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Sample records for total calcium increased

  1. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  2. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control. Not all adolescents responded to this intervention, however. We evaluated 32 respond...

  3. The total synthesis of calcium atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luiz C; Vieira, Adriano S; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-02-21

    A practical and convergent asymmetric route to calcium atorvastatin (1) is reported. The synthesis of calcium atorvastatin (1) was performed using the remote 1,5-anti asymmetric induction in the boron-mediated aldol reaction of β-alkoxy methylketone (4) with pyrrolic aldehyde (3) as a key step. Calcium atorvastatin was obtained from aldehyde (3) after 6 steps, with a 41% overall yield.

  4. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  5. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  6. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  7. Parathormone, Calcium And Phosphorus In Autotransplanted Parathyroid, Total Thyriodectomized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Salam, I. M. [ابراهيم عبد السلام; Murad, M.; Gamil, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The success of parathyroid autotransplantation was indicated by the postoperative assay of serum parathormone in thirteen out of fourteen patients to whom total thyroidectomy was carried out because of thyroid cancer during the past three years. Four glands were autotransplanted in four patients and froam two to three glamds were trasplanted in the remaineng nime patients. All patients were followed up with daily calcium and phosphate determinations. Patients with low ca"1"1" level and with h...

  8. Estimation of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium for the diagnosis of hypocalcaemia of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Mehmood, T.; Qureshi, A.H.; Anwar, M.; Dilawar, M.; Hussain, I.; Khan, F.A.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, S.; Khan, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure levels of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium in patients with different malignant disorders for the diagnosis of hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Design: A case control comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Department of Oncology CMH, Rawalpindi from March 2003 to December 2003. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-seven patients of various malignant disorders, admitted in the Department of Oncology, CMH, Rawalpindi, and 39 age and gender-matched disease-free persons (as control) were included in the study. Blood ionized calcium (Ca/sup ++/), pH, sodium (Na/sup +/) and potassium (K/sup +/) were analysed by Ion selective electrode (ISE) on Easylyte> auto analyser. Other related parameters were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: Blood Ca/sup ++/ levels in patients suffering from malignant disorders were found significantly high (mean +- j 1.30+017 mmoV/L) as compared to control subjects (mean +- 1.23+0.03 mmoV/L) (p<0.001). The number of patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy detected by Ca/sup ++/ estimation was significantly higher (38%) as compared to total calcium (8.4%) and albumin corrected calcium ACC (10.6%) (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other parameters e.g. phosphate, urea, creatinine, pH, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ levels in study subjects and controls. Conclusion: Detection of hypercalcaemia can be markedly improved if ionized calcium estimation is used in patients with malignant disorders. (author)

  9. Preferential Ty1 retromobility in mother cells and nonquiescent stationary phase cells is associated with increased concentrations of total Gag or processed Gag and is inhibited by exposure to a high concentration of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Andrew C; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2018-03-21

    Retrotransposons are abundant mobile DNA elements in eukaryotic genomes that are more active with age in diverse species. Details of the regulation and consequences of retrotransposon activity during aging remain to be determined. Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more frequent in mother cells compared to daughter cells, and we found that Ty1 was more mobile in nonquiescent compared to quiescent subpopulations of stationary phase cells. This retromobility asymmetry was absent in mutant strains lacking BRP1 that have reduced expression of the essential Pma1p plasma membrane proton pump, lacking the mRNA decay gene LSM1 , and in cells exposed to a high concentration of calcium. Mother cells had higher levels of Ty1 Gag protein than daughters. The proportion of protease-processed Gag decreased as cells transitioned to stationary phase, processed Gag was the dominant form in nonquiescent cells, but was virtually absent from quiescent cells. Treatment with calcium reduced total Gag levels and the proportion of processed Gag, particularly in mother cells. We also found that Ty1 reduced the fitness of proliferating but not stationary phase cells. These findings may be relevant to understanding regulation and consequences of retrotransposons during aging in other organisms, due to conserved impacts and regulation of retrotransposons.

  10. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co-product. Regardless of Ca source, inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.001) the ATTD of P. In conclusion, MCP has the greatest ATTD and STTD of Ca among the calcium supplements used in this experiment, followed by DCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  11. [Total serum calcium and corrected calcium as severity predictors in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, A A; Castro-Jiménez, E; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate total serum calcium (TC) and albumin-corrected calcium (ACC) as prognostic severity factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Ninety-six patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed with AP and admitted to the Hospital Regional de Veracruz within the time frame of January 2010 to December 2012. AP severity was determined through the updated Atlanta Classification (2013). TC and ACC values were measured in the first 24hours of admittance and the percentages of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated through ROC curves and contingency tables. In accordance with the updated Atlanta Classification, 70 patients presented with mild AP, 17 with moderately severe AP, and 9 with severe AP. Of the patient total, 61.5% were women, and 69.8% presented with biliary etiology. The maximum TC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 82%; PPV, 27%, and NPV, 96%. The maximum ACC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 90%; PPV, 40%; NPV, 96%. Both had values similar to those of the Ranson and APACHE II prognostic scales. TC and ACC, measured within the first 24hours, are useful severity predictors in acute pancreatitis, with sensitivity and predictive values comparable or superior to those of the conventional prognostic scales. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased performance of continuous stirred tank reactor with calcium supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zhuliang; Yang, Haijun; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), New Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Continuous biohydrogen production with calcium supplementation at low hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was studied to maximize the hydrogen productivity of anaerobic mixed cultures. After stable operations at HRT of 8-4 h, the bioreactor became unstable when the HRT was lowered to 2 h. Supplementation of 100 mg/L calcium at HRT 2 h improved the operation stability through enhancement of cell retention with almost two-fold increase in cell density than that without calcium addition. Hydrogen production rate and hydrogen yield reached 24.5 L/d/L and 3.74 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively, both of which were the highest values our group have ever achieved. The results showed that calcium supplementation can be an effective way to improve the performance of CSTR at low HRT. (author)

  13. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  14. Derivation of a formula for adjusting the total serum calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The total calcium concentration, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated for 302 patients that reported for serum calcium estimation at the clinical biochemistry laboratory of the Olabisi Onabanjo. University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Based on regression analysis, three formulae were.

  15. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  16. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  17. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had

  18. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries process is characterized by the presence of demineralization. Demineralization is caused by organic acids as a result of carbohydrate substrate fermentation. Remineralization is a natural repair process for non-cavitated lesions. Remineralization occurs if there are Ca2+ and PO43- ions in sufficient quantities. Casein-amorphous calcium phosphate phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP is a paste material containing milk protein (casein, that actually contains minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. The casein ability to stabilize calcium phosphate and enhance mineral solubility and bioavailability confers upon CPP potential to be biological delivery vehicles for calcium and phosphate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the calcium levels in tooth enamel after being covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days. Methods: Sample were bovine incisors of 3 year old cows divided into 4 groups, namely group I as control group, group II, III and IV as treatment groups covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day. All of those teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva. Group II was immersed for 3 days, while group III was immersed for 14 days, and group IV was immersed for 28 days. One drop of CPP-ACP was used to cover the entire labial surface of teeth. The measurement of the calcium levels was then conducted by using titration method. All data were analyzed by One- Way ANOVA test with 5% degree of confidence. Results: The results showed significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those groups after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days (p = 0.001. There is also significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those treatment groups and the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: The calcium levels of tooth enamel are increased after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days.Latar belakang: Proses terjadinya karies gigi ditandai oleh adanya demineralisasi

  19. Comparison of Total Calcium Level during General and Spinal Anesthesia in Gynecologic Abdominal Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Haryalchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Calcium (Ca+2 plays an important role in many biophysiological mechanisms .The present study was carried out to assess alterations in total serum calcium level before and after operations in consider to the type of anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 74 women who candidate for gynecological abdominal operations during one year at Al-zahra maternity Hospital in Rasht, Iran. The patients underwent General Anesthesia (GA (N=37 or Spinal Anesthesia (SA (N=37 randomly. Blood samples (2 cc, were obtained an hour before the anesthesia and two hours after that. The blood samples had been sent to the laboratory for analyzing .Total serum calcium level, magnesium (Mg and albumin level were measured by photometric methods. Inferential statistic was analyzed with the Vilkson non-parametric and Pearson's correlation test. P-values less than 0.05 have been considered as significant different. Results: There was a significant trend to decrease in calcium levels after all gynecological abdominal operations, but there was a significant correlation between General anesthesia (GA and reduction of serum calcium level (p=0.026 . Therefore, General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal Anesthesia (SA. Conclusion: Serum Calcium levels tend to decrease after all gynecological abdominal surgeries, but General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal one. It needs to further specific studies, to illustrate association between different methods of anesthesia and Ca+2 changes.

  20. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  1. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

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    Eko Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. Methods This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. Results This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0. ConclusionS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0.

  2. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. METHODS This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/ kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. RESULTS This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0. CONCLUSIONS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0.

  3. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium

  4. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  5. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  6. Increase of a Calcium Independent Transglutaminase Activity in the Erythrocyte during the Infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasserman Moisés

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the activity of a calcium dependent transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13 during the growth of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum inside the infected human erythrocyte. There is only one detectable transglutaminase in the two-cell-system, and its origin is erythrocytic. No activity was detected in preparations of the parasite devoid of erythrocyte cytoplasm. The Michaelis Menten constants (Km of the enzyme for the substrates N'N'dimethylcaseine and putrescine were undistinguishable whether the cell extracts used in their determination were obtained from normal or from infected red cells. The total activity of transglutaminase in stringently synchronized cultures, measured at 0.5mM Ca2+, decreased with the maturation of the parasite. However, a fraction which became irreversibly activated and independent of calcium concentration was detected. The proportion of this fraction grew with maturation; it represented only 20% of the activity in 20 hr-old-trophozoites while in 48-hr-schizonts it was more than 85% of the total activity. The activation of this fraction of transglutaminase did not depend on an increase in the erythrocyte cytoplasmic calcium, since most of the calcium was shown to be located in the parasite.

  7. Observations on total-body calcium in humans with bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Ranicar, A.S.O.; Joplin, G.F.; Evans, I.M.A.; Vlotides, J.; Paolillo, M.

    1979-01-01

    Total-body calcium was measured in-vivo by neutron activation in a number of patients suffering from metabolic abnormalities which affect the skeleton. In general, less than 2% of total calcium resides in tissue other than bone allowing calcium mass to be directly related to skeletal mass. The conditions studied were (i) Paget's disease, treated with synthetic human calcitonin, (ii) osteoporosis, treated variously with calcium and phosphate supplements and 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, and (iii) Cushing's disease treated by pituitary implant of 198 Au or 90 Y seeds. The neutron beam used in these studies was produced by bombarding a beryllium target with deuterons accelerated in a cyclotron. The mean neutron energy was 7.5 MeV and patients received a total dose of 1 rem in about 30 s, a bilateral irradiation being employed. Measurements were made at approximately yearly intervals, the maximum period of study being about four and a half years. The precision of the method was estimated to be +-3% (SE) and a correction was applied for changes in body weight. In most patients, total calcium remained stable. However, in the Paget's patients, there was an indication of a slow upward trend while the osteoporotics (both treated and untreated) showed on average no change. Most of the patients with Cushing's disease showed no recovery of skeletal mass. Absolute calibration indicated that mean total body calcium in the Paget's patients was close to a predicted normal while that for the osteoporotic and Cushing's patients was 20-25% below this. (author)

  8. Codissolution of calcium hydrogenphosphate and sodium hydrogencitrate in water. Spontaneous supersaturation of calcium citrate increasing calcium bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Danielsen, Bente Pia; Garcia, André Castilho

    2018-01-01

    The sparingly soluble calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate, co-dissolving in water during dissolution of freely soluble sodium hydrogencitrate sesquihydrate as caused by proton transfer from hydrogencitrate to hydrogenphosphate, was found to form homogenous solutions supersaturated by a factor up...... to 8 in calcium citrate tetrahydrate. A critical hydrogencitrate concentration for formation of homogeneous solutions was found to depend linearly on dissolved calcium hydrogenphosphate: [HCitr2-] = 14[CaHPO4] - 0.05 at 25 °C. The lag phase for precipitation of calcium citrate tetrahydrate......, as identified from FT-IR spectra, from these spontaneously formed supersaturated solutions was several hours, and the time to reach solubility equilibrium was several days. Initial calcium ion activity was found to be almost independent of the degree of supersaturation as determined electrochemically...

  9. Calcium amendment may increase hydraulic efficiency and forest evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2013-01-01

    Green et al. (1) report 2 y of increased evapotranspiration (ET; calculated as the difference between total precipitation and total runoff) and decreased water yield following watershed-scale amendment of soil with wollastonite (CaSiO3) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The...

  10. Concurrent determination of total serum calcium and magnesium by thermometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, R H; Carr, P W

    1976-07-01

    Total serum calcium and magnesium may be determined in one thermometric titration, with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the titrant. A 1-ml serum sample is diluted with 1 ml of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8) and titrated at a constant rate with a motorized syringe buret. Results by the thermometric method compared well with those by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  12. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  13. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    OpenAIRE

    Widyasri Prananingrum; Puguh Bayu Prabowo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caries process is characterized by the presence of demineralization. Demineralization is caused by organic acids as a result of carbohydrate substrate fermentation. Remineralization is a natural repair process for non-cavitated lesions. Remineralization occurs if there are Ca2+ and PO43- ions in sufficient quantities. Casein-amorphous calcium phosphate phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP) is a paste material containing milk protein (casein), that actually contains minerals, such as calcium an...

  14. Relation between vitamin D and calcium and post operation hypocalcemia in total thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asefkabiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocalcemia is one of the most prevalent complications following total thyroidectomy. Over recent years, in addition to hormone parathyroid hormone (PTH, vitamin D has been also studied as a factor causing post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. This survey seeks to study the relationship between the serum level of vitamin D before surgery and during post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods: A group of 57 patients volunteering for total thyroidectomy were studied on Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March 2013 to March 2015. In all these patients, pre-surgery calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH as well as the level of calcium during the post-surgery first two days were measured. Based on objectives of this study, the relationship be-tween pre-surgery vitamin D level and post-surgery hypocalcemia was examined. Results: The average age of patients participating in the survey was 24.1±13.3. They included 19 women (33.3% and 38 men, total of 40 patients (70.2%. Their average post-surgery calcium level was 9.2±0.77 milligrams per deciliters (mg/dl and their average vitamin D content before the surgery was 42±12.1 nanomole per liter (nmol/l. The average calcium level before the surgery and the first post-surgery day were meaningfully different in terms of statistics (P0.001. Of 37 patients with pre-surgery vitamin D deficiency, 31 suffered post-surgery second-day hypocalcemia and of 20 patients with vitamin D insufficiency, 18 suffered second-day hypocalcemia. This difference was not statistically meaningful either (P>0.001. Conclusion: The current study showed that the serum level of vitamin D before total thyroidectomy does not have any role in the occurrence of post-surgery hypocalcemia which is almost common after this type of surgery.

  15. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  16. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  17. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...

  18. Increased Binding of Calcium Ions at Positively Curved Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Allolio, Christoph; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 518-523 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1102 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular dynamics * fluorescence spectroscopy * calcium * phospholipids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  19. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  20. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and VDR-knockout mice and vitamin D (VD) deficiency in rodents results in impaired fertility, low sperm counts and a low number of motile spermatozoa. We investigated the role of activated VD (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in human...... spermatozoa and whether VD serum levels are associated with semen quality. METHODS Cross-sectional association study of semen quality and VD serum level in 300 men from the general population, and in vitro studies on spermatozoa from 40 men to investigate the effects of VD on intracellular calcium, sperm......M). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium concentration in human spermatozoa through VDR-mediated calcium release from an intracellular calcium storage, increased sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in vitro. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium...

  1. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  2. Ductility increase in difficult to work nickel alloys due to calcium microalloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, V.A.; Grigoryan, R.A.; Aleev, V.P.; Stepanov, V.P.; Bytskij, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Impact of calcium microadditions on mechanical properties of heat-resisting alloys Kh66VMTYu and KhN33KV is studied. It is established that the calcium additions up to 0.01% essentially increase the alloy plastic characteristics of the alloy without changing its strength characteristics.5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis. Reference data for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the chemical composition of the human body during growth. Total body calcium (TBCa) has been reported for only one male child, aged 41/2 yr. TBCa values for 25 children and 27 young women using in vivo neutron activation analysis have been obtained. TBCa results were lower than those reported for the one male cadaver, as well as the estimates derived for the 'Reference Man' model. It was concluded that the reference values for TBCa may need to be adjusted to appropriately describe skeletal mineralization of contemporary children. (author)

  4. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  5. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  6. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report

  7. The alpha hemolisina of Escherichia Coli induces increases in the calcium citoplasmico of neutrofilos and monocytes human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin (AH) and the calcium ionophores ionomycin and 4 Br A23187 caused increases in cell fluorescence, indicative of elevations in cytoplasmic calcium, in fura 2-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes(PMN) and monocytes (MN). The increase in fluorescence caused by AH was dose dependent. Quelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA prevented fluorescence increases in PMN exposed to 2 HU50/ml AH, but did not prevent a small increase in 4 μM, ionomycin-treated PMN, indicating that ionomycin treatment under conditions of calcium quelation can mobilize calcium from internal stores, and that entry of external calcium accounts for most of the increases in cell fluorescence in cells treated with both AH and calcium ionophores. AH, as well as calcium ionophores and the chemotactic peptide FMLP caused rease of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from PMM suggesting that increments in intracellular calcium cause degramulation with release of granule contents (Author) [es

  8. Analysis and effects of cytosolic free calcium increases in response to elicitors in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, David; Mazars, Christian; Pauly, Nicolas; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2002-10-01

    Cell suspensions obtained from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants stably expressing the apoaequorin gene were used to analyze changes in cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in response to elicitors of plant defenses, particularly cryptogein and oligogalacturonides. The calcium signatures differ in lag time, peak time, intensity, and duration. The intensities of both signatures depend on elicitor concentration and extracellular calcium concentration. Cryptogein signature is characterized by a long-sustained [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase that should be responsible for sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, microtubule depolymerization, defense gene activation, and cell death. The [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase in elicitor-treated cells first results from a calcium influx, which in turns leads to calcium release from internal stores and additional Ca(2+) influx. H(2)O(2) resulting from the calcium-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase also participates in [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase and may activate calcium channels from the plasma membrane. Competition assays with different elicitins demonstrate that [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase is mediated by cryptogein-receptor interaction.

  9. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  10. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  11. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  12. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  13. Excessive signal transduction of gain-of-function variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR are associated with increased ER to cytosol calcium gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ranieri

    Full Text Available In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA. Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate receptor inputs to cell function.

  14. [The concentration of ionized and total calcium in the blood of female dogs with uterine inertia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A; Schwab, A

    1990-12-01

    Blood values of calcium, inorganic phosphate and magnesium were estimated in 26 bitches one day before parturition, on the day of parturition and daily for 6 days post partum. In 17 of these 26 animals the diagnosis was dystocia because of uterine inertia. A comparison of calcium levels between those bitches giving birth spontaneously and those requiring assistance gave no indication that blood calcium deficiency was the cause of uterine inertia.

  15. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  16. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R. J.; Hansen, T.; Jensen, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Danish Holstein dairy cows in late lactation and milked in the morning only were used as a model for dry pregnant cows to determine the effect of oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, respectively, on total serum calcium. Ten cows were assigned randomly to two groups of five cows each......, given either synthetic zeolite A (group A) or zinc oxide (group B). Blood samples were drawn daily at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. during the whole experiment, and total serum calcium was determined. Daily fluctuations in blood calcium were recorded, with morning values being consistently lower than evening...... values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...

  17. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection...

  18. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  19. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Thiazide increases serum calcium in anuric patients: the role of parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Raquel F V; Reis, Eduardo T; Moyses, Rosa M A; Elias, Rosilene M

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of hydrochlorothiazide in a sample of anuric patients on hemodialysis and found an increase in serum calcium, which occurred only in those with parathyroid hormone >300 pg/ml. This finding highlights the extra-renal effect of this diuretic and a possible role of parathyroid hormone in the mechanism. Thiazide diuretics are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease to treat hypertension. Their effects on calcium and bone metabolism are not well established, once calciuria may not fully explain levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in this population. A previous study has suggested that thiazides require the presence of PTH as a permissive condition for its renal action. In anuric patients, however, the role of PTH, if any, in the thiazide effect is unknown. To assess thiazide extra renal effect on serum calcium and whether such an effect is reliant on PTH, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 100 mg was given orally once a day to a sample of 19 anuric patients on hemodialysis for 2 weeks. Laboratories' analyses were obtained in three phases: baseline, after diuretic use, and after a 2-week washout phase. We demonstrated that serum calcium (Ca) increased in ten patients (52.6%) after HCTZ use, returning to previous levels after the washout period. Out of the 19 patients, ten presented PTH ≥ 300 pg/ml, and Ca has increased in eight of them, whereas in the other nine patients with PTH < 300 pg/ml, serum Ca has increased only in two individuals (RR risk of increase Ca 3.9; p = 0.012). HCTZ was capable of increasing serum Ca in a sample of anuric patients on hemodialysis and seems this effect is highly dependent on PTH levels. Caution is required while interpreting this result, as the small sample size might implicate in a finding caused by chance.

  1. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  3. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Ming-Rui [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China); Li, Ting-Ting; Yin, Xin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-Qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Yi-Hua, E-mail: syh200415@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation stimulates TRP channels. {yields} CaR promoted transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) expression. {yields} Adult rat ventricular myocytes display capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which was operated by TRPCs. {yields} TRPC channels activation induced by CaR activator sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} to evoke cardiomyocytes apoptosis. -- Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes, which gate a type of influx of extracellular calcium, the capacitative calcium entry. TRP channels play a role in mediating Ca{sup 2+} overload in the heart. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) are also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and promote the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by Ca{sup 2+} overload. However, data about the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart are few. In this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of the TRP canonical proteins TRPC1 and TRPC3 in adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Laser scan confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. The results showed that, in adult rat cardiomyocytes, the depletion of Ca{sup 2+} stores in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) by thapsigargin induced a transient increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and the subsequent restoration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for a few minutes, whereas, the persisting elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of the TRPC inhibitor SKF96365. The stimulation of CaR by its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or spermine also resulted in the same effect and the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. In adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, GdCl{sub 3

  4. Effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate of milk on the texture and microstructure of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, T; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) content on the physical, rheological, and microstructural properties of yogurt was investigated. The CCP content of heated (85°C for 30 min) milk was increased by increasing the pH by the addition of alkali (NaOH). Alkalized milk was dialyzed against pasteurized skim milk at approximately 4°C for 72 h to attempt to restore the original pH and soluble Ca content. By adjustment of the milk to pH values 7.45, 8.84, 10.06, and 10.73, the CCP content was increased to approximately 107, 116, 123, and 128%, respectively, relative to the concentration in heated milk. During fermentation of milk, the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent values of yogurts were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. The microstructure of yogurt was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and whey separation was determined. Acid-base titration was used to evaluate changes in the CCP content in milk. Total Ca and casein-bound Ca increased with an increase in the pH value of alkalization. During acidification, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 6.7 to 5.2 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. When acidified milk was titrated with alkali, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 5.6 to 6.4 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. The high residual pH of milk after dialysis could be responsible for the decreased contents of soluble Ca in these milks. The pH of gelation was higher in all dialyzed samples compared with the heated control milk, and the gelation pH was higher with an increase in CCP content. The sample with highest CCP content (128%) exhibited gelation at very high pH (6.3), which could be due to alkali-induced CN micellar disruption. The G' values at pH 4.6 were similar in gels with CCP levels up to 116%; at higher CCP levels, the G' values at pH 4.6 greatly decreased. Loss tangent values at pH 5.1 were similar

  5. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  6. Estimation of Total Usual Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes in the United States1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Goldman, Joseph A.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged ≥1 y using NHANES 2003–2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005–2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estim...

  7. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  8. Triiodothyronine increases calcium loss in a bed rest antigravity model for space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven R; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Bray, George A; Rood, Jennifer; Most, Marlene M; Ryan, Donna H

    2008-12-01

    Bed rest has been used as a model to simulate the effects of space flight on bone metabolism. Thyroid hormones accelerate bone metabolism. Thus, supraphysiologic doses of this hormone might be used as a model to accelerate bone metabolism during bed rest and potentially simulate space flight. The objective of the study was to quantitate the changes in bone turnover after low doses of triiodothyronine (T(3)) added to short-term bed rest. Nine men and 5 women were restricted to bed rest for 28 days with their heads positioned 6 degrees below their feet. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or oral T(3) at doses of 50 to 75 microg/d in a single-blind fashion. Calcium balance was measured over 5-day periods; and T(3), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were measured weekly. Triiodothyronine increased 2-fold in the men and 5-fold in the women during treatment, suppressing both thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Calcium balance was negative by 300 to 400 mg/d in the T(3)-treated volunteers, primarily because of the increased fecal loss that was not present in the placebo group. Urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio, a marker of bone resorption, increased 60% in the placebo group during bed rest, but more than doubled in the T(3)-treated subjects (P < .01), suggesting that bone resorption was enhanced by treatment with T(3). Changes in serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, markers of bone formation, were similar in T(3)- and placebo-treated subjects. Triiodothyronine increases bone resorption and fecal calcium loss in subjects at bed rest.

