients receiving hemodialysis, 10 (20%) developed surgical site infection, of which 4 (8%) were periprosthetic joint infection, and 4 (8%) died during hospital stay. The odds ratio for infection in the dialysis group was 7.54 (95% confidence interval: 2.83-20.12) and 10.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.67-65.34) for the inhospital mortality. We conclude that end-stage renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis have higher postoperative infection and inhospital mortality rates after an elective TJA procedure, whereas nondialysis CRF patients have similar outcomes compared with the general TJA population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  10. Prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene are the predisposing cause of gastric cancer in most families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). The lifetime risk of cancer in mutation positive members is more than 80 % and prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended. Not all...... mutations in the CDH1 gene are however pathogenic and it is important to classify mutations before this major operation is performed. Probands from two Danish families with gastric cancer and a history suggesting HDGC were screened for CDH1 gene mutations. Two novel CDH1 gene mutations were identified....... Hospital stay was 6-8 days and there were no complications. Small foci of diffuse gastric cancer were found in all patients-intramucosal in six and advanced in one. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies had revealed a microscopic cancer focus in two of the patients. Our data confirmed the pathogenic nature...

  11. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  12. Associations of Coffee Drinking and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Anderson, Rebecca L; Campbell, Peter T; Jacobs, Eric J; Hartman, Terryl J; Hildebrand, Janet S; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Associations of coffee consumption with cancer mortality are inconsistent for many types of cancer, and confounding by smoking is an important concern. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs for coffee consumption associated with death from all cancers combined and from specific cancer types among 922,896 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants ages 28-94 years who completed a four-page questionnaire and were cancer free at baseline in 1982. Results: During follow-up through 2012, there were 118,738 cancer-related deaths. There was a nonlinear association between coffee consumption and all-cancer death among current smokers and former smokers and no association among never smokers. Among nonsmokers, a 2 cup/day increase in coffee consumption was inversely associated with death from colorectal [HR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99], liver [HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96], and female breast (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) cancers, and positively associated with esophageal cancer-related death (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). For head and neck cancer, a nonlinear inverse association was observed starting at 2-3 cups per day (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.95), with similar associations observed at higher levels of consumption. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with many other studies that suggest coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of colorectal, liver, female breast, and head and neck cancer. The association of coffee consumption with higher risk of esophageal cancer among nonsmokers in our study should be confirmed. Impact: These results underscore the importance of assessing associations between coffee consumption and cancer mortality by smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1477-86. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Trichloroethylene Is Associated with Kidney Cancer Mortality: A Population-based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanee, Shaheen; Clemons, Joseph; Zahnd, Whitney; Sadowski, Daniel; Dynda, Danuta

    2015-07-01

    To examine the association between the distribution of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and mortality from kidney cancer (Kca) across United States counties. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of TCE discharges from industrial sites and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for Kca during 2005 through 2010, controlling for confounders. A total of 163 counties were included in analysis. We observed an excess risk of Kca mortality associated with higher amounts of environmental TCE releases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed between TCE releases and Kca mortality in females. Smoking, education, income, hypertension, and obesity were significant predictors of incidence and mortality, consistent with previous research on the epidemiology of Kca. TCE exposure may increase the risk of mortality from Kca, an association not highlighted before. There is a need for policy measures to limit TCE discharge to the environment if these results are validated. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Esophageal Cancer Surgeon Volume on Management and Mortality From Emergency Upper Gastrointestinal Conditions: Population-based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markar, Sheraz R; Mackenzie, Hugh; Askari, Alan; Faiz, Omar; Hanna, George B

    2017-11-01

    To study the influence of esophageal cancer surgeon volume upon mortality from upper gastrointestinal emergencies. Volume-outcome relationships led to the centralization of esophageal cancer surgery. Hospital Episode Statistics data were used to identify patients admitted to hospitals within England (1997-2012). The influence of esophageal high-volume (HV) cancer surgeon status (≥5 resections per year) upon 30-day and 90-day mortality from esophageal perforation (EP), paraesophageal hernia causing obstruction or gangrene (PEH) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) was analyzed, independent of HV esophageal cancer center status and patient and disease-specific confounding factors. A total of 3707, 12,411, and 57,164 patients with EP, PEH, and PPU, respectively, were included. The observed 90-day mortality was 36.5%, 11.5%, and 29.0% for EP, PEH, and PPU, respectively.Management by HV cancer surgeon was independently associated with significant reductions in 30-day and 90-day mortality from EP (odds ratio, OR 0.51, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.40-0.66), PEH (OR=0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.91), and PPU (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.7-0.95). Subset analysis of those patients receiving primary surgery as treatment showed no change in mortality when performed by HV cancer surgeons.However HV cancer surgeons performed surgery as primary treatment more commonly for EP (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.87-3.04) and PEH (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.79-2.51). Furthermore surgery was independently associated with reduced mortality for all 3 conditions. The complex elective workload of HV esophageal cancer surgeons appears to lower the threshold for surgical intervention in specific upper gastrointestinal emergencies such as EP and PEH, which in turn reduces mortality.

  15. Challenges in assessing hospital-level stroke mortality as a quality measure: comparison of ischemic, intracerebral hemorrhage, and total stroke mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Holloway, Robert G; Pan, Wenqin; Peterson, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    Public reporting efforts currently profile hospitals based on overall stroke mortality rates, yet the "mix" of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke cases may impact this rate. Using the 2005 to 2006 New York state data, we examined the degree to which hospital stroke mortality rankings varied regarding ischemic versus hemorrhagic versus total stroke. Observed/expected ratio was calculated using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Inpatient Quality Indicator software. The observed/expected ratio and outlier status based on stroke types across hospitals were examined using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and weighted κ. Overall 30-day stroke mortality rates were 15.2% and varied from 11.3% for ischemic stroke and 37.3% for intracerebral hemorrhage. Hospital risk-adjusted ischemic stroke observed/expected ratio was weakly correlated with its own intracerebral hemorrhage observed/expected ratio (r=0.38). When examining hospital performance group (mortality better, worse, or no different than average), disagreement was observed in 35 of 81 hospitals (κ=0.23). Total stroke mortality observed/expected ratio and rankings were correlated with intracerebral hemorrhage (r=0.61 and κ=0.36) and ischemic stroke (r=0.94 and κ=0.71), but many hospitals still switched classification depending on mortality metrics. However, hospitals treating a higher percent of hemorrhagic stroke did not have a statistically significant higher total stroke mortality rate relative to those treating fewer hemorrhagic strokes. Hospital stroke mortality ratings varied considerably depending on whether ischemic, hemorrhagic, or total stroke mortality rates were used. Public reporting of stroke mortality measures should consider providing risk-adjusted outcome on separate stroke types.

  16. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  17. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  18. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  19. The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, J.; Dalmeijer, G.W.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and

  20. The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and its relationship with development in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men in the world. It is rapidly increasing. This study investigated the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and the relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its dimensions in Asia in 2012. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). The standardized incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer were calculated for Asian countries. Th...

  1. Cancer mortality among female and male workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead in the printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilychova, Svetlana A; Zaridze, David G

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of lead for humans has been based primarily on the results of studies on occupationally exposed men, although gender differences in lead metabolism have been reported. In addition, most of the previous studies have been limited by a failure to identify and control for co-exposures to other known occupational carcinogens. The present study follows an industrial cohort of workers, mostly women, with moderate lead exposure and no confounding by other occupational exposures. Workers, employed at least 2 years between 1950 and 1978 in manual and mechanical (linotype) typesetting and type foundries in 27 printing plants in Moscow, were included in the cohort, which comprised 1423 men and 3102 women. The cohort was followed up during 1979-2003 and contributed 93,682 person-years of observation. Follow-up was 97.7% complete. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs, based on mortality rates of the Moscow general population and adjusted for gender, age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. Among women, mortality from all causes, circulatory diseases and all cancers combined was lower than that in the Moscow general population and was similar across work groups. Among men, there was excess overall mortality, mainly due to increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease. For both sexes, no significant excess risk for any cancer site was observed, although some dose-response patterns were found. In the overall cohort, mortality from cancers of the kidney and pancreas increased up to twofold in the highest tertile of cumulative lead exposure based on duration and a relative ranking of the three subcohorts (9 deaths; SMR=2.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.07) and (18 deaths; SMR=2.32, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.68), respectively. Similar mortality trends for these two cancers were found in analyses by gender. Consistencies by sex and exposure level make a strong case for a

  2. Cancer mortality of nuclear workers of CEA and COGEMA from 1969 to 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Raphalen, A.; Allin, F.; Le Guen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Cancer mortality of the nuclear workers of CEA and COGEMA has been collected by the occupational health services of both firms from 1969 to 1986. The data are related only to the workers who died when in activity. Only very few workers left CEA and COGEMA before retirement so we consider this mortality survey as describing correctly the cancer mortality for the age groups less than 60-65 years old. Compared to the national mortality of same sex, age and calendar period, by the method of indirect standardization, the only excess observed was in the female population, linked to breast cancer mortality. The male population demonstrated a high healthy worker effect, even for cancer mortality. This study has now to be completed by an typical epidemiological cohort study in order to test cancer mortality after retirement and to discuss a possible relation with occupational exposure. (author)

  3. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2.5 in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyadi, Ziaeddin; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hasan; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Poor air quality is one of the most important environmental problems in many large cities of the world, which can cause a wide range of acute and chronic health effects, including partial physiological disorders and cardiac death due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. According to the latest edition of the national standard for air quality, maximum contamination level is 15 μg/m(3) per year and 35 μg/m(3) per day. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2.5 in the city of Mashhad during 2013. To this end, the Air Q model was used to assess health impacts of PM2.5 and human exposure to it. In this model, the attributable proportion of health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were estimated. The results showed that the number of excess cases of mortality for all causes and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributable to PM2.5 was 32, 263, and 332 μg/m(3), respectively. Moreover, the annual average of PM2.5 in Mashhad was obtained to be 37.85 μg/m(3). This study demonstrated that a high percentage of mortality resulting from this pollutant could be due to the high average concentration of PM2.5 in the city during 2013. In this case, using the particle control methods, such as optimal use of fuel, management of air quality in urban areas, technical inspection of vehicles, faster development of public transport, and use of industrial technology can be effective in reducing air pollution in cities and turning existing situations into preferred ones.

  4. Total Gastrectomy for Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer at a Single Center: Postsurgical Outcomes in 41 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Vivian E; Gholami, Sepideh; Shah, Manish A; Tang, Laura H; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Schattner, Mark; Selby, Luke V; Yoon, Sam S; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Stadler, Zsofia K; Kelsen, David; Brennan, Murray F; Coit, Daniel G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe postoperative outcomes of total gastrectomy at our institution for patients with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). HDGC, which is mainly caused by germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1), renders a lifetime risk of gastric cancer of up to 70%, prompting a recommendation for prophylactic total gastrectomy. A prospective gastric cancer database identified 41 patients with CDH1 mutation who underwent total gastrectomy during 2005 to 2015. Perioperative, histopathologic, and long-term data were collected. Of the 41 patients undergoing total gastrectomy, median age was 47 years (range 20 to 71). There were 14 men and 27 women, with 25 open operations and 16 minimally invasive operations. Median length of stay was 7 days (range 4 to 50). In total, 11 patients (27%) experienced a complication requiring intervention, and there was 1 peri-operative mortality (2.5%). Thirty-five patients (85%) demonstrated 1 or more foci of intramucosal signet ring cell gastric cancer in the examined specimen. At 16 months median follow-up, the median weight loss was 4.7 kg (15% of preoperative weight). By 6 to 12 months postoperatively, weight patterns stabilized. Overall outcome was reported to be "as expected" by 40% of patients and "better than expected" by 45%. Patient-reported outcomes were similar to those of other patients undergoing total gastrectomy. Total gastrectomy should be considered for all CDH1 mutation carriers because of the high risk of invasive diffuse-type gastric cancer and lack of reliable surveillance options. Although most patients have durable weight loss after total gastrectomy, weights stabilize at about 6 to 12 months postoperatively, and patients report outcomes as being good to better than their preoperative expectations. No patients have developed gastric cancer recurrence after resections.

  5. Lack of Any Relationship of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaFiei, Elahe; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This ecological study was conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian countries. We assessed the correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of stomach cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS18. A total of 696,231 cases (68.7% in males and 31.3% in females, ratio of 2.19:1) and 524,465 deaths (67.1% in men and 33.0% in women, ratio 2.03:1) were included in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR of stomach cancer were Republic Korea, Mongolia, Japan, China and Tajikistan. Five countries with the highest SMR of stomach cancer were Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and China. Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.241 (p = 0.106), in men 0.236 (p = 0.114) and in women -0.250 (p = 0.094). Also between HDI and SMR -0.250 (p = 0.871) in men -0.018 (p = 0.903) and in women -0.014 (p = 0.927). No significant correlation was observed between the SIR of stomach cancer, and the HDI and its dimensions, such as life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and income level of the population.

  6. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Townsend, Julie S.; Puckett, Mary C.; Rim, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions about how often they refer patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer to gynecologic oncologists, and reasons for lack of referral. We also analyzed these physicians’ knowledge of tests to help determine whether a gynecologic oncologist is needed for a planned surgery. The survey response rate was 52.2%. A total of 84% of primary care physicians (87% of family/general practitioners, 81% of internists and obstetrician/gynecologists) said they always referred patients to gynecologic oncologists for treatment. Common reasons for not always referring were patient preference or lack of gynecologic oncologists in the practice area. A total of 23% of primary care physicians had heard of the OVA1 test, which helps to determine whether gynecologic oncologist referral is needed. Although referral rates reported here are high, it is not clear whether ovarian cancer patients are actually seeing gynecologic oncologists for care. The NCCCP is undertaking several efforts to assist with this, including education of the recommendation among women and providers and assistance with treatment summaries and patient navigation toward appropriate treatment. Expansion of these efforts to all populations may help improve adherence to recommendations and reduce ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26978124

  7. Mesothelioma and lung cancer mortality: a historical cohort study among asbestosis workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghui; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Ronald K F; Yu, Ignatius T S; Wang, Xiao-rong; Lao, Xiang-qian; Au, Joseph Siu-kei

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the mortality pattern among a cohort of workers with asbestosis in Hong Kong, with special emphases on mesothelioma and lung cancer. All 124 male workers with confirmed asbestosis in Hong Kong during 1981-2008 were followed up to December 31, 2008 to ascertain the vital status and causes of death. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each underlying cause of death was calculated by using person-year method. Axelson's indirect method was applied to adjust for the potential confounding effect of cigarette smoking. A total of 86 deaths were observed after 432.8 person-years of observations. The SMR for overall mortality (6.06, 95% CI: 4.90-7.51) increased significantly. The elevated risk of deaths from all cancers (7.53, 95% CI: 5.38-10.25) was mainly resulted from a significantly excess risk from lung cancer (SMR=7.91, 95% CI: 4.32-13.29, 14 deaths) and mesothelioma (SMR=6013.63, 95% CI: 3505.95-9621.81, 17 deaths). The SMR for lung cancer retained statistically significant after adjustment of smoking. An increased smoking adjusted SMR was also suggested for all heart diseases (2.32, 95% CI: 0.93-4.79, 7 deaths) and acute myocardial infarction (3.10, 95% CI: 0.84-7.94, 4 deaths), though the statistical significance was borderline. We found a positive association with net years of exposure to asbestos for mesothelioma and lung cancer. Our study provided further evidence on the carcinogenesis of asbestos/asbestosis with the risk of deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma. This study also provided a preliminary support for a possible link between asbestosis and heart disease, but power is limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with Development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Pakzad, Iraj; Safiri, Saeid; Khazaei, Salman; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, bladder cancer was associated with a significant increase. Given the importance of the impact of socioeconomic status on the distribution of cancer incidence and mortality, and the need to information on these parameters for prevention planning, the aim of this study was to evaluate data for bladder cancer and their relationship with human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). The incidence and mortality rates were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation tests between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components were employed with a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software. A total incidence of 696,231 cases (68.7% in males and 31.3% in females, sex ratio of 2.19:1) and 524,465 deaths (67.0% in men and 32.9% in women, sex ratio was 2.03:1) were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.241 overall (p=0.106), 0.236 in men (p=0.114) and -0.250 in women (p=0.094). Also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.025 (p=0.871) in men 0.118 (p=0.903) and in women 0.014 (p=0.927). Bladder cancer incidence is higher in developed countries, but the rate is declining, and in less developed and developing countries it is growing. There was no statistically significant correlation between the standardized incidence rate of bladder cancer and the HDI and its dimensions in Asia, except for the level of education.

  9. Mortality from cancer and all causes among British radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.G.; Doll, R.

    1981-01-01

    The mortality of men who joined a British radiological society between 1897 and 1954 has been compared with that of (i) all men in England and Wales, (ii) men in social class 1, and (iii) male medical practitioners. Radiologists who entered the profession before 1921 suffered a death rate from cancer 75% higher than that of medical practitioners. Among these men there was a statistically significant excess of deaths from cancers of the pancreas (6 against 1.9 expected), lung (8 against 3.7), and skin (6 against 0.8), and from leukaemia (4 against 0.7). There were 72 deaths from cancer among men who entered the study after 1920 and 68.6 deaths were expected, based upon rates among medical practitioners. For no individual cancer site did the observed number of deaths exceed the expected number. There was some evidence, however, that the ratio of observed to expected cancer increased with the duration of time that men were included in the study. Among those followed for more than 30 years there were 30 deaths against 22.1 expected. It is not possible to make a close estimate of the dose of radiation received by the men in this study, but those who entered between 1920 and 1945 could have received an accumulated whole-body dose of the order of 1-5 Gy(100 to 500 rad). For all non-cancer causes of death combined, the death rate among radiologists is lower than that among all men in England and Wales, men in social class 1, and male medical practitioners. The data offer no support for the concept of a non-specific aging effect of radiation. (author)

  10. Effect of depression before breast cancer diagnosis on mortality among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Margolis, Karen L; Hendryx, Michael; Reeves, Katherine; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Weitlauf, Julie; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Caan, Bette; Qi, Lihong; Lane, Dorothy; Lavasani, Sayeh; Luo, Juhua

    2017-08-15

    Few previous studies investigating depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality have examined depression measured at more than 1 time point. This study investigated the effect of depression (combining depressive symptoms alone with antidepressant use) measured at 2 time points before the diagnosis of breast cancer on all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality among older postmenopausal women. A large prospective cohort, the Women's Health Initiative, was used. The study included 3095 women with incident breast cancer who had measures of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use before their diagnosis at the baseline and at year 3. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) between depression at the baseline, depression at year 3, and combinations of depression at these time points and all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality. Depression at year 3 before a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher all-cause mortality after adjustments for multiple covariates (HR, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.78). There was no statistically significant association of baseline depression and all-cause mortality or breast cancer-specific mortality whether or not depression was also present at year 3. In women with late-stage (regional- or distant-stage) breast cancer, newly developed depression at year 3 was significantly associated with both all-cause mortality (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.56) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70). Women with newly developed depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer had a modestly but significantly increased risk for death from any cause and for death from breast cancer at a late stage. Cancer 2017;123:3107-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Breast cancer mortality in Norway after the introduction of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse H

    2013-01-01

    An organized mammography screening program was gradually implemented in Norway during the period 1996-2004. Norwegian authorities have initiated an evaluation of the program. Our study focused on breast cancer mortality. Using Poisson regression, we compared the change in breast cancer mortality ...... to the program, the implementation of the organized mammography screening program was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in breast cancer mortality of around 11%....