  9. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-11-20

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  10. Albumin, in the Presence of Calcium, Elicits a Massive Increase in Extracellular Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyar, Laura A; Gray, Mary C; Christianson, Gregory J; Mehrad, Borna; Hewlett, Erik L

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis , is resurging in the United States and worldwide. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a critical factor in establishing infection with B. pertussis and acts by specifically inhibiting the response of myeloid leukocytes to the pathogen. We report here that serum components, as discovered during growth in fetal bovine serum (FBS), elicit a robust increase in the amount of ACT, and ≥90% of this ACT is localized to the supernatant, unlike growth without FBS, in which ≥90% is associated with the bacterium. We have found that albumin, in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium, acts specifically to enhance the amount of ACT and its localization to the supernatant. Respiratory secretions, which contain albumin, promote an increase in amount and localization of active ACT that is comparable to that elicited by serum and albumin. The response to albumin is not mediated through regulation of ACT at the transcriptional level or activation of the Bvg two-component system. As further illustration of the specificity of this phenomenon, serum collected from mice that lack albumin does not stimulate an increase in ACT. These data, demonstrating that albumin and calcium act synergistically in the host environment to increase production and release of ACT, strongly suggest that this phenomenon reflects a novel host-pathogen interaction that is central to infection with B. pertussis and other Bordetella species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Induced groundwater flux by increases in the aquifer's total stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2015-01-01

    Fluid-filled granular soils experience changes in total stress because of earth and oceanic tides, earthquakes, erosion, sedimentation, and changes in atmospheric pressure. The pore volume may deform in response to the changes in stress and this may lead to changes in pore fluid pressure. The transient fluid flow can therefore be induced by the gradient in excess pressure in a fluid-saturated porous medium. This work demonstrates the use of stochastic methodology in prediction of induced one-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow through a heterogeneous aquifer. A closed-form of mean groundwater flux is developed to quantify the induced field-scale mean behavior of groundwater flow and analyze the impacts of the spatial correlation length scale of log hydraulic conductivity and the pore compressibility. The findings provided here could be useful for the rational planning and management of groundwater resources in aquifers that contain lenses with large vertical aquifer matrix compressibility values. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Developing soft skill training for salespersons to increase total sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardatillah, A.; Budiman, I.; Tarigan, U. P. P.; Sembiring, A. C.; Hendi

    2018-04-01

    This research was conducted in the multilevel marketing industry. Unprofessional salespersons behavior and responsibility can ruin the image of the multilevel marketing industry and distrust to the multilevel marketing industry. This leads to decreased company revenue due to lack of public interest in multilevel marketing products. Seeing these conditions, researcher develop training programs to improve the competence of salespersons in making sales. It was done by looking at factors that affect the level of salespersons sales. The research analyzes several factors that influence the salesperson’s sales level: presentation skills, questioning ability, adaptability, technical knowledge, self-control, interaction involvement, sales environment, and intrapersonal skills. Through the analysis of these factors with One Sample T-Test and Multiple Linear Regression methods, researchers design a training program for salespersons to increase their sales. The developed training for salespersons is basic training and special training and before training was given, salespersons need to be assessed for the effectivity and efficiency reasons.

  13. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, improves total cholesterol, and Synergy, a prebiotic, improves calcium utilization, but there were no synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, LeeCole L; Lee, Wang-Hee; Martin, Berdine R; Story, Jon A; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-08-01

    Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women. A 4-week feeding study was conducted in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy (a prebiotic), and genistein and Synergy combined on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism, and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: sham control, OVX control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with 200 ppm genistein, with 5% Synergy or with 200 ppm genistein and 5% Synergy combined. The rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentrations than OVX rats in the control group (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats fed the 5% Synergy diet (19%). Consumption of Synergy improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared with nonconsumption (OVX control). Sham control rats had a significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than did the rats in all of the OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular bone mineral density at the distal femur similar to the levels of sham rats. Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats, but the combination produced no synergistic effects.

  14. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  15. Coral resistance to ocean acidification linked to increased calcium at the site of calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, T M; Comeau, S; Cornwall, C E; McCulloch, M T

    2018-05-16

    Ocean acidification threatens the persistence of biogenic calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) production on coral reefs. However, some coral genera show resistance to declines in seawater pH, potentially achieved by modulating the chemistry of the fluid where calcification occurs. We use two novel geochemical techniques based on boron systematics and Raman spectroscopy, which together provide the first constraints on the sensitivity of coral calcifying fluid calcium concentrations ([Formula: see text]) to changing seawater pH. In response to simulated end-of-century pH conditions, Pocillopora damicornis increased [Formula: see text] to as much as 25% above that of seawater and maintained constant calcification rates. Conversely, Acropora youngei displayed less control over [Formula: see text], and its calcification rates strongly declined at lower seawater pH. Although the role of [Formula: see text] in driving calcification has often been neglected, increasing [Formula: see text] may be a key mechanism enabling more resistant corals to cope with ocean acidification and continue to build CaCO 3 skeletons in a high-CO 2 world. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Indomethacin increases the formation of lipoxygenase products in calcium ionophore stimulated human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, J C; Wilson, T W

    1987-10-29

    Arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils stimulated in vitro with the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied using combined HPLC and radioimmunoassays. Indomethacin (0.1 and 1.0 microM) caused a 300% increase in LTB4 formation in neutrophils stimulated with A23187. 5-, 12- and 15-HETE levels were also increased. In the presence of exogenous arachidonic acid 1.0 microM Indomethacin caused a 37% increase in LTB4 formation. Acetyl Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen had no effect on the formation of lipoxygenase metabolites. The effect of indomethacin on LTB4 formation does not appear to be due to a simple redirection of substrate arachidonic acid from the cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathways.

  17. Increasing Provasculature Complexity in the Arabidopsis Embryo May Increase Total Iron Content in Seeds: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannetz Roschzttardtz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature. It has been reported that cotyledon provasculature pattern complexity can be modified, thus we hypothesize that changes in the complexity of embryo vein patterns may affect total iron content in Arabidopsis seeds. This approach could be used as basis to develop strategies aimed to biofortify seeds.

  18. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    peroxide (H2O2) has traditionally been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, recent findings indicate that H2O2 act as a signalling molecule. The aim of the present study was to monitor, in real time, the rates of ROS generation in order to directly determine their production......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production...

  19. Vitamin D plus calcium supplementation increased serum 25(OHD on reproductive age women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yosephin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the efficacy of calcium supplementation plus vitamin D on the improved concentrations of serum 25(OHD and the blood pressure in working women of childbearing age. Methods: The design used in this research was an experimental study (randomized control trial, with 39 subjects of women at childbearing age who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Subjects were randomly allocated into two treatment groups, the VDC group (400 IU of vitamin D plus 500 mg of calcium and the VD group (400 IU of vitamin D. Supplements were consumed every day for 12 weeks. Results: Prior to supplementation, the average level of serum 25(OHD in the VDC group was (16.7 ± 4.5 ng/dL which was higher than the average level of serum 25(OHD in the VD group which was (14.9 ± 5.1 ng/dL. After supplementation, the subjects of VDC group showed an average increased 3.6 ng/dL of serum 25(OHD. The average increase of serum 25(OHD in VD group was 6.3 ng/dL. The increase of serum 25(OHD in VDC group was 21.6%, while in the VD group the increase was almost two times higher (42.3% than that of the VDC group. Statistical test results showed that the average levels of serum 25(OHD between the two treatment groups were significantly different. Conclusions: The average systolic blood pressure prior to supplementation of the VDC group was (128.5 ± 22.5 mmHg which was slightly lower than that of the VD group [(131.1 ± 18.0 mmHg].

  20. Stable cavitation induces increased cytoplasmic calcium in L929 fibroblasts exposed to 1-MHz pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Higashiyama, Satoru; Yoshida, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    An increase in cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+) increase) is a second messenger that is often observed under ultrasound irradiation. We hypothesize that cavitation is a physical mechanism that underlies the increase in Ca(2+) in these experiments. To control the presence of cavitation, the wave type was controlled in a sonication chamber. One wave type largely contained a traveling wave (wave type A) while the other wave type largely contained a standing wave (wave type B). Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of a sound field produced by the wave types ascertained that stable cavitation was present only under wave type A ultrasound irradiation. Under the two controlled wave types, the increase in Ca(2+) in L929 fibroblasts was observed with fluorescence imaging. Under wave type A ultrasound irradiation, an increase in Ca(2+) was observed; however, no increase in Ca(2+) was observed under wave type B ultrasound irradiation. We conclude that stable cavitation is involved in the increase of Ca(2+) in cells subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  2. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  3. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  4. The common inhaled anesthetic isoflurane increases aggregation of huntingtin and alters calcium homeostasis in a cell model of Huntington's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiujun; Liang Ge; Yang Hui; Wang Shouping; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Wei Huafeng

    2011-01-01

    Isoflurane is known to increase β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane will have similar effects on the polyglutamine huntingtin protein and will cause alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis in striatal cells from the expanded glutamine huntingtin knock-in mouse (STHdh Q111/Q111 ) and wild type (STHdh Q7/Q7 ) striatal neurons. The primary cultured neurons were exposed for 24 h to equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in the presence or absence of extracellular calcium and with or without xestospongin C, a potent endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptor antagonist. Aggregation of huntingtin protein, cell viability, and calcium concentrations were measured. Isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane all increased the aggregation of huntingtin in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells, with isoflurane having the largest effect. Isoflurane induced greater calcium release from the ER and relatively more cell damage in the STHdh Q111/Q111 huntingtin cells than in the wild type STHdh Q7/Q7 striatal cells. However, sevoflurane and desflurane caused less calcium release from the ER and less cell damage. Xestospongin C inhibited the isoflurane-induced calcium release from the ER, aggregation of huntingtin, and cell damage in the STHdh Q111/Q111 cells. In summary, the Q111 form of huntingtin increases the vulnerability of striatal neurons to isoflurane neurotoxicity through combined actions on the ER IP 3 receptors. Calcium release from the ER contributes to the anesthetic induced huntingtin aggregation in STHdh Q111/Q111 striatal cells.

  5. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.

  6. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  7. Global ablation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter increases glycolysis in cortical neurons subjected to energetic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A; Warford, Jordan; Thirumaran, Aruloli; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Robertson, George S

    2017-08-01

    The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca 2+ ) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca 2+ handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage. Energetic stress enhanced glycolysis and depressed Complex I activity in global MCU null, relative to WT, cortical neurons. HI reduced forebrain NADH levels more in global MCU nulls than WT mice suggesting that increased glycolytic consumption of NADH suppressed Complex I activity. Compared to WT neurons, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) was hyper-phosphorylated in MCU nulls at several sites that lower the supply of substrates for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with glutamate or ionomycin decreased PDH phosphorylation in MCU null neurons suggesting the use of alternative mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. Under basal conditions, global MCU nulls showed similar increases of Ca 2+ handling genes in the hippocampus as WT mice subjected to HPC. We propose that long-term adaptations, common to HPC, in global MCU nulls compromise resistance to HI brain injury and disrupt HPC.

  8. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  9. Oxidative stress increases internal calcium stores and reduces a key mitochondrial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Park, Larry C H; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2002-03-16

    Fibroblasts from patients with genetic and non-genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) show many abnormalities including increased bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS), diminished activities of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), and an altered ability to handle oxidative stress. The link between genetic mutations (and the unknown primary event in non-genetic forms) and these other cellular abnormalities is unknown. To determine whether oxidative stress could be a convergence point that produces the other AD-related changes, these experiments tested in fibroblasts the effects of H(2)O(2), in the presence or absence of select antioxidants, on BRCS and KGDHC. H(2)O(2) concentrations that elevated carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (c-H(2)DCF)-detectable ROS increased BRCS and decreased KGDHC activity. These changes are in the same direction as those in fibroblasts from AD patients. Acute treatments with the antioxidants Trolox, or DMSO decreased c-H(2)DCF-detectable ROS by about 90%, but exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced increases in BRCS by about 4-fold and did not alter the reduction in KGDHC. Chronic pretreatments with Trolox more than doubled the BRCS, tripled KGDHC activities, and reduced the effects of H(2)O(2). Pretreatment with DMSO or N-acetyl cysteine diminished the BRCS and either had no effect, or exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced changes in these variables. The results demonstrate that BRCS and KGDHC are more sensitive to H(2)O(2) derived species than c-H(2)DCF, and that oxidized derivatives of the antioxidants exaggerate the actions of H(2)O(2). The findings support the hypothesis that select abnormalities in oxidative processes are a critical part of a cascade that leads to the cellular abnormalities in cells from AD patients.

  10. Increased osteoblast density in the presence of novel calcium phosphate coated magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Webster, Thomas J; Taylor, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Bone diseases (including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and bone cancer) are of great concern to the medical world. Drugs are available to treat such diseases, but often these drugs are not specifically targeted to the site of the disease and, thus, lack an immediate directed therapeutic effect. The optimal drug delivery system should enhance healthy bone growth with high specificity to the site of bone disease. It has been previously shown that magnetic nanoparticles can be directed in the presence of a magnetic field to any part of the body, allowing for site-specific drug delivery and possibly an immediate increase in bone density. The objective of the present study was to build off of this evidence and determine the density of osteoblasts (bone forming cells) in the presence of various uncoated and coated magnetic nanoparticles that could eventually be used in drug delivery applications. Results showed that some magnetic nanoparticles (specifically, γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) significantly promoted osteoblast density (that is, cells per well) after 5 and 8 days of culture compared to controls (no particles). These magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with calcium phosphate (CaP; the main inorganic component of bone) to tailor them for treating various bone diseases. The coatings were conducted in the presence of either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or citric acid (CA) to reduce magnetic nanoparticle agglomeration, a common problem resulting from the use of nanoparticles which decreases their effectiveness. Results with these coatings showed that magnetic nanoparticles, specifically (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ), coated in the presence of BSA significantly increased osteoblast density compared to controls after 1 day. In this manner, this study provided unexpected evidence that CaP-coated γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic nanoparticles increased osteoblast density (compared to no particles) and, thus, should be further studied to treat numerous bone diseases

  11. Application of different qualities of X-rays by X-ray microradiography to increase the detection efficiency of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernsebner, M.

    1981-01-01

    It was the goal of this work to evaluate quantitatively the suitability of the radiation quality of tungsten, copper, titanium and scandium anodes for the generation of contrastful microradiographs and thus to increase the detection sensitivity of calcium. Halfwidth determinations were made with aluminium absorbers in air to characterize the different X-ray radiation qualities. Furthermore the dependence of the dose load of the absorber width and the type of the tube was determined in the radiation field for 20 kV anode voltage. Reference step-models were established in order to transfer these results to the calcium detection in microradiograph technology. (orig./HBR) [de

  12. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  13. Calcium supplementation and inflammation increase mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: A 15-year cohort study in 609 patients from the Oslo Rheumatoid Arthritis Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Sella A; Olsen, Inge C; Austad, Cathrine; Haugeberg, Glenn; Kvien, Tore K; Uhlig, Till

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether osteoporosis or use of calcium supplementations predict all-cause mortality, or death from CVD, in a longitudinal cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients in the Oslo RA register (ORAR) were examined, and bone mineral density was measured in 1996. The cohort was linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death registry on December 31, 2010. Death from CVD was defined in 3 following different outcomes: (1) primary atherosclerotic death, (2) atherosclerotic death as one of the 5 listed causes of death, and (3) CVD according to World Health Organization (WHO) definition as primary cause of death. Baseline predictors of all-cause mortality and death from CVD were identified in separate Cox regression models, using backwards selection. Sensitivity analyses were performed including analyses of interactions and competing risk. A total of 609 patients were examined in 1996/1997. By December 31, 2010, 162 patients (27%) had died, resulting in 7439 observed patient-years. Of the deceased, 40 (24.7%) had primary atherosclerotic death. In the final model of all-cause mortality increased baseline ESR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 per mm/h, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03], calcium supplementation (1.74, 1.07-2.84), and osteoporosis, defined as a T score ≤2.5 SD at any location, (1.58, 1.07-2.32) predicted higher mortality rates, in models adjusted for age, gender, and a propensity score. In the final model of primary atherosclerotic death, increased ESR (1.03 per mm/h, 1.01-1.05) and calcium supplementation (3.39, 1.41-8.08), predicted higher mortality. Increased baseline ESR and use of calcium supplementation were predictors of increased all-cause mortality and risk of death from CVD in this longitudinal study of patients with RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  15. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li Li; Ming, Dong Xu; Dong, Shu Ren; Yang, Zhong Yue; Wang, Wen Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i) Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%), ii) Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%), iii) Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%), iv) Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%), v) High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%), and vi) High Ca+maifanite (0.64%). Feces were collected by the total collection (TC) and indicator method (IM). At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01) in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (pdigestibility values than the TC method. PMID:28728391

  16. Porous calcium carbonate as a carrier material to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin Johnson, Maria; Noreland, David; Gane, Patrick; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Ridgway, Cathy; Millqvist Fureby, Anna

    2017-04-19

    Two different food grade functionalised porous calcium carbonates (FCC), with different pore size and pore size distributions, were characterised and used as carrier materials to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds in aqueous solution. The loading level was varied between 1.3% by weight (wt%) and 35 wt%, where the upper limit of 35 wt% was the total maximum loading capacity of flavouring compound in FCC based on the fraction of the total weight of FCC plus flavouring compound. Flavouring compounds (l-carvone, vanillin, and curcumin) were selected based on their difference in hydrophilicity and capacity to crystallise. Release kinetic studies revealed that all flavouring compounds showed an accelerated release when loaded in FCC compared to dissolution of the flavouring compound itself in aqueous medium. The amorphous state and/or surface enlargement of the flavouring compound inside or on FCC explains the faster release. The flavouring compounds capable of crystallising (vanillin and curcumin) were almost exclusively amorphous within the porous FCC material as determined by X-ray powder diffraction one week after loading and after storing the loaded FCC material for up to 9 months at room temperature. A small amount of crystalline vanillin and curcumin was detected in the FCC material with large pores and high flavouring compound loading (≥30 wt%). Additionally, two different loading strategies were evaluated, loading by dissolving the flavouring compound in acetone or loading by a hot melt method. Porosimetry data showed that the melt method was more efficient in filling the smallest pores (<100 nm). The main factor influencing the release rate appears to be the amorphous state of the flavouring compound and the increase in exposed surface area. The confinement in small pores prevents crystallisation of the flavouring compounds during storage, providing a stable amorphous form retaining high release rate also after storage.

  17. Increases in cellular calcium concentration stimulate pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, J.P.; Berger, S.; Cosowsky, L.; Straus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i) and pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach were determined before and after stimulation with calcium ionophores. [Ca]i was measured using the fluorescent probe quin2. Basal [Ca]i was 105 +/- 4 nM. Pepsinogen secretion was measured with a new assay using 125 I-albumin substrate. This assay is 1000-fold more sensitive than the widely-used spectrophotometric assay, technically easy to perform, rapid, and relatively inexpensive. The kinetics and stoichiometry of ionophore-induced changes in [Ca]i and pepsinogen secretion were similar. These data support a role for calcium as a cellular mediator of pepsinogen secretion

  18. Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 μM] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  19. GABA(A) Increases Calcium in Subventricular Zone Astrocyte-Like Cells Through L- and T-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Stephanie Z; Platel, Jean-Claude; Nielsen, Jakob V

    2010-01-01

    In the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ), the behavior of astrocyte-like cells and some of their functions depend on changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels and tonic GABA(A) receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether, and if so how, GABA(A) receptor activity regulates...... intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in SVZ astrocytes. To monitor Ca(2+) activity selectively in astrocyte-like cells, we used two lines of transgenic mice expressing either GFP fused to a Gq-coupled receptor or DsRed under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter. GABA(A) receptor activation...... induced Ca(2+) increases in 40-50% of SVZ astrocytes. GABA(A)-induced Ca(2+) increases were prevented with nifedipine and mibefradil, blockers of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). The L-type Ca(2+) channel activator BayK 8644 increased the percentage of GABA(A)-responding astrocyte...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention (ID 668) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “calcium absorption”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel notes...... between the consumption of lactose and an increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention....

  1. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Glial calcium (Ca2+) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca2+ waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of...

  2. Building better bones in childhood: a randomized controlled study to test the efficacy of a dietary intervention program to increase calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D R; Stark, L J; Ittenbach, R F; Stallings, V A; Zemel, B S

    2017-06-01

    Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD. BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index. A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.

  3. Stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate protective layer developed on galvanized reinforcements after a further increase of the pH value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, C.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on galvanized reinforcements in contact with Ca- containing highly alkaline media, the authors have reported the existence of a threshold pH of 13,3 ± 0,1, below which the Zn in contact with such a medium is passivated by formation of a continuous layer of calcium hydroxyzincate, but at pH values above this it corrodes continuously until it totally disappears. The investigation on the stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate layer after an increase of the pH to very high alkaline values, is the aim of the present paper. It has been establised that if the calcium hydroxyzincate is perfectly developed, a later increase of the pH does not affect the stability.

    En trabajos anteriores que estudian el comportamiento de armaduras galvanizadas en contacto con medios muy alcalinos que contienen calcio, los autores han señalado la existencia de un umbral de pH = 13,3 ±0,1 por debajo del cual el Zn en contacto con tales medios se pasiva por formación de una capa continua de hidroxizincato calcico, mientras que para valores de pH superiores se corroe continuamente hasta su total desaparición. Establecer la estabilidad del recubrimiento protector de hidroxizincato calcico a un aumento de pH a valores muy alcalinos posterior a su formación, es el objetivo del presente artículo. Como resultado de las investigaciones realizadas ha podido concluirse que si el recubrimiento de hidroxizincato cálcico se ha desarrollado perfectamente, un posterior incremento del pH del medio no afecta su estabilidad.

  4. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Passier, Robert [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); MIRA, University of Twente (Netherlands); Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L. [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Casini, Simona, E-mail: s.casini@amc.uva.nl [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-27

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca{sup 2+} transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I{sub Ca,L} and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  5. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca"2"+ transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I_C_a_,_L and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  6. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  7. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  8. Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

    2014-06-01

    Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS.

  9. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten Joan

    2013-01-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen sa...... activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.......Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen...... saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus...

  10. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  11. Potassium Bicarbonate Attenuates the Urinary Nitrogen Excretion That Accompanies an Increase in Dietary Protein and May Promote Calcium Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-01-01

    Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051

  12. Transient Increased Calcium and Calcitriol Requirements After Discontinuation of Human Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Rachel I; Guthrie, Lori C; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Christie, C Michele; Reynolds, James C; Yovetich, Nancy A; James, Robert; Collins, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic human PTH 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism maintains eucalcemia and converts quiescent bone to high-turnover bone. However, the skeletal and metabolic effects of drug discontinuation have not been reported. Nine subjects with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of hPTH 1-34 two to three times daily for 19.8 to 61.3 months and then transitioned back to calcium and calcitriol. Biochemistries and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were assessed at baseline, while on treatment, and at follow-up 3 to 12 months after drug discontinuation. Two subjects developed hypocalcemia when hPTH 1-34 was abruptly discontinued. Thus, to avoid hypocalcemia, subjects were slowly weaned from hPTH 1-34 over several weeks. When hPTH 1-34 was stopped, subjects were requiring two to three times pretreatment doses of calcitriol and calcium to maintain blood calcium levels. Doses were gradually reduced over many weeks until calcium levels were stable on doses similar to baseline. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), N-telopeptide (NTX), and osteocalcin (OC) increased significantly with hPTH 1-34; at follow-up, BSAP and NTX had returned to baseline while OC was still slightly elevated. During treatment, BMD was unchanged at the hip and lateral spine but declined at the anterior-posterior (AP) spine, radius, and total body. During weaning, BMD increased, with the hip and lateral spine exceeding pre-hPTH 1-34 values and the whole body returning to baseline. AP spine was increased non-significantly compared to baseline at follow-up. hPTH 1-34 must be gradually weaned in hypoparathyroid patients with high doses of oral medications given to avoid hypocalcemia. The transient increased requirements accompanied by increased BMD after long-term hPTH 1-34 therapy suggest a reversal of the expanded remodeling space favoring bone formation as the skeleton returns to a low-turnover state, reminiscent of the hungry

  13. Parvalbumin overexpression alters immune-mediated increases in intracellular calcium, and delays disease onset in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, D. R.; Ho, B. K.; Siklos, L.; Alexianu, M. E.; Mosier, D. R.; Mohamed, A. H.; Otsuka, Y.; Kozovska, M. E.; McAlhany, R. E.; Smith, R. G.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular calcium is increased in vulnerable spinal motoneurons in immune-mediated as well as transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether intracellular calcium levels are influenced by the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing parvalbumin in spinal motoneurons. ALS immunoglobulins increased intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release at motoneuron terminals in control animals, but not in parvalbumin overexpressing transgenic mice. Parvalbumin transgenic mice interbred with mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice, an animal model of familial ALS, had significantly reduced motoneuron loss, and had delayed disease onset (17%) and prolonged survival (11%) when compared with mice with only the mSOD1 transgene. These results affirm the importance of the calcium binding protein parvalbumin in altering calcium homeostasis in motoneurons. The increased motoneuron parvalbumin can significantly attenuate the immune-mediated increases in calcium and to a lesser extent compensate for the mSOD1-mediated 'toxic-gain-of-function' in transgenic mice.

  14. Does Increased Expression of the Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase Isoform 2 Confer Resistance to Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cells?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHouten, Joshua N

    2008-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) is highly expressed on the apical membrane of mammary epithelial cells during lactation, and is the predominant pump responsible for calcium transport into milk...