  12. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  13. Mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer in Scottish coastal towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.Ll.; Macdonald, J.; Lloyd, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Using annual Scottish registration data, the authors have been examining mortality from cancers including all leukaemias, classified within malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue, from 1969/73. The results showed: (1) Coastal burghs had a higher standardised mortality than did inland burghs; (2) the SMRs in communities of the east coast as a whole were consistently higher than those in west-coast communities, whether small burghs, large burghs, or cities were considered; (3) all segments of the eastern coastline, other than the open coastline stretching from Aberdeenshire to Angus, showed relatively high SMRs; (4) on the west coast, the highest SMRs (of only 100) were in Ayrshire and Glasgow; (5) in terms of statistical significance at the level p<=0.5, mortality in inland burghs was significantly low, while in east-coast burghs, in Edinburgh, and in Aberdeen it was significantly high. The geographical distribution cannot be explained in terms of nuclear power stations, and differs importantly from that given by registration data for leukaemia alone (Heasman et al, May 26, p.1188). (U.K.)

  14. The mortality after surgery in primary lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hauge, Jacob; Iachina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post-surgical complica......OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post...... included gender, age, comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index), perioperative stage, type of resection, registered complications to surgery and alcohol abuse. RESULTS: The cumulative deaths after 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 360 days were 72 (2.1%), 154 (4.6%), 239 (7.1%) and 478 (14.2%), respectively...... resection, which is conventionally considered a time window of relevance for the adverse outcome of surgery. Increased efforts should be made for optimizing the selection of patients suited for resection and for identifying patients at increased risk of death after resection. Furthermore, patients should...

  15. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  16. Cancer mortality in a Texas county with prior uranium mining and milling activities, 1950-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, John D Jr; Mumma, Michael; Schweitzer, Sarah; Blot, William J

    2003-01-01

    Uranium was discovered in Karnes County, Texas, in 1954 and the first uranium mill began operating in 1961 near Falls City. Uranium milling and surface and in situ mining continued in Karnes County until the early 1990s. Remediation of uranium tailings ponds was completed in the 1990s. There were three mills and over 40 mines operating in Karnes County over these years and potential exposure to the population was from possible environmental releases into the air and ground water. From time to time concerns have been raised in Karnes County about potential increased cancer risk from these uranium mining and milling activities. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer deaths associated with these uranium operations, a mortality survey was conducted. The numbers and rates of cancer deaths were determined for Karnes County and for comparison for four 'control' counties in the same region with similar age, race, urbanisation and socioeconomic distributions reported in the 1990 US Census. Comparisons were also made with US and Texas general population rates. Following similar methods to those used by the National Cancer Institute, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates for the United States. Relative risks (RRs) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. Overall, 1223 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Karnes County from 1950 to 2001 compared with 1392 expected based on general population rates for the US. There were 3857 cancer deaths in the four control counties during the same 52 year period compared with 4389 expected. There was no difference between the total cancer mortality rates in Karnes County and those in the control counties (RR = 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.1). There were no significant increases in Karnes County for any cancer when

  17. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  18. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  19. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  20. Total esophagogastrectomy plus extended lymphadenectomy with transverse colon interposition: A treatment for extensive esophagogastric junction cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Marco; Norero, Enrique; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Viñuela, Eduardo; Briceño, Eduardo; Martínez, Cristian; Aguayo, Gloria; Araos, Fernando; González, Paulina; Díaz, Alfonso; Caracci, Mario

    2015-10-08

    To review the post-operative morbidity and mortality of total esophagogastrectomy (TEG) with second barrier lymphadenectomy (D2) with interposition of a transverse colon and to determine the oncological outcomes of TEG D2 with interposition of a transverse colon. This study consisted of a retrospective review of patients with a cancer diagnosis who underwent TEG between 1997 and 2013. Demographic data, surgery protocols, complications according to Clavien-Dindo classifications, final pathological reports, oncological follow-ups and causes of death were recorded. We used the TNM 2010 and Japanese classifications for nodal dissection of gastric cancer. We used descriptive statistical analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The series consisted of 21 patients (80.9% men). The median age was 60 years. The 2 main surgical indications were extensive esophagogastric junction cancers (85.7%) and double cancers (14.2%). The mean total surgery time was 405 min (352-465 min). Interposition of a transverse colon through the posterior mediastinum was used for replacement in all cases. Splenectomy was required in 13 patients (61.9%), distal pancreatectomy was required in 2 patients (9.5%) and resection of the left adrenal gland was required in 1 patient (4.7%). No residual cancer surgery was achieved in 75.1% of patients. A total of 71.4% of patients had a postoperative complication. Respiratory complications were the most frequently observed complication. Postoperative mortality was 5.8%. Median follow-up was 13.4 mo. Surgery specific survival at 5 years of follow-up was 32.8%; for patients with curative surgery, it was 39.5% at 5 years. TEG for cancer with interposition of a transverse colon is a very complex surgery, and it presents high post-operative morbidity and adequate oncological outcomes.

  1. Cancer mortality among two different populations of French nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, Eric; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Caer-Lorho, Sylvaine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). DRPH, SRBE, LEPID; and others

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of external photon radiation on the mortality of two populations of French nuclear workers: workers exposed only to external photon radiation and workers potentially exposed also to internal contamination or to neutrons. External photon radiation has been measured through individual dosimeters. Potential exposure to internal contamination or to neutrons has been assessed by experts on the basis of quantitative measurements or of worksite and type of activity. The mortality observed in each population was compared with that expected from national mortality statistics, by computing standardized mortality ratios. Dose-effect relationships were analyzed through trend tests and log-linear Poisson regressions. 14,796 workers were exposed only to external photon radiation; 14,408 workers were also potentially exposed to internal radiation or to neutrons. Between 1968 and 1994, the number of deaths is respectively, 645 and 1,197. The mean external photon dose was respectively, 3.7 and 12.9 mSv. Similar Healthy Worker Effects were observed in the two populations (SMR = 0.59). SMR of 2.41 90% CI [1.39-3.90] was observed for malignant melanoma among workers of the second population. Significant dose-effect relationships were observed: among workers exposed only to external photon radiation for leukemia except CLL and in the other population, for cancers and other diseases related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. Results differed between the two populations. The increase in leukemia risk with dose in the first population will have to be confirmed with extended follow-up. In the other population, results may have been confounded by alpha-emitters inhalation, tobacco, or alcohol consumption.

  2. Cancer mortality among two different populations of French nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Eric; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Caer-Lorho, Sylvaine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of external photon radiation on the mortality of two populations of French nuclear workers: workers exposed only to external photon radiation and workers potentially exposed also to internal contamination or to neutrons. External photon radiation has been measured through individual dosimeters. Potential exposure to internal contamination or to neutrons has been assessed by experts on the basis of quantitative measurements or of worksite and type of activity. The mortality observed in each population was compared with that expected from national mortality statistics, by computing standardized mortality ratios. Dose-effect relationships were analyzed through trend tests and log-linear Poisson regressions. 14,796 workers were exposed only to external photon radiation; 14,408 workers were also potentially exposed to internal radiation or to neutrons. Between 1968 and 1994, the number of deaths is respectively, 645 and 1,197. The mean external photon dose was respectively, 3.7 and 12.9 mSv. Similar Healthy Worker Effects were observed in the two populations (SMR = 0.59). SMR of 2.41 90% CI [1.39-3.90] was observed for malignant melanoma among workers of the second population. Significant dose-effect relationships were observed: among workers exposed only to external photon radiation for leukemia except CLL and in the other population, for cancers and other diseases related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. Results differed between the two populations. The increase in leukemia risk with dose in the first population will have to be confirmed with extended follow-up. In the other population, results may have been confounded by alpha-emitters inhalation, tobacco, or alcohol consumption.

  3. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoltidis Melina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009, using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107 and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136. The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

  4. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent...... splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group...... for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. RESULTS: In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277...

  5. Trends in cancer mortality in Spain: the influence of the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Josep; Palència, Laia; Gotsens, Mercè; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Bartoll, Xavier; Borrell, Carme

    2018-02-13

    To determine if the onset of the economic crisis in Spain affected cancer mortality and mortality trends. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study based on all cancer-related deaths and on specific types of cancer (lung, colon, breast and prostate) in Spain between 2000 and 2013. We computed age-standardised mortality rates in men and women, and fit mixed Poisson models to analyse the effect of the crisis on cancer mortality and trends therein. After the onset of the economic crisis, cancer mortality continued to decline, but with a significant slowing of the yearly rate of decline (men: RR = 0.987, 95%CI = 0.985-0.990, before the crisis, and RR = 0.993, 95%CI = 0.991-0.996, afterwards; women: RR = 0.990, 95%CI = 0.988-0.993, before, and RR = 1.002, 95%CI = 0.998-1.006, afterwards). In men, lung cancer mortality was reduced, continuing the trend observed in the pre-crisis period; the trend in colon cancer mortality did not change significantly and continued to increase; and the yearly decline in prostate cancer mortality slowed significantly. In women, lung cancer mortality continued to increase each year, as before the crisis; colon cancer continued to decease; and the previous yearly downward trend in breast cancer mortality slowed down following the onset of the crisis. Since the onset of the economic crisis in Spain the rate of decline in cancer mortality has slowed significantly, and this situation could be exacerbated by the current austerity measures in healthcare. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  7. Work history and radioprotection practices in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in US radiologic technologists performing nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Marie Odile; Doody, Michele M; Van Dyke, Miriam E; Villoing, Daphné; Alexander, Bruce H; Linet, Martha S; Kitahara, Cari M

    2018-05-02

    Technologists working in nuclear medicine (NM) are exposed to higher radiation doses than most other occupationally exposed populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of cancer in NM technologists in relation to work history, procedures performed and radioprotection practices. From the US Radiologic Technologists cohort study, 72 755 radiologic technologists who completed a 2003-2005 questionnaire were followed for cancer mortality through 31 December 2012 and for cancer incidence through completion of a questionnaire in 2012-2013. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to estimate HRs for total cancer incidence and mortality by history of ever performing NM procedures and frequency of performing specific diagnostic or therapeutic NM procedures and associated radiation protection measures by decade. During follow-up (mean=7.5 years), 960 incident cancers and 425 cancer deaths were reported among the 22 360 technologists who worked with NM procedures. We observed no increased risk of cancer incidence (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.04) or death (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.19) among workers who ever performed NM procedures. HRs for cancer incidence but not mortality were higher for technologists who began performing therapeutic procedures in 1960 and later compared with the 1950s. Frequency of performing diagnostic or therapeutic NM procedures and use of radioprotection measures were not consistently associated with cancer risk. No clear associations were observed for specific cancers, but results were based on small numbers. Cancer incidence and mortality were not associated with NM work history practices, including greater frequency of procedures performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  9. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD, in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35 and 0.92 (0.82-1.03, respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05-1.89 and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.87. There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red

  10. Totally implantable central venous access port infections in patients with digestive cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Abdoulaye; Vanhems, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cassier, Philippe; Péré-Vergé, Denis; Souquet, Jean-Christophe; Ecochard, René; Chambrier, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    Central venous access port-related bloodstream infection (CVAP-BSI) is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. This study examined the incidence rates and risk factors for CVAP-BSI in adult patients with digestive cancer. This prospective observational cohort study was performed from 2007 to 2011 in 2 oncology units of a university hospital. Incidence rate was expressed as number of CVAP-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. A Cox regression model was used to identify risk factors for CVAP-BSI. A total of 315 patients were included. CVAP-BSI occurred in 41 patients (13.0%). The overall incidence rate was 0.76/1,000 catheter-days. The rate was higher in patients with esophageal cancer (1.28. P = .05) and pancreatic cancer (1.24; P = .007). Risk factors independently associated with CVAP-BSI were World Health Organization performance status between 2 and 4, catheter utilization-days in the previous month, pancreatic cancer, and parenteral nutrition. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci and enterobacteria were the main microorganisms isolated. In adult patients with digestive cancer, pancreatic cancer, cumulative catheter utilization-days, World Health Organization performance status, and parenteral nutrition were identified as independent risk factors for CVAP-BSI. Patients with any of these risk factors could be candidates for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  12. MORTALITY TRENDS FOR MOST COMMON TYPES OF CANCER IN SILESIA VOIVODESHIP IN SHORT TERM PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of morbidity and mortality of cancers rapidly increase in the world and so it is in case of Poland and Silesia Voivodeship. Therefore an attempt is made to assess this phenomenon in projection scale within Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: The time-trends analysis of the six most common types of cancer have been selected: stomach, colorectal, pancreas and lung (among both genders, prostate (among males and breast (among females. For the period 1990–2008 age standardized mortality rates have been determined. Time-trends in mortality with employment of joinpoint regression have been estimated and depending on trends linear or log-linear regression models were used which set up the base for short-term projection. Results: For the year 2018 projection values of mortality rates among males will drop (with the exception of lung and colorectal cancers. For prostate cancer – the values will be increasing. Among females stomach mortality rates will drop, but again lung cancer mortality rate will double in comparison to data for 1990. Conclusions: 1. The prognostic number of death to 2018 year concern all studied cancer increasing, for exept stomach cancer. 2. Especially will be increasing cancer mortality standardized rates for lung cancer among females and prostate and colorectal cancers among males.

  13. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral

  14. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  15. Incidence and mortality from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Gomes de; Curado, Maria Paula; Koechlin, Alice; Oliveira, José Carlos de; Silva, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça E

    2016-01-01

    To describe the incidence and mortality rates from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil. Data for the incidence rates were obtained from the Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) according to the available period. Mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) for the period between 1996 and 2008. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender and age groups. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint software. The age-period-cohort effects were calculated by the R software. The incidence rates for colon cancer vary from 4.49 to 23.19/100,000, while mortality rates vary from 2.85 to 14.54/100,000. For rectal cancer, the incidence rates range from 1.25 to 11.18/100,000 and mortality rates range between 0.30 and 7.90/100,000. Colon cancer mortality trends showed an increase among males in Cuiabá, Campo Grande, and Goiania. For those aged under 50 years, the increased rate was 13.2% in Campo Grande. For those aged over 50 years, there was a significant increase in the mortality in all capitals. In Goiânia, rectal cancer mortality in males increased 7.3%. For females below 50 years of age in the city of Brasilia, there was an increase of 8.7%, while females over 50 years of age in Cuiaba showed an increase of 10%. There is limited data available on the incidence of colon and rectal cancer for the Midwest region of Brazil. Colon cancer mortality has generally increased for both genders, but similar data were not verified for rectal cancer. The findings presented herein demonstrate the necessity for organized screening programs for colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

  16. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdoli

    Full Text Available In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women, and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001. We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9% and Sweden-born (86.1% individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07, but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  17. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  18. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  19. Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie Vieira; de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Pinto Oliveira, Julio; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups. To identify significant changes in the trends, we performed joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates per million were 54 deaths in those aged 15-19 years, 61 deaths in those aged 20-24 years, and 88 deaths in those aged 25-29 years. Leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors occurred at high rates in all age groups. Rates of cervical cancer were highest in those aged 25-29 years. There were significant increases in mortality trends in the North and Northeast regions for all tumor groups, especially CNS tumors. A small decrease in the mortality rate from lymphomas was observed in the South and Southeast regions. Mortality in Brazilian AYA was slightly higher than in other studies conducted throughout the world. When separated by tumor type, Brazil presents a specific pattern, with high mortality from cervical cancer.

  20. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  1. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Although regional differences in lung cancer mortality are likely to be attributable to regional differences in tobacco smoking, studies in various countries found only weak relationships. This paper aimed at explaining regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands. In a first

  2. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kunst (Anton); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAlthough regional differences in lung cancer mortality are likely to be attributable to regional differences in tobacco smoking, studies in various countries found only weak relationships. This paper aimed at explaining regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the

  3. Metformin Associated With Lower Cancer Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes - ZODIAC-16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, N.; van Hateren, K.J.J.; Groenier, K.H.; Gans, R.O.B.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Landman, G.

    OBJECTIVE - Several Studies have suggested an association between specific diabetes treatment and cancer mortality. We studied the association between metformin use and cancer mortality in a prospectively followed cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - in 1998 and 1999,1,353 patients With type 2

  4. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeders, Mireille; Moss, Sue; Nyström, Lennarth

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data.......To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data....

  5. Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in the World in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence is generally increasing. In 2012, it was the second most common cancer in the world. It is necessary to obtain information on incidence and mortality for health planning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI), and the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the world in 2012. This ecologic study concerns incidence rate and standardized mortality rates of the cancer from GLOBOCAN in 2012, and HDI and its components extracted from the global bank site. Data were analyzed using correlation tests and regression with SPSS software (version 15). Among the six regions of WHO, the highest breast cancer incidence rate (67.6) was observed in the PAHO, and the lowest incidence rate was 27.8 for SEARO. There was a direct, strong, and meaningful correlation between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.725, p≤0.001). Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and components of the HDI (life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and GNP). On the other, a non-significant relationship was observed between ASIR and HDI overall (r=0.091, p=0.241). In total, a significant relationship was not found between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) and components of HDI. Significant positive correlations exist between ASIR and components of the HDI. Socioeconomic status is directly related to the stage of the cancer and patient's survival. With increasing the incidence rate of the cancer, mortality rate from the cancer does not necessariloy increase. This may be due to more early detection and treatment in developed that developing countries. It is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in the latter.

  6. [The Evaluation of Medical Demographic and Economic Losses of the Region Conditioned by Mortality of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukov, R A; Modestov, A A; Safontsev, I P; Slepov, E V; Narkevich, A N

    2017-11-01

    The article presents evaluation of medical demographic and economic losses of population of the Krasnoyarskii kraii conditioned by mortality of lung cancer in 2010-2014 using DALY technology. In the Krasnoyarskii kraii, during 2010-2014 64,712 individuals died because of lung cancer. The mortality of male population surpasses corresponding indices of mortality of females up to 3.9 times. In the region, the standardized indicator mortality of lung cancer among males annually surpasses the same indicator among females at maximum up to 8.1 times. The DALY maximal absolute losses of among males were registered in 2010 and 2013 and fell on age group of 55-59 years and among females on the age group of 60-64 years in 2014. The maximal (up to 5.2 times) difference in values of DALY indicator was established in 2010 between male and female population. the maximal gap in in DALY indices between male and female population was established in the age of 55-59 years. Almost half of DALY losses among males was established in 2013 and among females in 2014. The total losses of gross regional product in the region because of mortality conditioned by lung cancer made up to 29.8 billions of rubles in 2010-2014.