  15. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  16. Plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, P M; Bennett, R A; Harr, K E; Lock, B A

    2001-08-01

    To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas. Prospective study. 9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas. Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas. Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 +/- 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity. Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas.

  17. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Domingues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF. We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  18. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results...... in FHH, while in homozygous patients as well as in compound heterozygous or dominant negative heterozygous patients, it may result in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). Parathyroid surgery is not indicated in FHH and does not lower plasma calcium unless total parathyroidectomy is performed...

  19. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  20. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  1. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  2. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  3. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  4. Calcium levels and calcium: available phosphorus ratios in diets for white egg layers from 42 to 58 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques Pastore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional requirement of calcium and the best calcium:available phosphorus ratio for commercial layers at the post-laying peak. A total of 324 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were utilized in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, composed of three levels of calcium (39, 42 and 45 g/kg and three calcium:phosphorus ratios (12.12:1; 10.53:1; and 9.30:1, totaling nine treatments with six replications and six birds per experimental unit. There was no significant effect from the calcium levels × calcium:phosphorus ratio interaction for any of the variables studied. The calcium levels and the calcium:phosphorus ratios did not affect the variables performance or egg and bone quality. At the evaluation of the calcium:phosphorus balance, as the levels of calcium of the diet were raised, the intake of calcium and phosphorus and the contents of mineral matter and calcium in the excreta increased linearly, and the retention of calcium by birds decreased linearly. With the reduction of the calcium:phosphorus ratios of the diet, intake, retention and excretion of phosphorus by layers increased. Diets containing calcium at 39 g/kg and a calcium:phosphorus ratio of 12.12:1, corresponding to an increase in calcium of 3.51 g/bird/day and available phosphorus of 289 mg/bird/day, meet the requirements of calcium and available phosphorus of white egg layers in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age.

  5. Avascular Necrosis Is Associated With Increased Transfusions and Readmission Following Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Francis C; Manalo, John Paul; Demzik, Alysen; Sahota, Shawn; Beal, Matthew; Manning, David

    2017-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) may confer an increased risk of complications and readmission following total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, current risk-adjustment models do not account for AVN. A total of 1706 patients who underwent THA for AVN from 2011 to 2013 were selected from the American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database and matched 1:1 to controls using a predetermined propensity score algorithm. Rates of 30-day medical and surgical complications, readmissions, and reoperations were compared between cohorts. Propensity-score logistic regression was used to determine independent associations between AVN and outcomes of interest. Patients with AVN had a higher rate of medical complications than those without AVN (20.3% vs 15.3%, respectively; PAvascular necrosis of the femoral head is an independent risk factor for transfusion up to 72 hours postoperatively and readmission up to 30 days following total hip replacement. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):171-176.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoocher Soleimani

    Full Text Available Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2 in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of

  7. Role of acidosis-induced increases in calcium on PTH secretion in acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Estepa, José Carlos; Rodríguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J

    2004-05-01

    Recently, we showed that both acute metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in the dog. To evaluate the specific effect of acidosis, ionized calcium (iCa) was clamped at a normal value. Because iCa values normally increase during acute acidosis, we now have studied the PTH response to acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in dogs in which the iCa concentration was allowed to increase (nonclamped) compared with dogs with a normal iCa concentration (clamped). Five groups of dogs were studied: control, metabolic (clamped and nonclamped), and respiratory (clamped and nonclamped) acidosis. Metabolic (HCl infusion) and respiratory (hypoventilation) acidosis was progressively induced during 60 min. In the two clamped groups, iCa was maintained at a normal value with an EDTA infusion. Both metabolic and respiratory acidosis increased (P acidosis, the increase in iCa was progressive and greater (P respiratory acidosis, in which iCa increased by 0.04 mM and then remained constant despite further pH reductions. The increase in PTH values was greater (P respiratory acidosis). In the nonclamped metabolic acidosis group, PTH values first increased and then decreased from peak values when iCa increased by > 0.1 mM. In the nonclamped respiratory acidosis group, PTH values exceeded (P acidosis. In conclusion, 1) both metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate PTH secretion; 2) the physiological increase in the iCa concentration during the induction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis reduces the magnitude of the PTH increase; 3) in metabolic acidosis, the increase in the iCa concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to reverse the increase in PTH values; and 4) for the same degree of acidosis-induced hypercalcemia, the increase in PTH values is greater in metabolic than in respiratory acidosis.

  8. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Reduction of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in soil with increasing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Mário

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted with soil samples and synthetic solutions to investigate possible mechanisms related with reduction in KCl exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Increasing soil pH over 5.3 with CaCO3 added to the soil and with NaOH solution added to soil/KCl suspension increased adsorptions of Ca and Mg. The reduction of Mg was greater than Ca and was related to the concentration of soil exchangeable Al. The decreases of soluble Ca and Mg following addition of Al in synthetic solution were at pH > 7.5. The isomorphic coprecipitation reaction with Al compounds may be the most possible mechanism responsible for the decrease of exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Possible chemical reactions are presented.

  10. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  11. Superfetation increases total fecundity in a viviparous fish regardless of the ecological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime; Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Molina-Moctezuma, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos at different developmental stages. This is an uncommon reproductive strategy that has evolved independently several times in viviparous fishes. The ecological conditions that favor higher degrees of superfetation (the presence of more simultaneous broods) still remain unclear. In this study we tested hypotheses about the potential effects of three particular ecological factors (water flow velocity, population density, and adult mortality) on superfetation. We used data on six populations of one fish species from the family Poeciliidae (Poeciliopsis baenschi) and a multimodel inference framework to test these hypotheses. We found no clear associations between the degree of superfetation and these ecological factors. Instead, we found a positive relationship between the total number of embryos carried by females and superfetation. Females increased their total fecundity as they overlapped more broods and this pattern was independent of the particular ecological conditions. Thus, in P. baenschi superfetation may facilitate a greater reproductive output. In addition, this positive relationship between total number of embryos and superfetation was stronger in small- and medium-sized females, whereas large females produced few or no simultaneous broods regardless of their total fecundity. The observed lack of association between superfetation and ecological variables is noteworthy because previous studies on other congeneric species have found that superfetation may vary as a function of water flow velocity or food availability. Our results indicate that the effect of particular selective factors on the degree of superfetation may differ among closely related species.

  12. Improvements in knee biomechanics during walking are associated with increased physical activity after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Olds, Timothy S; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in people with knee osteoarthritis increases knee-specific and general physical function, but it has not been established if there is a relationship between changes in these elements of functional ability. This study investigated changes and relationships between knee biomechanics during walking, physical activity, and use of time after TKA. Fifteen people awaiting TKA underwent 3D gait analysis before and six months after surgery. Physical activity and use of time were determined in free-living conditions from a high resolution 24-h activity recall. After surgery, participants displayed significant improvements in sagittal plane knee biomechanics and improved their physical activity profiles, standing for 105 more minutes (p=0.001) and performing 64 min more inside chores on average per day (p=0.008). Changes in sagittal plane knee range of motion (ROM) and peak knee flexion positively correlated with changes in total daily energy expenditure, time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity, inside chores and passive transport (r=0.52-0.66, p=0.005-0.047). Restoration of knee function occurs in parallel and is associated with improvements in physical activity and use of time after TKA. Increased functional knee ROM is required to support improvements in total and context specific physical activity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ocean Acidification Causes Increased Calcium Carbonate Turnover during Larval Shell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, C.; Pan, F.; Applebaum, S.; Manahan, D. T.

    2016-02-01

    Mollusca is a major taxon for studies of the evolution and mechanisms of calcification. Under current and future ocean change scenarios, decreases in shell size have been observed in many molluscan species during early development. The mechanistic basis for these decreases are of significant interest. In this study, Pacific oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas) reared at aragonite undersaturation (Ω > 1). Coupling radioisotope tracer assays with mineral mass measurements allowed calculation of calcification budgets for first shell formation in veliger stage larvae. Three primary mechanisms (in order of increasing effect) contributed to the change in shell mass at undersaturation: delayed onset of calcification, increased dissolution rates, and decreased net calcification rates. The observation of dissolution indicates turnover of the newly formed shell, and physicochemical constraints of undersaturation provide a mechanistic basis for decreased calcification.

  14. Cytoplasmic Calcium Increases in Response to Changes in the Gravity Vector in Hypocotyls and Petioles of Arabidopsis Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Furuichi, Takuya; Tatsumi, Hitoshi; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Plants respond to a large variety of environmental signals, including changes in the gravity vector (gravistimulation). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, gravistimulation is known to increase the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). However, organs responsible for the [Ca2+]c increase and the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain to be solved. In this study, using Arabidopsis seedlings expressing apoaequorin, a Ca2+-sensitive luminescent protein in combination with an ultrasensitive photon counting camera, we clarified the organs where [Ca2+]c increases in response to gravistimulation and characterized the physiological and pharmacological properties of the [Ca2+]c increase. When the seedlings were gravistimulated by turning 180°, they showed a transient biphasic [Ca2+]c increase in their hypocotyls and petioles. The second peak of the [Ca2+]c increase depended on the angle but not the speed of rotation, whereas the initial peak showed diametrically opposite characters. This suggests that the second [Ca2+]c increase is specific for changes in the gravity vector. The potential mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable channel (MSCC) inhibitors Gd3+ and La3+, the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and the endomembrane Ca2+-permeable channel inhibitor ruthenium red suppressed the second [Ca2+]c increase, suggesting that it arises from Ca2+ influx via putative MSCCs in the plasma membrane and Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Moreover, the second [Ca2+]c increase was attenuated by actin-disrupting drugs cytochalasin B and latrunculin B but not by microtubule-disrupting drugs oryzalin and nocodazole, implying that actin filaments are partially involved in the hypothetical activation of Ca2+-permeable channels. These results suggest that the second [Ca2+]c increase via MSCCs is a gravity response in the hypocotyl and petiole of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:18055589

  15. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  16. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A METHOD OF THE MINIMIZING OF THE TOTAL ACQUISITIONS COST WITH THE INCREASING VARIABLE DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA IONELA FOCȘAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time, mankind has tried to find different ways of costs reduction. This subject which we are facing more often nowadays, has been detailed studied, without reaching a general model, and also efficient, regarding the costs reduction. Costs reduction entails a number of benefits over the entity, the most important being: increase revenue and default to the profit, increase productivity, a higher level of services / products offered to clients, and last but not least, the risk mitigation of the economic deficit. Therefore, each entity search different modes to obtain most benefits, for the company to succeed in a competitive market. This article supports the companies, trying to make known a new way of minimizing the total cost of acquisitions, by presenting some hypotheses about the increasing variable demand, proving them, and development of formulas for reducing the costs. The hypotheses presented in the model described below, can be maximally exploited to obtain new models of reducing the total cost, according to the modes of the purchase of entities which approach it.

  18. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  20. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  1. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  2. An attempt of application of short lived 44K activity induced in the 44Ca(n,p)44K reaction using 14 MeV neutrons for total body calcium assessment in human subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haratym, Z.; Kempisty, T.; Mikolajewski, S.; Rurarz, E.

    1999-01-01

    The status of in vivo neutron activation analysis techniques for the measurement of total body calcium in human subject is reviewed. Relevant data on the nuclear characteristics of calcium isotopes during interaction with neutrons ranging from slow up to 14 MeV neutrons are presented. Physical aspects of the measurement of in vivo total body calcium (TBCa) using 44 K activity induced in the 44 Ca(n,p) 44 K(T 1/2 =22.3 min) reaction by 14 MeV neutrons are discussed. The measurement of delayed γ-ray emitted during decay of activities induced in enriched 44 Ca, nat Ca, phantom filled with water solution of natural calcium and skeletal arm are considered. Results of measurements on the phantom and skeletal arm indicate a possibility to measure the TBCa using the 44 K activity. (author)

  3. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  4. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  5. Large Metal Heads and Vitamin E Polyethylene Increase Frictional Torque in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R Michael; Lovro, Luke R; Wallace, Joseph M; Ziemba-Davis, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Trunnionosis has reemerged in modern total hip arthroplasty for reasons that remain unclear. Bearing frictional torque transmits forces to the modular head-neck interface, which may contribute to taper corrosion. The purpose of this study is to compare frictional torque of modern bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty. Mechanical testing based on in vivo loading conditions was used to measure frictional torque. All bearing couples were lubricated and tested at 1 Hz for more than 2000 cycles. The bearing couples tested included conventional, highly crosslinked (XLPE) and vitamin E polyethylene, CoCr, and ceramic femoral heads and dual-mobility bearings. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test for single-variable and analysis of variance for multivariant analysis. P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. Large CoCr metal heads (≥36 mm) substantially increased frictional torque against XLPE liners (P = .01), a finding not observed in ceramic heads. Vitamin E polyethylene substantially increased frictional torque compared with XLPE in CoCr and ceramic heads (P = .001), whereas a difference between conventional and XLPE was not observed (P = .69) with the numbers available. Dual-mobility bearing with ceramic inner head demonstrated the lowest mean frictional torque of all bearing couples. In this simulated in vivo model, large-diameter CoCr femoral heads and vitamin E polyethylene liners are associated with increased frictional torque compared with smaller metal heads and XLPE, respectively. The increased frictional torque of vitamin E polyethylene and larger-diameter femoral heads should be considered and further studied, along with reported benefits of these modern bearing couples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  7. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Pjuice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  8. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing the total productivity of a land by combining mobile photovoltaic panels and food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, B.; Simonneau, T.; Sourd, F.; Pechier, P.; Hamard, P.; Frisson, T.; Ryckewaert, M.; Christophe, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Combining solar panels and crops on the same land increases the total productivity. •Use of solar trackers permits to balance or promote food/energy production. •Controlling mode of trackers strongly affect the total production per unit area. •Dynamic agrivoltaic systems increases productivity without competing with food. -- Abstract: Agrivoltaic systems, consisting of the combination of photovoltaic panels (PVPs) with crops on the same land, recently emerged as an opportunity to resolve the competition for land use between food and energy production. Such systems have proved efficient when using stationary PVPs at half their usual density. Dynamic agrivoltaic systems improved the concept by using orientable PVPs derived from solar trackers. They offer the possibility to intercept the variable part of solar radiation, as well as new means to increase land productivity. The matter was analysed in this work by comparing fixed and dynamic systems with two different orientation policies. Performances of the resulting agrivoltaic systems were studied for two varieties of lettuce over three different seasons. Solar tracking systems placed all plants in a new microclimate where light and shade bands alternated several times a day at any plant position, while stationary systems split the land surface into more stable shaded and sunlit areas. In spite of these differences, transient shading conditions increased plant leaf area in all agrivoltaic systems compared to full-sun conditions, resulting in a higher conversion of the transmitted radiation by the crop. This benefit was lower during seasons with high radiation and under controlled tracking with more light transmitted to the crop. As expected, regular tracking largely increased electric production compared to stationary PVPs but also slightly increased the transmitted radiation, hence crop biomass. A large increase in transmitted radiation was achieved by restricting solar tracking around midday

  10. Blood Transfusion During Total Ankle Arthroplasty Is Associated With Increased In-Hospital Complications and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Michael A; Huntley, Samuel R; Baker, Dustin K; Smith, Kenneth S; Hudson, Parke W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A; Johnson, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly used, effective treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Although numerous studies have associated blood transfusion with complications following hip and knee arthroplasty, its effects following TAA are largely unknown. This study uses data from a large, nationally representative database to estimate the association between blood transfusion and inpatient complications and hospital costs following TAA. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2004 to 2014, 25 412 patients who underwent TAA were identified, with 286 (1.1%) receiving a blood transfusion. Univariate analysis assessed patient and hospital factors associated with blood transfusion following TAA. Patients requiring blood transfusion were more likely to be female, African American, Medicare recipients, and treated in nonteaching hospitals. Average length of stay for patients following transfusion was 3.0 days longer, while average inpatient cost was increased by approximately 50%. Patients who received blood transfusion were significantly more likely to suffer from congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, hypothyroidism, coagulation disorder, or anemia. Acute renal failure was significantly more common among patients receiving blood transfusion ( P < .001). Blood transfusions following TAA are infrequent and are associated with multiple medical comorbidities, increased complications, longer hospital stays, and increased overall cost. Level III: Retrospective, comparative study.

  11. The effect of GlycoPEGylation on the physical stability of human rFVIIa with increasing calcium chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effects of calcium chloride on the structural, kinetic and thermal stability of recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10 kDa PEG and a branched 40 kDa PEG, respectively. Three different CaCl(2......) concentrations were used: 10mM, 35 mM and 100mM. The secondary structure and tertiary structure of rFVIIa at 25C, measured by circular dichroism (CD), were maintained upon GlycoPEGylation as well as CaCl(2) content. In contrast, the thermal stability of the three rFVIIa compounds, measured by differential......FVIIa, whereas the concentration of CaCl(2) has to be raised to 100mM in order to see the same effect on the GlycoPEGylated rFVIIa compounds. The temperature of aggregation of rFVIIa, T(agg), increased as the CaCl(2) concentration increased from 35 mM to 100 mM, while T(agg) for the GlycoPEGylated r...

  12. Resveratrol inhibits the intracellular calcium increase and angiotensin/endothelin system activation induced by soluble uric acid in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertoni, G.; Schor, N. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-24

    Resveratrol (Resv) is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA) in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs). ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM) for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL) for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT) and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca{sup 2+}]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells.

  13. Ankylosing Spondylitis Increases Perioperative and Postoperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Penrose, Colin T; Sheets, Charles Z; Seyler, Thorsten M; Bolognesi, Michael P; Brown, Christopher R

    2017-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune spondyloarthropathy that primarily affects the axial spine and hips. Progressive disease leads to pronounced spinal kyphosis, positive sagittal balance, and altered biomechanics. The purpose of this study is to determine the complication profile of patients with AS undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). The Medicare sample was searched from 2005 to 2012 yielding 1006 patients with AS who subsequently underwent THA. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for 90-day, 2-year, and the final postoperative follow-up for complications including hip dislocation, periprosthetic fracture, wound complication, revision THA, and postoperative infection. Compared to controls, AS patients had an RR of 2.50 (CI, 1.04-5.99) of THA component breakage at 90-days post-operatively and 1.99 (CI, 1.10-3.59) at 2-years. The RR of periprosthetic hip dislocation was elevated at 90 days (1.44; CI, 0.93-2.22) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.67; CI, 1.25-2.23) and overall follow-up (1.49; CI, 1.14-1.93). Similarly, the RR for THA revision was elevated at 90-days (1.46; CI, 0.97-2.18) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.69; CI, 1.33-2.14) and overall follow-up (1.51; CI, 1.23-1.85). Patients with AS are at increased risk for complications after THA. Altered biomechanics from a rigid, kyphotic spine place increased demand on the hip joints. The elevated perioperative and postoperative risks should be discussed preoperatively, and these patients may require increased preoperative medical optimization as well as possible changes in component selection and position to compensate for altered spinopelvic biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, F T A; Rigter, S M; Hoek, J; Goldschmidt, H M J; Niesink, R J M

    2005-06-01

    The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons. Samples of cannabis preparations from randomly selected coffee shops were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC-FID) for THC, CBD and CBN. In 2004, the average THC level of Dutch home-grown marijuana (Nederwiet) (20.4% THC) was significantly higher than that of imported marijuana (7.0% THC). Hashish derived from Dutch marijuana (Nederhasj) contained 39.3% THC in 2004, compared with 18.2% THC in imported hashish. The average THC percentage of Dutch marijuana, Dutch hashish and imported hashish was significantly higher than in previous years. It nearly doubled over 5 years. During this period, the THC percentage in imported marijuana remained unchanged. A higher price had to be paid for cannabis with higher levels of THC. Whether the increase in THC levels causes increased health risks for users can only be concluded when more data are available on adjusted patterns of use, abuse liability, bioavailability and levels of THC in the brain.

  15. Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D

    2010-02-01

    Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.

  16. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Compositional Evolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Structures by Total X-Ray Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Soyer-Uzun, Sezen

    2011-12-09

    High-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structural characteristics of a set of C-S-H samples with 0.6 ≤ C/S a;circ 1.75. It has been observed that Si is tetrahedrally coordinated to O for all samples irrespective of chemical composition and the Ca-O coordination number gradually decreases from ∼7 to ∼6 with increasing C/S ratio. This suggests that the C-S-H structure evolves from a tobermorite-like structure into a jennite-like structure as a function of increasing C/S ratio as the interlayer space decreases from ∼1.3 to ∼1 nm. Evolution of these short- and medium-range order structural characteristics in the C-S-H system is associated with the alteration of the Ca-O layers and silicate depolymerization with increasing C/S. © 2011 The American Ceramic Society.

  18. Compositional Evolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Structures by Total X-Ray Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Soyer-Uzun, Sezen; Chae, Sejung Rosie; Benmore, Chris J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structural characteristics of a set of C-S-H samples with 0.6 ≤ C/S a;circ 1.75. It has been observed that Si is tetrahedrally coordinated to O for all samples irrespective of chemical composition and the Ca-O coordination number gradually decreases from ∼7 to ∼6 with increasing C/S ratio. This suggests that the C-S-H structure evolves from a tobermorite-like structure into a jennite-like structure as a function of increasing C/S ratio as the interlayer space decreases from ∼1.3 to ∼1 nm. Evolution of these short- and medium-range order structural characteristics in the C-S-H system is associated with the alteration of the Ca-O layers and silicate depolymerization with increasing C/S. © 2011 The American Ceramic Society.

  19. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  20. Meeting increased demand for total knee replacement and follow-up: determining optimal follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meding, J B; Ritter, M A; Davis, K E; Farris, A

    2013-11-01

    The strain on clinic and surgeon resources resulting from a rise in demand for total knee replacement (TKR) requires reconsideration of when and how often patients need to be seen for follow-up. Surgeons will otherwise require increased paramedical staff or need to limit the number of TKRs they undertake. We reviewed the outcome data of 16 414 primary TKRs undertaken at our centre to determine the time to re-operation for any reason and for specific failure mechanisms. Peak risk years for failure were determined by comparing the conditional probability of failure, the number of failures divided by the total number of TKRs cases, for each year. The median times to failure for the most common failure mechanisms were 4.9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 to 10.7) for femoral and tibial loosening, 1.9 years (IQR 0.8 to 3.9) for infection, 3.1 years (IQR 1.6 to 5.5) for tibial collapse and 5.6 years (IQR 3.4 to 9.3) for instability. The median time to failure for all revisions was 3.3 years (IQR 1.2 to 8.5), with an overall revision rate of 1.7% (n = 282). Results from our patient population suggest that patients be seen for follow-up at six months, one year, three years, eight years, 12 years, and every five years thereafter. Patients with higher pain in the early post-operative period or high body mass index (≥ 41 kg/m(2)) should be monitored more closely.

  1. Granuloma debridement and the use of an injectable calcium phosphate bone cement in the treatment of osteolysis in an uncemented total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranawat Vijai S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyethylene particulate debris-induced periprosthetic osteolysis is a known complication of knee arthroplasty surgery, and may result in the need for revision surgery. The management of these bony defects can be surgically challenging, and full revisions of well-fixed total knee components can lead to substantial bone loss. We present the case of a 71 year old man who developed knee pain and osteolysis around an uncemented total knee replacement. Due to significant medical comorbidies he was treated by percutaneous cyst granuloma debridement and grafting using an injectable calcium phosphate bone substitute. There were no wound complications, and the patient was allowed to fully weight-bear post-operatively. Histopathology and microbiology of the cyst material confirmed polyethylene granulomata without any evidence of infection. At 6 weeks post-operatively the patient's previous knee pain had resolved, he was able to comfortably fully weight-bear. Preoperative scores (Knee Society Score (KSS 41, WOMAC score 46.2, and Oxford Knee Score 39 had all improved at the 12-month post-operative review KSS 76, WOMAC 81.7 and Oxford Knee score 21. This is a safe and effective technique with minimal morbidity and may be an appropriate treatment modality when more extensive revision surgery is not possible. The case is discussed with reference to the literature.

  2. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  3. Physical exercise in aging human skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial calcium uniporter expression levels and affects mitochondria dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mammucari, Cristina; Romanello, Vanina; Barberi, Laura; Pietrangelo, Laura; Fusella, Aurora; Mosole, Simone; Gherardi, Gaia; Höfer, Christian; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Cvecka, Jan; Krenn, Matthias; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice. To understand the relevance of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in aging and to investigate the effect of physical exercise on MCU expression and mitochondria dynamics, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from 70-year-old subjects 9 weeks trained with either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) or leg press. Here, we demonstrate that improved muscle function and structure induced by both trainings are linked to increased protein levels of MCU Ultrastructural analyses by electron microscopy showed remodeling of mitochondrial apparatus in ES-trained muscles that is consistent with an adaptation to physical exercise, a response likely mediated by an increased expression of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. Altogether these results indicate that the ES-dependent physiological effects on skeletal muscle size and force are associated with changes in mitochondrial-related proteins involved in Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape. These original findings in aging human skeletal muscle confirm the data obtained in mice and propose MCU and mitochondria-related proteins as potential pharmacological targets to counteract age-related muscle loss. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. A silver ion-doped calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder-coated prosthesis increased infection resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Nusret; Otuzbir, Ali; Pekşen, Ceren; Kiremitçi, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Aydin

    2013-08-01

    Despite progress in surgical techniques, 1% to 2% of joint arthroplasties become complicated by infection. Coating implant surfaces with antimicrobial agents have been attempted to prevent initial bacterial adhesion to implants with varying success rates. We developed a silver ion-containing calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder coating to provide antibacterial activity for orthopaedic implants. We asked whether titanium prostheses coated with this nanopowder would show resistance to bacterial colonization as compared with uncoated prostheses. We inserted titanium implants (uncoated [n = 9], hydroxyapatite-coated [n = 9], silver-coated [n = 9]) simulating knee prostheses into 27 rabbits' knees. Before implantation, 5 × 10(2) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into the femoral canal. Radiology, microbiology, and histology findings were quantified at Week 6 to define the infection, microbiologically by increased rate of implant colonization/positive cultures, histologically by leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, foreign-body granuloma, and devitalized bone, and radiographically by periosteal reaction, osteolysis, or sequestrum formation. Swab samples taken from medullary canals and implants revealed a lower proportion of positive culture in silver-coated implants (one of nine) than in uncoated (eight of nine) or hydroxyapatite-coated (five of nine) implants. Silver-coated implants also had a lower rate of colonization. No cellular inflammation or foreign-body granuloma was observed around the silver-coated prostheses. Silver ion-doped ceramic nanopowder coating of titanium implants led to an increase in resistance to bacterial colonization compared to uncoated implants. Silver-coated orthopaedic implants may be useful for resistance to local infection but will require in vivo confirmation.

  5. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  6. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  7. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  8. Rapid Electrical Stimulation Increased Cardiac Apoptosis Through Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Geng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heart failure induced by tachycardia, the most common arrhythmia, is frequently observed in clinical practice. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Rapid electrical stimulation (RES at a frequency of 3 Hz was applied on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs for 7 days, with 8 h/day and 24 h/day set to represent short-term and long-term tachycardia, respectively. Age-matched hiPSC-CMs without electrical stimulation or with slow electrical stimulation (1 Hz were set as no electrical stimulation (NES control or low-frequency electrical stimulation (LES control. Following stimulation, JC-1 staining flow cytometry analysis was performed to examine mitochondrial conditions. Apoptosis in hiPSC-CMs was evaluated using Hoechst staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI staining flow cytometry analysis. Calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were recorded to evaluate calcium homeostasis. Western blotting and qPCR were performed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and calcium homeostasis-regulated genes. Results: Compared to the controls, hiPSC-CMs following RES presented mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased apoptotic percentage. Amplitudes of calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were significantly decreased in hiPSC-CMs with RES. Molecular analysis demonstrated upregulated expression of Caspase3 and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Genes related to calcium re-sequence were downregulated, while phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII was significantly upregulated following RES. There was no significant difference between the NES control and LES control groups in these aspects. Inhibition of CaMKII with 1 µM KN93 partly reversed these adverse effects of RES. Conclusion: RES on hiPSC-CMs disturbed calcium homeostasis, which led to mitochondrial stress, promoted cell apoptosis and

  9. The effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on nicotinic receptors: Intracellular calcium increase, calpain/caspase 3 activation, and functional upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rates, Sara; Camarasa, Jordi; Sanchez-Garcia, Ana I.; Gandia, Luis; Escubedo, Elena; Pubill, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous work by our group demonstrated that homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play a role in the neurotoxicity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as well as the binding affinity of this drug to these receptors. Here we studied the effect of MDMA on the activation of nAChR subtypes, the consequent calcium mobilization, and calpain/caspase 3 activation because prolonged Ca 2+ increase could contribute to cytotoxicity. As techniques, we used fluorimetry in Fluo-4-loaded PC12 cells and electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes. MDMA produced a rapid and sustained increase in calcium without reaching the maximum effect induced by ACh. It also concentration-dependently inhibited the response induced by ACh, nicotine, and the specific α7 agonist PNU 282987 with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range. Similarly, MDMA induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes transfected with human α7 but not with α4β2 nAChR and inhibited ACh-induced currents in both receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The calcium response was inhibited by methyllycaconitine (MLA) and α-bungarotoxin but not by dihydro-β-erythroidine. These results therefore indicate that MDMA acts as a partial agonist on α7 nAChRs and as an antagonist on the heteromeric subtypes. Subsequently, calcium-induced Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and entry through voltage-operated calcium channels are also implicated as proved using specific antagonists. In addition, treatment with MDMA for 24 h significantly increased basal Ca 2+ levels and induced an increase in α-spectrin breakdown products, which indicates that calpain and caspase 3 were activated. These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with MLA. Moreover, pretreatment with MDMA induced functional upregulation of calcium responses to specific agonists of both heteromeric and α7 nAChR. Sustained calcium entry and calpain activation could favor the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent enzymes such as

  10. Obesity is Not Associated with Increased Short-term Complications After Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jimmy J; Somogyi, Jason R; Patel, Pranay B; Koh, Jason L; Dirschl, Douglas R; Shi, Lewis L

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the association between elevated BMI and complications after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Previous studies have not consistently arrived at the same conclusion regarding whether obesity is associated with a greater number of postoperative complications. We used a national surgical database to compare the 30-day complication profile and hospitalization outcomes after primary TSA among patients in different BMI categories. We asked: (1) Is obesity associated with an increased risk of complications within 30 days of primary TSA? (2) Is obesity associated with increased operative time? The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program(®) database for 2006 to 2012 was queried to identify all patients who underwent a primary TSA for osteoarthritis of the shoulder. The ACS-NSQIP(®) database was selected for this study as it is a nationally representative database that provides prospectively collected perioperative data and a comprehensive patient medical profile. Exclusion criteria included revision TSA, infection, tumor, or fracture. We analyzed 4796 patients who underwent a primary TSA for osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Patients who underwent a TSA were divided in four BMI categories: normal (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-30 kg/m(2)), obesity Class 1 (30-35 kg/m(2)), and obesity Class 2 or greater (> 35 kg/m(2)). Perioperative hospitalization data and 30-day postoperative complications were compared among different BMI classes. Differences in patient demographics, preoperative laboratory values, and preexisting patient comorbidities also were analyzed among different BMI groups, and multivariate analysis was used to adjust for any potential confounding variables. There was no association between BMI and 30-day complications after surgery (normal as reference, overweight group relative risk: 0.57 [95% CI, 0.30-1.06], p = 0.076; obesity Class 1 relative risk: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.26-1.03], p = 0.061; obesity

  11. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  12. Increased acellular and cellular surface mineralization induced by nanogrooves in combination with a calcium-phosphate coating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymov, A.; Song, J.; Cai, X; Riet, J. te; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2016-01-01

    The current work evaluated the influence of nanoscale surface-topographies in combination with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on acellular and cellular surface mineralization. Four groups of substrates were produced, including smooth, grooved (940nm pitch, 430nm groove width, 185nm depth), smooth

  13. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  14. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  15. Increasing comorbidity is associated with worsening physical function and pain after primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Maren E; Gioe, Terence; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-10-07

    Previous studies suggested that pre-operative comorbidity was a risk factor for worse outcomes after TKA. To our knowledge, studies have not examined whether postoperative changes in comorbidity impact pain and function outcomes longitudinally. Our objective was to examine if increasing comorbidity postoperatively is associated with worsening physical function and pain after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We performed a retrospective chart review of veterans who had completed Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form-36 (SF36) surveys at regular intervals after primary TKA. Comorbidity was assessed using a variety of scales: validated Charlson comorbidity index score, and a novel Arthroplasty Comorbidity Severity Index score (Including medical index, local musculoskeletal index [including lower extremity and spine] and TKA-related index subscales; higher scores are worse ), at multiple time-points post-TKA. We used mixed model linear regression to examine the association of worsening comorbidity post-TKA with change in WOMAC and SF-36 scores in the subsequent follow-up periods, controlling for age, length of follow-up, and repeated observations. The study cohort consisted of 124 patients with a mean age of 71.7 years (range 58.6-89.2, standard deviation (SD) 6.9) followed for a mean of 4.9 years post-operatively (range 1.3-11.4; SD 2.8). We found that post-operative worsening of the Charlson Index score was significantly associated with worsening SF-36 Physical Function (PF) (beta coefficient (ß) = -0.07; p < 0.0001), SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) (ß = -0.06; p = 0.002), and WOMAC PF subscale (ß = 0.08; p < 0.001; higher scores are worse) scores, in the subsequent periods. Worsening novel medical index subscale scores were significantly associated with worsening SF-36 PF scores (ß = -0.03; p = 0.002), SF-36 BP (ß = -0.04; p < 0.001) and showed a non-significant trend

  16. The influence of magnesium deficiency on calcium metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvor, P.; Labat, M.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium metabolism was studied in magnesium-deficient rats with an isotopic technique. 45 Ca was injected intravenously and the blood calcium radioactivity curve was analyzed mathematically to compute the kinetics of calcium exchange in the whole body. No important change was noticed after a 10-day magnesium deficiency; there was a significant reduction of the ratio calcium pool/total calcium output from the pool (P/Vsub(T)). After a 20-day deficiency, a dramatic decrease in the two compartments of exchangeable calcium (-40%), and a less important decrease of Vsub(T)(-15%) was noted. Blood plasma urea level increased during magnesium deficiency, while urea urinary clearance remained

  17. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  18. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  19. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  20. Increased total-Tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric hydrocephalus and brain tumor patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Judith M.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Reddingius, Roel E.; Pieters, Rob; van Gool, Stefdan W.

    Total Tau (t-Tau), hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau((181P))) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have shown to be markers of neuronal and axonal degeneration in various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the presence of

  1. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, F.; Van Der Straeten, D.; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2018), s. 809-818 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-10948S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Calcium * Ethylene * Silver ions * Tobacco BY-2 cells * Transmembrane transport Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  2. Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of calcium-fortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontaralak, Porntip; Limboon, Pailin; Jatuwong, Sujitra; Chavanalikit, Arusa

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L(-1) ), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. Calcium-fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L(-1) concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Calcium-fortified rice (190.47-194.3 mg 100 g(-1) ) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L(-1) calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Less Than Total Excision of Infected Prosthetic PTFE Graft Does Not Increase the Risk of Reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Michael D; Kirkpatrick, Vincent E; Resnick, Karen A; Williams, Russell A; Wilson, Samuel E; Gordon, Ian L

    2015-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infected polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts consist of removal of the entire prosthesis. Closure of the native vessels may compromise vascular patency. We examined the outcomes for patients in whom a PTFE remnant of an infected graft was retained on the vessel. We reviewed the operating room log from 2000 to 2011 and identified all patients who had partial removal of an infected PTFE graft used for hemodialysis or peripheral bypass. These patients were examined for subsequent complications. Twenty-seven patients underwent 30 partial graft excisions with mean follow-up of 27 months. A total of 17% (5 of 30) of the partial graft resection procedures resulted in complications. Of 48 total remnants left behind at the arterial or venous anastomoses, reinfection occurred in 15%. Leaving a well-incorporated small 1-to 5-mm PTFE remnant at the arterial or venous anastomoses can be performed safely with a low risk of complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  5. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. RESULTS: Data from 23...

  6. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  7. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  8. Total and cause-specific mortality by moderately and markedly increased ferritin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Marott, Jacob Louis; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 × 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations ≥600 μg/L, 72 years at 400-599 μg/L, 76 years at 200-399 μg/L, and 79 years at ferritin

  9. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  10. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...

  11. Angiotensin effects on calcium and steroidogenesis in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.E.; Siegel, F.L.; Hadjokas, N.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the role of cellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. Angiotensin II decreased the size of the exchangeable cell calcium pool by 34%, consistent with previous observations that angiotensin II causes decreased uptake of 45 Ca+2 into cells and increased efflux of 45 Ca+2 from preloaded cells. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that angiotension II caused a decrease of 21% in total cellular calcium. Angiotensin II caused efflux of 45 Ca+2 in the presence of EGTA and retarded uptake of 45 Ca+2 when choline was substituted for sodium, suggesting that hormone effects on calcium pools do not involve influx of trigger calcium or sodium. Cells incubated in calcium-free buffer and 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM EGTA synthesized reduced (but still significant) amounts of the steroid in response to hormone. Cells incubated in increasing concentrations of extracellular calcium contained increasing amounts of intracellular calcium and synthesized increasing amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin II. These results point to the participation of intracellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated steroidogenesis and the importance of extracellular calcium in maintaining these pools

  12. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  13. Do shorter lengths of stay increase readmissions after total joint replacements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai S. Sibia, MD, MBA

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Early discharge does not increase readmissions and may help attenuate costs associated with TJRs. Further refinement of protocols may allow for more patients to be safely discharged on postoperative day 1.

  14. Implementation of total productive maintenance (TPM to increase overall equipment efficiency of an hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotel industries are one of the fastest growing areas in India, which is attracting more number of jobs & tourists. This also results in direct impact on Indian economy. All Hotels comprises a higher element of total working cost and they are a good source of income. Hospitality is one of the most important components of hotel industry. To give a good hospitality in hotels to customers, we need to use different machines in different departments. For example if we take section of housekeeping it consists of different sub departments like Rooms & corridors, Toilets, Linen, Furniture and furnishings, Gardens, Public areas etc. In this connection a small implementation of TPM tool called focused improvement & planned maintenance, implemented in alternative usage of electrical systems (energy conservation. Result showed a very significant improvement in energy saving. By adopting Small changes show a significant improvement in the overall system. It also indicates the dire need of proper industrial tools in hotels. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM is one of the pioneering approaches which can be achieved in above said things [1][2].

  15. Tranexamic acid increases early perioperative functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Grosso, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of tranexamic acid (TXA on functional outcomes in the immediate postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We hypothesized that the known benefits of TXA would confer measurable clinical improvements in physical therapy (PT performance, decrease pain, and decrease hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 560 TKA patients, including 280 consecutive patients whose surgery was performed before the initiation of a standardized TXA protocol and the first 280 patients who received TXA after protocol initiation. Outcome measurements included postoperative changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit, LOS, pain scores, destination of discharge, and steps ambulated with PT over 5 sessions. Results: TXA administration resulted in less overall drops in hemoglobin (P < .001 and hematocrit levels (P < .001. Moreover, patients administered TXA ambulated more than their counterparts during every PT session, which was statistically significant during the second (P = .010, third (P = .011, and fourth (P = .024 sessions. On average, the TXA cohort ambulated 20% more per PT session than patients who did not receive TXA (P < .001. TXA administration did not influence pain levels during PT, hospital LOS, or discharge destination in this investigation. Conclusions: It is well known that TXA reduces postoperative anemia, but this study also demonstrates that it confers early perioperative functional benefits for TKA patients. Potential mechanisms for this benefit include reduced rates of postoperative anemia and reduced rates of hemarthroses. Keywords: Tranexamic acid, Total knee arthroplasty, Blood loss, Physical therapy

  16. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  17. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    -joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...

  18. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total blood loss (TBL) and the safety with respect to the re-amputation rate after transtibial amputation (TTA) conducted with and without a tourniquet. METHODS: The study was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary TTA admitted between January...... 2013 and April 2015. All patients with a primary TTA were assessed for inclusion if the amputation was performed because of arteriosclerosis or diabetic complications. All patients underwent a standardized TTA procedure that was performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint and performed...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  19. Increased risk of revision for infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients with total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, Johannes Cornelis; Fenstad, Anne M; Dale, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose-Medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically over the last 15 years, including immune modulation. We investigated the risk of revision for infection after primary total hip replacement (THR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over a 16-year...... period, and compared it with that in THR patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Patients and methods-We identified 13,384 THRs in RA patients and 377,287 THRs in OA patients from 1995 through 2010 in a dataset from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA). Kaplan-Meier survival curves......, with revision for infection as the endpoint, were constructed. Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate the relative risk (RR) of revision for infection adjusted for age, sex, fixation technique, and year of primary surgery.Results-RA patients had a 1.3 times (95% CI 1.0-1.6) higher risk of revision...

  20. Electroconvulsive stimulations prevent chronic stress-induced increases in L-type calcium channel mRNAs in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maigaard, Katrine; Pedersen, Ida Hageman; Jørgensen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Although affective disorders have high prevalence, morbidity and mortality, we do not fully understand disease etiopathology, nor have we determined the exact mechanisms by which treatment works. Recent research indicates that intracellular calcium ion dysfunction might be involved. Here we use...... the chronic restraint stress model of affective disorder (6 h restraint per day for 21 days) in combination with electroconvulsive stimulations to examine the effects of stress and an effective antidepressive treatment modality on L-type voltage gated calcium channel subunit mRNA expression patterns...... in the brain. We find that stress tended to upregulate Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels in a brain region specific manner, while ECS tended to normalise this effect. This was more pronounced for Ca(v)1.2 channels, where stress clearly increased expression in both the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus and CA3...

  1. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A

    2015-01-01

    ANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample...... stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration...... was significantly (Phorses with atrial dilatation (761.4 (442.1-1859.1) pmol/l) than in healthy horses (491.6 (429.5-765.9) pmol/l; Phorses with cardiac disease but without atrial dilatation (544.4 (457.0-677.6) pmol/l). A cut-off value (573.8 pmol/l) for detection of atrial dilatation...

  2. Increasing Perioperative Communication With Automated Mobile Phone Messaging in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Molly A; Anthony, Christopher A; Bedard, Nicholas A; Glass, Natalie A; Clark, Charles R; Callaghan, John J; Noiseux, Nicolas O

    2018-01-01

    Automated mobile phone messaging has not been reported in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our purpose was to compare Press Ganey (PG) and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores between TJA patients who did and did not receive perioperative automated mobile phone messages. Patients were prospectively enrolled and received messages for 1 week prior until 2 weeks after TJA. Message content included reminders, activity, and pain control. Patients answered select PG/HCAHPS and questions regarding their experience with the automated communication platform. Average PG/HCAHPS scores were compared to historical TJA patients in the 3-year window prior (control group) with significance P communication via automated mobile phone messaging had improved patient satisfaction scores postoperatively. Patients perceived this form of communication was useful and kept them better informed. Automated mobile phone messaging can be an easily integrated, helpful adjunct to surgeons, healthcare systems, and case managers to more effectively communicate with patients undergoing TJA in this era of value-based care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A home-based nutrition intervention to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods in community dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A; Nelson, Miriam E; Tucker, Katherine L; Layne, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth; Nuernberger, Andrea; Castaneda, Carmen; Judge, James O; Buchner, David; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2002-10-01

    To increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption in community-dwelling, functionally impaired elderly. Six-month, home-based nutrition intervention study. Seventy men and women older than age 69 years were randomized to either a nutrition education intervention (n = 38) or a control group that received an exercise intervention (n = 32). Nutrition education was designed to increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption. Food intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood measures of nutrients and carotenoids were performed. Statistical Analysis Two-group randomized controlled trial with pre-test and post-test design and intention-to-treat analysis. Analysis of covariance to was used to assess differences between the two groups. Baseline and change partial correlation coefficients were performed between intake and blood nutrient levels. Paired t tests were conducted to test within-group changes. Compared with the exercise group, subjects in nutrition group increased their self-reported intake of fruits by 1.1 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) servings per day (2.8 to 3.9, P = .01), vegetables 1.1 +/- 0.2 servings per day (2.3 to 3.4, P = .001), and milk/dairy 0.9 +/- 0.2 servings per day (3.0 to 3.9, P = .001). There was an increase in the dietary intake of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in the nutrition group and this correlated with the increase in blood concentrations of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene (P foods. Recommendations for increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods should be specific and individualized to meet the dietary pattern and lifestyle of the individual. Compliance should be encouraged with record keeping as well as through continuous monitoring and positive reinforcement.

  4. Theophylline and adenosine modulate the inflammatory functions of the human neutrophil by exerting an opposing influence on the stimulus-induced increase in intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeichel Morley, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Based on evidence that endogenously-produced adenosine inhibited neutrophil responses, the influence of methylxanthine bronchodilators on neutrophil responses stimulated in vitro by n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was examined. At concentrations between 10/sup /minus/5/ M and 10/sup /minus/4/ M, theophylline potentiated lysosomal enzyme release by 30 to 50%, superoxide anion formation by 30 to 60%, and neutrophil aggregation. Theophylline at concentrations >10/sup /minus/4/ M inhibited the same responses by >90%. Adenosine deaminase mimicked, whereas adenosine reversed the theophylline potentiation. A potential role for calcium in the modulation of the neutrophil responses by theophylline and adenosine was explored. Theophylline enhanced by >150% the fMLP-stimulated increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]/sub i/) at time points between 5 and 90 sec as measured by Fura-2. Adenosine deaminase induced a comparable enhancement, whereas 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ M adenosine and 10/sup /minus/7/ M N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine decreased the [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Extracellular calcium was not required for the opposing influences of theophylline and adenosine and neither compound altered fMLP-stimulated 45 Ca uptake at the early time points

  5. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  7. Chronic ethanol exposure induces SK-N-SH cell apoptosis by increasing N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Yan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Changliang; Feng, Chunmei; Xu, Guohui; Chen, Jiajun; You, Jiabin; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    It has been identified that chronic ethanol exposure damages the nervous system, particularly neurons. There is scientific evidence suggesting that neuronal loss caused by chronic ethanol exposure has an association with neuron apoptosis and intracellular calcium oscillation is one of the primary inducers of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the inductive effects of intracellular calcium oscillation on apoptosis in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells and the protective effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, on SK-N-SH cell apoptosis caused by chronic ethanol exposure. SK-N-SH cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol and memantine (4 µM) for 2 days. Protein expression of NR1 was downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi). Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and flow cytometry and cell viability was detected using an MTS kit. Fluorescence dual wavelength spectrophotometry was used to determine the intracellular calcium concentration and the levels of NR1 and caspase-3 were detected using western blotting. NR1 mRNA levels were also detected using qPCR. It was found that chronic ethanol exposure reduced neuronal cell viability and caused apoptosis of SK-N-SH cells, and the extent of damage in SK-N-SH cells was associated with ethanol exposure concentration and time. In addition, chronic ethanol exposure increased the concentration of intracellular calcium in SK-N-SH cells by inducing the expression of NMDAR, resulting in apoptosis, and memantine treatment reduced ethanol-induced cell apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that the application of memantine may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of alcoholic dementia.

  8. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  9. Serum calcium and incident diabetes: an observational study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C W; Cheng, V K F; Ho, D K C; Kung, A W C; Cheung, B M Y; Wong, I C K; Tan, K C B; Salas-Salvadó, J; Becerra-Tomas, N; Cheung, C L

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate if serum calcium is related to diabetes incidence in Hong Kong Chinese. The results showed that serum calcium has a significant association with increased risk of diabetes. The result of meta-analysis reinforced our findings. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum calcium, including serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium, with incident diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 6096 participants aged 20 or above and free of diabetes at baseline. Serum calcium was measured at baseline. Incident diabetes was determined from several electronic databases. We also searched relevant databases for studies on serum calcium and incident diabetes and conducted a meta-analysis using fixed-effect modeling. During 59,130.9 person-years of follow-up, 631 participants developed diabetes. Serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium were associated with incident diabetes in the unadjusted model. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the association remained significant only for serum total calcium (hazard ratio (HR), 1.32 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.70), highest vs. lowest quartile). In a meta-analysis of four studies including the current study, both serum total calcium (pooled risk ratio (RR), 1.38 (95 % CI, 1.15-1.65); I (2) = 5 %, comparing extreme quantiles) and albumin-corrected calcium (pooled RR, 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.61); I (2) = 0 %, comparing extreme quantiles) were associated with incident diabetes. Penalized regression splines showed that the association of incident diabetes with serum total calcium and albumin-correlated calcium was non-linear and linear, respectively. Elevated serum calcium concentration is associated with incident diabetes. The mechanism underlying this association warrants further investigation.