  7. Lung cancer mortality among European rock/slag wool workers: exposure-response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, D; Boffetta, P; Andersen, A; Chang-Claude, J; Cherrie, J W; Ferro, G; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Hansen, J; Olsen, J; Plato, N; Westerholm, P; Saracci, R

    1998-08-01

    The purpose was to analyze the relationship between semi-quantitative indices of exposure to manmade vitreous fibers and lung cancer mortality among European rock/slag wool (RSW) workers. The study population comprised 9,603 male workers employed in RSW production in seven factories in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Germany, followed up for mortality as of 1990-91. Estimates of past exposure to respirable fibers were used to calculate cumulative exposure with a 15-year lag and maximum annual exposure based on employment history up to 1977. Rate ratios were estimated via multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for country, age, calendar year, time since first employment, and employment status. A total of 159 lung cancer deaths were included in the analysis of which 97 among workers with more than one year of employment. We found nonstatistically significant trends in lung cancer risk according to cumulative exposure. Relative risks (RR) in the four quartiles were 1.0 (reference), 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-2.4), 1.2 (CI = 0.7-2.1), and 1.5 (CI = 0.7-3.0, P test for trend = 0.4). When workers with less than one year of employment were excluded, there was no increased risk; the RRs in the four quartiles were 1.0, 0.9 (CI = 0.4-2.0), 0.8 (CI = 0.3-1.9), and 1.0 (CI = 0.4-2.7). No trend was present according to maximum annual exposure. The results were not consistent among countries. We found a positive association between exposure to respirable fibers and lung cancer mortality. However, the lack of statistical significance, the dependence of the results on inclusion of short-term workers, the lack of consistency among countries, and the possible correlation between exposure to respirable fibers and to other agents reduce the weight of such evidence.

  8. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  9. Sarcopenia predicts 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi-Yi; Wang, Su-Lin; Shen, Xian; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Yu, Zhen; Zhuang, Cheng-Le

    2016-11-01

    One-year mortality is vital for elderly oncologic patients undergoing surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that sarcopenia can predict outcomes after major abdominal surgeries, but the association of sarcopenia and 1-year mortality has never been investigated in a prospective study. We conducted a prospective study of elderly patients (≥65 years) who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer from July 2014 to July 2015. Sarcopenia was determined by the measurements of muscle mass, handgrip strength, and gait speed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with 1-year mortality. A total of 173 patients were included, in which 52 (30.1 %) patients were identified as having sarcopenia. Twenty-four (13.9 %) patients died within 1 year of surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated an increased predictive power for 1-year mortality with the inclusion of sarcopenia, from 0.835 to 0.868. Solely low muscle mass was not predictive of 1-year mortality in the multivariate analysis. Sarcopenia is predictive of 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. The measurement of muscle function is important for sarcopenia as a preoperative assessment tool.

  10. Total antioxidant status in women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.H.; Abdullah, K.S.; Abdullah, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure the concentration of total antioxidant status (TAS) in women with breast cancer. Methodology: This is a case control study conducted in Al-Salam Hospital and Department of Pharmacology in Mosul Medical College. Twenty women having histologically confirmed breast cancer and twenty age-matched healthy volunteer women participated in the study. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS) was measured in both groups. Results: Mean TAS of the patient group (0.91 +- 0.32 mmol/l) was significantly lower (P<0.001) than that of the control group (1.82 +- 0.14 mmol/l). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that women with breast cancer have a low level of TAS as compared to those of healthy women. It further emphasizes the growing concern that oxidative damage may occur in those patients that exhaust the antioxidant defense of the body leading to a low levels of TAS. Administration of antioxidant supplements such as a combination of vitamins A, C and E are necessary in women at high risk of developing breast cancer or after surgery or with anticancer drugs. (author)

  11. Excess Mortality among HIV-Infected Individuals with Cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Anna E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Shiels, Meredith S; Engels, Eric A

    2017-07-01

    Background: Human immunodefieciency virus (HIV)-infected persons are living longer in the era of effective HIV treatment, resulting in an increasing cancer burden in this population. The combined effects of HIV and cancer on mortality are incompletely understood. Methods: We examined whether individuals with both HIV and cancer have excess mortality using data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study and the National Center for Health Statistics (1996-2010). We compared age, sex, and race-stratified mortality between people with and without HIV or one of the following cancers: lung, breast, prostate, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We utilized additive Poisson regression models that included terms for HIV, cancer, and an interaction for their combined effect on mortality. We report the number of excess deaths per 1,000 person-years for models with a significant interaction ( P mortality. Excess mortality was most pronounced at younger ages (30-49 years), with large excesses for males with lung cancer (white race: 573 per 1,000 person-years; non-white: 503) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (white: 236; non-white: 261), and for females with Hodgkin lymphoma (white: 216; non-white: 136) and breast cancer (non-white: 107). Conclusions: In the era of effective HIV treatment, overall mortality in patients with both HIV and cancer was significantly higher than expected on the basis of mortality rates for each disease separately. Impact: These results suggest that HIV may contribute to cancer progression and highlight the importance of improved cancer prevention and care for the U.S. HIV population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1027-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  13. Mortality Among Women With Cervical Cancer During or Shortly After a Pregnancy in Denmark 1968 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer diagnosed in relation to a pregnancy is rare; however, the current trend to have children later in life increases the risk of pregnancy and cervical cancer coinciding. We investigated the mortality of women diagnosed with cervical cancer during or in relation...... to a pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, we identified women diagnosed with a primary cervical cancer at ages 15 to 44 years during 1968 to 2006 born after April 1, 1935. The women were linked to several Danish national registries to obtain information on births...... and abortions. In addition, linkage was made to the Cause of Death Register. Overall and cause-specific hazards ratios (HRs) were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age, calendar year, and extent of disease. RESULTS: A total of 6135 cervical cancers were identified. Among these...

  14. Applications of Machine learning in Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.; Sarwat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths for the female population in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have used the baseline descriptive data about the incidence (new cancer cases) of in situ breast cancer among Wisconsin females. The documented data were from the most recent 12-years period for which data are available. Wiscons in cancer incidence and mortality (deaths due to cancer) that occurred were also considered in this work. Artificial Neural network (ANN) have been successfully applied to problems in the prediction of the number of new cancer cases and mortality. Using artificial intelligence (AI) in this study, the numbers of new cancer cases and mortality that may occur are predicted.

  15. Incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Iva; Šekerija, Mario; Šimunović, Iva; Zgaga, Lina; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Kovačević, Dujo; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To estimate the incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. The number of deaths from gastric and colorectal cancers was obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to describe changes in trends by sex. Results Gastric cancer incidence rates declined steadily during the study period, with estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of -3.2% for men and -2.8% for women. Mortality rates in men decreased, with EAPC of -5.0% from 1988-1995 and -2.5% from 1995-2008. Mortality rates in women decreased, with EAPC of -3.2% throughout the study period. For colorectal cancer in men, joinpoint analysis revealed increasing trends of both incidence (EAPC 2.9%) and mortality (EAPC 2.1%).In women, the increase in incidence was not significant, but mortality in the last 15 years showed a significant increase of 1.1%. Conclusion The incidence and mortality trends of gastric cancer in Croatia are similar to other European countries, while the still increasing colorectal cancer mortality calls for more efficient prevention and treatment. PMID:22522990

  16. All-Cause Mortality for Life Insurance Applicants with a History of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Beckman, Margaret; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    - To determine the all-cause mortality of life insurance applicants diagnosed with prostate cancer currently or at some time in the past. - Prostate cancer is common and a frequent cause of cancer death. Both the frequency of prostate cancer in men and its propensity for causing premature mortality require insurance company medical directors and underwriters to have a good understanding of prostate cancer-related mortality trends, patterns, and outcomes in the insured population. - Life insurance applicants with reported prostate cancer were extracted from data covering United States residents between November 2007 and November 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master (SSDMF) file for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2011 and to another commercially available death source file (Other Death Source, ODS) for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2014 to determine vital status. Actual to Expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2015 Valuation Basic Table (2015VBT), select and ultimate table (age last birthday) and the 2013 US population as expected mortality ratios. All expected bases were not smoker distinct. - The study covered applicants between the ages of 45 and 75 and had approximately 405,000 person-years of exposure. Older aged applicants had a lower mortality ratio than those who were younger. Applicants 45 to 54 had the highest mortality ratios in the first year after diagnosis which steadily decreased in years 6 to 10 with an increase in the mortality ratio for those over 10 years from diagnosis. Relative mortality rate was close to unity for those with localized cancer across all age groups. The mortality ratio was 2 to 4 times greater for those with cancer in 1 positive node, and much greater with 3 positive nodes. For each time-from-diagnosis category, the relative mortality ratios compared to age were highest in the 45-54 age group. The A/E mortality ratios based on the 2015VBT

  17. Physical therapy after total mastectomy surgery in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Cismaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the whole world. It is caused by the development of malignant cells in the breast. In cancer patients, physical therapy has resulted in improved physical functioning, cardiovascular fitness, sleep, quality of life, psychological and social well-being, and self esteem, and significant decreases in fatigue, anxiety and depression. Aim: The aim of this study is to underline the importance of physical therapy in the rehabilitation of patients after total mastectomy surgery in breast cancer. Material and methods: We investigated 14 women aged between 45 and 75 years old, diagnosed with breast cancer (stages I–III, having a total mastectomy surgery 6 months ago. At the beginning and after 2 weeks of intervention, the subject`s evaluations consisted in: each patient was evaluated in regard to shoulder flexibility (from Test 1 to Test 8; on the other hand, we measured the upper limb circumferences on the surgery side. The physical therapy programme consisted in 10 sessions of 20 minutes lymphatic drainage and 10 minutes individualized physical therapy programmes. Results: At the end of intervention, it was observed a score improvement at Test 2 (from 1.28±0.99 to 1.85±0.53, p=0.041, Test 3 (from 0.42±0.85 to 1.57±0.85, p=0.001, Test 7 (from 0.5±0.51 to 0.85±0.36, p=0.019 and Test 8 (from 1.28±0.99 to 1.85±0.53, p=0.041. In terms of total score (Total, the improvement was also significant increased (from 13.25±9.08 to 18.13±10.12, p=0.044. Circumference values significantly improved at arm (from 30.36±4.25 to 29.79±4.41, p=0.001, forearm (from 23±2.18 to 22.04±2.26, p=0.001 and wrist level (from 17.46±1.74 to 17.11±1.67, p=0.012. Despite the intervention, elbow circumference didn`t reached the statistical significance (p<0.05. Conclusions: After 2 weeks of intervention we noticed a significant improvement at most of the parameters which means a life quality increase in

  18. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship.

  19. Pooled analysis of cancer mortality cases among the employees in five units of the Department of Atomic Energy in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Mayya, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Available data on cancer mortality in the combined employee populations of five units of the Dept. of Atomic Energy, namely those in Mumbai, Tarapur, Kalpakkam, Hyderabad and Alwaye, with study periods ranging between 13 and 21 years, have been analysed. Data are available only on those still serving, i.e., subjects in the age group 20-59 yrs., and not on the retired employees and this is the major constraint in the study. A total of 81 cancer deaths have been recorded in the combined database of 316619 person-years (PY) of which 28 (34.6% of the total) deaths belonged to the monitored radiation worker category having a database of 112363 PY(35.5% of the total). Background age-specific cancer death rates of the urban Indian population have been constructed by averaging the only available age-specific cancer mortality data published by the Bombay Cancer Registry for Mumbai, Nagpur and Pune cities. Using this as a tentative national urban baseline, the estimated standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for combined DAE employees works out to be 111 with 95% CI:80-138. The SMR for the radiation workers alone is 108(95% CI:72-156) as compared to the SMR of 113 (95% CI:84-149) for the non-radiation workers. The relative risk of radiation workers as opposed to non radiation workers is 0.96(95% CI:0.64 - 1.39); analysis on individual types of cancer also leads to similar results. It is seen clearly that the radiation workers are not at any extra risk of cancer as compared to non-radiation workers. Nor does a comparison with the restricted national base-line data available for cities like Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur indicate any statistically significant risk of cancer in Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) populations. (author)

  20. Epidemiology and Inequality in the Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common head and neck cancers is nasopharynx cancer. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study and better planning. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. Methods The aim of this ecologic study was to assess the ...

  1. Assessing the Total Mortality Caused by Two Species of Trichogramma on Its Natural Host Plutella xylostella (L.) at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2015-06-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner are natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Southern Brazil. Laboratory studies to evaluate parasitoids performance under different conditions, such as temperature regimes, are necessary to assess their potential as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella. In most studies involving Trichogramma, parasitism rate is the main parameter used to evaluate parasitoid performance, ignoring that parasitoids can cause egg mortality by feeding on the host content and/or to multiple drilling without laying eggs. This study was conducted to investigate three main issues: how temperature affects T. pretiosum and T.atopovirilia development on eggs of P. xylostella, whether or not these species respond differently to temperature, and how important is the mortality they cause besides parasitism on P. xylostella. Temperature effects (from 10 to 30°C) on development, survival, parasitism rate, mortality, and total mortality caused by T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia on eggs of P. xylostella were evaluated. Temperature affected the development time, female longevity, parasitism rate, mortality not directly related to parasitoid larval development, and total mortality caused on the host. No significant differences were recorded for the estimated thermal requirements for T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia. However, the higher mortality caused by T. pretiosum indicates that this parasitoid is the most suitable to be used against P. xylostella. Also, the results suggest that the use of parasitism rate as the only parameter to evaluate the performance of T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia may underestimate the potential of these parasitoids in regulating pest populations.

  2. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  3. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  4. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  5. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  6. Relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and mortality in uremia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Man; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies show that serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant effect and is associated with protection from kidney damage and reduce cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum total bilirubin level and mortality in uremia patients who underwent hemodialysis. This is a nationwide retrospective long-term cohort study. Patients were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115,535 hemodialysis patients were surveyed and those with valid baseline total bilirubin (TB) data were enrolled. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. A total of 47,650 hemodialysis patients followed for 27.6 ± 12 months, were divided into 3 groups according to different baseline serum total bilirubin levels (0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.7, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL). Mean age was 61.4 ± 13.6 years, 50% were male, 13% were hepatitis B carriers, and 20% were hepatitis C carriers. Primary outcome was the 3-year mortality. The TB level 0.7-1.2 mg/dL group had high mortality, statistically significant hazard ratio of mortality was 1.14 (crude HR, 95% 1.07-1.20, p bilirubin on hemodialysis patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of revision, prosthetic joint infection and mortality following total hip or total knee arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rene Lindholm; Zobbe, Kristian; Højgaard, Pil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate predictors of 10-year risk of revision and 1-year risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and death following total hip/total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) in (1) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with patients with osteoarthritis (OA); and (2) patients...

  8. Mortality in Digestive Cancers, 2012: International Data and Data from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valean, Simona; Acalovschi, Monica; Diculescu, Mircea; Manuc, Mircea; Goldis, Adrian; Sfarti, Catalin; Trifan, Anca

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to compare the difference in case fatality rate between more developed and very high Human Development Index (HDI) regions, less developed and low HDI regions, and Romania. The incidence and mortality rates for digestive cancers were obtained from the IARC/WHO 2012 database. World mean mortality-to-incidence ratios registered the highest values in pancreatic cancer (0.97/0.94), and liver cancer (0.93/0.96) in males/females, respectively. The lowest values were recorded in colorectal cancer (0.48 in both sexes). Mortality-to-incidence ratios were generally higher in less developed areas, low HDI populations, and in Romania. The difference in case fatality rate between different areas showed higher variations for colorectal, gastric and gallbladder cancers, and smaller variations for esophageal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. In summary, mortality-to-incidence ratios of digestive cancers were high in 2012; higher values were registered in less developed and low HDI regions, and in Romania. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were similar in both sexes, even though the incidence was generally higher in men. Digestive cancer mortality variation suggests the necessity of finding better strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of digestive cancers.

  9. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  10. Reduced Mortality With Partial-Breast Irradiation for Early Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Jayant S., E-mail: jayant.vaidya@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Whittington Health, London (United Kingdom); Bulsara, Max [Department of Biostatistics, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, WA (Australia); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Coombs, Nathan [Department of Surgery, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Singer, Julian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow (United Kingdom); Ebbs, Stephen [Croydon University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Massarut, Samuele [National Cancer Institute, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano (Italy); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia); Douek, Michael [Department of Surgery, Kings College London, London (United Kingdom); Williams, Norman R. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Joseph, David [Departments of Radiation Oncology, and Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia); Tobias, Jeffrey S. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Baum, Michael [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: With earlier detection and more effective treatment, mortality from breast cancer continues to fall and it has become increasingly important to reduce the toxicity of treatments. Partial-breast radiation therapy, which focuses radiation to the tumor bed, may achieve this aim. We analyzed mortality differences in randomized trials of partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and Materials: We included data from published randomized trials of PBI (alone or as part of a risk-adapted approach) versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for invasive breast cancer suitable for breast-conserving therapy. We identified trials using PubMed and Google searches with the terms “partial breast irradiation” OR “intraoperative radiotherapy” OR “IMRT” OR (“accelerated” AND “radiation”) AND “randomised/randomized,” as well as through discussion with colleagues in the field. We calculated the proportion of patients who had events in each randomized arm at 5 years' follow-up and created a forest plot using Stata, version 14.1. Results: We identified 9 randomized trials of PBI versus WBI in invasive breast cancer; 5-year outcomes were available for non–breast cancer mortality in 5 trials (n=4489) and for breast cancer mortality in 4 trials (n=4231). The overall mortality was 4.9%. There was no detectable heterogeneity between the trials for any of the outcomes. There was no difference in the proportion of patients dying of breast cancer (difference, 0.000% [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.7 to +0.7]; P=.999). Non–breast cancer mortality with PBI was lower than with WBI (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, −2.1% to −0.2%]; P=.023). Total mortality with PBI was also lower than with WBI (difference, 1.3% [95% CI, −2.5% to 0.0%]; P=.05). Conclusions: Use of PBI instead of WBI in selected patients results in a lower 5-year non–breast cancer and overall mortality, amounting to a 25% reduction in relative terms. This information should be included when

  11. Reduced Mortality With Partial-Breast Irradiation for Early Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Jayant S.; Bulsara, Max; Wenz, Frederik; Coombs, Nathan; Singer, Julian; Ebbs, Stephen; Massarut, Samuele; Saunders, Christobel; Douek, Michael; Williams, Norman R.; Joseph, David; Tobias, Jeffrey S.; Baum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With earlier detection and more effective treatment, mortality from breast cancer continues to fall and it has become increasingly important to reduce the toxicity of treatments. Partial-breast radiation therapy, which focuses radiation to the tumor bed, may achieve this aim. We analyzed mortality differences in randomized trials of partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and Materials: We included data from published randomized trials of PBI (alone or as part of a risk-adapted approach) versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for invasive breast cancer suitable for breast-conserving therapy. We identified trials using PubMed and Google searches with the terms “partial breast irradiation” OR “intraoperative radiotherapy” OR “IMRT” OR (“accelerated” AND “radiation”) AND “randomised/randomized,” as well as through discussion with colleagues in the field. We calculated the proportion of patients who had events in each randomized arm at 5 years' follow-up and created a forest plot using Stata, version 14.1. Results: We identified 9 randomized trials of PBI versus WBI in invasive breast cancer; 5-year outcomes were available for non–breast cancer mortality in 5 trials (n=4489) and for breast cancer mortality in 4 trials (n=4231). The overall mortality was 4.9%. There was no detectable heterogeneity between the trials for any of the outcomes. There was no difference in the proportion of patients dying of breast cancer (difference, 0.000% [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.7 to +0.7]; P=.999). Non–breast cancer mortality with PBI was lower than with WBI (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, −2.1% to −0.2%]; P=.023). Total mortality with PBI was also lower than with WBI (difference, 1.3% [95% CI, −2.5% to 0.0%]; P=.05). Conclusions: Use of PBI instead of WBI in selected patients results in a lower 5-year non–breast cancer and overall mortality, amounting to a 25% reduction in relative terms. This information should be included when

  12. Analysis of 10-year cause-specific mortality of patients with breast cancer treated in New South Wales in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Stuart, Kirsty; Boyages, John; O'Connell, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess cause-specific mortality for patients with breast cancer and to determine if excess cardiac death was associated with radiation therapy (RT). We obtained 10-year cause-specific mortality information from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry and National Death Index on 1242 patients with unilateral stage I–III invasive breast cancer in NSW, Australia, diagnosed over a 6-month period in 1995. We compared actuarial cause-specific mortality (breast cancer, cardiac, other cancers and other causes) for patients who received left-sided, right-sided or no RT. Mortality due to breast cancer or due to other cancers was not significantly different (P = 0.30 and P = 0.11) between the three subgroups. Mortality due to cardiac and other causes was higher in patients who did not have radiotherapy (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001). A total of 52 cardiac deaths in 1242 patients (4.2%) occurred – six of 274 patients (2.2%) in the left-sided radiotherapy group, four of 245 patients (1.6%) in the right-sided radiotherapy group (P = 0.63) and 42 of 723 patients (5.8%) in the no radiotherapy group. Most cardiac deaths (46 of 52 cases) occurred in patients aged 70 years or older at the time of diagnosis. There were no differences in cardiac mortality between the three treatment groups for those aged 70 years or older (P = 0.22, log-rank test), suggesting that the higher overall cardiac mortality rate in the no-RT group is due to a higher percentage of patients aged 70 years or older. Of the 10 patients who died from cardiac causes and who had received RT, none had received chemotherapy or irradiation to the internal mammary chain. There is no excess cardiac mortality due to RT within the first decade in a population series of patients with breast cancer treated with modern radiotherapy.