  10. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner and suppresses gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake via phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Duck; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-11-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of saponarin, a flavone glucoside, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Saponarin suppressed the rate of gluconeogenesis and increased cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 and TE671 cells by regulating AMPK. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we showed that saponarin did not directly interact with the AMPK protein. Instead, saponarin increased intracellular calcium levels and induced AMPK phosphorylation, which was diminished by co-stimulation with STO-609, an inhibitor of CAMKKβ. Transcription of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes was upregulated by nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and HDAC5, coactivators of CREB and FoxO1 transcription factors, respectively. This nuclear translocation was inhibited by increased phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 by saponarin-induced AMPK in HepG2 cells and suppression of CREB and FoxO1 transactivation activities in cells stimulated by saponarin. The results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the reduced binding of CRTC2 on the PEPCK and G6Pase promoters. In TE671 cells, AMPK phosphorylated HDAC5, which suppressed nuclear penetration and upregulated GLUT4 transcription, leading to enhanced glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner, thus regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation and increases sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Taj D.; Gandy, Johanna C.; Bijur, Gautam N.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed protein glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is constitutively active, however its activity is markedly diminished following phosphorylation of Ser21 of GSK3α and Ser9 of GSK3β. Although several kinases are known to phosphorylate Ser21/9 of GSK3, for example Akt, relatively much less is known about the mechanisms that cause the dephosphorylation of GSK3 at Ser21/9. In the present study KCl-induced plasma membrane depolarization of SH-SY5Y cells, which increases intracellular calcium concentrations caused a transient decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, and GSK3 at Ser21/9. Overexpression of the selective protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, inhibitor-2, increased basal GSK3 phosphorylation at Ser21/9 and significantly blocked the KCl-induced dephosphorylation of GSK3β, but not GSK3α. The phosphorylation of Akt was not affected by the overexpression of inhibitor-2. GSK3 activity is known to affect sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) levels. Overexpression of inhibitor-2 or treatment of cells with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and SB216763 increased the levels of SERCA2. These results indicate that the protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by KCl and that GSK3 activity regulates SERCA2 levels

  13. Calcium, Magnesium and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC in Seminal Plasma of Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis Bulls and their Relationships with Semen Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen

  14. A sensor for calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified. PMID:20844529

  15. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  16. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-09-18

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-09-29

    To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials or cohort studies of dietary calcium, milk or dairy intake, or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) with fracture as an outcome and participants aged >50. There were only two eligible randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium (n=262), but 50 reports from 44 cohort studies of relations between dietary calcium (n=37), milk (n=14), or dairy intake (n=8) and fracture outcomes. For dietary calcium, most studies reported no association between calcium intake and fracture (14/22 for total, 17/21 for hip, 7/8 for vertebral, and 5/7 for forearm fracture). For milk (25/28) and dairy intake (11/13), most studies also reported no associations. In 26 randomised controlled trials, calcium supplements reduced the risk of total fracture (20 studies, n=58,573; relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96) and vertebral fracture (12 studies, n=48,967. 0.86, 0.74 to 1.00) but not hip (13 studies, n=56,648; 0.95, 0.76 to 1.18) or forearm fracture (eight studies, n=51,775; 0.96, 0.85 to 1.09). Funnel plot inspection and Egger's regression suggested bias toward calcium supplements in the published data. In randomised controlled trials at lowest risk of bias (four studies, n=44,505), there was no effect on risk of fracture at any site. Results were similar for trials of calcium monotherapy and co-administered calcium and vitamin D. Only one trial in frail elderly women in residential care with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D

  18. Ileus following total hip or knee arthroplasty is associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Mallory, Thomas H; Dodds, Kathleen L; Adams, Joanne B

    2004-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, causes morbidity and mortality following total hip and total knee arthroplasties, while ileus complicates up to 4.0%. The clinical courses of 2,949 patients undergoing 3,364 consecutive primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasties, radical debridements, and reimplantations at one institution over a 2-year period were reviewed to examine the relationship between ileus and VTD. VTD prophylaxis consisted of aspirin and intermittent plantar pulse boots for all patients except those at high risk, who received parenteral chemical prophylaxis and boots. Ileus occurred in 62 patients (2.1%) and symptomatic DVT in 51 (1.7%). With ileus, the incidence of DVT was 8.1%: odds ratio 5.5 (P =.0036). Symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 7 patients (0.24%); with ileus the incidence was 3.2%: odds ratio 19.6 (P =.0082). A significant increase was observed in rates of VTD with ileus. We recommend using parenteral chemical and mechanical prophylaxis in patients with ileus following total hip and total knee arthroplasties.

  19. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  20. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  1. Sigma-1 receptor agonist increases axon outgrowth of hippocampal neurons via voltage-gated calcium ions channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Shu-Zhuo; Yao, Yu-Hong; Xiang, Yun; Ma, Xiao-Yun; Wei, Xiao-Li; Yan, Hai-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan

    2017-12-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that have been implicated in both neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Sig-1R plays a role in neuroprotection and axon outgrowth. The underlying mechanisms of Sig-1R-mediated neuroprotection have been well elucidated. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of Sig-1R on axon outgrowth are not fully understood. To clarify this issue, we utilized immunofluorescence to compare the axon lengths of cultured naïve hippocampal neurons before and after the application of the Sig-1R agonist, SA4503. Then, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence were used to examine voltage-gated calcium ion channel (VGCCs) currents in the cell membranes and growth cones. We found that Sig-1R activation dramatically enhanced the axonal length of the naïve hippocampal neurons. Application of the Sig-1R antagonist NE100 and gene knockdown techniques both demonstrated the effects of Sig-1R. The growth-promoting effect of SA4503 was accompanied by the inhibition of voltage-gated Ca 2+ influx and was recapitulated by incubating the neurons with the L-type, N-type, and P/Q-type VGCC blockers, nimodipine, MVIIA and ω-agatoxin IVA, respectively. This effect was unrelated to glial cells. The application of SA4503 transformed the growth cone morphologies from complicated to simple, which favored axon outgrowth. Sig-1R activation can enhance axon outgrowth and may have a substantial influence on neurogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  3. The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Increased perirenal fat area is not associated with adverse outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Schødt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intraabdominal visceral obesity may increase technical challenges during laparoscopic rectal resection and hypothetically therefore increase the risk of perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to analyze intraabdominal obesity by means of perirenal fat against risk...... of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This study was a single-institution retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic total mesorectal surgery for rectal cancer between January 2009 and January 2013. Abdominal CT scans...... with intravenous contrast were assessed in a blinded manner to estimate the perirenal fat area (cm2). Result A total of 195 patients were included (median age 70 years (range 27–87), 58 women and 137 men) for analysis. There was a moderate correlation between BMI and perirenal fat area (r = 0.499, p = 0...

  6. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the rat prostate: Receptors, chloride channels, the effects of cAMP and calcium ions and implications on fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of adrenomedullin on chloride and fluid secretion in the rat prostate. The presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) in rat prostate was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with an enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on fluid secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole mount preparation of the prostate in an Ussing chamber. The results indicated that the ADM level was higher in the ventral than the dorso-lateral prostate and the major molecular species was the active peptide. ADM increased the short-circuit current through both the cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels in the ventral lobe, but only through the calcium-activated channels in the dorso-lateral lobe. These stimulatory effects were blocked by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. We conclude that ADM may regulate prostatic fluid secretion through the chloride channels, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the spermatozoa and hence fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  8. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  10. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  11. Effects of diphosphonate on kidney calcium content and duodenal absorption of 45calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; Cameron, V.

    1978-01-01

    In rats the relationships between EHDP-induced changes in serum calcium concentration, kidney calcium content and duodenal transport of 45 calcium were studied. Body weights and kidney weights were similar in all groups. EHDP administration was associated with an increase in serum calcium concentration and kidney calcium content, and a decrease in duodenal 45 calcium transport. In the EHDP-treated rats, there was a significant negative correlation between kidney calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport but no correlation between either kidney calcium content and serum calcium concentration (r = 0.116) or between serum calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport (r = 0.02). Further experiments will be needed to determine whether the demonstrated increase in kidney calcium content induced by EHDP administration was the cause of, or was secondary to, inhibition of 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 synthesis. (orig./AJ) [de

  12. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  13. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  14. A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Jablonka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

  15. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  16. Changes in the distribution of lens calcium during development of x-ray cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, K.R.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the possible role of calcium in the opacification of x-ray-induced cataract in rabbit. The results demonstrate that the concentration of calcium in x-rayed lenses, just prior to lens hydration (7.5 weeks postirradiation), was twice that present in contralateral control lenses. At this stage of immature cataract, the lens nucleus remained transparent and maintained a normal level of calcium, but the lens cortex, containing regions of subcapsular opacification, accumulated a level of calcium that was twice that of the control. In the completely opaque mature cataract, (8-9 weeks post x-ray), both the cortex and nucleus had gained significant amounts of calcium. As the concentration of total calcium increased in the immature x-ray cataract, the amount of the cation bound to membranes and insoluble proteins of the cytosol also increased comparably. However, the relative proportion of calcium in the various fractions remained unaltered in the immature cataract; in both control lenses and immature cataracts, 20% of the total calcium remained in the membrane pellet and 70% was located in the soluble protein fraction. Only in the mature stage of cataract was a shift in the distribution of calcium apparent, as the proportion of calcium in the soluble protein fraction increased to 90%. Although only 7% of the total calcium in a mature cataract was bound to membrane, the amount represented a fivefold increase over the control. The results of this study demonstrate that an elevation in lens calcium accompanies the opacification process in x-ray cataract. The work also suggests that changes in calcium levels are not likely to result from inactivation of Ca-ATPase

  17. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Y; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2017-05-01

    One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five basal diets based on high-protein canola meal (CM-HP), high-temperature processed canola meal (CM-HT), low-temperature processed canola meal (CM-LT), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), or SBM were formulated. The basal diets contained no phytase. Fifteen additional diets were prepared by adding approximately 500, 1,500, or 2,500 phytase units/kg to each of the 5 basal diets. Feces were quantitatively collected for 5 d based on the marker-to-marker approach after a 7-d adaptation period. Results indicated that supplementation of microbial phytase increased (linear, phytase also increased (linear and quadratic, phytase was added, but no differences were observed in the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM, CM-HP, CM-HT, or CM-CV if the highest amount of phytase were added (interaction, phytase on the STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM. In conclusion, inclusion of graded levels of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM and the response to microbial phytase added to each ingredient can be predicted by regression equations.

  18. Simulation and measurement of total ionizing dose radiation induced image lag increase in pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenwei@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Ma, Wuying; Jin, Junshan; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of total ionizing dose (TID) induced image lag sources in pinned photodiodes (PPD) CMOS image sensors based on radiation experiments and TCAD simulation. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the Cobalt −60 gamma-ray source. The experimental results show the image lag degradation is more and more serious with increasing TID. Combining with the TCAD simulation results, we can confirm that the junction of PPD and transfer gate (TG) is an important region forming image lag during irradiation. These simulations demonstrate that TID can generate a potential pocket leading to incomplete transfer.

  19. Whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Relation to bio-chemical indices of bone turnover and to total body calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Johansen, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body retention (WBR) and urinary excretion (UE) of 99m Te-diphosphonate were determined in 161 healthy adults and the results were compared to accepted biochemical markers of bone turnover. WBR was corrected for total body bone mineral (TBBM) and UE from forearm bone mineral content (BMC). Both uncorrected and corrected retention measurements were highly significantly correlated to the biochemical markers (P<0.001), but the r values were low (0.22-0.64). All bone turnover variables demonstrated considerably higher levels of bone turnover in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (P<0.001), whereas the variables were unchanged with age in men. The correction of WBR for TBBM and UE for BMC increased the validity of the retention methods and the two calculations gave exactly the same results on a group basis, both demonstrating significantly higher bone turnover in women than in men in each age group (P<0.05-P<0.001). All the turnover variables were measured in a group of perimenopausal women (n=33). The data clearly demonstrated that bone turnover is menopause dependent, whereas age in itself is of minor significance. (orig.)

  20. Increased epicardial fat volume quantified by 64-multidetector computed tomography is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and totally occlusive lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji; Anzai, Toshihisa; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the epicardial fat volume measured by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the extension and severity of coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. Both MDCT and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in 71 consecutive patients who presented with effort angina. The volume of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was measured by MDCT. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by evaluating the extension of coronary plaques in 790 segments using MDCT data, and the percentage diameter stenosis in 995 segments using CAG data. The estimated volume of EAT indexed by body surface area was defined as VEAT. Increased VEAT was associated with advanced age, male sex, degree of metabolic alterations, a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the presence of total occlusions, and showed positive correlation with the stenosis score r=0.28, P=0.02) and the atheromatosis score (r=0.67, P 3 /m 2 ) to be the strongest independent determinant of the presence of total occlusions odds ratio 4.64. P=0.02). VEAT correlates with the degree of metabolic alterations and coronary atheromatosis. Excessive accumulation of EAT might contribute to the development of ACS and coronary total occlusions. (author)

  1. Absorbability of calcium from calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides in comparison with that from various calcium compounds in the rat ligated jejunum loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-o, Kenji; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Saeki, Shigeru; Nakabou, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    Calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs-Ca) were prepared from potato starch. Their solubility and in situ absorbability as a calcium source were investigated by comparing with the soluble calcium compounds, calcium chloride and calcium lactate, or insoluble calcium compounds, calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate. The solubility of POs-Ca was as high as that of calcium chloride and about 3-fold higher than that of calcium lactate. An in situ experiment showed that the intestinal calcium absorption rate of POs-Ca was almost comparable with that of the soluble calcium compounds, and was significantly higher (pcalcium groups. Moreover, the total absorption rate of a 1:1 mixture of the calcium from POs-Ca and a whey mineral complex (WMC) was significantly higher (psoluble calcium source with relatively high absorption in the intestinal tract.

  2. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P trees consumed by FG were higher than those in pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  4. Monitoring the progression of calcium and protein solubilisation as affected by calcium chelators during small-scale manufacture of casein-based food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Irene; O'Sullivan, Michael; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-12-15

    Calcium and protein solubilisation during small-scale manufacture of semi-solid casein-based food matrices was investigated and found to be very different in the presence or absence of calcium chelating salts. Calcium concentrations in the dispersed phase increased and calcium-ion activity (A Ca ++ ) decreased during manufacture of the matrices containing calcium chelating salts; with ∼23% of total calcium solubilised by the end of manufacture. In the absence of calcium chelating salts, these concentrations were significantly lower at equivalent processing times and remained unchanged as did A Ca ++ , throughout manufacture. The protein content of the dispersed phase was low (≤3% of total protein), but was significantly higher for matrices containing calcium chelating salts. This study elucidates the critical role of calcium chelating salts in modulating casein hydration and dispersion and gives an indication of the levels of soluble calcium and protein required to allow matrix formation during manufacture of casein-based food structures e.g. processed and analogue cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observations on intestinal secretions of calcium by strontium-85 in normal Indian subjects and patients of nutritiond osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.N.A.; Sumesh Chandra; Vaishnava, H.

    1979-01-01

    Fifty cases of nutritional osteomalacia were studied and compared with 25 adult subjects of comparable age, sex and socio-economic status without any suspicion of metabolic bone disease. The diagnosis of nutritional osteomalacia was established by clinical, biochemical, radiological and histopathological studies. 15 of the 50 patients were restudied after treatment with vitamin D. Total digestive juice calcium (TDJCa), true absorption of calcium and endogenous faecal calcium (EFCa) were measured in all by the intravenous administration of strontium 85 and balance studies for the stable calcium were carried out simultaneously. In nutritional osteomalacia there was no evidence of more active secretions of calcium into the intestines and endogenous loss of calcium was not high. It was interesting to note that absorption of calcium from the gut was normal even with relative vitamin D deficiency. It was also observed that vitamin D increased the bidirectional (absorption and secretion) permeability of calcium into the gut. (author)

  6. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  7. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  8. Increase vs. decrease of calcium uptake by isolated heart cells induced by H2O2 vs. HOCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminishi, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yanagishita, T.; Kako, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adult rat heart myocytes were labeled rapidly with exogenous [45Ca2+]. Addition of 2.5 mM H2O2 to the heart cell suspension raised the content of rapidly exchangeable intracellular Ca2+ twofold, whereas addition of 1-30 mM HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content. The H2O2-induced increase in Ca2+ content was dependent on the medium Na+, pH, and temperature but was not significantly affected by addition of verapamil, diltiazem, amiloride, or 3-aminobenzamide. The [3H]ouabain binding to myocytes was suppressed by H2O2, whereas the Ca2+ efflux from myocytes was not influenced. An uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, reduced Ca2+ content, implying that the H2O2-induced change in Ca2+ content was not directly related to ATP depletion. On the other hand, the H2O2-induced Ca2+ accumulation in myocytes was prevented by deferoxamine or o-phenanthroline. These results suggest that H2O2 inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase, resulting in an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and stimulation of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity, which caused a transient net Ca2+ influx into myocytes. By contrast, HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content of the rapidly exchangeable pool below control levels and this action of HOCl was antagonized by 1,4-dithiothreitol. HOCl accelerated Ca2+ efflux from myocytes. Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase of the isolated sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) fraction were highly sensitive to the action of HOCl. Ca2+ uptake by intracellular sites, studied with myocytes permeabilized with digitonin, was inhibited by both H2O2 and HOCl. Thus these results suggest that HOCl inhibits the SR Ca2+ pump, resulting in the observed acceleration of Ca2+ efflux from and decline in Ca2+ content of myocytes

  9. Clinical outcome of increased flexion gap after total knee arthroplasty. Can controlled gap imbalance improve knee flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailidis, P; Kuster, M S; Jost, B; Giesinger, K; Behrend, H

    2017-06-01

    Increased range of motion (ROM) while maintaining joint stability is the goal of modern total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A biomechanical study has shown that small increases in flexion gap result in decreased tibiofemoral force beyond 90° flexion. The purpose of this paper was to investigate clinical implications of controlled increased flexion gap. Four hundred and four TKAs were allocated into one of two groups and analysed retrospectively. In the first group (n = 352), flexion gap exceeded extension gap by 2.5 mm, while in the second group (n = 52) flexion gap was equal to the extension gap. The procedures were performed from 2008 to 2012. The patients were reviewed 12 months postoperatively. Objective clinical results were assessed for ROM, mediolateral and sagittal stability. Patient-reported outcome measures were the WOMAC score and the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS-12). After categorizing postoperative flexion into three groups (poor < 90°, satisfactory 91°-119°, good ≥ 120°) significantly more patients in group 1 achieved satisfactory or good ROM (p = 0.006). Group 1 also showed a significantly higher mean FJS-12 (group 1: 73, group 2: 61, p = 0.02). The mean WOMAC score was 11 in the first and 14 in the second group (n.s.). Increase in flexion gap did not influence knee stability. The clinical relevance of this study is that a controlled flexion gap increase of 2.5 mm may have a positive effect on postoperative flexion and patient satisfaction after TKA. Neither knee stability in the coronal and sagittal planes nor complications were influenced by a controlled increase in flexion gap. III.

  10. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  12. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  13. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  14. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013–2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  15. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-08-11

    Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013-2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. © White et al.

  16. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  17. Does tranexamic acid increase the risk of thromboembolism after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasties in Asian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Seo, Dong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    To ascertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and transfusion rate and volumes; increase the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT); and investigate factors associated with DVT in patients undergoing primary bilateral total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) without use of chemical thromboprophylaxis. There were 874 patients (1748 knees) in the control group who did not receive tranexamic acid and 871 patients (1742 knees) in the study group who received tranexamic acid. Mechanical compression device was applied without any chemical thromboprophylaxis. Transfusion rates and volumes were recorded. DVT was diagnosed using both sonogram and venogram at 7 or 8 day post-operatively. Intra- and post-operative blood loss and transfusion volumes were significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group. The prevalence of DVT was 14% (245 of 1748 knees) in the control group and 18% (314 of 1742 knees) in the tranexamic acid group. Pre- and post-operative perfusion lung scans revealed no evidence of PE in any patients in either group. Coagulation or thrombophilic data or molecular genetic testing was not significantly different between the two groups. The use of tranexamic acid reduces the volume of blood transfusion and does not increase the prevalence of DVT or PE in the patients who did not receive routine chemical thromboprophylaxis after primary bilateral simultaneous sequential TKAs in Asian patients.

  18. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  19. Calcium Input Frequency, Duration and Amplitude Differentially Modulate the Relative Activation of Calcineurin and CaMKII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Stefan, Melanie I.; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two prominent forms of synaptic plasticity, both of which are triggered by post-synaptic calcium elevation. To understand how calcium selectively stimulates two opposing processes, we developed a detailed computational model and performed simulations with different calcium input frequencies, amplitudes, and durations. We show that with a total amount of calcium ions kept constant, high frequencies of calcium pulses stimulate calmodulin more efficiently. Calcium input activates both calcineurin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) at all frequencies, but increased frequencies shift the relative activation from calcineurin to CaMKII. Irrespective of amplitude and duration of the inputs, the total amount of calcium ions injected adjusts the sensitivity of the system to calcium input frequencies. At a given frequency, the quantity of CaMKII activated is proportional to the total amount of calcium. Thus, an input of a small amount of calcium at high frequencies can induce the same activation of CaMKII as a larger amount, at lower frequencies. Finally, the extent of activation of CaMKII signals with high calcium frequency is further controlled by other factors, including the availability of calmodulin, and by the potency of phosphatase inhibitors. PMID:22962589

  20. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  1. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-01-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  2. Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption

  3. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  4. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  5. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60 Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60 Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  6. Increased Range of Motion Is Important for Functional Outcome and Satisfaction After Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Song, Young-Suk; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Yong-Geun

    2016-06-01

    Although range of motion (ROM) is considered as an important factor for good outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the association of the degree of ROM with functional outcome and patient satisfaction is debated. We, therefore, investigated whether increased ROM would affect functional outcome and patient satisfaction after TKA in Asian patients. We reviewed 630 patients who underwent primary TKA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Knee Society (KS) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and high-flexion knee score. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a validated questionnaire. The association of ROM and change in ROM (cROM) with clinical outcomes and satisfaction were analyzed using partial correlation analysis and multiple median regression analysis. All functional scores showed significant correlation with postoperative ROM (r = 0.129, P = .001 in Knee Society score; r = -0.101, P = .012 in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index; r = 0.183, P satisfaction (r = 0.192, P = .005). Postoperative ROM and cROM were revealed as predisposing factors affecting function outcome using multivariable regression analysis. cROM was found as a predisposing factor affecting satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, ROM positively associated with functional outcome and cROM positively associated with patient satisfaction after TKA. These findings suggest that increased ROM after TKA is an important factor for functional outcome and satisfaction in Asian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  8. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  9. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  10. Investigation of ratio 'strontium-calcium' in the plants and in the corresponding soil solution for 90Sr and for natural total strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prorok, V.V.; Makarenko, T.Yi.; Mel'nichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, K.F.V.; Ganushevich, A.P.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Ratios Sr/Ca for natural total strontium and 90 Sr/Ca in the plants and in the corresponding soil solutions for three experimental lands with 'fuel' type of pollution for several plants at natural conditions are determined. The lands with tree different types of soil are at the Exclusive Zone of the Chernobyl Power Station. The obtained experimental results shown that ratio Sr/Ca in plant is equal to this ratio in the corresponding soil solution for all investigated lands and plants. Ratio 90 Sr/Ca in plant exceeds this ratio at the corresponding soil solution

  11. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  12. Calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.W.; Nestor, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for producing large, single, oriented crystals of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) has been developed which overcomes the limitations of current growing methods. This process has been reduced to practice and has yielded oriented crystals 17.5 x 17.5 x 5 cm 3 . Currently nearing completion is a system for producing 35 x 35 x 7.5 cm 3 single crystals. A scale up to one-meter-square is considered feasible. This crystal growing process makes possible the fabrication of very large CaF 2 windows. Suitability for very high power lasers, however, requires attention to properties beyond mere size. A process to generate higher purity growth stock (starting material) was also developed. The additional purification of the growth stock contributes to lower bulk absorption, the absence of color centers and increased radiation hardness. Also identified were several specific impurities which correlate with radiation hardness. A correlation was found between color centers induced by laser radiation and ionizing radiation. Other CaF 2 crystal properties such as tensile strength, absorption and laser damage thresholds were studied and are discussed

  13. Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Tang, Lifei; Roof, Steve R; Velmurugan, Sathya; Millard, Ashley; Shonts, Stephen; Wang, Honglan; Santiago, Demetrio; Ahmad, Usama; Perryman, Matthew; Bers, Donald M; Mohler, Peter J; Ziolo, Mark T; Shannon, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (β-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When β-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the β-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of β-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is

  14. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  16. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  17. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  18. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Marco, L.M.; Arroyo, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Rivas, R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffe test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar

  19. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Academic hospital. Fifty-five nonobese, oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal indices of insulin sensitivity. None. Standard clinical examinations and ultrasonographic and endocrine screening, including FSH, LH, E(2), P, total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and TAC were performed before initiation of CC medication. Within the total group, 27 (49%) of the patients did not ovulate at the end of follow-up. TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume were all significantly different in CC nonresponders from those in responders. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be the best predictor in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 171.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.61-2,772.93), and it had the highest area in the receiver operating characteristics analysis (0.91). In a multivariate prediction model, TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume showed good predictive power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test of 0.80. Total antioxidant capacity was the strongest predictor of ovarian response during CC induction of ovulation in these patients. It can be concluded that TAC can be used as a routine screening test.

  20. The impact of calcium assay change on a local adjusted calcium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Hill, Charlotte; Bailey, Lisa M; Davison, Andrew S; Milan, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Deriving and validating local adjusted calcium equations is important for ensuring appropriate calcium status classification. We investigated the impact on our local adjusted calcium equation of a change in calcium method by the manufacturer from cresolphthalein complexone to NM-BAPTA. Calcium and albumin results from general practice requests were extracted from the Laboratory Information Management system for a three-month period. Results for which there was evidence of disturbance in calcium homeostasis were excluded leaving 13,482 sets of results for analysis. The adjusted calcium equation was derived following least squares regression analysis of total calcium on albumin and normalized to the mean calcium concentration of the data-set. The revised equation (NM-BAPTA calcium method) was compared with the previous equation (cresolphthalein complexone calcium method). The switch in calcium assay resulted in a small change in the adjusted calcium equation but was not considered to be clinically significant. The calcium reference interval differed from that proposed by Pathology Harmony in the UK. Local adjusted calcium equations should be re-assessed following changes in the calcium method. A locally derived reference interval may differ from the consensus harmonized reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar

    2011-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  2. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  3. Increased use of multidisciplinary treatment modalities adds little to the outcome of rectal cancer treated by optimal total mesorectal excision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2012-10-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. The roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy have become more defined, accompanied by improvements in preoperative staging and histopathological assessment. We analyse our ongoing results in the light of changing patterns of treatment over consecutive time periods.

  4. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. Inflorescence Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Ge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673 as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926 after calcium applications.

  5. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and

  6. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases

  7. Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OHD to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.