  13. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....

  14. Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng

    2014-01-01

    To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The nutrition index, liver function, patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 72 patients including 37 cases in the EEN group and 35 cases in the TPN group were recruited. Hypoalbuminemia gradually improved in the EEN group about 3-5 days, but it did not increase until average 21 days in the TPN group. The body weight decreased in the EEN group during the first 2 weeks and recovered gradually in 21 days; body weight in the TPN group was significantly lower than the EEN group at 21 days (pnutrition indicators. The incidence of complications in the EEN group and TPN group were 8.1% and 25.7% respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05). The days of hospital stays in the EEN and in the TPN group were up to 12.2 ± 2.5 d vs 14.9 ± 2.9 d (pgastric cancer.

  15. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  16. Hyponatremia, all-cause mortality, and risk of cancer diagnoses in the primary care setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in hospitalized individuals. In this study we examine the risk of all-cause mortality in primary care subjects with hyponatremia, while also exploring the association with subsequent diagnosis of cancer. METHODS...... was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes overall and specific types of cancer diagnoses. RESULTS: Among 625,114 included subjects (mean age 49.9 [SD±18.4] years; 43.5% males), 90,926 (14.5%) deaths occurred. All-cause mortality was increased in mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia (age...... of hyponatremia are associated with all-cause mortality in primary care patients and hyponatremia is linked to an increased risk of being diagnosed with any cancer, particularly pulmonary and head and neck cancers....

  17. Study of mortality and cancer incidence among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. 1946-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Soda, Midori.

    1996-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence among offspring of atomic bomb survivors whose exposure dose was estimated in DS86 (Dose System 1986) were studied as one of means to evaluate the genetic influence of atomic bomb radiation. Big malformation incidence and mortality of subjects with the malformation were also studied. Death and its cause were traced from the city register and certificate of death of 67,586 offspring born in 1946-1984. Cancer was confirmed by certificate of death until 1957 and by cancer registration after 1958. Big malformation and the mortality were traced from clinical diagnostic records at birth or at necropsy, of 9-month examination after birth and of certificate of death. Comparisons were made in general and the offspring's age-related mortalities and in mortality or cancer incidence in relation to the radiation doses the parents had been exposed to. The comparisons showed no statistically significant relationships in those examined parameters. (K.H.)

  18. Postdiagnosis statin use and mortality in danish patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dehlendorff, Christian; Skriver, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Increasing evidence indicates that statin use may reduce mortality from prostate cancer. In this work, we examined whether postdiagnosis statin use was associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality or all-cause mortality among patients with prostate cancer in Denmark. Material...... and Methods From nationwide Danish registries, we identified all patients with incident prostate adenocarcinoma from 1998 to 2011 and retrieved data on tumor and patient characteristics, drug use, and primary treatment. We defined postdiagnosis use (two or more prescriptions) of statins as a time......-varying covariate with 1-year lag. Cox proportional hazards regression models used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality through 2013 associated with postdiagnosis statin use. In secondary and sensitivity analyses, we assessed statin use within exposure...

  19. A retrospective cohort study of shift work and risk of cancer-specific mortality in German male chemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Messerer, Peter; Oberlinner, Christoph; Lang, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Human evidence of carcinogenicity concerning shift work is inconsistent. In a previous study, we observed no elevated risk of total mortality in shift workers followed up until the end of 2006. The present study aimed to investigate cancer-specific mortality, relative to shift work. The cohort consisted of male production workers (14,038 shift work and 17,105 day work), employed at BASF Ludwigshafen for at least 1 year between 1995 and 2005. Vital status was followed from 2000 to 2009. Cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Exposure to shift work was measured both as a dichotomous and continuous variable. While lifetime job history was not available, job duration in the company was derived from personal data, which was then categorized at the quartiles. Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for potential confounders, in which job duration was treated as a time-dependent covariate. Between 2000 and 2009, there were 513 and 549 deaths among rotating shift and day work employees, respectively. Risks of total and cancer-specific mortalities were marginally lower among shift workers when taking age at entry and job level into consideration and were statistically significantly lower when cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, job duration, and chronic disease prevalence at entry to follow-up were included as explanatory factors. With respect to mortality risks in relation to exposure duration, no increased risks were found in any of the exposure groups after full adjustment and there was no apparent trend suggesting an exposure-response relation with duration of shift work. The present analysis extends and confirms our previous finding of no excess risk of mortality associated with work in the shift system employed at BASF Ludwigshafen. More specifically, there is also no indication of an increased risk of mortality due to cancer.

  20. Factors affecting mortality in emergency surgery in cases of complicated colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Remzi; Yılmaz, Özkan; Aras, Abbas; Çelik, Sebahattin; Kotan, Çetin

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate retrospectively demographic, clinical and histopathological variables effective on mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery due to complicated colorectal cancer. A total of 39 patients underwent urgent surgical interventions due to complicated colorectal cancer at the Department of General Surgery, Dursun Odabaş Medical Center, between January 2010 and January 2015. Thirty three of these were included in the study. Six patients were excluded because complete medical records had been missing. Medical records of the 33 cases were retrospectively reviewed. There were 14 (42.5%) male and 19 (57.5%) female patients. Mean age was 60 years (range: 32- 83 years); 14 (42.5%) patients were less than 60 years old , while 19 (57.5%) were 60 years old or older. Operations were performed due to perforation (39.3%) and obstruction (60.6%) in 13 and 20 patients, respectively. Tumor localization was in the right and transverse colon in nine (21.2%) and in the left colon in 24 cases (72.7%). Eleven (33.3%) patients underwent resection and anastomosis, 13 (39.3%) resection and ostomy, and nine (27.2%) patients underwent ostomy alone without any resection. Postoperative mortality occurred in nine cases (27.2%). High mortality should be expected in females older than 60 years with a left sided colon tumor or with another synchronous tumor and in perforated tumors. Unnecessary major resections should be avoided and primary pathology should be in the focus of treatment in order to decrease the mortality and morbidity rates. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Factors affecting mortality in emergency surgery in cases of complicated colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Kızıltan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate retrospectively demographic, clinical and histopathological variables effective on mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery due to complicated colorectal cancer. Methods A total of 39 patients underwent urgent surgical interventions due to complicated colorectal cancer at the Department of General Surgery, Dursun Odabaş Medical Center, between January 2010 and January 2015. Thirty three of these were included in the study. Six patients were excluded because complete medical records had been missing. Medical records of the 33 cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were 14 (42.5% male and 19 (57.5% female patients. Mean age was 60 years (range: 32- 83 years; 14 (42.5% patients were less than 60 years old , while 19 (57.5% were 60 years old or older. Operations were performed due to perforation (39.3% and obstruction (60.6% in 13 and 20 patients, respectively. Tumor localization was in the right and transverse colon in nine (21.2% and in the left colon in 24 cases (72.7%. Eleven (33.3% patients underwent resection and anastomosis, 13 (39.3% resection and ostomy, and nine (27.2% patients underwent ostomy alone without any resection. Postoperative mortality occurred in nine cases (27.2%. Conclusions High mortality should be expected in females older than 60 years with a left sided colon tumor or with another synchronous tumor and in perforated tumors. Unnecessary major resections should be avoided and primary pathology should be in the focus of treatment in order to decrease the mortality and morbidity rates.

  2. Morbidity and mortality after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty in a fast-track setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders; Otte, Kristian Stahl

    2016-01-01

    and mortality rates and time until death were recorded. Transfusion rates and numbers of transfusions were also recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for re-admission within 90 days, and also for a LOS of more than 5 days. Results - 90-day mortality was 0%. 10% of the patients...

  3. Comparative Longterm Mortality Trends in Cancer vs. Ischemic Heart Disease in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, David; Pericchi, Luis R; Mattei, Hernando; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    Although contemporary mortality data are important for health assessment and planning purposes, their availability lag several years. Statistical projection techniques can be employed to obtain current estimates. This study aimed to assess annual trends of mortality in Puerto Rico due to cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD), and to predict shorterm and longterm cancer and IHD mortality figures. Age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 population projections with a 50% interval probability were calculated utilizing a Bayesian statistical approach of Age-Period-Cohort dynamic model. Multiple cause-of-death annual files for years 1994-2010 for Puerto Rico were used to calculate shortterm (2011-2012) predictions. Longterm (2013-2022) predictions were based on quinquennial data. We also calculated gender differences in rates (men-women) for each study period. Mortality rates for women were similar for cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period, but changed substantially in the projected 2018-2022 period. Cancer mortality rates declined gradually overtime, and the gender difference remained constant throughout the historical and projected trends. A consistent declining trend for IHD historical annual mortality rate was observed for both genders, with a substantial changepoint around 2004-2005 for men. The initial gender difference of 33% (80/100,00 vs. 60/100,000) in mortality rates observed between cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period increased to 300% (60/100,000 vs. 20/100,000) for the 2018-2022 period. The APC projection model accurately projects shortterm and longterm mortality trends for cancer and IHD in this population: The steady historical and projected cancer mortality rates contrasts with the substantial decline in IHD mortality rates, especially in men.

  4. Trends in cardiovascular diseases and cancer mortality in 45 countries from five continents (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio; Gouvinhas, Cláudia; Fontes, Filipa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer are worldwide main causes of death with mortality trends varying across countries with different levels of economic development. We analysed trends in CVD and cancer mortality for 37 European countries, five high-income non-European countries and four leading emerging economies (BRICS) using data from the World Health Organization database for the period 1980-2010. In high-income countries, CVD mortality trends are characterized by steep declines over the last decades, while a downward trend in cancer mortality started more recently and was less pronounced. This resulted in the gradual convergence of the CVD and cancer mortality rates, and the latter are already higher in some countries. The absolute number of CVD deaths decreased in most settings, while cancer deaths increased in nearly all countries. Among the BRICS, China and South Africa share a similar pattern of no meaningful variation in both CVD and cancer age-standardized mortality rates and an increase in the overall number of deaths by these causes. Brazil presents trends similar to those of high-income countries, except for the still increasing number of CVD deaths. The substantial decreases in CVD mortality over the last decades have overcome the impact of the growth and ageing of populations in the overall number of deaths, while stabilization in the number of cancer deaths was observed only in some of the high-income countries. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Incidence and Mortality of Liver Cancer and Their Relationship with Development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maryam; Soroush, Ali; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Towhidi, Farhad; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer (LC) is the sixth world most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. Due to the importance and necessity of awareness about the incidence and mortality of diseases to perform prevention programs, this study focused on data for LC and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data for Asian countries. We assessed correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of LC with HDI and its components using of SPSS18. A total of 582,420 incident cases and 557,097 deaths were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The five with the highest SIR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Republic of Korea and Thailand and those with the highest SMR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. A negative relation was observed between HDI and LC for SIR of 0.049 (P=0.748) and for SMR of 0.07 (P=0.645), with life expectancy at birth a positive relation for SIR of 0.061 (P=0.687) and a negative relation for SMR of 0.079 (P=0.603), with the average years of education a negative relation fo SIR of 0.476 (p=0.952) and for SMR of 0.032 (P=0.832), and with the country income level per person a negative relation for SMI of 0.11 (p=0.465) and for SMR of 0.113 (P=0.455). The incidence of LC is more in less developed and developing countries but statistically significant correlations were not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of LC, and HDI and its dimensions.

  6. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice Jr, John D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  7. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  8. Cancer mortality does not differ between migrants and Danish-born patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999 were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with Danish-born patients. Cancer patients in the cohort were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and deaths and emigrations through the Central Population Register. Using a Cox regression model, mean sex......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare cancer mortality among migrant patients with cancer mortality in Danish-born patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a historical prospective cohort study. All non-Western migrants (n = 56,273) who were granted a right to residency in Denmark......-specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish...

  9. Trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality in Brazil in the period of 2002 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Lillia Magali Estrada; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in the period of 2002 to 2013 in Brazil according to sex, anatomical site, and macroregion of the country. METHODS The mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The trend of the rates standardized by sex and age was calculated using the Prais-Winsten estimation, and we obtained the annual percentage change and the respective 95% confidence intervals, analyzed according to sex, macroregion, and anatomical site. RESULTS The average coefficient of oral cancer mortality was 1.87 per 100,000 inhabitants and it remained stable during the study period. The coefficient of pharyngeal cancer mortality was 2.04 per 100,000 inhabitants and it presented an annual percentage change of -2.6%. Approximately eight in every 10 deaths occurred among men. There was an increase in the rates of oral cancer in the Northeast region (annual percentage change of 6.9%) and a decrease in the Southeast region (annual percentage change of -2.9%). Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the Southeast and South regions with annual percentage change of -4.8% and -5.1% respectively. Cancer mortality for tonsil, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and unspecified parts of mouth and pharynx showed a decreasing trend while the other sites presented stability. CONCLUSIONS Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the period of 2002 to 2013. Oral cancer increased only in the Northeast region. Mortality for tonsil cancer, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and ill-defined sites in the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx decreased. PMID:29412371

  10. Projections of alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer mortality in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, I; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P

    2000-07-01

    Central European mortality rates for cancer sites related to tobacco and alcohol have increased rapidly in recent decades. From a public health point of view, it is of considerable interest to know whether these past increases in cancer mortality will continue into the future. Cancer mortality rates for the period 1965-1994 in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Slovakia (analysed together), Hungary, Poland, and Romania were analysed for cancers of the larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Using a Bayesian age-period-cohort approach, we have calculated smoothed observed rates. The effects of period and cohort were extrapolated to estimate mortality projections for 1995-99, 2004-09, and 2005-09. Mortality rates for all sites are projected to increase in most countries. Hungary has the highest projected rates for most sites, and particularly rapid increases are expected for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and of the larynx in Hungarian men. The smoothed 1990-94 male mortality rates for these two sites of 16. 32/100,000 and 8.70/100,000, respectively, are projected to reach 35. 17/100,000 for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 14.12/100, 000 for cancer of the larynx by the period 2000-04. For kidney cancer, former Czechoslovakia has the highest observed and projected mortality rates. The smoothed 1990-94 rate of 8.37/100,000 is expected to increase 24% to 10.38/100,000 by 2000-04. Our results indicate that further increases may be expected on top of the already high cancer mortality levels in Central Europe. Policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent smoking in younger generations are necessary to reduce mortality as these cohorts age. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

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    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  12. Association of changes in fitness and body composition with cancer mortality in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhen; Sui, Xuemei; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2014-07-01

    Both baseline cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity predict the risk of cancer mortality. However, the effects of changes in these two factors over time have not been evaluated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition on cancer mortality. The cohort consisted of 13,930 men (initially cancer-free) with two or more medical examinations from 1974 to 2002. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a maximal treadmill exercise test, and body composition was expressed by body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition between the baseline and the last examination were classified into loss, stable, and gain groups. There were 386 deaths from cancer during an average of 12.5 yr of follow-up. After adjusting for possible confounders and BMI, change hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of cancer mortality were 0.74 (0.57-0.96) for stable fitness and 0.74 (0.56-0.98) for fitness gain. Inverse dose-response relationships were observed between changes in maximal METs and cancer mortality (P for linear trend = 0.05). Neither BMI change nor percent body fat change was associated with cancer mortality after adjusting for possible confounders and maximal METs change. In the joint analyses, men who became less fit had a higher risk of cancer mortality (P for linear trend = 0.03) compared with those who became more fit, regardless of BMI change levels. Being unfit or losing cardiorespiratory fitness over time was found to predict cancer mortality in men. Improving or maintaining adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness appears to be important for decreasing cancer mortality in men.

  13. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

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    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  14. Nutritional Status After Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidon, Esther Una

    2010-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death secondary to cancer in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment but its clinical consequences are significant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional state of patients with a total gastrectomy secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma. We designed a descriptive study with a transversal cut in our institution. We included 22 patients which had a minimum evolution time of six months after total gastrectomy secondary to gastric cancer surgery was performed. Neither of them had metastasis. The nutritional analysis included only biochemical data. Descriptive statistics were used for statistical analysis. Eight females and 14 males were included in the study. Median age was 57 years (34 - 69 years). The 74% of the patients were underweight and none of them was overweight. The average body mass index (BMI) was 16.88 kg/m 2 . Eleven patients suffered from mild anemia (10.5 - 12 g/dl) and 5 from moderate anemia (9 - 10.5 g/dl). Only two patients presented severe anemia (less than 9 g/dl). The 58% presented hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. The main post-surgery complication was nausea (46%). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had loss of appetite. Twenty-one patients were able to walk without help and leave their homes. The incidence of anemia in these patients was very high. In most of the patients, albumin and proteins levels were affected too. So malnutrition was a relevant consequence of a total gastrectomy.

  15. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  16. The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-02-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.

  17. [Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in elderly population in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; He, J

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in elderly Chinese population in 2013 based on the data from local cancer registries submitted to National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: Data from 255 cancer registries submitted to NCCR with qualified data after checked and evaluated, were selected for this estimation. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by areas, sex, age groups and cancer site, combined with population data of the year 2013 to estimate cancer epidemiology in older people in China. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for the estimation of age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: All the 255 cancer registries (88 in urban and 167 in rural areas) were selected for this estimation, covered 37 407 728 elderly subjects, accounting for 17.73% of the entire national elderly population. It was estimated about 2 171.0 thousand new cancer cases in older people in China, accounting for 58.96% of all cancer incidence, with the crude incidence rate of 1 029.16/100 000 (1 297.96 per 100 000 in male, 777.18 per 100 000 in female), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 1 019.25 per 100 000. It was estimated about 1 600.5 thousand deaths in older people in China, accounting for 67.70% of all cancer deaths, with the crude mortality of 758.72/100 000 (988.37 per 100 000 in males, 543.44 per 100 000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 730.78 per 100 000. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for about 67.70% of all cancer cases in China. Those cancers are also the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 73.45% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The cancer burden of elderly population in China is very serious. The major cancer incidence and mortality in urban and rural areas are similar

  18. Cancer mortality in Chinese chrysotile asbestos miners: exposure-response relationships.

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    Xiaorong Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the relationship of mortality from lung cancer and other selected causes to asbestos exposure levels. METHODS: A cohort of 1539 male workers from a chrysotile mine in China was followed for 26 years. Data on vital status, occupation and smoking were collected from the mine records and individual contacts. Causes and dates of death were further verified from the local death registry. Individual cumulative fibre exposures (f-yr/ml were estimated based on converted dust measurements and working years at specific workshops. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer, gastrointestinal (GI cancer, all cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (NMRD stratified by employment years, estimated cumulative fibre exposures, and smoking, were calculated. Poisson models were fitted to determine exposure-response relationships between estimated fibre exposures and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age and smoking. RESULTS: SMRs for lung cancer increased with employment years at entry to the study, by 3.5-fold in ≥ 10 years and 5.3-fold in ≥ 20 years compared with <10 years. A similar trend was seen for NMRD. Smokers had greater mortality from all causes than nonsmokers, but the latter also had slightly increased SMR for lung cancer. No excess lung cancer mortality was observed in cumulative exposures of <20 f-yrs/ml. However, significantly increased mortality was observed in smokers at the levels of ≥ 20 f-yrs/ml and above, and in nonsmokers at ≥ 100 f-yrs/ml and above. A similarly clear gradient was also displayed for NMRD. The exposure-response relationships with lung cancer and NMRD persisted in multivariate analysis. Moreover, a clear gradient was shown in GI cancer mortality when age and smoking were adjusted for. CONCLUSION: There were clear exposure-response relationships in this cohort, which imply a causal link between chrysotile asbestos exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

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    Pasarín M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  20. Cancer-specific mortality of Asian Americans diagnosed with cancer: a nationwide population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L; Leow, Jeffrey J; Dalela, Deepansh; Chao, Grace F; Mahal, Brandon A; Nayak, Manan; Schmid, Marianne; Choueiri, Toni K; Aizer, Ayal A

    2015-06-01

    Racial disparities in cancer survival outcomes have been primarily attributed to underlying biologic mechanisms and the quality of cancer care received. Because prior literature shows little difference exists in the socioeconomic status of non-Hispanic whites and Asian Americans, any difference in cancer survival is less likely to be attributable to inequalities of care. We sought to examine differences in cancer-specific survival between whites and Asian Americans. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify patients with lung (n = 130 852 [16.9%]), breast (n = 313 977 [40.4%]), prostate (n = 166 529 [21.4%]), or colorectal (n = 165 140 [21.3%]) cancer (the three leading causes of cancer-related mortality within each sex) diagnosed between 1991 and 2007. Fine and Gray's competing risks regression compared the cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of eight Asian American groups (Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Japanese, Korean, other Asian, South Asian [Indian/Pakistani], and Vietnamese) to non-Hispanic white patients. All P values were two-sided. In competing risks regression, the receipt of definitive treatment was an independent predictor of CSM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.40; HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.58; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.62; and HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.29) for prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers respectively, all P < .001). In adjusted analyses, most Asian subgroups (except Hawaiians and Koreans) had lower CSM relative to white patients, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.54 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.78) to 0.88 (95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93) for Japanese patients with prostate and Chinese patients with lung cancer, respectively. Despite adjustment for potential confounders, including the receipt of definitive treatment and tumor characteristics, most Asian subgroups had better CSM than non-Hispanic white patients. These findings suggest that underlying genetic

  1. Productivity losses due to premature mortality from cancer in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS): A population-based comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Sharp, Linda; Hanly, Paul; Barchuk, Anton; Bray, Freddie; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Gupta, Prakash; Meheus, Filip; Qiao, You-Lin; Sitas, Freddy; Wang, Shao-Ming; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    Over two-thirds of the world's cancer deaths occur in economically developing countries; however, the societal costs of cancer have rarely been assessed in these settings. Our aim was to estimate the value of productivity lost in 2012 due to cancer-related premature mortality in the major developing economies of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). We applied an incidence-based method using the human capital approach. We used annual adult cancer deaths from GLOBOCAN2012 to estimate the years of productive life lost between cancer death and pensionable age in each country, valued using national and international data for wages, and workforce statistics. Sensitivity analyses examined various methodological assumptions. The total cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer mortality in the BRICS countries in 2012 was $46·3 billion, representing 0·33% of their combined gross domestic product. The largest total productivity loss was in China ($28 billion), while South Africa had the highest cost per cancer death ($101,000). Total productivity losses were greatest for lung cancer in Brazil, the Russian Federation and South Africa; liver cancer in China; and lip and oral cavity cancers in India. Locally-tailored strategies are required to reduce the economic burden of cancer in developing economies. Focussing on tobacco control, vaccination programs and cancer screening, combined with access to adequate treatment, could yield significant gains for both public health and economic performance of the BRICS countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R.; Buffler, P.A.

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error (σ=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from -15% to -30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was -37.1% for males and -23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased -27.1% for males and -43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors

  3. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center; Buffler, P.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error ({sigma}=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from {minus}15% to {minus}30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was {minus}37.1% for males and {minus}23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased {minus}27.1% for males and {minus}43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors.

  4. Cancer Mortality Among Techa Riverside Residents (Southern Urals). Chronically Exposed to Radiation During the Prenatal Period and in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E. V.; Akleyev, A. V.

    2004-01-01

    Imperfect technology and lack of management and utilization facilities for reprocessing liquid waste released by the Mayak PA resulted in a protracted combined (external and internal) environmental radiation exposure of the population resident on the banks of the Techa River. The followup of 8.640 subjects exposed during the prenatal period and in childhood covered the period of 49 years (1.1.1950-31.12.1998), the total person-years under observation amounted to 222,686. From 1950 through 1998 1,231 death cases were registered in the catchment area (5 raions in Chelyabinsk OBlast through which the Techa flows). In 70 cases death was caused by solid cancers, and in 12 cases by leukemia. Analyses of solid cancer mortality yielded higher rates for men as compared to women (p<0.001). No significant differences in death rates were observed between different ethnic groups (Slavs vs Tartars and Bashkirs). A statistically significant increase in solid cancer mortality with attained age was shown (p<0.001). The age at first exposure was demonstrated to be a factor modifying the solid cancer mortality rate (p=0.049). The highest risk of death from solid cancers was manifested by persons whose exposure started in the prenatal period or at the age under 5 years. There were 4.6 excess cases in this group of 30 observed solid cancer cases, whereas in the group including subjects aged 5 years or older at first exposure only 1 excess case was registered among the 40 observed cancer cases. The obtained leukemia mortality ERR value (CLL excluded) was 7.76, p=0.09. The excess leukemia death was found to be 7.6 out of of 10 observed cases. The analysis performed should be regarded as a preliminary one, taking into account the need to further extend the followup of the cohort and a potential verification of dose estimates in the future. (Author) 11 refs

  5. Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2014-10-01

    We examined neonatal mortality in relation to birth settings and birth attendants in the United States from 2006 through 2009. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-linked birth and infant death dataset in the United States from 2006 through 2009 were used to assess early and total neonatal mortality for singleton, vertex, and term births without congenital malformations delivered by midwives and physicians in the hospital and midwives and others out of the hospital. Deliveries by hospital midwives served as the reference. Midwife home births had a significantly higher total neonatal mortality risk than deliveries by hospital midwives (1.26 per 1000 births; relative risk [RR], 3.87 vs 0.32 per 1000; P home births of 41 weeks or longer (1.84 per 1000; RR, 6.76 vs 0.27 per 1000; P home births of women with a first birth (2.19 per 1000; RR, 6.74 vs 0.33 per 1000; P home births, neonatal mortality for first births was twice that of subsequent births (2.19 vs 0.96 per 1000; P home births compared with midwife hospital births was 9.32 per 10,000 births, and the excess early neonatal mortality was 7.89 per 10,000 births. Our study shows a significantly increased total and early neonatal mortality for home births and even higher risks for women of 41 weeks or longer and women having a first birth. These significantly increased risks of neonatal mortality in home births must be disclosed by all obstetric practitioners to all pregnant women who express an interest in such births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE MOSCOW REGION IN 2014

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    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Analysis of the cancer incidence and mortality in the population is of major importance for planning of measures aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to cancer patients, ensuring high quality and availability of this type of medical care.Aim: To evaluate cancer-related incidence and mortality rates and structure among the population of the Moscow Region depending on patient gender and tumor localization.Materials and methods: The estimation and analysis of incidence and mortality rates was performed based on the Reporting Form of the Federal Statistic Surveillance #7 “Information on disorders related to malignant tumors” in the Moscow Region in 2014. For mortality analysis, including that among pediatric patients, we used data from the State Statistics Service of the Moscow Region.Results: In 2014, there were 25 600 new cases of malignancies diagnosed in the Moscow Region, that corresponded to the incidence rate of 363.2 per 100,000 of the population. The leading types of newly diagnosed tumors in men were prostate cancer, as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers (54.2 and 47.0 per 100,000 of male population, respectively. In women, the highest incidence rates were found for breast and skin cancers (86.0 and 58.9 per 100,000 of female population, respectively. According to the data from Rosstat, in 2014, the overall cancer mortality rate in the Moscow Region was 228.1 per 100,000 of the population. Among the causes of cancer mortality in men, the leading one was tracheal, bronchial and lung cancer (22.2%, followed by stomach cancer (13.3% and prostate cancer (8.1%. In women, the leading cause of cancer mortality was breast cancer (16.6%, followed by ovarian, uterine and cervical cancers (14.1% and stomach cancer (11.4%.Conclusion: Based on the results of medical and statistical analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates, the main direction of improvement of medical care to cancer patients and the ways

  7. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

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    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants. Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers. Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk. Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years. Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  8. All-Cause Mortality for Life Insurance Applicants with a History of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States after lung cancer with over 40,000 breast cancer deaths occurring each year. The purpose of this research was to determine the all-cause mortality of applicants diagnosed with breast cancer currently or at some time in the past. Life insurance applicants with reported breast cancer were extracted from data covering United States residents between November 2007 and November 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master (SSDMF) file for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2011 and to another commercially available death source file (Other Death Source, ODS) for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2014 to determine vital status. If there was a death from the other death source, then the SSDMF was searched to verify the death. The study had approximately 561,000 person-years of exposure. Actual-to-expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT), select and ultimate table (age last birthday) and the 2010 US population as expected mortality ratios. Since the A/Es presented in this paper were known to be an underestimate due to the exclusion of the recent SSDMF deaths, comparative analysis of the mortality ratios was done. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. Overall, the 35-44 age group had 6.3 times the relative mortality ratio than those in the 65-75 age group. The relative mortality ratio for the 35-44 age group applicants, when cancer severity was accounted for in combination with 3 or more nodes of cancer involvement, was 29.3 times that when compared to those in the 65-75 age group having localized cancer, where no nodes are involved. The 35-44 age group applicants who were diagnosed with cancer within the last year had over 10-fold increase in

  9. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Anna E; Shiels, Meredith S; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A

    2015-07-20

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well

  10. [A retrospective cohort study on mortality among silicotic workers in Hong Kong with emphasis on lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ignatius Ts; Tse, Lap Ah; Chi, Chiu-leung; Tze, Wai-wong; Cheuk, Ming-Tam; Alan, Ck-chan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between silica or silicosis and lung cancer in a large cohort of silicotic workers in Hong Kong. All workers with silicosis in Hong Kong diagnosed between 1981 and 1998 were followed up till the end of 1999 to ascertain their vital status and causes of death, using the corresponding mortality rates of Hong Kong males of the same period as external comparison. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for lung cancer and other major causes of death were calculated. Person-year method was used. Axelson's indirect method was performed to adjust for the confounding effect of smoking. Penalized smoothing spline (p-spline) models were used to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between silica dust exposure and lung cancer mortality. A total of 2789 newly diagnosed cases of silicosis were included in the cohort, with an overall 24 992.6 person-years of observations. The loss-to-follow-up rate was only 2.9%. Surface construction workers (51%) and underground caisson workers (37%) constituted the major part of the cohort. There were 853 silicotics observed with an average age at death of 63.8 years. The SMR for all causes and all cancers increased significantly. The leading cause of death was non-malignant respiratory diseases. About 86 deaths were from lung cancer, giving a SMR of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.35 approximately 2.09). The risk of lung cancer death among workers in surface construction, underground caisson, and entire cohort was reduced to 1.12 (95% CI: 0.89 approximately 1.38), 1.09 (95% CI: 0.82 approximately 1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98 approximately 2.36) respectively, after indirectly adjusting for smoking. from P-spline model did not show a clear exposure-response relationship between silica dust (CDE and MDC) and lung cancer mortality. This cohort study did not show an increased risk of lung cancer mortality among silicotic workers. P-spline model does not support an exposure-response relationship between silica dust exposure and

  11. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  12. Major reduction in 30-day mortality after elective colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For years, the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery has been inferior in Denmark compared to its neighbouring countries. Several strategies have been initiated in Denmark to improve CRC prognosis. We studied whether there has been any effect on postoperative mortality based...... on the information from a national database. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective major surgery for CRC in the period 2001-2011 were identified in the national Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database. Thirty-day mortality rates were calculated and factors with impact on mortality were identified using logistic...... the study period. CONCLUSION: The 30-day mortality rate after elective major surgery for CRC has decreased significantly in Denmark in the past decade. Laparoscopic surgical approach was associated with a reduction in mortality in colon cancer....

  13. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Townsend, Julie S.; Puckett, Mary C.; Rim, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions...

  14. Neoadjuvant twice daily chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Samuels, MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant twice-daily chemoradiation for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective alternative to daily fractionation with low treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes similar to standard fractionation courses.

  15. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  16. The impact of incisional hernia on mortality after colonic cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Erichsen, Rune; Krarup, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    intended colonic resection for cancer with primary anastomosis between 2001 and 2008 were included. The exposure of interest was incisional hernia, as registered in the NPR, and the outcome was long-term overall mortality. Extended cox regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables...... the impact of incisional hernia on mortality after colonic cancer resection. METHOD: This was a nationwide cohort study comprising data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database, the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), and the Danish Central Person Registry. Patients who underwent curatively...... with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.35, 95 % confidence interval 1.39-3.98), while incisional hernia repair did not increase mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.81, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Incisional hernia diagnosis or repair subsequent to colonic cancer resection did...

  17. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  18. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA...... determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients...

  19. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mason, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  20. Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanipour-Azgomi, S.; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Towhidi, Farhad; Jamehshorani, Saeid; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Methods: This study was an ecological study conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization. The correlation between standardized incidence rate (SIR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of prostate cancer with HDI and its components was assessed using SPSS Inc Version 18...

  1. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, S M; Nyström, L; Jonsson, H.

    2012-01-01

    Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value.......Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value....

  2. The Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship With the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian, Maryam; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer among men, and its incidence is increasing in Asia. Awareness about the status of this cancer incidence and mortality is necessary for a better plan. The present study was done with the aim to investigate the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. This study was an ecological study, which was conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization for Asian countries. We assessed the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of colorectal cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS software, version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A total of 592,563 incidences of and 325,752 deaths from colorectal cancer were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The 5 countries with the highest SIR were Republic of Korea (45 per 100,000), Israel (35.9 per 100,000), Singapore (33.7 per 100,000), Japan (32.2 per 100,000), and Jordan (25.6 per 100,000). The 5 countries with the highest SMR for colorectal cancer were Jordan (15.5 per 100,000), Kazakhstan (12.8 per 100,000), Democratic Republic of Korea (12 per 100,000), Brunei (12 per 100,000), and Japan (11.9 per 100,000). Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.709 overall (P ≤ .001)- 0.667 in men (P ≤ .001) and 0.759 in women (P ≤ .001). Also, correlation between HDI and SMR overall was 0.517 (P ≤ .001)- 0.447 in men (P = .002) and 0.593 in women (P ≤ .001). Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in countries with more development. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and the Human Development Index and its components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s.We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start.Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age.Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  4. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...... Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days...

  5. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  6. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

  7. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  8. [Total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: can the type of lymphadenectomy condition the long-term results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, N; Izzo, G; Cosenza, A; Vicenzo, L; Monaco, L; Torelli, F; Basciotti, A; Brillantino, A; Marra, A

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second tumor for frequency in the world. Surgery is still the only curative treatment. Good results in terms of long distance survival, postoperative morbidity and mortality have been achieved in the last years. The extension of lymphadenectomy is an important and discussed matter and it is not clear if lymphadenectomy may contribute to improve the surgical results. The Japanese surgeons were the first ones, in the 60's, to introduce a D2-D3 extended lymphadenectomy, but the real benefits of this technique are still being discussed. Indeed lymphonodal metastasis seem to be one of the most important prognostic factors in the gastric cancer and the level and the number of metastatic nodes are useful to predict the patients' survival. The aim of this study is to value the D2 lymphadenectomy in the patients who were treated with total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma, comparing the results both with the D1 lymphadenectomy and the D3-D4, paying attention to the survival rates related with the lymphonodal dissection. From 1998 to 2004, we studied 87 patients with gastric cancer. Out of 78 patients treated surgically, 9 were judged unresectable. Out of 69 patients treated surgically, one died before surgery and so he was put away by this study. All the patients were treated with total gastrectomy and a GI tract reconstruction by Roux's Y termino-lateral esophageal-jejunal anastomosis. In 20 patients we also made a splenectomy. We followed the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer guidelines, according to which nodes are gathered into 16 levels and divided in 4 groups (N1-N4) depending on the cancer localization. The extension of the lymphadenectomy has been classified according to the level of the removed nods. The patients were divided into 3 groups. First group: patients undergone a total gastrectomy with D1 lymphadenectomy. Second group: patients undergone D2 lymphadenectomy. Third group: patients undergone D3 and D4 lymphadenectomy

  9. Patterns of lung cancer mortality in 23 countries: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yi-Chia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.