  8. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  9. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  10. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  11. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    -shaped association. Associations between increase in WC and outcomes were restricted to women with normal weight at baseline and to ever-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to changes in HC which did not predict mortality and CVD, a 6-year increase in WC is strongly predictive, particularly among initially lean women...... and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women but that gain or loss in HC was unrelated to these outcomes. This study examines whether a 6-year change in waist circumference (WC) predicts mortality and CVD in the same study sample. METHODS: Baseline WC and 6-year change in WC as predictors of mortality and CVD...... were analyzed in 2,492 women from the Danish MONICA study and the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden. RESULTS: Increase in WC was significantly associated with increased subsequent mortality and CVD adjusting for BMI and other covariates, with some evidence of a J...

  12. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    connect ion conformationally rearranged, thus passing the signal through the chain of intermediaries. The most important function of calcium is its participation in many cell signaling pathways. Channels, pumps, gene expression, synthesis of alkaloids, protective molecules, NO etc. respond to changes in [Ca2+]cyt, while transductors are represented by a number of proteins. The universality of calcium is evident in the study in connection with other signaling systems, such as NO, which is involved in the immune response and is able to control the feedback activity of protein activators channels, producing nitric oxide. Simulation of calcium responses can determine the impact of key level and their regulation, and also depends on the type of stimulus and the effector protein that specifically causes certain changes. Using spatiotemporal modeling, scientists showed that the key components for the formation of Ca2+ bursts are the internal and external surfaces of the nucleus membrane. The research was aimed at understanding of the mechanisms of influence of Ca2+-binding components on Ca2+ oscillations. The simulation suggests the existence of a calcium depot EPR with conjugated lumen of the nucleus which releases its contents to nucleoplasm. With these assumptions, the mathematical model was created and confirmed experimentally. It describes the oscillation of nuclear calcium in root hairs of Medicago truncatula at symbiotic relationship of plants and fungi (rhizobia. Calcium oscillations are present in symbiotic relationships of the cortical layer of plant root cells. Before penetration of bacteria into the cells, slow oscillations of Ca2+ are observed, but with their penetration into the cells the oscillation frequency increases. These processes take place by changing buffer characteristics of the cytoplasm caused by signals from microbes, such as Nod-factor available after penetration of bacteria through the cell wall. Thus, the basic known molecular mechanisms for

  14. Binding of [125I]iodipine to parathyroid cell membranes: Evidence of a dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.I.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The parathyroid cell is unusual, in that an increase in extracellular calcium concentrations inhibits PTH release. Calcium channels are glycoproteins that span cell membranes and allow entry of extracellular calcium into cells. We have demonstrated that the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791, which opens calcium channels, inhibits PTH release and that the antagonist (-)202-791, which closes calcium channels, stimulates PTH release. To identify the calcium channels responsible for these effects, we used a radioligand that specifically binds to calcium channels. Bovine parathyroid cell membranes were prepared and incubated under reduced lighting with [125I] iodipine (SA, 2000 Ci/mmol), which recognizes 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels. Bound ligand was separated from free ligand by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/B filters. Nonspecific binding was measured by the inclusion of nifedipine at 10 microM. Specific binding represented approximately 40% of the total binding. The optimal temperature for [125I] iodipine binding was 4 C, and binding reached equilibrium by 30 min. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was approximately 550 pM, and the maximum number of binding sites was 780 fmol/mg protein. Both the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and antagonist (-)202-791 competitively inhibited [125I] iodipine binding, with 50% inhibition concentrations of 20 and 300 nM, respectively. These data indicate the presence of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels on parathyroid cell membranes

  15. Increase in Total Joint Arthroplasty Projected from 2014 to 2046 in Australia: A Conservative Local Model With International Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen E; Pratt, Nicole L; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Nemes, Szilard

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of joint arthroplasty is increasing worldwide. International estimates of future demand for joint arthroplasty have used models that propose either an exponential future increase, despite obvious system constraints, or static increases, which do not account for past trends. Country-specific projection estimates that address limitations of past projections are necessary. In Australia, a high-income country with the 7th highest incidence of TKA and 15th highest incidence of THA of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the volume of TKAs and THAs increased 198% between 1994 and 2014. To determine the projected incidence and volume of primary TKAs and THAs from 2014 to 2046 in the Australian population older than 40 years. Australian State and Territory Health Department data were used to identify TKAs and THAs performed between 1994 and 1995 and 2013 and 2014. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was the source of the population estimates for the same periods and population-projected estimates until 2046. The incidence rate (IR), 95% CI, and prediction interval (PI) of TKAs and THAs per 100,000 Australian citizens older than 40 years were calculated. Future IRs were estimated using a logistic model, and volume was calculated from projected IR and population. The logistic growth model assumes the existence of an upper limit of the TKA and THA incidences and a growth rate directly related to this incidence. At the beginning, when the observed incidence is much lower than the asymptote, the increase is exponential, but it decreases as it approaches the upper limit. A 66% increase in the IR of primary THAs between 2013 and 2046 is projected for Australia (2013: IR = 307 per 100,000, [95% CI, 262-329 per 100,000] compared with 2046: IR= 510 per 100,000, [95% PI, 98-567 per 100,000]), which translates to a 219% increase in the volume during this period. For TKAs the IR is expected to increase by 26% by 2046 (IR = 575 per

  16. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  17. Impaired body calcium metabolism with low bone density and compensatory colonic calcium absorption in cecectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongwattanapisan, P.; Suntornsaratoon, P.; Wongdee, K.; Dorkkam, N.; Krishnamra, N.; Charoenphandhu, N.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study reported that cecal calcium absorption contributes less than 10% of total calcium absorbed by the intestine, although the cecum has the highest calcium transport rate compared with other intestinal segments. Thus, the physiological significance of the cecum pertaining to body

  18. Strength training to contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle shortly after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    to the abstract to increase trial transparency.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed...

  19. Hip Dislocation Increases Roughness of Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Heads in Total Hip Arthroplasty: An Analysis of 59 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mohamed E.; Esposito, Christina I.; Elpers, Marcella E.; Wright, Timothy M.; Padgett, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess damage on the surface of retrieved oxidized zirconium metal (OxZr) femoral heads, to measure surface roughness of scratches, and to evaluate the extent of surface effacement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ceramic zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) heads were analyzed for comparison. OxZr femoral heads explanted for recurrent dislocation had the most severe damage (p<0.001). The median surface roughness of damaged OxZr femoral heads was 1.49μm, compared to 0.084μm for damaged ZTA heads and 0.052μm for undamaged OxZr (p<0.001). This may be of clinical concern because increased surface roughness has the potential to increase the wear of polyethylene liners articulating against these OxZr heads in THA. PMID:25443362

  20. Preoperative methylprednisolone increases plasma Pentraxin 3 early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, V.; Kehlet, H.; Pilely, K.

    2018-01-01

    (ficolin‐1, −2 and −3), complement components (C4 and C3), terminal complement complex (TCC) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Blood samples were analysed at baseline and 2, 6, 24 and 48 h after surgery with complete sampling from 63 patients for analyses. MP resulted in an increase...... in circulating PTX3 compared to saline from baseline to 24 h postoperatively (P TCC concentrations did not differ between...

  1. Absence of an increase in the duration of the circadian melatonin secretory episode in totally blind human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, E. B.; Zeitzer, J. M.; Duffy, J. F.; Khalsa, S. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The daily rhythm of melatonin influences multiple physiological measures, including sleep tendency, circadian rhythms, and reproductive function in seasonally breeding mammals. The biological signal for photoperiodic changes in seasonally breeding mammals is a change in the duration of melatonin secretion, which in a natural environment reflects the different durations of daylight across the year, with longer nights leading to a longer duration of melatonin secretion. These seasonal changes in the duration of melatonin secretion do not simply reflect the known acute suppression of melatonin secretion by ocular light exposure, but also represent long-term changes in the endogenous nocturnal melatonin episode that persist in constant conditions. As the eyes of totally blind individuals do not transmit ocular light information, we hypothesized that the duration of the melatonin secretory episode in blind subjects would be longer than those in sighted individuals, who are exposed to light for all their waking hours in an urban environment. We assessed the melatonin secretory profile during constant posture, dim light conditions in 17 blind and 157 sighted adults, all of whom were healthy and using no prescription or nonprescription medications. The duration of melatonin secretion was not significantly different between blind and sighted individuals. Healthy blind individuals after years without ocular light exposure do not have a longer duration of melatonin secretion than healthy sighted individuals.

  2. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  3. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  4. Chapter 15. Measurement of the main calcium metabolism processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring the chief calcium metabolism processes in man is described and is based on the following techniques and theory: intraveinous injection of 45 Ca; determination of the specific radioactivity of serum calcium, total radioactivity of urine and stools, ingested and excreted calcium; mathematical analysis of the specific radioactivity decay curve for serum calcium. The following data were obtained in this way: intestinal absorption fraction of calcium in the chemical state in which it is found in foods; quantity of calcium excreted by the intestin, as distinct from the non-absorbed fraction; physiological turnover rates in the skeleton by osteolysis and osteoblastosis; mass of rapidly exchangeable calcium in the organism, i.e. the calcium pool; rates of exchange with serum calcium of calcium from the different pool components, mass of bone calcium subjected to recrystallisation. Some applications of the method in man and the verification of the theory in rats are reported [fr

  5. Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown. Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI. Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with 21 mg · kg -1 · d -1 Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1- 13 C]Phe to 13 CO 2 (F 13 CO 2 ). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F 13 CO 2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F 13 CO 2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites. Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant ( P < 0.05) differences. Conclusion: These results suggest that children with CRI have a similar mean and population-safe TSAA to that of healthy children, suggesting adequate Cys synthesis via transsulfuration, but higher minimum Met requirement, suggesting reduced

  6. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  7. Change perspective to increase diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease! A new approach: the axial scan of the meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Filippou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is a relevant tool in the study of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP deposition disease. However, differential diagnosis of hyperechoic deposits within the fibrocartilage can be difficult; moreover, US study is limited by the need of an adequate acoustic window. We describe a US scanning technique that offers a new viewpoint in the study of knee meniscal structure: a longitudinal scan performed according to the long axis of meniscus. This technique proves to be particularly useful for the identification of CPP deposition, but could also improve the US diagnostic utility and accuracy in other meniscal pathologies.

  8. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  9. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  10. Calcium isotope fractionation between soft and mineralized tissues as a monitor of calcium use in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; DePaolo, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium from bone and shell is isotopically lighter than calcium of soft tissue from the same organism and isotopically lighter than source (dietary) calcium. When measured as the 44Ca/40Ca isotopic ratio, the total range of variation observed is 5.5‰, and as much as 4‰ variation is found in a single organism. The observed intraorganismal calcium isotopic variations and the isotopic differences between tissues and diet indicate that isotopic fractionation occurs mainly as a result of mineralization. Soft tissue calcium becomes heavier or lighter than source calcium during periods when there is net gain or loss of mineral mass, respectively. These results suggest that variations of natural calcium isotope ratios in tissues may be useful for assessing the calcium and mineral balance of organisms without introducing isotopic tracers. PMID:10570137

  11. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  12. Effect of calcium supplements on osteoporosis by using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumin Hu; Xueying Mao; Hong Ouyang

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have been used to study the effects of different calcium supplements on osteoporosis, including calcium carbonate, calcium threonate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium acetate and a traditional Chinese medicine. Animal test results showed that calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, calcium acetate and the Chinese medicine notably increased osteoporotic rat's femoral bone mineral density (BMD). Also, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate and the Chinese medicine significantly increased osteoporotic rat's vertebral BMD. But calcium L-threonate and calcium lactate had no such effects. Calcium gluconate, calcium acetate and the Chinese medicine improved the bone mechanical intensity of osteoporotic rats. The results of NAA showed that the loss of elements in spongy bones was more seriously than that in compact bone and was difficult to be improved. (author)

  13. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  17. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  18. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  19. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested 47 Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003], and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation

  20. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence......-rate ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.68) even after an adjustment for tooth count in 1987 and 1988, age, education, and civil status (model 1), smoking, alcohol consumption, sucrose intake, and use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements (model 2), time since last dental visit and the presence...

  1. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  2. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  3. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  4. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  5. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  6. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  7. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  8. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  9. Calcium regulation and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Rapaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the neuron induces transient fluctuations in [Ca2+]i. This transient rise in [Ca2+]i is dependent on calcium entry via calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores, finally resulting in increase in calcium levels, which activates calcium regulatory proteins to restore the resting calcium levels by binding to the calcium-binding proteins, sequestration into the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, and finally extrusion of calcium spike potential from the cell by adenosine triphosphate-driven Ca2+ pumps and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Improper regulation of calcium signaling, sequentially, likely contributes to synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxic and/or apoptotic death of the vulnerable neuronal populations. The cognitive decline associated with normal aging is not only due to neuronal loss, but is fairly the result of synaptic connectivity. Many evidences support that Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is implicated in normal brain aging. Thus the chief factor associated with Alzheimer’s disease was found to be increase in the levels of free intracellular calcium, demonstrating that the excessive levels might lead to cell death, which provides a key target for the calcium channel blockers might be used as the neuroprotective agents in Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerk, S.H.

    1995-12-01

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45 Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents ( 45 Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.) [de

  11. FGF-23 dysregulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological properties in HL-1 atrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Shiu, Rong-Jie; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Higher FGF-23 levels are correlated with poor outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. FGF-23 can produce cardiac hypertrophy and increase intracellular calcium, which can change cardiac electrical activity. However, it is not clear whether FGF-23 possesses arrhythmogenic potential through calcium dysregulation. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate the electrophysiological effects of FGF-23 and identify the underlying mechanisms. Patch clamp, confocal microscope with Fluo-4 fluorescence, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics, calcium homeostasis and calcium regulatory proteins in HL-1 atrial myocytes with and without FGF-23 (10 and 25 ng/mL) incubation for 24 h. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL) increased L-type calcium currents, calcium transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in HL-1 cells. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL)-treated cells (n = 14) had greater incidences (57%, 17% and 15%, P calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ and phospholamban (PLB) at threonine 17 but had similar phosphorylation extents of PLB at serine 16, total PLB and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase protein. Moreover, the FGF receptor inhibitor (PD173074, 10 nM), calmodulin inhibitor (W7, 5 μM) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 1 μM) attenuated the effects of FGF-23 on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation. FGF-23 increases HL-1 cells arrhythmogenesis with calcium dysregulation through modulating calcium-handling proteins. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Unuma, Hidero; Yan, Wei-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by the urease method was not only beneficial for MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but also favorable for bone bonding ability on Ti implants in vivo, suggesting that Ti functionalized with CaP and gelatin might have a great potential in clinical joint replacement or dental implants.

  13. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    .11↓ minutes, 95% CI = 11.74–12.48, p = 0.05 and total daily sedentary activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 16.99↓ minutes, 95% CI = 16.49–17.50, p = 0.04. Conclusion A well designed and implemented school based health and physical activity intervention can result in a positive influence upon increasing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary activity. Future interventions should consider a more structured intervention component to obtain significant changes in WBPA.

  14. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  15. A new strategy for umbilical cord blood collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María

    2017-09-01

    The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  16. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi 45 Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of 45 Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and 45 Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on 45 Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and 45 Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly

  17. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  18. Acetabular Dysplasia and Surgical Approaches Other Than Direct Anterior Increases Risk for Malpositioning of the Acetabular Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Greene, Meridith E; Huddleston, James I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent acetabular dysplasia (AD) after periacetabular osteotomy has been hypothesized to increase the risk for malpositioning of the acetabular component. In this study, we investigate whether AD is an independent risk factor for cup malpositioning during primary total hip...... arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Patient demographics, surgical approach, presence of AD assessed using the lateral center-edge angle, and acetabular cup positioning determined using Martell Hip Analysis Suite were investigated in 836 primary THA patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. RESULTS: We...

  19. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  20. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  1. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Ji-Houn; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research. There are consistent results supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of DM. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids, and some meta-analyses support an increase in insulin sensitivity, following vitamin D supplementation. This review provides an overview of the calcium and vitamin D disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. Such elucidation will help indicate potential pathophysiology-based precautionary and therapeutic approaches and contribute to lowering the incidence of DM.

  2. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  3. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  4. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION PROTOCOLS IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka N. Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  5. Research of calcium oxide hydration in calcium nitrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliynyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizers are one of the important factors of agriculture intensification and increasing of food products quantity. The volume of fertilizers production and its domestic consumption in Ukraine indicate that nitrogen fertilizer using only comes nearer to the required number of science-based. One of the most widespread artificial fertilizers is the calcium nitrate. Aim: The aim is to study and theoretically substantiate the processes occurring in the preparation of suspensions of calcium hydroxide Са(ОН2 in solution of calcium nitrate Ca(NО32. Materials and Methods: The technical calcium oxide (quicklime DSTU BV.2.7-90-99, solutions of calcium nitrate of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% Ca(NО32 concentrations were used in the work. The content of lime in the preparation of a suspension in the solution changed (in terms of calcium oxide CaO from 150 g/dm3 to the maximum possible. Each of these solutions saturated at 40°С in lime to maximum concentration. Suitable for use in these experiments and in the technology of calcium nitrate obtaining are considered the solutions (suspensions that within 12 hours did not lose their mobility (transportability. Results: The experimental results show that increasing of the concentration of calcium nitrate in solution within the range 15...40%, the amount of lime that you can put into the solution without loss of transportability decreases. Further increasing of lime quantity in solutions concentrations causes to its solidifying, loss of mobility (transportability. Calculations showed that in the presence of calcium nitrate the solubility of Са(ОН2 is reduced nearly by order that can lead to the formation of calcium oxide CaO the solid phase Са(ОН2 on the surface, which also can form hydrogen bonds with the components of the solution. As the probability of formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions is high, there is a possibility of formation of clusters.

  6. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Yan, Wei-Qi; Unuma, Hidero

    2013-01-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p < 0.05). CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti rods (2 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) were also implanted into femoral shaft of rabbits and pure Ti rods served as control (n = 10). Histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The histological and SEM observations demonstrated clearly that more new bone formed on the surface of CaP/gel/Ti than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti bonded to the surrounding bone directly with no intervening soft tissue layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by the urease method was not only beneficial for MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but also favorable for bone bonding ability on Ti implants in vivo, suggesting that Ti functionalized with CaP and gelatin might have a great potential in clinical joint replacement or dental implants. (paper)

  7. Younger age increases the risk of early prosthesis failure following primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis. A follow-up study of 32,019 total knee replacements in the Finnish Arthroplasty Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Jaakko; Jämsen, Esa; Puolakka, Timo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Moilanen, Teemu

    2010-08-01

    Total knee replacements (TKRs) are being increasingly performed in patients aged age of the patient and prosthesis survival following primary TKR using nationwide data collected from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. From Jan 1, 1997 through Dec 31, 2003, 32,019 TKRs for primary or secondary osteoarthritis were reported to the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. The TKRs were followed until the end of 2004. During the follow-up, 909 TKRs were revised, 205 (23%) due to infection and 704 for other reasons. Crude overall implant survival improved with increasing age between the ages of 40 and 80. The 5-year survival rates were 92% and 95% in patients aged 65 years of age (p age groups 65 years remained after adjustment for these factors (p age impairs the prognosis of TKR and is associated with increased revision rates for non-infectious reasons. Diagnosis, sex, type of TKR, use of patellar component, and fixation method partly explain the differences, but the effects of physical activity, patient demands, and obesity on implant survival in younger patients warrant further research.

  8. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  9. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in the deficiency of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.M.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of calcium mobilization in rats were determined to estimate the role of testosterone in the metabolism of this ion. Calcium multicompartimental theory was combined to and used in measurements of metabolic balance (for 45 CaCl 2 or 40 CaCl 2 ). Three groups of 60 day old rats were used: G I-control; G II-castrated; G III-castrated and treated with testosterone propionate. Data were obtained from measurements of Ca ++ in samples of plasma, feces and urine. Balance studies suggest that calcium level in blood plasma remained constant in all groups, the increase of bone reabsorption in groups II and III being counterbalanced by the elevation of the urinary excrection. This result implies the equilibrium occurring at renal level. Intestinal calcium absorption remained the same in the three groups of animals, indicating that testosterone has no consistent effect at intestinal level. The increase of total calcium in feces of groups II and III arises from a great endogenous secretion. A significant negative balance of calcium was also observed in these groups. This fact permits the conclusion that in the absence of testosterone the organism doesn't retain calcium efficiently. (M.A.) [pt

  10. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  12. Multitrophic effects of calcium availability on invasive alien plants, birds, and bird prey items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince D' Amico; Greg Shriver; Jake Bowman; Meg Ballard; Whitney Wiest; Liz Tymkiw; Melissa. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain alters forest soil calcium concentrations in two ways: (1) hydrogen ions displace exchangeable calcium adsorbed to soil surfaces, and (2) aluminum is released to soil water by acid rain and displaces adsorbed calcium. This increases the absorption of aluminum by plant roots, and decreases the absorption of calcium, causing calcium to be more readily leached...

  13. An overview of techniques for the measurement of calcium distribution, calcium fluxes, and cytosolic free calcium in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borle, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    An array of techniques can be used to study cell calcium metabolism that comprises several calcium compartments and many types of transport systems such as ion channels, ATP-dependent pumps, and antiporters. The measurement of total call calcium brings little information of value since 60 to 80% of total cell calcium is actually bound to the extracellular glycocalyx. Cell fractionation and differential centrifugation have been used to study intracellular Ca 2+ compartmentalization, but the methods suffer from the possibility of Ca 2+ loss or redistribution among cell fractions. Steady-state kinetic analyses of 45 Ca uptake or desaturation curves have been used to study the distribution of Ca 2+ among various kinetic pools in living cells and their rate of Ca 2+ exchange, but the analyses are constrained by many limitations. Nonsteady-state tracer studies can provide information about rapid changes in calcium influx or efflux in and out of the cell. Zero-time kinetics of 45 Ca uptake can detect instantaneous changes in calcium influx, while 45 Ca fractional efflux ratio, can detect rapid stimulations or inhibitions of calcium efflux out of cells. The best strategy to study cell calcium metabolism is to use several different methods that focus on a specific problem from widely different angles

  14. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  15. The Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Elevates Cytosolic Calcium Signals by Modulating Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV X protein (HBx) is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. One fundamental HBx function is elevation of cytosolic calcium signals; this HBx activity has been linked to HBx stimulation of cell proliferation and transcription pathways, as well as HBV replication. Exactly how HBx elevates cytosolic calcium signals is not clear. The studies described here show that HBx stimulates calcium entry into cells, resulting in an increased plateau level of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-linked calcium signals. This increased calcium plateau can be inhibited by blocking mitochondrial calcium uptake and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Blocking SOCE also reduced HBV replication. Finally, these studies also demonstrate that there is increased mitochondrial calcium uptake in HBx-expressing cells. Cumulatively, these studies suggest that HBx can increase mitochondrial calcium uptake and promote increased SOCE to sustain higher cytosolic calcium and stimulate HBV replication. PMID:22031934

  16. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  17. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  18. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  19. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  20. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Decleyre

    Full Text Available Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen. Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-. This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community.

  1. Malnutrition Increases With Obesity and Is a Stronger Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications: A Propensity-Adjusted Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Padgett, Douglas E; Cross, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is often concomitant with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent morbidity risk of malnutrition relative to obesity. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2013 was queried for elective primary THA cases. Malnutrition was defined as albumin malnutrition with 30-day outcomes. A total of 40,653 THA cases were identified, of which 20,210 (49.7%) had preoperative albumin measurements. Propensity score adjustment successfully reduced potential selection bias, with P > .05 for differences between those with and without albumin data. Malnutrition incidence increased from 2.8% in obese I to 5.7% in obese III patients. With multivariable propensity-adjusted logistic regression, malnutrition was a more robust predictor than any obesity class for any postoperative complication(s) (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.08), major complications (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.19), respiratory complications (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.37), blood transfusions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), and extended length of stay (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59). Malnutrition incidence increased significantly from obese I to obese III patients and was a stronger and more consistent predictor than obesity of complications after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta...... (middle or beta) position of the glycerol backbone. Beta-palmitate is considered to be sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “beta palmitate enrichment contributes to increase calcium absorption”. The target population proposed by the applicant is infants from birth to 12 months of age......, the Panel took into account the biological plausibility of the mechanism by which beta-palmitate could exert the claimed effect and that three small human intervention studies in preterm and term infants provided some evidence that a higher degree of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of formula...

  4. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Three Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgou, En Hr; Haghgoo, Roza; Roholahi, Mohamad R; Ghorbani, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of casein phos-phopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and three calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and TCP) on increasing the microhardness of human enamel after induction of erosion. A total of 26 healthy human-impacted third molar teeth were chosen, and their hardness measured using a microhardness testing machine. The samples were immersed in Coca Cola (pH = 4.7) for 8 minutes. Then, micro-hardness was measured again, and these samples were randomly divided into four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). (1) Negative control group: Artificial saliva was used for 10 minutes, (2) positive control group: Fluoride gel was used for 10 minutes, (3) β-TCP group: TCP was used for 10 minutes, (4) CCP-ACP group: CCP-ACP was used for 10 minutes. The final microhardness of those samples was measured, and the changes in microhardness of teeth within group and between groups were analyzed using the paired and analysis of variance tests respectively. Results were considered statistically significant at a level of p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in microhard-ness between CPP-ACP group and TCP group (p = 0.368) during the time microhardness significantly dropped after soaking in soda. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP increased the microhardness of teeth. The increase in hardness in the TCP group was higher than in the CPP-ACP group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.36). Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP can affect the remineralization of erosive lesions.

  5. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  6. Altered Elementary Calcium Release Events and Enhanced Calcium Release by Thymol in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine bind...