  10. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Jürgens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  11. Global Incidence and Mortality for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Temporal Patterns and Trends in 36 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Goggins, William B; Wang, Harry H X; Fung, Franklin D H; Leung, Colette; Wong, Samuel Y S; Ng, Chi Fai; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, but its specific geographic patterns and temporal trends are under-researched. To test the hypotheses that PCa incidence is higher and PCa mortality is lower in countries with higher socioeconomic development, and that temporal trends for PCa incidence have increased while mortality has decreased over time. Data on age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in 2012 were retrieved from the GLOBOCAN database. Temporal patterns were assessed for 36 countries using data obtained from Cancer incidence in five continents volumes I-X and the World Health Organization mortality database. Correlations between incidence or mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators (human development index [HDI] and gross domestic product [GDP]) were evaluated. The average annual percent change in PCa incidence and mortality in the most recent 10 yr according to join-point regression. Reported PCa incidence rates varied more than 25-fold worldwide in 2012, with the highest incidence rates observed in Micronesia/Polynesia, the USA, and European countries. Mortality rates paralleled the incidence rates except for Africa, where PCa mortality rates were the highest. Countries with higher HDI (r=0.58) and per capita GDP (r=0.62) reported greater incidence rates. According to the most recent 10-yr temporal data available, most countries experienced increases in incidence, with sharp rises in incidence rates in Asia and Northern and Western Europe. A substantial reduction in mortality rates was reported in most countries, except in some Asian countries and Eastern Europe, where mortality increased. Data in regional registries could be underestimated. PCa incidence has increased while PCa mortality has decreased in most countries. The reported incidence was higher in countries with higher socioeconomic development. The incidence of prostate cancer has shown high variations geographically and over time, with smaller

  12. Association of shift-work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep with cancer incidence and cancer-caused mortality in Dongfeng-tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yansen; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shi; Wang, Suhan; Chen, Zhuowang; Wu, Xiulong; Fu, Wenshan; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2016-12-01

    Few studies investigated the combined effects of night-shift work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep on cancer incidence and mortality. A total of 25,377 participants were included in this study. Information on sleep habits, cancer incidences, and mortalities were collected. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95%CIs). Male subjects experienced ≥20 years of night-shift work, or without daytime napping had an increased risk of cancer, when compared with males who did not have night-shift work or napped for 1-30 min [HR (95%CI) = 1.27 (1.01-1.59) and 2.03 (1.01-4.13), respectively]. Nighttime sleep for ≥10 h was associated with a separate 40% and 59% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.40 (1.04-1.88)] and cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.59 (1.01-2.49)] than sleep for 7-8 h/night. Combined effects of three sleep habits were further identified. Male participants with at least two above risk sleep habits had a 43% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.43 (1.07-2.01)] and a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 2.07 (1.25-3.29)] than those who did not have any above risk sleep habits. However, no significant associations were observed among women. Long night-shift work history, without daytime napping, and long nighttime sleep duration were independently and jointly associated with higher cancer incidence among males. KEY MESSAGES Night-shift work of ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep of ≥10 h were associated with increased cancer incidence. Nighttime sleep ≥10 h was associated with a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality among males. Combined effects of night-shift work ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep ≥10 h on increasing cancer incidence were existed among males.

  13. Is thrombocytosis a valid indicator of advanced stage and high mortality of gynecological cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Eskelund, Christian W.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thrombocytosis has been associated with higher stage and mortality of cancer, however, the evidence is conflicting. We examined the stage distribution and prognosis of gynecologic cancer according to levels of prediagnostic platelet count. Methods: In a primary care resource with blood...... may have an important role in diagnosis and post-diagnostic control of gynecological cancer.......Objective: Thrombocytosis has been associated with higher stage and mortality of cancer, however, the evidence is conflicting. We examined the stage distribution and prognosis of gynecologic cancer according to levels of prediagnostic platelet count. Methods: In a primary care resource with blood...... cell counts from more than 500,000 individuals, we identified 581 women with a primary diagnosis of gynecological cancer. We divided the pre-diagnostic mean platelet count derived from the 3-year period prior to cancer diagnosis into three categories of thrombocytosis (no, 150–400 × 109 /L; mild, N400...

  14. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006 and Mortality Rates (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Babb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006 and data on mortality (1997–2009 from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma. There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  15. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  16. Time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality in China, 1991?2009: an age-period-cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengmeng; Wan, Xia; Wang, Yanhong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors. This study aimed to compare the long-term trends in mortality rates of esophageal and gastric cancers in China to provide evidence for cancer prevention and control. Mortality data were derived from 103 continuous points of the Disease Surveillance Points system during 1991?2009, stratified by gender and urban-rural locations. Age-period-cohort models were used to disentangle the time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality. Th...

  17. Associations of Statin Use With Colorectal Cancer Recurrence and Mortality in a Danish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L; Riis, Anders H; Ostenfeld, Eva B; Erichsen, Rune; Vyberg, Mogens; Ahern, Thomas P; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole

    2017-09-15

    In earlier studies of the influence of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (also known as statins) on colorectal cancer prognosis, investigators reported a reduced rate of cancer-specific mortality. Studies of recurrence are few and small. Using data from Danish registries, we followed 21,152 patients diagnosed with stage I-III colorectal cancer from 2001 to 2011. We estimated the association between statin use in the preceding year and cancer recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality rates. We identified 5,036 recurrences, 7,084 deaths from any cause, and 4,066 deaths from colorectal cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, statin use was not associated with recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.09), but it was associated with death from colorectal cancer (aHR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.79) and death from any cause (aHR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.76). Statin use in the year preceding recurrence was associated with a reduced risk of cancer-specific mortality (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.92) but also a reduced risk of death from any other cause (aHR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.00). Statin use was not associated with a reduced rate of colorectal cancer recurrence, but it was associated with a reduced rate of cancer-specific mortality, which suggests that there is no cancer-directed benefit; therefore, there is no basis to prescribe statins to colorectal cancer patients who do not have cardiovascular indications. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Disparities of sex on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province,1990-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X Y; Hu, Y Q; Ye, D; Li, Q L; Chen, K; Jin, M J

    2017-06-10

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the sex disparities on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan population. Methods: All data concerning incident and death cases of cancers were gathered from the database of Cancer Registry in Jiashan county. Data from the 2010 China census was used as the standard population. Sex-specific age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 persons for all cancers and types of each cancer were calculated for the years of 1990 to 1999, 2000 to 2009, 2010 to 2014, and 1990 to 2014. In addition, the corresponding male-to-female incidence rate ratios ( IRRs ) and mortality rate ratios ( MRRs ) were also calculated. Results: The ASIR of all cancers was 226.13/10(5) for the whole period of 1990 to 2014, with 266.04/10(5) for males and 187.22/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding IRR was 1.42 (95 %CI : 1.39-1.46), with significant difference noticed in the incidence rates between males and females ( P ASMR of all cancers was 155.39/10(5), with 206.55/10(5) for males and 104.98/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding MRR was 1.97 (95 % CI : 1.91-2.03), with significant difference between males and females ( P <0.05). Among all the cancer types, only gallbladder cancer and thyroid cancer showed female predominance in both incidence and mortality, with male predominance in all the remaining cancers. Conclusion: Finding from our study suggested that a male predominance in both incidence and mortality for a majority of cancers in Jiashan population.

  19. Association of total and central obesity with mortality in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaya, Alka M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Shlipak, Michael G; Resnick, Helaine E; Visser, Marjolein; Grady, Deborah; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and abdominal obesity increase mortality risk, although the risk may be mediated by traditional cardiac risk factors. The authors assessed the association of baseline measures, change in overall body weight and abdominal obesity (waist circumference), and weight and waist circumference

  20. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidnia, F.; Busch, M. P.; Custer, B.; Hirschler, N. V.; Chinn, A.; Agapova, M.; Busch, M. P.; Custer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Blood donors are considered one of the healthiest populations. This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991-2002) at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP), San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991-2010). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of non donors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7.7%) primary malignant cancers were diagnosed. SIR in donors was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54,1.64). Donors had significantly lower mortality (adjusted HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.66-0.74) compared with non donor cancer patients, except for respiratory system cancers (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.82-1.05). Elevated cancer incidence among blood donors may reflect higher diagnosis rates due to health seeking behavior and cancer screening in donors. A “healthy donor effect” on mortality following cancer diagnosis was demonstrated. This population-based database and sample repository of blood donors with long-term monitoring of cancer incidence provides the opportunity for future analyses of genetic and other bio markers of cancer

  1. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Nora V.; Chinn, Artina; Busch, Michael P.; Custer, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Blood donors are considered one of the healthiest populations. This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991–2002) at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP), San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991–2010). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of nondonors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7.7%) primary malignant cancers were diagnosed. SIR in donors was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54,1.64). Donors had significantly lower mortality (adjusted HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.66–0.74) compared with nondonor cancer patients, except for respiratory system cancers (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.82–1.05). Elevated cancer incidence among blood donors may reflect higher diagnosis rates due to health seeking behavior and cancer screening in donors. A “healthy donor effect” on mortality following cancer diagnosis was demonstrated. This population-based database and sample repository of blood donors with long-term monitoring of cancer incidence provides the opportunity for future analyses of genetic and other biomarkers of cancer. PMID:24489545

  2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Vahidnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood donors are considered one of the healthiest populations. This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991–2002 at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP, San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991–2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of nondonors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7.7% primary malignant cancers were diagnosed. SIR in donors was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54,1.64. Donors had significantly lower mortality (adjusted HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.66–0.74 compared with nondonor cancer patients, except for respiratory system cancers (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.82–1.05. Elevated cancer incidence among blood donors may reflect higher diagnosis rates due to health seeking behavior and cancer screening in donors. A “healthy donor effect” on mortality following cancer diagnosis was demonstrated. This population-based database and sample repository of blood donors with long-term monitoring of cancer incidence provides the opportunity for future analyses of genetic and other biomarkers of cancer.

  3. Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality in three GDP per capita levels in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixun; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Li, He; Wang, Li; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Wanqing

    2017-10-01

    In this research, the patterns of cancer incidence and mortality in areas with different gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) levels in China were explored, using data from population-based cancer registries in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Data from 255 cancer registries were qualified and included in this analysis. Based on the GDPPC data of 2014, cities/counties were divided into 3 levels: high-, middle- and low-GDPPC areas, with 40,000 and 80,000 RMB per year as cut points. We calculated cancer incidences and mortalities in these three levels, stratified by gender and age group. The national population of the Fifth Census in 2000 and Segi's population were applied for age-standardized rates. The crude incidence and mortality rates as well as age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) showed positive associations with GDPPC level. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) nevertheless showed a negative association with GDPPC level. The ASMR in high-, middle- and low-GDPPC areas was 103.12/100,000, 112.49/100,000 and 117.43/100,000, respectively. Lung cancer was by far the most common cancer in all three GDPPC levels. It was also the leading cause of cancer death, regardless of gender and GDPPC level. Negative associations with GDPPC level were found for the ASIRs of lung, stomach, esophageal and liver cancer, whereas colorectal and breast cancer showed positive associations. Except for breast cancer, the ASMRs of the other five cancers were always higher in middle- and low-GDPPC areas than in high-GDPPC areas. The economic development is one of the main factors of the heavy cancer burden on Chinese population. It would be reasonable to implement cancer control strategies referring to the local GDPPC level.

  4. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial due to the lack of definitive long-term results. Thus, the expected short-term benefits can only be of interest when oncological results are at least equal. To evaluate the differences in short- and long-term results after elective laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for the resection of rectal cancer compared with open total mesorectal excision (OTME). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1990 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (February 2013). We handsearched the reference lists of the included articles for missed studies. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LTME and OTME, reporting at least one of our outcome measures, was considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality according to the CONSORT statement, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We rated the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We identified 45 references out of 953 search results, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 3528 rectal cancer patients. We did not consider the risk of bias of the included studies to have impacted on the quality of the evidence. Data were analysed according to an intention-to-treat principle with a mean conversion rate of 14.5% (range 0% to 35%) in the laparoscopic group.There was moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic and open TME had similar

  5. Transanal vs laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf; Al Khefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LaTME) has improved short-term outcomes of rectal cancer surgery with comparable oncological results to open approach. LaTME can be difficult in the lower most part of the rectum, leading potentially to higher rates of complications, conversion...... to open surgery and probably suboptimal oncological quality. Transanal TME (TaTME) can potentially solve these problems. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term results after TaTME with those after LaTME. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients who underwent Ta......TME was maintained. Results were compared with those underwent LaTME in the preceding period. Patients who underwent low anterior resection or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision (APE) were included. Primary end-points were radical resection and specimen quality. Secondary end-points were complications, rates...

  6. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality, and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancers, and fractures: a 13-y prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D is associated with many health conditions, but optimal blood concentrations are still uncertain. We examined the prospective relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations [which comprised 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2] and subsequent mortality by the cause and incident diseases in a prospective population study. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured in 14,641 men and women aged 42-82 y in 1997-2000 who were living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, and were followed up to 2012. Participants were categorized into 5 groups according to baseline serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D increasing vitamin D category were 1, 0.84 (0.74, 0.94), 0.72 (0.63, 0.81), 0.71 (0.62, 0.82), and 0.66 (0.55, 0.79) (P-trend disease, diabetes, or cancer, HRs for a 20-nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.92 (0.88, 0.96) (P disease, 0.89 (0.85, 0.93) (P respiratory disease, 0.89 (0.81, 0.98) (P = 0.012) (563 events) for fractures, and 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) (P = 0.21) (3121 events) for incident total cancers. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations predict subsequent lower 13-y total mortality and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and fractures but not total incident cancers. For mortality, lowest risks were in subjects with concentrations >90 nmol/L, and there was no evidence of increased mortality at high concentrations, suggesting that a moderate increase in population mean concentrations may have potential health benefit, but 120 nmol/L.

  7. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature mortality, cancer mortality, and hospitalization in Slovenia, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    In Slovenia during the period 2000-2010, the number of years of potential life lost before the age of 70 years per 100,000 population under 70 years of age declined 25 %. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pharmaceutical innovation played a key role in reducing premature mortality from all diseases in Slovenia, and to examine the effects of pharmaceutical innovation on the age-standardized number of cancer deaths and on hospitalization from all diseases. Estimates and other data were used to calculate the incremental cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical innovation in Slovenia. Longitudinal disease-level data was analyzed to determine whether diseases for which there was greater pharmaceutical innovation-a larger increase in the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) previously launched-had larger declines in premature mortality, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths, and the number of hospital discharges. My methodology controls for the effects of macroeconomic trends and overall changes in the healthcare system. Premature mortality from a disease is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched more than 5 years earlier. On average, the introduction of an additional NCE for a disease reduced premature mortality from the disease by 2.4 % 7 years later. The age-standardized number of cancer deaths is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched 1-6 years earlier, conditional on the age-standardized number of new cancer cases diagnosed 0-2 years earlier. On average, the launch of an NCE reduced the number of hospital discharges 1 year later by approximately 1.5 %. The estimates imply that approximately two-thirds of the 2000-2010 decline in premature mortality was due to pharmaceutical innovation. If no NCEs had been launched in Slovenia during 1992-2003, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths in 2008 would have been 12.2 % higher. The NCEs launched in Slovenia during 2003-2009 are estimated to have reduced the number of

  8. Annual Trends of Gastrointestinal Cancers Mortality in Iran During 1990-2015; NASBOD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Delavari, Farnaz; Sauvaget, Catherine; Rezaee, Negar; Delavari, Alireza; Kompani, Farzad; Rezaei, Nazila; Sheidaei, Ali; Modirian, Mitra; Haghshenas, Rosa; Chegini, Maryam; Gohari, Kimiya; Zokaiee, Hossein; Farzadfar, Farshad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among the most common cancers in Iran. This study aimed to measure annual trends in mortality rates from GI cancers in Iran between 1990 and 2015. This study was part of an ongoing study termed the 'National and Subnational Burden of Diseases' study in Iran. Data used in this study was obtained from the Iranian Death Registration System (1995 to 2010) and from 2 major cemeteries in Tehran (1995 to 2010) and Isfahan (2007 to 2010). All-cause mortality rates were estimated using the spatio-temporal model and the Gaussian process regression model. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) per 100 000 person-years was calculated using data from Iran and the standard world population for comparison. Among GI cancers, gastric cancer represented the leading cause of mortality followed by cancers of the esophagus, liver, and colorectal cancers with the ASMR of 20.5, 5.8, 4.4, and 4.0 per 100 000 persons-years, respectively, between 1990 and 2015. While a decreasing trend occurred in mortality of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers, particularly in the recent decade, we recorded an upward pattern and steady rise in mortality rates from liver, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers during the study period. The ASMR of all studied causes were enhanced by advancing age and were found to be more prominent in adults aged 50 or older. Among all age-groups, higher death rates were detected in males versus females for all studied cancers except for gallbladder and biliary tract cancers. Gastric cancer mortality is still high and death rates from several other GI cancers are increasing in the nation. Interventions for cancer prevention, early detection, and access to high quality cancer treatment services are needed to reduce GI cancer burden and death rates in Iran and in the region. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http

  9. Time trends of cancer mortality among elderly in Italy, 1970–2008: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidoli Ettore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of the Italian population will unavoidably lead to a growing number of persons diagnosed and living with cancer. A comprehensive description of the burden of cancer mortality among Italian elderly (65-84 years of age in the last four decades has not been carried out yet. Cancer mortality rates were used to describe time trends between 1970-2008. Methods Mortality counts, provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were grouped according to data availability: in quinquennia from 1970-74 through 1995-99, and in 2000-03 and 2006-08 groups. Age-standardized rates (world population were computed by calendar periods while annual percent changes (APCs were computed for elderly and middle aged (35-64 years people for the period 1995-2008. Results The number of cancer deaths in elderly nearly doubled between 1970-74 (31,400 deaths/year in men, and 24,000 in women and 2006-08 (63,000 deaths/year in men, and 42,000 in women. Overall cancer mortality rates peaked during the quinquennia 1985-89 and 1990-94 (about 1,500/100,000 in men and 680 in women and declined thereafter. Throughout 1995-2008 cancer mortality rates decreased by -1.6%/year in men and -0.9%/year in women. These decreases were mainly driven by cancers of the stomach, bladder, prostate, and lung (APC = -3.3%, -2.7%, -2.5%, -2.2%, respectively in men, and by cancers of the stomach, bladder, and breast (APC = -3.5%, -1.9%, -1.1%, respectively in women. Conversely, increases in mortality rates between 1995 and 2008 were recorded for lung cancer (APC = +0.6% in women, cutaneous melanoma (APC = +1.7% in men, and pancreatic cancer (APC = +0.6% in men and +0.9% in women. Conclusions Overall favorable trends in cancer mortality were observed among Italian elderly between 1995 and 2008. Early diagnosis, improved efficacy of anti-cancer treatments and management of comorbidities are the most likely explanations of these positive

  10. High cancer mortality for US-born Latinos: evidence from California and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Callahan, Karen E; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Cobb, Taylor R; Roca-Barcelo, Aina; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2017-07-11

    Latinos born in the US, 36 million, comprise 65% of all US Latinos. Yet their cancer experience is nearly always analyzed together with their foreign-born counterparts, 19 million, who constitute a steady influx of truly lower-risk populations from abroad. To highlight specific cancer vulnerabilities for US-born Latinos, we compare their cancer mortality to the majority non-Latino white (NLW) population, foreign-born Latinos, and non-Latino blacks. We analyzed 465,751 cancer deaths from 2008 to 2012 occurring among residents of California and Texas, the two most populous states, accounting for 47% of US Latinos. This cross-sectional analysis, based on granular data obtained from death certificates on cause of death, age, race, ethnicity and birthplace, makes use of normal standardization techniques and negative binomial regression models. While Latinos overall have lower all-cancers-combined mortality rates than NLWs, these numbers were largely driven by low rates among the foreign born while mortality rates for US-born Latinos approach those of NLWs. Among Texas males, rates were 210 per 100,000 for NLWs and 166 for Latinos combined, but 201 per 100,000 for US-born Latinos and 125 for foreign-born Latinos. Compared to NLWs, US-born Latino males in California had mortality rate ratios of 2.83 (95% CI: 2.52-3.18) for liver cancer, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.30-1.61) for kidney cancer, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) for colorectal cancer (CRC). Texas results showed a similar site-specific pattern. Specific cancer patterns for US-born Latinos, who have relatively high cancer mortality, similar overall to NLWs, are masked by aggregation of all Latinos, US-born and foreign-born. While NLWs had high mortality for lung cancer, US-born Latinos had high mortality for liver, kidney and male colorectal cancers. HCV testing and reinforcement of the need for CRC screening should be a priority in this specific and understudied population. The unprecedented proximity of overall rates between

  11. Competing risks of cancer mortality and cardiovascular events in individuals with multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bayliss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patients with cardiovascular and other comorbidities are at concurrent risk of multiple adverse outcomes. However, most treatment decisions are guided by evidence from single-outcome models, which may be misleading for multimorbid patients. Objective: We assessed the interacting effects of cancer, cardiovascular, and other morbidity burdens on the competing outcomes of cancer mortality, serious cardiovascular events, and other-cause mortality. Design: We analyzed a cohort of 6,500 adults with initial cancer diagnosis between 2001 and 2008, SEER 5-year survival ≥26%, and a range of cardiovascular risk factors. We estimated the cumulative incidence of cancer mortality, a serious cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular mortality, and other-cause mortality over 5 years, and identified factors associated with the competing risks of each outcome using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Following cancer diagnosis, there were 996 (15.3% cancer deaths, 328 (5.1% serious cardiovascular events, and 542 (8.3% deaths from other causes. In all, 4,634 (71.3% cohort members had none of these outcomes. Although cancer prognosis had the greatest effect, cardiovascular and other morbidity also independently increased the hazard of each outcome. The effect of cancer prognosis on outcome was greatest in year 1, and the effect of other morbidity was greater in individuals with better cancer prognoses. Conclusion: In multimorbid oncology populations, comorbidities interact to affect the competing risk of different outcomes. Quantifying these risks may provide persons with cancer plus cardiovascular and other comorbidities more accurate information for shared decision-making than risks calculated from single-outcome models.

  12. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen.

  13. Rapid Reduction in Breast Cancer Mortality With Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: We found biologically plausible major reductions in breast cancer mortality during high exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water which could not be attributed to bias or confounding. We recommend clinical trial assessment of inorganic arsenic in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  14. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen

  15. Anastomotic Leak Increases Distant Recurrence and Long-Term Mortality After Curative Resection for Colonic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of anastomotic leak (AL) on disease recurrence and long-term mortality in patients alive 120 days after curative resection for colonic cancer. BACKGROUND: There is no solid data as to whether AL after colonic cancer surgery increases the risk of disease...

  16. Fasting proinsulin levels are significantly associated with 20 year cancer mortality rates. The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; van 't Riet, E.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Polak, B.C.P.; Moll, A.C.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Proinsulin is possibly associated with cancer through activation of insulin receptor isoform A. We sought to investigate the associations between proinsulin and 20 year cancer mortality rates. Methods: The study was performed within the Hoorn Study, a population-based study of

  17. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  18. Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Piolatto, Giorgio; Negri, Eva; Romano, Canzio; Boffetta, Paolo; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-07-21

    We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure.

  19. Assessing the Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B; Payton, Marinelle; Miele, Lucio; Fonseca, Duber D; Lowe, Leroy; Alo, Richard A

    2017-05-05

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women aged 40-55 in the United States and currently affects more than one in ten women worldwide. It is also one of the most diagnosed cancers in women both in wealthy and poor countries. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments in White population. Although the mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence among African American and Hispanic populations has continued to grow. The goal of the present review article was to highlight similarities and differences in breast cancer morbidity and mortality rates primarily among African American women compared to White women in the United States. To reach our goal, we conducted a search of articles in journals with a primary focus on minority health, and authors who had published articles on racial/ethnic disparity related to breast cancer patients. A systematic search of original research was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer may be attributed to a large number of clinical and non-clinical risk factors including lack of medical coverage, barriers to early detection and screening, more advanced stage of disease at diagnosis among minorities, and unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Many African American women have frequent unknown or unstaged breast cancers than White women. These risk factors may explain the differences in breast cancer treatment and survival rate between African American women and White women. New strategies and approaches are needed to promote breast cancer prevention, improve survival rate, reduce breast cancer mortality, and ultimately improve the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities.

  20. Single Marital Status and Infectious Mortality in Women With Cervical Cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Eckhardt, Sarah E; Castaneda, Antonio V; Blake, Erin A; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-10-01

    Unmarried status including single marital status is associated with increased mortality in women bearing malignancy. Infectious disease weights a significant proportion of mortality in patients with malignancy. Here, we examined an association of single marital status and infectious mortality in cervical cancer. This is a retrospective observational study examining 86,555 women with invasive cervical cancer identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program between 1973 and 2013. Characteristics of 18,324 single women were compared with 38,713 married women in multivariable binary logistic regression models. Propensity score matching was performed to examine cumulative risk of all-cause and infectious mortality between the 2 groups. Single marital status was significantly associated with young age, black/Hispanic ethnicity, Western US residents, uninsured status, high-grade tumor, squamous histology, and advanced-stage disease on multivariable analysis (all, P single marital status was significantly associated with increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (5-year rate: 32.9% vs 29.7%, P single marital status remained an independent prognostic factor for increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.20; P single marital status remained significantly increased risk of infectious mortality after propensity score matching (adjusted HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.34-3.73; P = 0.002). Single marital status was associated with increased infectious mortality in women with invasive cervical cancer.

  1. Increased cardiovascular mortality more than fifteen years after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Robinson, David; Putcha, Venkata; Cuzick, Jack; Darby, Sarah; Møller, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Breast radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in significant myocardial exposure, and this was higher when the left breast was treated. It has been proposed that this difference might result in greater cardiovascular mortality following irradiation of the left breast when compared with the right. All cases of female breast cancer diagnosed between 1971 and 1988 and recorded on the Thames Cancer Registry database were followed up to the end of 2003 to identify cases who had died from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or any cardiovascular disease (CVD). A proportional hazards regression analysis was performed, stratified by time since diagnosis, using as the baseline group those women with right-sided disease who did not receive radiotherapy, and adjusting for age at diagnosis. A total of 20,871 women with breast cancer were included in the analysis, of which 51% had left-sided disease. Mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was increased in recipients of left-breast radiotherapy compared to non-irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, both for IHD (hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.08; p = 0.001) and all CVD (hazard ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.51; p = 0.006). When irradiated women with left-sided breast cancer were compared with irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, cardiovascular mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was raised by around 25% (IHD: hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.60; p = 0.114; CVD: hazard ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.49; p = 0.014). We have found an elevation in cardiovascular mortality more than 15 years after breast radiotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1971 and 1988. The risk was greater following irradiation of the left breast compared with the right. This confirms that radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s has resulted in significant long-term cardiac toxicity. In absolute terms, the increase in

  2. The mortality patterns of lung cancer between 1990 and 2013 in Xuanwei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Sun, Xin; Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Huang, Hecang; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Zou, Xiaonong; Hu, Weijiang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-11-01

    To explore the variations in the mortality trends, especially death due to lung cancer, from 1990 to 2013 in Xuanwei City. Mortality data were collected in Xuanwei during the 2nd and 3rd National Retrospective Sampling Survey on Mortality and Routine Death Registration System (DRS) during 2011-2013. According to the result of the survey on under-reported deaths, mortality data from DRS during 2011-2013 were adjusted. Disease specific mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and 45Q15 were calculated in Xuanwei and compared with those in rural areas of China. During three periods, 1990-1992, 2004-2005 and 2011-2013, lung cancer contributed to 56.86%, 58.45% and 63.03% of deaths from all cancers respectively with a much higher proportion than rural areas nationally. The ASMR of lung cancer for males surged from 41.43/10(5) to 88.17/10(5) during 1990-2005 and it surged from 37.70/10(5) to 74.45/10(5) for females. Although they declined slightly during 2011-2013 (82.53/10(5) and 62.62/10(5) for males and females respectively), the ASMR of lung cancer among males in Xuanwei was three times of that in rural areas in China, and it was six times higher among females. The 45Q15 of lung cancer for males in Xuanwei was 3-5 times of that in rural areas of China and for females it was 7-9 times. The high-mortality areas of lung cancer were still located in Laibin, Longchang, Wanshui and Shuanglong Communities. High-mortality areas of lung cancer expanded to their surrounding areas and those in southeast. Although indoor air pollution caused by smoky coal has been fairly well controlled, patterns of death due to lung cancer have not obviously changed. The mortality rate of lung cancer among females was similar to that among males. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to comprehensively explore the risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  4. Statin use and all-cause and cancer mortality: BioBank Japan cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statins are the first-line agents used to treat patients with high serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, thus reducing the risk of death from arterial sclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effects of non-statin pharmacological interventions on mortality as well as about the potential protective effects of statin use against cancer death. This work aimed to compare all-cause and cancer mortality among patients with hyperlipidaemia who did and did not receive statin treatment. Methods: Between 2003 and 2007 fiscal years, we recruited Japanese patients diagnosed with hyperlipidaemia from 66 hospitals. Patients in our cohort were followed up for a maximum of 12 years to observe the causes of death. Kaplan–Meier estimates from the baseline were used to compare the mortality of patients based on the administered medicine. All-cause mortality were compared among patients with/without administration of statins and other agents; any-organ and colorectal cancer mortality were compared between patients with/without administration of statins. Results: Our cohort included 41,930 patients with mean ages of 64–66 years and mean body mass indices of 24–25 kg/m2. Patients who received statin monotherapy and were treated with lifestyle modification exhibited nearly identical survival curves, whereas statin use represented a non-significant but potentially protective effect against colorectal cancer-related mortality. The lowest mortality in this cohort was associated with resin monotherapy. Conclusions: Mortality rate has been similar for patients treated with statin monotherapy and lifestyle modification. Statin monotherapy could potentially reduce any-organ- and colorectal cancer-related mortality.

  5. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Lope, Virginia; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9 th and 10 th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  6. Prostate cancer in Cali, Colombia, 1962-2011: incidence, mortality and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alejandro Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the trend in prostate cancer survival, incidence and mortality rates in Cali, Colombia from 1962 to 2011. Materials and methods. Based on the Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and the mortality registry of the City’s Public Health Secretary, incidence, mortality age-standardized rates and relative survival were calculated during 1962-2011. Results. Prostate cancer incidence rates increased sharply between 1986 and 2002 (APC: 6.21% and then leveled off. Mortality diminished in 1997 in men older than 70 years-old while in men aged 50-69 years declined since 1981. The 5-year-relative-survival was 69.8% (CI95% 67.5-72.0 and it was significantly associated with age, quinquennial period of diagnosis and socioeconomic strata. Conclusion. The increase in incidence rates of prostate cancer in time coincides with the implementation of the PSA in Cali. There is evidence of improvement in prostate cancer survival, and decreased prostate cancer mortality.

  7. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for stan...

  8. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  9. Mortality from all cancers and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer by country of birth in England and Wales, 2001?2003

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, S H; Fischbacher, C M; Brock, A; Griffiths, C; Bhopal, R

    2006-01-01

    Mortality from all cancers combined and major cancers among men and women aged 20 years and over was compared by country of birth with that of the whole of England and Wales as the reference group. Population data from the 2001 Census and mortality data for 2001-2003 were used to estimate standardised mortality ratios. Data on approximately 399 000 cancer deaths were available, with at least 400 cancer deaths in each of the smaller populations. Statistically significant differences from the r...

  10. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  11. Causes of Mortality After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Hunter, Grant K.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, May; Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A.; Mahadevan, Arul; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Men with high-risk prostate cancer have other competing causes of mortality; however, current risk stratification schema do not account for comorbidities. We aim to identify the causes of death and factors predictive for mortality in this population. Methods and Materials: A total of 660 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with definitive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (≥74 Gy) and androgen deprivation (AD) between 1996 and 2009 at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine factors predictive of survival. Results: The median radiation dose was 78 Gy, median duration of AD was 6 months, and median follow-up was 74 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 60.6%. Prostate cancer was the leading single cause of death, with 10-year mortality of 14.1% (95% CI 10.7-17.6), compared with other cancers (8.4%, 95% CI 5.7-11.1), cardiovascular disease (7.3%, 95% CI 4.7-9.9), and all other causes (10.4%, 95% CI 7.2-13.6). On multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.55, P=.002) and Charlson comorbidity index score (CS) ≥1 (HR 2.20, P<.0001) were significant factors predictive of OS, whereas Gleason score, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, duration of AD, radiation dose, smoking history, and body mass index were not. Men younger than 70 years of age with CS = 0 were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other cause, whereas older men or those with CS ≥1 more commonly suffered non-prostate cancer death. The cumulative incidences of prostate cancer-specific mortality were similar regardless of age or comorbidities (P=.60). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate cancer are more likely to die of causes other than prostate cancer, except for the subgroup of men younger than 70 years of age without comorbidities. Only older age and presence of comorbidities significantly predicted for OS, whereas prostate cancer- and treatment-related factors did not

  12. The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on cancer mortality in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Using the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study, we examined the relationship of fitness and obesity on cancer mortality among 2585 women and 2890 men followed from 1972-1976 to 1998. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a treadmill test and obesity was assessed using body mass index (BMI) calculated from measured height and weight. Gender-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from proportional hazard models, which included covariates for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, Keys score, and menopause (women only). Adjusted cancer mortality was significantly lower in the most fit quintile relative to the other four quintiles for men (HR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81) but not for women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.52-1.36). Adjusted cancer mortality was significantly higher in the highest BMI quintile relative to the other four BMI quintiles for women (HR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06-2.09) but not for men (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.43). Further adjustment for BMI on fitness and adjustment for fitness on BMI did not meaningfully change the HR. There were no significant interactions between fitness and obesity in predicting cancer mortality for either women or men. In this study, high fitness was a stronger predictor of cancer mortality in men, whereas high BMI was a stronger predictor of cancer mortality in women.

  13. Cancer mortality in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Mollie, A.; Challeton de Vathaire, C.; Ropers, J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive thorium wastes were found in April 1997 at the former industrial site of 'Orflam-Plast' in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in the Northeast of France, where industrial activity began in 1934. On this site, between 1934 and 1970, cerium for lighter stones and thorium nitrate were extracted from imported monazite sand, a mineral containing elevated levels of natural radioactivity. We decided to study cancer mortality in the surrounding population. We found an excess of mortality due to lung and bladder cancer in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx and its neighbours, between 1968 and 1994. This excess did not seem to be linked to the river of Saulx which was a possible source of contamination. We conclude that a cancer incidence study of the former workers of this industrial site is necessary in order to investigate the role of natural radioactivity from monazite processing in the risk of cancer mortality among this workforce. (author)

  14. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-09-29

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  15. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p 100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country.

  16. Physical Activity Attenuates Total and Cardiovascular Mortality Associated With Physical Disability: A National Cohort of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2018-01-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to protect against disability onset but, once the disability is present, it is unclear if PA might attenuate its harmful health consequences. Thus, we examined if mortality risk associated with physical disability can be offset by PA among older adults. We used data from a cohort of 3,752 individuals representative of the noninstitutionalized population aged 60 years and older in Spain. In 2000-2001, participants self-reported both PA levels (inactive, occasionally, monthly, weekly) and five physical disabilities (agility, mobility, global daily activities, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-care). Individuals were prospectively followed through 2014 to assess incident deaths. The mean follow-up was 10.8 years, with a total of 1,727 deaths, 638 of them due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All disability types were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. Being physically active (ie, doing any PA) was associated with a statistically significant 26%-37% and 35%-50% lower risk of total and CVD death, respectively, across types of disability. As compared with those being physically active and without disability, those who were inactive and had a disability showed the highest mortality risk from total (hazard ratios from 1.52 to 1.90 across disabilities, all p disability. In older adults, PA could attenuate the increased risk of mortality associated with physical disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  18. Predicting the probability of mortality of gastric cancer patients using decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, F; Noorkojuri, H; Pourhoseingholi, M A; Saadat, S; Baghestani, A R

    2015-06-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. This reason motivated us to investigate and introduce gastric cancer risk factors utilizing statistical methods. The aim of this study was to identify the most important factors influencing the mortality of patients who suffer from gastric cancer disease and to introduce a classification approach according to decision tree model for predicting the probability of mortality from this disease. Data on 216 patients with gastric cancer, who were registered in Taleghani hospital in Tehran,Iran, were analyzed. At first, patients were divided into two groups: the dead and alive. Then, to fit decision tree model to our data, we randomly selected 20% of dataset to the test sample and remaining dataset considered as the training sample. Finally, the validity of the model examined with sensitivity, specificity, diagnosis accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The CART version 6.0 and SPSS version 19.0 softwares were used for the analysis of the data. Diabetes, ethnicity, tobacco, tumor size, surgery, pathologic stage, age at diagnosis, exposure to chemical weapons and alcohol consumption were determined as effective factors on mortality of gastric cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of decision tree were 0.72, 0.75 and 0.74 respectively. The indices of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy represented that the decision tree model has acceptable accuracy to prediction the probability of mortality in gastric cancer patients. So a simple decision tree consisted of factors affecting on mortality of gastric cancer may help clinicians as a reliable and practical tool to predict the probability of mortality in these patients.