  7. Effect of foliar application of amino acid and calcium chelate on some quality and quantity of Golden Delicious and Granny Smith apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arabloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of foliar application of amino acid and calcium chelate on „Golden Delicious‟ and „Granny smith‟ apple trees, a randomized complete block design with four repetitions was conducted. Apple trees were sprayed with (0, 2, 4 mg L-1 of amino acid and (0, 2, 4 mg L-1 calcium chelate and their combination. Fruit weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titretable acidity and calcium content of fruits were determined. All the applied treatments significantly increased quality and quantity traits compared to the control trees in both cultivars. The combination of amino acid and calcium chelate increased weight of both cultivars. Thus, in this study combination of amino acid and calcium chelate foliar spray treatment could be recommended from results as they significantly increased quality and quantity traits of „Golden delicious‟ and „Granny smith‟ apple trees.

  8. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  9. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  10. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  11. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Moëll, Christian; Hjorth, Lars; Lindgren, Anna; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Wiebe, Thomas; Øra, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  12. Calcium movements and the cellular basis of gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.; Hale, C. C.

    An early gravity-transduction event in oat coleoptiles which precedes any noticeable bending is the accumulation of calcium on their prospective slower-growing side. Sub-cellular calcium localization studies indicate that the gravity-stimulated redistribution of calcium results in an increased concentration of calcium in the walls of responding cells. Since calcium can inhibit the extension growth of plant cell walls, this selective accumulation of calcium in walls may play a role in inducing the asymmetry of growth which characterizes gravitropism. The active transport of calcium from cells into walls is performed by a calcium-dependent ATPase localized in the plasma membrane. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that this calcium pump is regulated by a feed-back mechanism which includes the participation of calmodulin.

  13. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  14. Constitutive melanin density is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and potentially total body BMD in older Caucasian adults via increased sun tolerance and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M J W; Jones, G; Aitken, D A

    2018-06-01

    Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk. This study aimed to describe the relationship between spectrophotometrically determined constitutive melanin density, osteoporotic risk factors and potential intermediaries in a cohort of exclusively older Caucasian adults. One thousand seventy-two community-dwelling adults aged 50-80 years had constitutive melanin density quantified using spectrophotometry. Sun exposure, skin phenotype, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) prevalence and smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), falls risk, physical activity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured using DXA, the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, pedometer and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Higher melanin density was independently associated with greater ability to tan (RR = 1.27, p density and sun exposure (RR = 1.05-1.11, p density (β = 1.71-2.05, p = 0.001). The association between melanin density and total body BMD (β = 0.007, p = 0.04) became non-significant after adjustment for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There was no association between melanin density and physical activity, falls risk or BMD at other sites. Our data support a model of higher constitutive melanin density underpinning a less photosensitive skin phenotype, permitting greater sun exposure with fewer sequelae and yielding higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and, potentially, total body BMD.

  15. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  16. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hergenroeder Albert; Kelder Steven H; Hoelscher Deanna M; Jones Desiree; Sharma Shreela V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated i...

  17. In vivo calcium metabolism by IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public policy initiatives related to enhancing the health of populations, increasingly seek to identify meaningful biological outcomes on which to determine age-related nutritional requirements. For calcium, the primary outcome of interest is the availability of calcium in the diet for bone formatio...

  18. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified l...

  19. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan causes a transient increase in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterols and hs-CRP in ethnic obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakishun, Nalini; Blokhuis, Charlotte; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Weijer, Olivier; Heymans, Martijn; Beijnen, Jos; Brandjes, Dees; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    The radical change of lifestyle during Ramadan fast has shown to affect cardiometabolic risk variables in adults. In youth, however, no studies are available. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fast on Body Mass Index (BMI) and the cardiometabolic profile of obese adolescents. A prospective cohort study was conducted. We measured weight, height, body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels before, during the last week of and at 6 weeks after Ramadan. Twenty-five obese adolescents were included. BMI and glucose metabolism did not change after Ramadan or at 6 week after cessation of Ramadan. At the end of Ramadan, a significant decrease in body fat percentage was observed, while significant increases in heart rate, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP were found (all P < 0.05). Six weeks after Ramadan, all parameters returned to baseline levels. In this sample of 25 ethnic obese adolescents transient cardiometabolic changes were observed during Ramadan fasting. Since most of these changes were reversible within 6 weeks, there seems no harm or benefit for obese adolescents to participate in Ramadan.

  20. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  1. Internal-external malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty increases tibial force imbalance but does not change laxities of the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the increase in tibial force imbalance (i.e. magnitude of difference between medial and lateral tibial forces) and changes in laxities caused by  2° and 4° of internal-external (I-E) malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty. Because I-E malalignment would introduce the greatest changes to the articular surfaces near 90° of flexion, the hypotheses were that the tibial force imbalance would be significantly increased near 90° flexion and that primarily varus-valgus laxity would be affected near 90° flexion. Kinematically aligned TKA was performed on ten human cadaveric knee specimens using disposable manual instruments without soft tissue release. One 3D-printed reference femoral component, with unmodified geometry, was aligned to restore the native distal and posterior femoral joint lines. Four 3D-printed femoral components, with modified geometry, introduced I-E malalignments of 2° and 4° from the reference component. Medial and lateral tibial forces were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. Bidirectional laxities in four degrees of freedom were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom load application system. Tibial force imbalance increased the greatest at 60° flexion where a regression analysis against the degree of I-E malalignment yielded sensitivities (i.e. slopes) of 30 N/° (medial tibial force > lateral tibial force) and 10 N/° (lateral tibial force > medial tibial force) for internal and external malalignments, respectively. Valgus laxity increased significantly with the 4° external component with the greatest increase of 1.5° occurring at 90° flexion (p < 0.0001). With the tibial component correctly aligned, I-E malalignment of the femoral component caused significant increases in tibial force imbalance. Minimizing I-E malalignment lowers the increase in the tibial force imbalance. By keeping

  2. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake and high bone turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...

  3. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  5. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing T-type calcium channel activity by β-adrenergic stimulation contributes to β-adrenergic regulation of heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxin; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Ying; Qi, Zhao; Szeto, Christopher; Tang, Mingxin; Peng, Yizhi; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Houser, Steven R; Xie, Mingxing; Chen, Xiongwen

    2018-04-01

    Cav3.1 T-type Ca 2+ channel current (I Ca-T ) contributes to heart rate genesis but is not known to contribute to heart rate regulation by the sympathetic/β-adrenergic system (SAS). We show that the loss of Cav3.1 makes the beating rates of the heart in vivo and perfused hearts ex vivo, as well as sinoatrial node cells, less sensitive to β-adrenergic stimulation; it also renders less conduction acceleration through the atrioventricular node by β-adrenergic stimulation. Increasing Cav3.1 in cardiomyocytes has the opposite effects. I Ca-T in sinoatrial nodal cells can be upregulated by β-adrenergic stimulation. The results of the present study add a new contribution to heart rate regulation by the SAS system and provide potential new mechanisms for the dysregulation of heart rate and conduction by the SAS in the heart. T-type Ca 2+ channel can be a target for heart disease treatments that aim to slow down the heart rate ABSTRACT: Cav3.1 (α 1G ) T-type Ca 2+ channel (TTCC) is expressed in mouse sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) and atrioventricular (AV) nodal cells and contributes to heart rate (HR) genesis and AV conduction. However, its role in HR regulation and AV conduction acceleration by the β-adrenergic system (SAS) is unclear. In the present study, L- (I Ca-L ) and T-type (I Ca-T ) Ca 2+ currents were recorded in SANCs from Cav3.1 transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO), and control mice. I Ca-T was absent in KO SANCs but enhanced in TG SANCs. In anaesthetized animals, different doses of isoproterenol (ISO) were infused via the jugular vein and the HR was recorded. The EC 50 of the HR response to ISO was lower in TG mice but higher in KO mice, and the maximal percentage of HR increase by ISO was greater in TG mice but less in KO mice. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, ISO increased HR and shortened PR intervals to a greater extent in TG but to a less extent in KO hearts. KO SANCs had significantly slower spontaneous beating rates than control SANCs before and after

  7. Dissolved strontium and calcium levels in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Zvi; Sarkar, Amit; Turchyn, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of seawater alkalinity and dissolved calcium concentrations along oceanic transects are often used to calculate calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution rates. Given that the distribution coefficient of strontium in CaCO3 varies greatly between different groups of organisms, adding precise measurements of dissolved strontium concentrations provides opportunities to also track relative contributions of these different groups to the regional CaCO3 cycle. However, there are several obstacles to this approach. These obstacles include unresolved systematic discrepancies between seawater calcium and alkalinity data, very large analytical noise around the calcium concentration measurements and the unconstrained role of acantharia (radiolarian precipitating SrSO4 skeletons) in the marine strontium cycle. During the first cruise of the second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) water samples were collected along 67°E from 9°N to 5°S to explore the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in the water. The dissolution rate can be calculated by combining measurements of water column potential alkalinity with calcium and strontium concentrations measured by ICP-OES and calcium concentration measurements using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). CaCO3 mineral saturation state calculated using pH and total alkalinity suggests that along 67°E, the aragonite saturation horizon lays at depth of 500 m on both sides of the equator. Across the cruise transect, dissolved strontium concentrations increase by 2-3% along the thermocline suggesting rapid recycling of strontium rich phases. This is particularly evident just below the thermocline at 8-9°N and below 1000 m water depth, south of the equator. The deep, southern enrichment in strontium does not involve a change in the Sr/Ca ratio, suggesting that this strontium enrichment is related to CaCO3 dissolution. In contrast, in the intermediate waters of the northern part of

  8. Total glucosides of paeony induces regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells by increasing Foxp3 demethylation in lupus CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Liang, Gong-ping; Tang, Mei-ni; Luo, Shuang-yan; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Wen-jing; Chan, Tak-mao; Lu, Qian-jin

    2012-05-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP), an active compound extracted from Paeony root, has been used in therapy for autoimmune diseases. However the molecular mechanism of TGP in the prevention of autoimmune response remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGP treatment significantly increased the percentage and number of Treg cells in lupus CD4(+) T cells. Further investigation revealed that treatment with TGP increased the expression of Foxp3 in lupus CD4(+) T cells by down-regulating Foxp3 promoter methylation levels. However, we couldn't observe similar results in healthy control CD4(+) T cells treated by TGP. Moreover, our results also showed that IFN-γ and IL-2 expression was enhanced in TGP-treated lupus CD4(+) T cells. These findings indicate that TGP inhibits autoimmunity in SLE patients possibly by inducing Treg cell differentiation, which may in turn be due to its ability to regulate the methylation status of the Foxp3 promoter and activate IFN-γ and IL-2 signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [The fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and the relation with hypercalciuria and phosphocalcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; del Carmen Cano-García, María; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    To determine the importance of fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and its relation with hypercalciuria and phospho-calcium metabolism. Cross-sectional study including 143 patients divided into two groups according to fasting calcium/creatinine. Group 1: 66 patients (calcium/ creatininecreatinine>0.11). A comparative study is performed between groups including phospho-calcium metabolism parameters and excretion of urinary lithogenic markers. Linear correlation studying calciuria and fasting calcium/ creatinine was performed. SPSS 17.0 statistical analysis software was used, considering p≤0.05. It is noteworthy that group 2 had increased 24 h urine calcium excretion in comparison to group 1 (229.3 vs 158.1; p=0.0001) and calcium/citrate (0.47 vs 0.34; p=0.001). There is a positive and significant correlation between calcium levels in 24 h urine and fasting calcium/creatinine (R=0.455; p=0.0001) and a cutoff is set at 0.127 (sensitivity 72%, specificity 66%) to determine hypercalciuria (>260 mg in 24 h). Increased fasting calcium/creatinine determines increased 24 hours calcium excretion, although the sensitivity and specificity to determine hypercalciuria is not high.

  10. Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnenko, T.I.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates are studied for the case of alteration of external parameters of the medium (PO 2 , T). It is lshown that structural transformations bring about changes in the nature of electrophysical properties of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 , Ca 3 (VO 4 ) 2 , this being the reason for charge redistribution in anion groupings. It is obvious, that the general conductivity of calcium methavanadate is mainly caused by ion transport. Ca(VO 3 ) 2 possesses amphoteric character of semiconducting properties: the type of conductivity changes from ''p'' to ''n'' with temperature increase. Polytherms of conductivity and sums of ion numbers of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 transition are given. It is established that calcium pyrovanadate has a mixed electron-ion conductivity

  11. Resolution of intracellular calcium metabolism in intact segments of rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phair, R.D.; Hai, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    A new method, based on computer-assisted kinetic analysis of 45 Ca efflux data, was used to measure calcium contents and fluxes for extracellular and intracellular compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. After a 1-hour loading period, efflux data were collected for 8 hours using a flow-through tissue chamber. These long-term effluxes were necessary because information on intracellular calcium metabolism was concentrated in the slow components of the efflux curves while earlier components appeared to be dominated by washout of extracellular calcium. Intracellular compartments were identified as those whose calcium contents were altered by 10 microM phenylephrine. This method complements previous approaches by providing simultaneous estimates of compartmental calcium contents and fluxes without requiring the assumption of isotopic equilibrium and without recourse to standard wash techniques for removal of extracellular calcium. In normal, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-buffered physiological salt solution these compartments contained a total of approximately 300 nmol Ca/g wet aorta. Of this total, 55 nmol/g were associated with the slowest resolvable compartment whose turnover time was 170 minutes and whose exchange flux was 0.32 nmol min-1g-1. Two other intracellular compartments had turnover times of 30 minutes. One of these was phenylephrine releasable and contained 145 nmol/g; it exchanged calcium at 4.9 nmol min-1g-1. In normal physiological salt solution the plasma membrane was, surprisingly, not rate limiting for Ca efflux; and in 10 microM phenylephrine the membrane Ca flux was even greater, increasing 3.5-fold compared to control

  12. [Increase in prevalence of childhood asthma in Budapest between 1995 and 2003: correlation with air pollution data and total pollen count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László; Láng, Sarolta; Vámos, Adrienn; Bobvos, János; Páldy, Anna; Farkas, Ildikó; Collinsné Horváth, Zsuzsa; Varró, Mihály János

    2007-02-04

    According to the data of the Hungarian pulmonological network, the prevalence of asthma in the last 15 years has increased (almost linearly) in Hungary. In 2004 it was 1.8%. There are only a few data about the prevalence of childhood asthma. The aim of the authors was to measure the prevalence of bronchial asthma in childhood in Budapest in 1995, 1999 and 2003, using questionnaires directed to district pediatricians. There were only two questions in these questionnaires: how many children are in their districts, and how many are suffering from asthma? Besides of this survey the dust, CO, NO(2) and SO(2) concentrations in the air were measured on-line at 8 points in Budapest, while ozone level measurements were also made at 2 stations. The counts of pollen and of fungal elements in the air were calculated separately for Buda and for Pest. In 1995, replies were received from 118 pediatricians in 11 districts, who were responsible for the supervision of 104,060 children, out of these 1.88+/-0.87% had been diagnosed as having asthma. In 1999 replies were sent by 153 physicians in 22 of the 23 districts, who had a total of 142,679 children under their care. These included 3228 asthmatics, i.e. a prevalence of 2.26+/-0.95%. In 2003 the authors received answers from all of the 23 districts of Budapest. The 204 pediatricians were responsible for the supervision of 176 049 children. The number of patients with the diagnosis of asthma was 4712 (corresponding for a prevalence of 2.68+/-1.3%). The increase between 1995 and 1999, and between 1999 and 2003 was highly significant (p Budapest did not deteriorate in the period in question, and the concentration of pollen grains of plants causing allergy did not increase compared to previous years. On the basis of the results of more than 100 thousand children, the authors conclude that between 1995 and 2003 the proportion of asthmatic children increased by 50% in Budapest, while the air pollution did not deteriorate and the pollen

  13. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Adrenomedullin increased the short-circuit current in the pig oviduct through chloride channels via the CGRP receptor: mediation by cAMP and calcium ions but not by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; To, Y T; O, W S; Tang, F

    2013-10-01

    The oviduct serves as a site for the fertilization of the ovum and the transport of the conceptus down to the uterus for implantation. In this study, we investigated the presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) and its receptor component proteins in the pig oviduct. The effect of ADM on oviductal secretion, the specific receptor, and the mechanisms involved were also investigated. The presence of ADM and its receptor component proteins in the pig oviduct were confirmed using immunostaining. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) technique was employed to study chloride ion secretion in the oviductal epithelium. ADM increased I(sc) through cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels, and this effect could be inhibited by the CGRP receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. In contrast, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), could not block the effect of ADM on I(sc). In summary, ADM may increase oviductal fluid secretion via chloride secretion independent of the nitric oxide pathway for the transport of sperm and the conceptus.

  16. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  17. Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Miller, Christopher B; Rogers, Zoe; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Macmahon, Kenneth M; Espie, Colin A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. Sleep research laboratory. Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ≤ 6 h. Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P insomnia.

  18. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  19. Effects of cholesterol oxides on cell death induction and calcium increase in human neuronal cells (SK-N-BE) and evaluation of the protective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Amira; Nury, Thomas; Samadi, Mohammad; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Hammami, Mohamed; O'Brien, Nora M; Lizard, Gérard; Mackrill, John J

    2015-07-01

    Some oxysterols are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Their lipotoxicity is characterized by an oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis. To evaluate the capacity of these molecules to trigger cellular modifications involved in neurodegeneration, human neuronal cells SK-N-BE were treated with 7-ketocholesterol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 6α- and 6β-hydroxycholesterol, 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol (50-100μM, 24h) without or with docosahexaenoic acid (50μM). The effects of these compounds on mitochondrial activity, cell growth, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions (O2(-)), catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were determined. The ability of the oxysterols to induce increases in Ca(2+) was measured after 10min and 24h of treatment using fura-2 videomicroscopy and Von Kossa staining, respectively. Cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (100μM) induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell growth inhibition, ROS overproduction and cell death. A slight increase in the percentage of cells with condensed and/or fragmented nuclei, characteristic of apoptotic cells, was detected. With 27-hydroxycholesterol, a marked increase of O2(-) was observed. Increases in intracellular Ca(2+) were only found with 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. Pre-treatment with docosahexaenoic acid showed some protective effects depending on the oxysterol considered. According to the present data, 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol could favor neurodegeneration by their abilities to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and/or cell death associated or not with increases in cytosolic calcium levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Voltage-gated calcium flux mediates Escherichia coli mechanosensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giancarlo N; Weekley, R Andrew; Dodd, Benjamin J T; Kralj, Joel M

    2017-08-29

    Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria. A genetically encoded calcium sensor expressed in Escherichia coli revealed calcium transients in single cells. A fusion sensor that simultaneously reports voltage and calcium indicated that calcium influx is induced by voltage depolarizations, similar to metazoan action potentials. Cytoplasmic calcium levels and transients increased upon mechanical stimulation with a hydrogel, and single cells altered protein concentrations dependent on the mechanical environment. Blocking voltage and calcium flux altered mechanically induced changes in protein concentration, while inducing calcium flux reproduced these changes. Thus, voltage and calcium relay a bacterial sense of touch and alter cellular lifestyle. Although the calcium effectors remain unknown, these data open a host of new questions about E. coli , including the identity of the underlying molecular players, as well as other signals conveyed by voltage and calcium. These data also provide evidence that dynamic voltage and calcium exists as a signaling modality in the oldest domain of life, and therefore studying electrophysiology beyond canonical electrically excitable cells could yield exciting new findings.

  1. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths....... This has not been demonstrated for D given alone. The cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D (CaD) supplements is difficult to ascertain due to weaknesses in RCT designs and adjudication that cannot be remedied by subanalysis. Moreover, no major new RCTs are in process to provide better evidence...

  2. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  4. Continued Inpatient Care After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Increases 30-Day Post-Discharge Complications: A Propensity Score-Adjusted Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Fu, Michael C; Schairer, William W; Sculco, Peter K; MacLean, Catherine H; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-09-01

    Discharge destination, either home or skilled care facility, after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be associated with significant variation in postacute care outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the 30-day postdischarge outcomes after primary TKA relative to discharge destination. All primary unilateral TKAs performed for osteoarthritis from 2011-2014 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Propensity scores based on predischarge characteristics were used to adjust for selection bias in discharge destination. Propensity-adjusted multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine associations between discharge destination and postdischarge complications. Among 101,256 primary TKAs identified, 70,628 were discharged home and 30,628 to skilled care facilities. Patients discharged to facilities were more frequently were female, older, higher body mass index class, higher Charlson comorbidity index and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, had predischarge complications, received general anesthesia, and classified as nonindependent preoperatively. Propensity adjustment accounted for this selection bias. Patients discharged to skilled care facilities after TKA had higher odds of any major complication (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.37) and readmission (odds ratio = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.18). Skilled care was associated with increased odds for respiratory, septic, thromboembolic, and urinary complications. Associations with death, cardiac, and wound complications were not significant. After controlling for predischarge characteristics, discharge to skilled care facilities vs home after primary TKA is associated with higher odds of numerous complications and unplanned readmission. These results support coordination of care pathways to facilitate home discharge after hospitalization for TKA whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  6. Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.; Lapidot, T.; Gozes, D.; Singer, T.S.; Reisner, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Host-vs-graft activity presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, conditioned exactly like leukemia patients, it was shown that residual host clonable T cells, as well as alloreactive cytotoxic precursors, were present in peripheral blood and spleen after completion of cytoreduction. We have now extended this study in a mouse model for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. C 3 H/HeJ mice were treated by 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and 24 hr later their spleen cells were cultured in the presence of T cell growth factor and phytohemagglutinin according to the limit dilution procedure. After 7 days of culture the average frequency of clonable cells was 2.5 X 10(-3) compared with 37 X 10(-3) in the spleens of normal mice. The T cell derivation of the growing cells was ascertained by complement-mediated cytotoxicity with anti-Thy-1 as well as with anti-Lyt-2 and anti-Ly-3T4. In parallel, we found that the initial engraftment rate of bone marrow allograft in mice given 9 Gy TBI was lower than that found in recipients of syngeneic marrow. The initial engraftment rate was measured by the number of colony-forming units in the spleen and by splenic uptake of 125 IUdR. A slight increase in TBI from 9 Gy to 11 Gy markedly reduced the difference in the number of spleen colony-forming units or the IUdR uptake between recipients of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow. This increase in TBI also coincided with eradication of detectable clonable T cells. Moreover, in mice transplanted with T cell-depleted bone marrow after 9 Gy TBI, we also demonstrate that cytotoxicity against donor-type target cells is present in the spleen 10 to 14 days posttransplantation, whereas in mice treated by 11 Gy TBI such alloreactivity could not be detected

  7. Retention of zinc and calcium from the human colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, B.C.; Cederblad, A.; Kivistoe, B.S.; Stenquist, B.; Andersson, H.

    1986-01-01

    Colonic retention of zinc and calcium was studied after installation during colonoscopy of 30 mumol of zinc and 6.4 mmol of calcium labeled with 65 Zn and 47 Ca, and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclides. After cecal installation in nine patients, retention (day 13) of zinc was 3.5 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD) and of calcium 3.5 +/- 2.7%. The calculated mean absorption was 4.1% for zinc and 14.1% for calcium. Application at the hepatic flexure in four patients resulted in a mean retention (day 13) of 1.2% for zinc and 0.6% for calcium. Under prevailing conditions, colonic absorption of zinc is relatively small, compared to the uptake after oral administration. Colonic absorption of calcium could, however, account for a substantial part of the total calcium uptake

  8. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  9. Lead perturbs epidermal growth factor (EGF) modulation of intracellular calcium metabolism in clonal rat osteoblastic (ROS 17/2.8) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    EGF, a single chain polypeptide growth factor important for many cellular functions including glycolysis and protein phophorylation, is known to modulate calcium metabolism in several cell systems. It has been shown that EGF causes an increase in Ca 2+ influx and accumulation of inositol triphosphate, and probably exhibits many, if not all, of its effects via the calcium messenger system. Lead is known to interact with and perturb normal calcium signaling pathways; hence, the purpose of this work was to determine if lead perturbs EGF modulation of calcium metabolism in ROS 17/2.8 cells and if cell functions controlled by EGF were impaired. Cells were labelled with 45 Ca (1.87 mM Ca) for 20 hr in the presence of 5 μM Pb, 50 ng/ml EGF or μM Pb and 50 ng/ml EGF. Following an EGTA rinse, kinetic parameters were determined from 45 Ca efflux curves. Three kinetic compartments described the intracellular metabolism of 45 Ca. 5 μM Pb significantly altered the effect of EGF on intracellular calcium metabolism. Calcium distribution was shifted from the fast exchanging, quantitatively small calcium pools, S 1 and S 2 to the slow exchanging, quantitatively large S 2 . There was also a 50% increase in total cell calcium in cells treated with 5 μM Pb and 50 ng/ml EGF over cells treated with 50 ng/ml EGF alone. There was also a 25% decrease in the half-time for calcium exchange from S 3 to S 1 was also decreased. These data show that Pb impairs the normal modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis by EGF and may therefore perturb functions that are modulated by EGF via the calcium messenger system

  10. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  11. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with 45 Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues

  12. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  13. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  14. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ha Baek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years, and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years. The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels.ResultsA total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1% of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915. The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI] for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99 and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92 in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001. A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline.ConclusionThere was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline.