  19. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle; Acker, Alain; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  20. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Acker, Alain [AREVA NC, Paris (France); Kreuzer, Michaela [Federal Office for Radiation Protection and Health, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  1. Differences in marital status and mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity among California cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena; Anderson, Kristin; Murphy, James D; Hurley, Susan; Canchola, Alison J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Cheng, Iona; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2016-05-15

    It has been observed that married cancer patients have lower mortality rates than unmarried patients, but data for different racial/ethnic groups are scarce. The authors examined the risk of overall mortality associated with marital status across racial/ethnic groups and sex in data from the California Cancer Registry. California Cancer Registry data for all first primary invasive cancers diagnosed from 2000 through 2009 for the 10 most common sites of cancer-related death for non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs), and Hispanics were used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status in relation to overall mortality by race/ethnicity and sex. The study cohort included 393,470 male and 389,697 female cancer patients and 204,007 and 182,600 deaths from all causes, respectively, through December 31, 2012. All-cause mortality was higher in unmarried patients than in married patients, but there was significant variation by race/ethnicity. Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) ranged from 1.24 (95% CI, 1.23-1.26) in NHWs to 1.11 (95% CI, 1.07-1.15) in APIs among males and from 1.17 (95% CI, 1.15-1.18) in NHWs to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04-1.11) in APIs among females. All-cause mortality associated with unmarried status compared with married status was higher in US-born API and Hispanic men and women relative to their foreign-born counterparts. For patients who have the cancers that contribute most to mortality, being unmarried is associated with worse overall survival compared with being married, with up to 24% higher mortality among NHW males but only 6% higher mortality among foreign-born Hispanic and API females. Future research should pursue the identification of factors underlying these associations to inform targeted interventions for unmarried cancer patients. Cancer 2016;122:1570-8. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Description of cervical cancer mortality in Belgium using Bayesian age-period-cohort models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To correct cervical cancer mortality rates for death cause certification problems in Belgium and to describe the corrected trends (1954-1997) using Bayesian models. Method Cervical cancer (cervix uteri (CVX), corpus uteri (CRP), not otherwise specified (NOS) uterus cancer and other very rare uterus cancer (OTH) mortality data were extracted from the WHO mortality database together with population data for Belgium and the Netherlands. Different ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were used over time for death cause certification. In the Netherlands, the proportion of not-otherwise specified uterine cancer deaths was small over large periods and therefore internal reallocation could be used to estimate the corrected rates cervical cancer mortality. In Belgium, the proportion of improperly defined uterus deaths was high. Therefore, the age-specific proportions of uterus cancer deaths that are probably of cervical origin for the Netherlands was applied to Belgian uterus cancer deaths to estimate the corrected number of cervix cancer deaths (corCVX). A Bayesian loglinear Poisson-regression model was performed to disentangle the separate effects of age, period and cohort. Results The corrected age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) decreased regularly from 9.2/100 000 in the mid 1950s to 2.5/100,000 in the late 1990s. Inclusion of age, period and cohort into the models were required to obtain an adequate fit. Cervical cancer mortality increases with age, declines over calendar period and varied irregularly by cohort. Conclusion Mortality increased with ageing and declined over time in most age-groups, but varied irregularly by birth cohort. In global, with some discrete exceptions, mortality decreased for successive generations up to the cohorts born in the 1930s. This decline stopped for cohorts born in the 1940s and thereafter. For the youngest cohorts, even a tendency of increasing risk of dying from cervical cancer could be observed, reflecting

  3. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Stănciulea, Oana; Popa, Monica; Anghel, Rodica; Herlea, V; Florescu, Arleziana

    2008-01-01

    The surgical treatment of endometrial cancer is still a matter of debate. Two of the most controversial issues are the beneficial effect of lymphadenectomy and the feasibility of laparoscopy. The aim of the case report was to describe the feasibility of total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a 56-years-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with endometrial cancer. After a CO2 pneumoperitoneum was created the peritoneum was incised cranially to the para-colic fossa just above the external iliac vessels until the psoas muscle is visualized. The external iliac vessels were identified and lymph nodes from the anterior and the medial surface were removed until the iliac bifurcation and placed in an Endo-bag. The procedure continued with the identification of the hypo-gastric and the umbilical artery which were pulled medially in order to open the obturator fossa and remove the lymphatic tissue superior to the obturator nerve. The next step was the opening of the para-vesical and pararectal spaces by using blunt dissection; this maneuver was facilitated by pulling the uterine fundus towards the opposite direction with the uterine manipulator. The parametrium being isolated between the two spaces can be safely divided. At the superior limit of the parametrium the uterine artery is identified and divided at its origin. Thereafter, by placing the uterine fundus in median and posterior position, the vesicouterine peritoneal fold was opened by scissors and a bladder dissection from the low uterine segment down to the vagina was performed. Then the ureter is dissected, freed from its attachments to the parametria and de-crossed from the uterine artery down to its entry into the bladder. Next the rectovaginal space is opened and the utero-sacral ligaments divided; this allows the division of para-vaginal attachments. The vagina is sectioned and the specimen is extracted transvaginally. Then the vaginal stump was sutured by laparoscopy. Total laparoscopic

  4. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These

  5. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  6. Mortality from all cancers and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer by country of birth in England and Wales, 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, S H; Fischbacher, C M; Brock, A; Griffiths, C; Bhopal, R

    2006-04-10

    Mortality from all cancers combined and major cancers among men and women aged 20 years and over was compared by country of birth with that of the whole of England and Wales as the reference group. Population data from the 2001 Census and mortality data for 2001-2003 were used to estimate standardised mortality ratios. Data on approximately 399 000 cancer deaths were available, with at least 400 cancer deaths in each of the smaller populations. Statistically significant differences from the reference group included: higher mortality from all cancers combined, lung and colorectal cancer among people born in Scotland and Ireland, lower mortality for all cancers combined, lung, breast and prostate cancer among people born in Bangladesh (except for lung cancer in men), India, Pakistan or China/Hong Kong, lower lung cancer mortality among people born in West Africa or the West Indies, higher breast cancer mortality among women born in West Africa and higher prostate cancer mortality among men born in West Africa or the West Indies. These data may be relevant to causal hypotheses and in relation to health care and cancer prevention.

  7. The association of physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association of physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities among older adults. A study sample consisting of 77,541 community-dwelling Taipei citizens aged ≥ 65 years was selected based on data obtained from the government-sponsored Annual Geriatric Health Examination Program between 2006 and 2010. Subjects were asked how many times they had physical activity for ≥ 30 min during the past 6 months. Mortality was determined by matching cohort identifications with national death files. Compared to subjects with no physical activity, those who had 1-2 times of physical activity per week had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.85). Subjects with 3-5 times of physical activity per week had a further decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58-0.70). An inverse dose-response relationship was observed between physical activity and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. According to stratified analyses, physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of mortality in most subgroups. Physical activity had an inverse association with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among older adults. Furthermore, most elderly people can benefit from an active lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD; Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN; Mohammad Siahpush, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regre...

  9. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates ( 66.96; 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian ( 41.04, MORTALITY: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry ( 36.72, MORTALITY: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Second cancer risk and mortality in men treated with radiotherapy for stage I seminoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwich, A; Fossa, S D; Huddart, R; Dearnaley, D P; Stenning, S; Aresu, M; Bliss, J M; Hall, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with stage I testicular seminoma are typically diagnosed at a young age and treatment is associated with low relapse and mortality rates. The long-term risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in this patient group are therefore particularly relevant. Methods: We identified patients and obtained treatment details from 12 cancer centres (11 United Kingdom, 1 Norway) and ascertained second cancers and mortality through national registries. Data from 2629 seminoma patients treated with radiotherapy between 1960 and 1992 were available, contributing 51 151 person-years of follow-up. Results: Four hundred and sixty-eight second cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) were identified. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–1.76, P<0.0001). The SIR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.39–1.68, P<0.0001) when the 32 second testicular cancers were also excluded. This increase was largely due to an excess risk to organs in the radiation field; for pelvic–abdominal sites the SIR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.43–1.83), with no significant elevated risk of cancers in organs elsewhere. There was no overall increase in mortality with a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14), despite an increase in the cancer-specific mortality (excluding testicular cancer deaths) SMR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.30–1.65, P<0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of stage I seminoma is excellent and it is important to avoid conferring long-term increased risk of iatrogenic disease such as radiation-associated second cancers. PMID:24263066

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in children in the Mexican Social Security Institute (1996-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Pachuca-Vázquez, Adriana; Allende-López, Aldo; Fajardo-Yamamoto, Liria Mitzuko; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2016-04-01

    To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B) children during 1996-2013. Both cancer cases (n=4 728) and deaths (n=2 378) were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year) of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. For both indicators (incidence and mortality), there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the overall mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.

  12. Association between protein C levels and mortality in patients with advanced prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, I T; Hutten, B A; Meijers, J C M; Spek, C A; Büller, H R; Kamphuisen, P W

    2017-06-01

    Procoagulant factors promote cancer progression and metastasis. Protein C is involved in hemostasis, inflammation and signal transduction, and has a protective effect on the endothelial barrier. In mice, administration of activated protein C reduced experimental metastasis. We assessed the association between protein C and mortality in patients with three types of cancer. The study population consisted of patients with advanced prostate, non-small cell lung or pancreatic cancer, who participated in the INPACT trial (NCT00312013). The trial evaluated the addition of nadroparin to chemotherapy in patients with advanced malignancy. Patients were divided into tertiles based on protein C at baseline. The association between protein C levels and mortality was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models. We analysed 477 patients (protein C tertiles: C level was 107% (IQR 92-129). In the lowest tertile, 75 patients per 100 patient-years died, as compared to 60 and 54 in the middle and high tertile, respectively. Lower levels of protein C were associated with increased mortality (in tertiles: HR for trend 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.36, adjusted for age, sex and nadroparin use; as a continuous variable: HR 1.004, 95%CI 1.00-1.008, p=0.07). Protein C seems inversely associated with mortality in patients with advanced prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer. Further research should validate protein C as a biomarker for mortality, and explore the effects of protein C on progression of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    employment were positively related to the birth rate. The birth rate is higher in rural areas. Mortality of professional, engineering, and administrative workers was slightly lower than the total working population, while sales workers, those in farming, fishing, and forestry, and in personal and domestic service had significantly higher mortality. The mortality of the nonworking population was 6-8 times higher than sales, transportation, and communication, and personal and domestic service as well as the total population.

  14. [Analysis of Incidence and Mortality of Thyroid Cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Zheng, R S; Wang, N; Zeng, H M; Yuan, Y N; Zhang, S W; Li, H C; Liu, S; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and mortality status of thyroid cancer in China, 2013. Methods: Incidence and mortality data of thyroid cancer were derived from 255 population-based cancer registries in China. Age-specific and age standardized incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer in different areas (urban and rural) with different gender were calculated based on the stratification of area (urban and rural), gender, age and tumor position. Chinese census in 2000 and the world Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population data in 2013. Results: The estimates of new cancer incident cases and deaths were 143.9 thousand and 6 500, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 10.58/100 000 (Male 5.12/100 000, Female 16.32/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 8.82/100 000 and 7.67/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.2. The crude incidence rate in urban and rural areas were 15.03/100 000 and 5.41/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 2.57 times higher than that of rural areas. The crude mortality rate of thyroid cancer was 0.48/100 000 (Male 0.33/100 000, Female 0.63/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 0.33/100 000 and 0.32/100 000, respectively. The crude mortality rate in urban and rural areas were 0.57/100 000 and 0.38/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 1.41 times higher than that of rural areas. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates (0-74 years old) were 0.74% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the data from 255 cancer registries, papillary carcinoma is the main pathology type, which accounted

  15. The Retrograde and Retroperitoneal Totally Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Volpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We retrospectively report our experience with the utilization of an original procedure for total laparoscopic hysterectomy based on completely retrograde and retroperitoneal technique for surgical staging and treatment of the endometrial cancer. The surgical, financial, and oncological advantages are here discussed. Methods. The technique used here has been based on a combination of a retroperitoneal approach with a retrograde and lateral dissection of the bladder and retrograde culdotomy with variable resection of parametrium. No disposable instruments and no uterine manipulator were utilized. Results. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed in 10% of the cases overall. Operative time length and mean haemoglobin drop value results were 129 min and 125 mL, respectively. Most patients were dismissed on days 3–5 from the hospital. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were alive with no evidence of disease at mean followup of 49 months. Conclusions. Our original laparoscopic technique is based on a retroperitoneal approach in order to rapidly control main uterine vessels coagulation, constantly check the ureter, and eventually decide type and site of lymph nodes removal. This procedure has important cost saving implications and the avoidance of uterine manipulator is of matter in case such as these of uterine malignancy.

  16. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  17. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Anesthesia Technique and Mortality after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, Anahi; Chan, Vincent W S; Beattie, Scott

    2016-10-01

    This propensity score-matched cohort study evaluates the effect of anesthetic technique on a 30-day mortality after total hip or knee arthroplasty. All patients who had hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014, were evaluated. The principal exposure was spinal versus general anesthesia. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were (1) perioperative myocardial infarction; (2) a composite of major adverse cardiac events that includes cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or newly diagnosed arrhythmia; (3) pulmonary embolism; (4) major blood loss; (5) hospital length of stay; and (6) operating room procedure time. A propensity score-matched-pair analysis was performed using a nonparsimonious logistic regression model of regional anesthetic use. We identified 10,868 patients, of whom 8,553 had spinal anesthesia and 2,315 had general anesthesia. Ninety-two percent (n = 2,135) of the patients who had general anesthesia were matched to similar patients who did not have general anesthesia. In the matched cohort, the 30-day mortality rate was 0.19% (n = 4) in the spinal anesthesia group and 0.8% (n = 17) in the general anesthesia group (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.83; P = 0.0045). Spinal anesthesia was also associated with a shorter hospital length of stay (5.7 vs. 6.6 days; P anesthesia and lower 30-day mortality, as well as a shorter hospital length of stay, after elective joint replacement surgery.

  19. Prostate cancer mortality in Serbia, 1991-2010: a joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyze the mortality trend of prostate cancer in Serbia (excluding the Kosovo and Metohia) from 1991 to 2010. The age-standardized prostate cancer mortality rates (per 100 000) were calculated by direct standardization, using the World Standard Population. Average annual percentage of change (AAPC) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed for trend using the joinpoint regression analysis. Significantly increased trend in prostate cancer mortality was recorded in Serbia continuously from 1991 to 2010 (AAPC = +2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.9). Mortality rates for prostate cancer showed a significant upward trend in all men aged 50 and over: AAPC (95% CI) was +1.9% (0.1-3.8) in aged 50-59 years, +1.7% (0.9-2.6) in aged 60-69 years, +2.0% (1.2-2.9) in aged 70-79 years and +3.5% (2.4-4.6) in aged 80 years and over. According to comparability test, prostate cancer mortality trends in majority of age groups were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P > 0.05). The increasing prostate cancer mortality trend implies the need for more effective measures of prevention, screening and early diagnosis, as well as prostate cancer treatment in Serbia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Mortality in HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼNeill, Tyler J; Nguemo, Joseph D; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Burchell, Ann N; Antoniou, Tony

    2017-08-01

    As people with HIV live longer, the numbers of colorectal cancer cases are expected to increase. We sought to compare the colorectal cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among people living with and without HIV. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched 5 electronic databases up to June 28, 2016, for primary studies reporting standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)/hazard ratios or data sufficient for estimating these summary measures. We performed a random effects pooled analysis to estimate SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer in HIV. Of 8110 articles, we included 27 studies from North America (n = 18), Europe (n = 7), the Pacific region (n = 4), and South America (n = 1). Overall, 1660 cases of colorectal cancer and colon cancer (excluding rectal cancer) occurred among 1,696,070 persons with HIV. In pooled analysis, we found no summary risk of malignancy among those with HIV relative to an uninfected population (SIR 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.22; I = 89.2%). Colorectal cancer-specific mortality was higher among people with HIV but did not reach statistical significance (SMR 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.40; I = 85.0%). Rates of colorectal cancer are similar between people with and without HIV. Existing screening guidelines are likely adequate for people with HIV.

  1. Early post operative mortality of Total Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1954, after the first surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, several innovations have occurred in cardiac surgery, especially in children. One stage complete repair of TOF is currently possible even in infancy; however, complications such as hypoxemia, arrhythmia, cardiac dysfunction, sudden death, and valvular disorders may happen. In this study, we evaluated the results of complete surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis. Material and Methods: We assessed 74 cases of TOF with pulmonary stenosis that underwent surgery in Cardiac Surgical Ward of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from 2008 to 2010. Results: Mean age was 5.74±3.31 years and more than half of the patients were male. Mean perfusion and cross-clamping times were 55.45±15.06 and 42.63±9.07 min,respectively. The most common coexisting anomaly was atrial septal defect. Further, 83.7% of the patients were symptomatic, and history of spell attacks was positive in 24.3% of the cases. Arrhythmia was reported in 28.4% of the patients. Mortality rate was 12.2% in our study, which was higher in younger patients (P=0.022 or those with lower weight (P=0.008, longer perfusion time during cardiac surgery (P=0.009, or presence of associated cardiac anomalies (P=0.030. Conclusion: Outcomes and mortality rate of one-stage surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis was acceptable in our center, and arrhythmia was the most common postoperative complication

  2. Trends in brain cancer mortality among U.S. Gulf War veterans: 21 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Shannon K; Dursa, Erin K; Bossarte, Robert M; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2017-10-01

    Previous mortality studies of U.S. Gulf War veterans through 2000 and 2004 have shown an increased risk of brain cancer mortality among some deployed individuals. When veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants associated with demolition of the Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility at Khamisiyah, Iraq, have been compared to contemporaneously deployed unexposed veterans, the results have suggested increased risk for mortality from brain cancer among the exposed. Brain cancer mortality risk in this cohort has not been updated since 2004. This study analyzes the risk for brain cancer mortality between 1991-2011 through two series of comparisons: U.S. Gulf War deployed and non-deployed veterans from the same era; and veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants at Khamisiyah compared to contemporaneously deployed but unexposed U.S. Gulf War veterans. Risk of brain cancer mortality was determined using logistic regression. Life test hazard models were created to plot comparisons of annual hazard rates. Joinpoint regression models were applied to assess trends in hazard rates for brain cancer mortality. U.S. Army veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah had similar rates of brain cancer mortality compared to those not possibly exposed; however, veterans possibly exposed had a higher risk of brain cancer in the time period immediately following the Gulf War. Results from these analyses suggest that veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah experienced different patterns of brain cancer mortality risk compared to the other groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Analysis of data (1987-1995) from investigation of cancer mortality in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Akiba, S.; Zha Yongru

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This investigation is a special project of High Background Radiation Research Group. The objective of the cancer mortality study in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China, which was started in 1972, was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low level radiation exposure of average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv in HBRA. Since 1991, the study has been conducted collaboratively by Chinese and Japanese scientists with the purpose of accumulating further person years (Pyr) of observation for improving the statistical precision and seeing the reproducibility of the previous results. Methods: The cancer mortality data of 1987-1995 covered in the current cooperative study were collected by a retrospective and/or prospective survey from a fixed cohort. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of members in the cohort and the ascertainment of the death causes. Based on the hamlet-specific average annual external dose, the members of the cohort in HBRA were classified into three groups: high, medial and low dose groups. Risk comparisons between each of the three dose groups with the control group from control area (CA) were conducted by means of relative risk (RR). The RR and the excess relative risk coefficient (ERR per sievert) and their y 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, there were 5161 total deaths and 557 cancer deaths among 926238 Pyr at risk in the cohort of 106517 subjects. The RR (95% CI) adjusted for sex and age group for all cancers of whole HBRA was 0.96 (0.80-1.15). As for the site-specific cancer of whole HBRA, the RRs for leukemia, cancers of nasopharynx, esophagus and intestine were larger than one, while the RRs for cancers of stomach, liver, lungs, female breast, thyroid and lymphoma were less than one. However, all of them were not statistically different from one (P>0.05 for all). The

  4. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600...... for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  5. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  6. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  7. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  8. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  9. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Burges, D. C.; Hamilton, L.; Harrington, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. METHODS: The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexaval...

  10. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; Miranda, Marina Jorge de; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Santos, Patrícia Carlos Dos; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2017-08-23

    Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; de Miranda, Marina Jorge; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; dos Santos, Patrícia Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Design Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. Settings The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Participants Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Main outcome measures Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. Results In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). Conclusions The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. PMID:28838894

  12. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  13. Prediction of cardiovascular and total mortality in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients by the WHO definition for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T-C; So, W-Y; Chan, N N; Chan, W-B; Tong, P C-Y; Li, J; Yeung, V; Chow, C-C; Ozaki, R; Ma, R C-W; Cockram, C S; Chan, J C-N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MES) in type 2 diabetic patients and the predictive values of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) definitions and the individual components of the MES on total and cardiovascular mortality. A prospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 5202 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients recruited between July 1994 and April 2001. The prevalence of the MES was 49.2-58.1% depending on the use of various criteria. There were 189 deaths (men: 100 and women: 89) in these 5205 patients during a median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 2.1 (0.3-3.6 years). Of these, 164 (87%) were classified as cardiovascular deaths. Using the NCEP criterion, patients with MES had a death rate similar to those without (3.51 vs. 3.85%). By contrast, based on the WHO criteria, patients with MES had a higher mortality rate than those without (4.3 vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002). Compared to patients with neither NCEP- nor WHO-defined MES, only the group with MES defined by the WHO, but not NCEP, criterion had significantly higher mortality rate (2.6 vs. 6.8%, p hypertension, low BMI and albuminuria were the key predictors for these adverse events. In Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, the WHO criterion has a better discriminative power over the NCEP criterion for predicting death. Among the various components of the MES defined either by WHO or NCEP, hypertension, albuminuria and low BMI were the main predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality.

  14. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality was investigated in 1,052 women diagnosed with early breast cancer in a prospective cohort of 29,875 women. Known clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors were...... evaluated and adjusted for in multivariate analysis. We found a modest but significant association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence with a median follow-up of six years after date of diagnosis, both when using baseline measures of alcohol intake (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1...

  15. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) tim