  15. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    absorption. Therefore, calcium as an essential nutrient should not be underestimated in our diet. Milk and dairy products are good sources of bioavailable calcium due to specific protein binding. Other sources of calcium, apart from a balanced and healthy diet, are calcium supplements and calcium fortified...... food. Therefore, an understanding of the basic chemistry of calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds can contribute to a general knowledge about calcium bioavailability and also to product improvement. Calcium precipitation with palmitate was described by a first-order reaction for conditions...... of excess calcium in neutral aqueous solutions with a stoichiometry Ca:Pal lower than 1:2. Increasing pH during aging of the precipitate and solubility product determination lead to a suggestion of an initial precipitation of calcium hydroxy palmitate as a possible precursor phase. The binding of calcium...

  16. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  17. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  18. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...

  19. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  20. Hearts from mice fed a non-obesogenic high-fat diet exhibit changes in their oxidative state, calcium and mitochondria in parallel with increased susceptibility to reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Ben; Pasdois, Philippe; Duggan, Simon; Bond, Andrew R; Heesom, Kate; Jackson, Christopher L; Angelini, Gianni D; Halestrap, Andrew P; Suleiman, M-Saadeh

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diet with obesity-associated co-morbidities triggers cardiac remodeling and renders the heart more vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the effect of high-fat diet without obesity and associated co-morbidities is presently unknown. To characterize a non-obese mouse model of high-fat diet, assess the vulnerability of hearts to reperfusion injury and to investigate cardiac cellular remodeling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying reperfusion injury. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice high-fat diet for 20 weeks did not induce obesity, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis or cardiac apoptosis. However, isolated perfused hearts from mice fed high-fat diet were more vulnerable to reperfusion injury than those from mice fed normal diet. In isolated cardiomyocytes, high-fat diet was associated with higher diastolic intracellular Ca2+ concentration and greater damage to isolated cardiomyocytes following simulated ischemia/reperfusion. High-fat diet was also associated with changes in mitochondrial morphology and expression of some related proteins but not mitochondrial respiration or reactive oxygen species turnover rates. Proteomics, western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques revealed that high-fat diet led to less cardiac oxidative stress, higher catalase expression and significant changes in expression of putative components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Inhibition of the mPTP conferred relatively more cardio-protection in the high-fat fed mice compared to normal diet. This study shows for the first time that high-fat diet, independent of obesity-induced co-morbidities, triggers changes in cardiac oxidative state, calcium handling and mitochondria which are likely to be responsible for increased vulnerability to cardiac insults.

  1. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  2. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P......Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  3. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kuen Yu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO3 from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate.

  4. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  5. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  6. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa.

  7. Calcium binding properties of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1) from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ajay Kumar; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-05-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in all aspects of plant growth, development and survival. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are the major calcium decoders, which couple the changes in calcium level to an appropriate physiological response. The mechanism by which calcium regulates CDPK protein is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions of Ca(2+) ions with the CDPK1 isoform of Cicer arietinum (CaCDPK1) using a combination of biophysical tools. CaCDPK1 has four different EF hands as predicted by protein sequence analysis. The fluorescence emission spectrum of CaCDPK1 showed quenching with a 5 nm red shift upon addition of calcium, indicating conformational changes in the tertiary structure. The plot of changes in intensity against calcium concentrations showed a biphasic curve with binding constants of 1.29 μM and 120 μM indicating two kinds of binding sites. Isothermal calorimetric (ITC) titration with CaCl2 also showed a biphasic curve with two binding constants of 0.027 μM and 1.7 μM. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed two prominent peaks at 208 and 222 nm indicating that CaCDPK1 is a α-helical rich protein. Calcium binding further increased the α-helical content of CaCDPK1 from 75 to 81%. Addition of calcium to CaCDPK1 also increased fluorescence of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) indicating exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Thus, on the whole this study provides evidence for calcium induced conformational changes, exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and heterogeneity of EF hands in CaCDPK1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium microdomains near R-type calcium channels control the induction of presynaptic LTP at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoga, Michael H.; Regehr, Wade G.

    2011-01-01

    R-type calcium channels in postsynaptic spines signal through functional calcium microdomains to regulate a calcium-calmodulin sensitive potassium channel that in turn regulates postsynaptic hippocampal LTP. Here we ask whether R-type calcium channels in presynaptic terminals also signal through calcium microdomains to control presynaptic LTP. We focus on presynaptic LTP at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum (PF-LTP), which is mediated by calcium/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Although most presynaptic calcium influx is through N-type and P/Q-type calcium channels, blocking these channels does not disrupt PF-LTP, but blocking R-type calcium channels does. Moreover, global calcium signaling cannot account for the calcium dependence of PF-LTP because R-type channels contribute modestly to overall calcium entry. These findings indicate that within presynaptic terminals, R-type calcium channels produce calcium microdomains that evoke presynaptic LTP at moderate frequencies that do not greatly increase global calcium levels,. PMID:21471358

  9. Improvements in glucose metabolism early after gastric bypass surgery are not explained by increases in total bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) have been suggested as key mediators of the improvements in glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective: To describe fasting and postprandial state total bile acid (TBA) and FGF19 concentrations before and after...... (T2D) patients and 12 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects participated in the study. Intervention: A 4-hour liquid meal test was performed before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting and postprandial TBA and FGF19 concentrations. Results: Fasting...... TBA concentrations decreased in NGT subjects (P TBA was decreased in NGT subjects 1 week after RYGB (before surgery, 567...

  10. Increased risk of attempted suicide in Australian veterans is associated with total and permanent incapacitation, unemployment and posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Romaniuk, Madeline; McLeay, Sarah; Khoo, Andrew; Dent, Michael T; Boshen, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 229 ex-service personnel diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attended a Military Service Trauma Recovery Day Program as outpatients at Toowong Private Hospital from 2007 to 2014. Patients completed a battery of mental health self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, anger, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Demographic information and self-reported history of suicide attempts were also recorded. Results indicated the average age was significantly lower, and the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, anxiety and depression symptoms were significantly higher in those veterans with history of a suicide attempt. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, unemployment or total and permanent incapacity pension status significantly predicted suicide attempt history. Among a cohort of Australian veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, psychopathology severity, unemployment and total and permanent incapacity status are significantly associated with suicidality. This study highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder and psychopathology, therapeutic and social

  11. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  12. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM- CHANNELBLOCKERSFOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the controversy over the role of calci~-channel blockers as first-line ..... group trials while fully accounting for placebo effects as well as interindividual ..... Reducing calcium overload in the ischemic brain. N Engl JMed. 1999; 341 ...

  13. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium-set tofu edamame (soybeans) broccoli, collard greens, kale, chard, Chinese cabbage, and other leafy greens almonds ... more dark green, leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, kale, collard greens, or Chinese cabbage) with meals. Kids ...

  14. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  15. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 75 - Paris (France); Paris-11 Univ., 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution + /sup 45/Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/) with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution results in decreased /sup 45/Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl/sub 2/ (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon /sup 45/Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system.

  16. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  17. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  18. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo O. Iji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05 decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochloriteinduced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.

  19. Ryanodine receptor gating controls generation of diastolic calcium waves in cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovič, Pavol; Valent, Ivan; Cocherová, Elena; Pavelková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The role of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in the initiation and propagation of calcium waves was investigated using a mathematical model comprising a stochastic description of RyR gating and a deterministic description of calcium diffusion and sequestration. We used a one-dimensional array of equidistantly spaced RyR clusters, representing the confocal scanning line, to simulate the formation of calcium sparks. Our model provided an excellent description of the calcium dependence of the frequency of diastolic calcium sparks and of the increased tendency for the production of calcium waves after a decrease in cytosolic calcium buffering. We developed a hypothesis relating changes in the propensity to form calcium waves to changes of RyR gating and tested it by simulation. With a realistic RyR gating model, increased ability of RyR to be activated by Ca2+ strongly increased the propensity for generation of calcium waves at low (0.05–0.1-µM) calcium concentrations but only slightly at high (0.2–0.4-µM) calcium concentrations. Changes in RyR gating altered calcium wave formation by changing the calcium sensitivity of spontaneous calcium spark activation and/or the average number of open RyRs in spontaneous calcium sparks. Gating changes that did not affect RyR activation by Ca2+ had only a weak effect on the propensity to form calcium waves, even if they strongly increased calcium spark frequency. Calcium waves induced by modulating the properties of the RyR activation site could be suppressed by inhibiting the spontaneous opening of the RyR. These data can explain the increased tendency for production of calcium waves under conditions when RyR gating is altered in cardiac diseases. PMID:26009544

  20. Multiparameter imaging of calcium and abscisic acid and high-resolution quantitative calcium measurements using R-GECO1-mTurquoise in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Krebs, Melanie; Kudla, Jörg; Schumacher, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Calcium signals occur in specific spatio-temporal patterns in response to various stimuli and are coordinated with, for example, hormonal signals, for physiological and developmental adaptations. Quantification of calcium together with other signalling molecules is required for correlative analyses and to decipher downstream calcium-decoding mechanisms. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of calcium and abscisic acid has been performed here to investigate the interdependence of the respective signalling processes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Advanced ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicators have been generated and in vivo calcium calibration protocols were established to determine absolute calcium concentration changes in response to auxin and ATP. In roots, abscisic acid induced long-term basal calcium concentration increases, while auxin triggered rapid signals in the elongation zone. The advanced ratiometric calcium indicator R-GECO1-mTurquoise exhibited an increased calcium signal resolution compared to commonly used Förster resonance energy transfer-based indicators. Quantitative calcium measurements in Arabidopsis root tips using R-GECO1-mTurquoise revealed detailed maps of absolute calcium concentration changes in response to auxin and ATP. Calcium calibration protocols using R-GECO1-mTurquoise enabled high-resolution quantitative imaging of resting cytosolic calcium concentrations and their dynamic changes that revealed distinct hormonal and ATP responses in roots. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Consumption of less than 10% of total energy from added sugars is associated with increasing HDL in females during adolescence: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Binongo, José Nilo G; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D; Gazmararian, Julie A; Vos, Miriam B; Welsh, Jean A

    2014-02-26

    Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long-term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10-year cohort study of non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987-1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3-day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10-year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI -1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence.

  2. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  3. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in aP. Therefore, LPA barley, especially M955 with 95% aP, will reduce the use of iP in swine diets, reduce P pollution from swine manure, and support the goal of achieving global P sustainability.

  4. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A model of propagating calcium-induced calcium release mediated by calcium diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, P. H.; de Tombe, P. P.; van Deen, J. H.; Mulder, B. J.; ter Keurs, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sudden local fluctuations of the free sarcoplasmic [Ca++]i in cardiac cells on calcium release and calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated with the aid of a simplified model of SR calcium handling. The model was used to evaluate whether propagation of calcium

  6. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and effect of calcium dobesilate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Min Gui; Ming Zhao; Jie Ding

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and effect of calcium dobesilate.Methods:A total of 120 diabetic retinopathy patients treated in our hospital from January 2010 to September 2015 were enrolled in this article. The serum endoplasmic reticulum stress protein and interleukin protein expression levels were analyzed before and after calcium dobesilate treatment. A total of 55 cases of healthy subjects receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were taken as control group.Results:Serum endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins PERK, CHOP and IRE as well as interleukin proteins IL1, IL2, IL6 and IL10 expression significantly increased, serum MDA level significantly increased while SOD, CAT and GSHpx levels significantly decreased in diabetic retinopathy patients, and compared with control group (P<0.01); after calcium dobesilate treatment, above factors were significantly restored (P<0.01).Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium dobesilate treatment may improve diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  8. Serum magnesium but not calcium was associated with hemorrhagic transformation in stroke overall and stroke subtypes: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Wei, ChenChen; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2018-05-26

    Association between serum calcium and magnesium versus hemorrhagic transformation (HT) remains to be identified. A total of 1212 non-thrombolysis patients with serum calcium and magnesium collected within 24 h from stroke onset were enrolled. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate association between calcium and magnesium versus HT. Calcium and magnesium were entered into logistic regression analysis in two models, separately: model 1, as continuous variable (per 1-mmol/L increase), and model 2, as four-categorized variable (being collapsed into quartiles). HT occurred in 140 patients (11.6%). Serum calcium was slightly lower in patients with HT than in patient without HT (P = 0.273). But serum magnesium was significantly lower in patients with HT than in patients without HT (P = 0.007). In logistic regression analysis, calcium displayed no association with HT. Magnesium, as either continuous or four-categorized variable, was independently and inversely associated with HT in stroke overall and stroke of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA). The results demonstrated that serum calcium had no association with HT in patients without thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke. Serum magnesium in low level was independently associated with increasing HT in stroke overall and particularly in stroke of LAA.

  9. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marędziak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX and sedentary animal groups revealed (i significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, (iii increased level of osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OCL, and (iv reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions.

  10. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  11. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  12. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Holmboe, Sarah; Jacobsen, R

    2012-01-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births....... The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark...... and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960...

  13. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on L-type calcium channels in human heart sarcolemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, M.; Vago, T.; Norbiato, G.

    1991-01-01

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PC) protects perfused rat hearts against damage by ischemia-reperfusion. Activation of L-type calcium channel play a role on ischemia-reperfusion damage. Therefore, we studied the effect of PC on some properties of L-type calcium channels in an in vitro preparation from human myocardium sarcolemma (from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). Binding of the L-type calcium channel blockers isradipine [ 3 H]-PN 200-110 (PN) to plasma membrane preparations revealed a single population of binding sites (total number: Bmax = 213 +/- 34 fM/mg protein and affinity: Kd = 152 +/- 19 nM; n = 6). The characteristics of these binding sites were evaluated in the presence and in the absence of Ca 2+ and of calcium blockers (D-888, a verapamillike drug, and diltiazem). Incubation in a Ca 2+ -containing buffer increased the affinity of PN binding sites. Binding sites for PN were modulated by organic calcium channel blockers; in competition isotherms at 37 degree C, D-888 (desmethoxyverapamil) decreased the PN binding, whereas diltiazem increased it. These results strongly suggest that the site labelled by PN is the voltage-operated calcium channel of the human myocardium. The addition of PC (1 mM) to plasma membranes labelled with PN at 37 degree C decreased the affinity of the binding; this effect was counteracted by the addition of Ca 2+ to the medium. This result was consistent with a competition between Ca 2+ and PC. The effect of PC incubation at 4 degree C was the opposite; at this temperature PC increased the affinity of the binding sites and the effect was obscured by Ca 2+

  14. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  15. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... (Shanghai Jierui Bio-Engineering Co., Ltd.) were used in the total. RNA extraction of ..... PC and reverse through calcium removal agent. EGTA indicating .... Photosynthetic characteristics and tolerance to photo- oxidation of ...

  16. Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Lipids in Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To examine the association of serum total calcium with lipids levels and blood pressure .... Demographic data were obtained with the help of structures questionnaires ..... chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification and stratification.

  17. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during ... teins in saliva are important components and any chan- ... Sialochemical analysis .... quantities of protein utilizing the principal of protein-dye binding. Anal biochem.

  18. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...

  19. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  20. Lifetime physical activity and calcium intake related to bone density in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E

    2002-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between lifetime physical activity and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC (bone mineral content) in 42 regularly menstruating Caucasian women (age 21.26+/-1.91 years, BMI 23.83+/-5.85). BMD and BMC at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (femoral neck, trochanter, total), and total body were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lifetime history of physical activity and calcium intake was obtained by a structured interview using valid and reliable instruments. Measures of both lifetime physical activity and calcium intake were highly correlated. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, lean mass was the most important and consistent factor for predicting BMD and BMC at all skeletal sites (attributable r2 = 28.8%-78.7%). Lifetime physical activity contributed to 3.0% of the variation in total body BMD, and life-time weight-bearing physical activity explained 15.1% of variance in lumbar spine BMC. Current calcium intake predicted 6% of the variance in BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter. We found lean mass to be a powerful predictor of BMD and BMC in young women. Because lean mass can be modified to some extent by physical activity, public health efforts must be directed at increasing physical activity throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, our results suggest that adequate calcium intake may help to enhance bone mass, thus decreasing the risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life.

  1. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  2. Protection of Dentate Hilar Cells from Prolonged Stimulation by Intracellular Calcium Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    1989-10-01

    Prolonged afferent stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus in vivo leads to degeneration only of those cells that lack immunoreactivity for the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin. In order to test the hypothesis that calcium binding proteins protect against the effects of prolonged stimulation, intracellular recordings were made in hippocampal slices from cells that lack immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins. Calcium binding protein--negative cells showed electrophysiological signs of deterioration during prolonged stimulation; cells containing calcium binding protein did not. When neurons without calcium binding proteins were impaled with microelectrodes containing the calcium chelator BAPTA, and BAPTA was allowed to diffuse into the cells, these cells showed no deterioration. These results indicate that, in a complex tissue of the central nervous system, an activity-induced increase in intracellular calcium can trigger processes leading to cell deterioration, and that increasing the calcium binding capacity of a cell decreases its vulnerability to damage.

  3. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium. Subjects and Methods: Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each......,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin...

  4. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  5. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  6. Phagocytosis-induced /sup 45/calcium efflux in polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, A; Schell-Frederick, E [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire; Paridaens, R [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Faculte de Medicine

    1977-10-15

    The role of calcium ions in regulating the structure and function of non-muscle cells is a subject of intense study. Several lines of evidence that calcium may be essential in the function of polymorphonuclear leuocytes (PMNL) and an important control element in the process of phagocytosis. Direct studies of calcium distribution and fluxes have only recently been undertaken. To our knowledge, no report of calcium movements during normal phagocytosis has been published. In the context of an overall study of calcium dynamics in the PMNL, we report here initial studies on /sup 45/Ca efflux in prelabelled guinea pig PMNL. The results demonstrate the energy-dependence of resting calcium efflux and an increased efflux upon addition of phagocytic particles which is not dependent on particle internalization.

  7. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  8. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins. A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001, egg production (P < 0.001, egg weight (P < 0.0001 and eggshell weight (P < 0.001 weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001 and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001, vitamin D (P < 0.0001, calcium (P < 0.001, phosphorus (P < 0.001, and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008 as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001 and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001, and Ca balance (P < 0.0001 increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001 decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all. In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients.

  10. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to ...

  11. Effects of adding chymosin to milk on calcium homeostasis: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; Jensen, L.T.; Mosekilde, Leif

    2015-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...... was significantly increased (17%) compared with placebo. Stratification by daily calcium intake showed effect of chymosin in participant with a habitual intake above the median (>1,050 mg/day) in whom both urinary calcium and calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly increased compared with placebo. Effects did...

  12. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  13. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  14. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties. 1. History of calcium ... cellular roles of calcium has established the importance of this ion ..... Ca2+ ion, for example in regulating enzyme activity (Price. 1975 ...

  15. Whole body retention of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) in monitoring skeletal calcium status in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Rangarajan, V.; Samuel, A.M.; Joshi, D.P.; Ray, S.; Raste, A.S.; Gadhre

    2003-01-01

    The detection and estimation of skeletal calcium loss has become an important consideration in the management of post-menopausal women. The need to supplement large amounts of calcium of 1000-1500 mg per day is recommended to forestall the risk of skeletal fractures. The added supplementation of estrogens and progesterone for several years is also recommended to prevent bone calcium loss. The need to record the calcium status in post-menopausal women is becoming necessary in the present scenario. A total of 159 women in the peri-menopausal, menopausal and post-menopausal groups were selected. None of them had other systemic diseases. They were healthy and not on any medication. They were randomly grouped into 3 groups. One was considered as control and no medication was advised. The second group was advised 1000-1500 mg of calcium carbonate daily. The third group was given the same dose of calcium, but also received additionally another 2 mg of estradiol daily. Whole Body Retention (WBR) studies of Tc-99m MDP were carried out before starting treatment and at 6 monthly intervals for a period of 5 years. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were estimated on fasting samples at the start of the study and at every 6 monthly intervals. WBR studies were done using a shadow shield whole body counter attached with a 5 inch diameter sodium iodide crystal detector and a 5 mm wide slit collimator. The WBR of Tc-99m MDP at 24 hours was found to be 27.55 ± 6.76% in women in the peri-menopausal age range of 25-45 years. It was also observed that at the time of menopause 13.3% of the women had WBR values above 2 SD of the normal values. This suggests that calcium loss from the skeleton is present only in a small number of women at menopause. However in women who were not supplemented with calcium or subjected to hormonal and calcium treatment, the number of women who showed loss of bone calcium increased within a period of 1-2 years after menopause. This simple method of WBR

  16. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  17. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  18. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  19. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  20. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  1. Performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation in pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Luo, Wenhai; Li, Guoxue; Wang, Kun; Gong, Xiaoyan

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting with cornstalk as the bulking agent. Results show that phosphogypsum increased nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, but significantly reduced ammonia (NH 3 ) emission and thus enhanced the mineral and total nitrogen (TN) contents in compost. Although N 2 O emission could be reduced by adding calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, NH 3 emission was considerably increased, resulting in an increase in TN loss during composting. By blending these two additives, both NH 3 and N 2 O emissions could be mitigated, achieving effective nitrogen conservation in composting. More importantly, with the addition of 20% TN of the mixed composting materials, these two additives could synergistically improve the compost maturity and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  3. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  4. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    by centrifugation. In addition, GH, GH-binding protein, total IGFs, IGFBP-1 to -4, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity were measured. The IGFBPs were measured by both immunoassays and Western ligand blotting. Twelve of the patients were restudied 3 months after a minor increase in body mass index. In AN, the levels...

  5. Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tue H; Madsen, Marie T B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Cohen, Arieh S; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2018-01-23

    A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores. When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

  6. A randomised study to compare salivary pH, calcium, phosphate and calculus formation after using anticavity dentifrices containing Recaldent(®) and functionalized tri-calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ena; Vishwanathamurthy, Ramesh Alampalli; Nadella, Manjari; Savitha, A N; Gundannavar, Gayatri; Hussain, M Ahad

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the pH of saliva, concentration of calcium and inorganic phosphate, and calculus formation before and after usage of Recaldent(®) (GC Tooth Mousse Plus™), Functionalized Tricalcium Phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Crème) and standard dentifrice (Colgate dental cream). Randomized double-blind study. A total of 50 subjects were recruited, the subjects were assessed at their first visit, on the 21(st) day and on the 42(nd) day. At the first visit, scaling was carried out and oral hygiene instructions were given. After 21 days, the subjects were given coded dentifrices where the operator and the subjects both were unaware of the type of dentifrice. Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque index, Gingival index, and Calculus index. Salivary samples were obtained to measure calcium, phosphate levels, and pH at 21(st) day and 42(nd) day. ANOVA test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean salivary calcium level and mean salivary phosphate level were higher in Group III (functionalized tricalcium phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Creme) as compared to Group II (Recaldent(®) GC Tooth Mousse Plus™) and Group I (Colgate dental cream) on the 42(nd) day after using dentifrices, which was statistically significant. This showed that the usage of remineralizing dentifrices led to an increase in the salivary calcium, phosphate, and pH but it did not reach the level of super saturation of the ions caused by elevated pH which could lead to calculus formation. Thought here was a statistically significant increase in salivary calcium and phosphate level in all three groups from baseline to 42(nd) day, there was no calculus formation.

  7. A role for barley calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK2a in the response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Cieśla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events. In this study we attempted to elucidate the role of a calcium-dependent protein kinase in the drought stress response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., one of the most economically important crops worldwide. The ongoing barley genome project has provided useful information about genes potentially involved in the drought stress response, but information on the role of calcium-dependent kinases is still limited. We found that the gene encoding the calcium-dependent protein kinase HvCPK2a was significantly upregulated in response to drought. To better understand the role of HvCPK2a in drought stress signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed the corresponding coding sequence. Overexpressing lines displayed drought sensitivity, reduced nitrogen balance index, an increase in total chlorophyll content and decreased relative water content. In addition, in vitro kinase assay experiments combined with mass spectrometry allowed HvCPK2a autophosphorylation sites to be identified. Our results suggest that HvCPK2a is a dual-specificity calcium-dependent protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response in barley.

  8. The effects of synthetic human secretin on calcium carbonate solubility in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyrim, K; Vakil, N

    1990-11-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of synthetic human secretin on ionized calcium and carbonate concentrations in human hepatic bile. Five patients with a nasobiliary drain in the right hepatic duct were studied. Three basal samples of bile were collected, each over a 15-minute period. Synthetic human secretin was then infused IV at 0.05 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes followed by 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes. Bile was sampled over 15-minute periods. To document return to baseline conditions, two further samples of bile were obtained over 15-minute periods 2 hours after the infusion was terminated. Bile acid concentration was determined by an enzymatic method; pH and PCO2 were measured with an automated analyzer. Total calcium was determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and ionized calcium by an ion-specific electrode. Bicarbonate and carbonate concentrations were calculated using Henry's law and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The fraction of bile sampled by the catheter was determined by Indocyanin Green recovery at the end of the experiment. Secretin caused an increase in bile flow and bicarbonate output. Bicarbonate concentrations increased from 26 +/- 3 mmol/L to 41 +/- 3 mmol/L (P less than 0.05), and chloride concentrations decreased. Mean bile acid concentrations declined significantly from 14.6 +/- 2 mmol/L to 4.7 +/- 1 mmol/L (P less than 0.05). Ionized calcium concentrations decreased from 0.7 +/- 0.005 mmol/L to 0.5 +/- 0.02 mmol/L (P less than 0.05) while pH increased significantly from 7.44 +/- 0.06 to 7.6 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.05). Carbonate concentrations increased significantly from 0.15 +/- 0.02 mmol/L to 0.26 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, and the ion product for calci