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Sample records for total brain volume

  1. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid-levels during childhood can have detrimental effects on the developing brain. Here, we examined the impact of glucocorticoid-treatment during childhood on brain volumes. METHODS: Thirty children and adolescents...... with rheumatic or nephrotic disease previously treated with glucocorticoids and 30 controls matched on age, sex, and parent education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Total cortical grey and white matter, brain, and intracranial volume, and total cortical thickness and surface area were...... were mainly driven by the children with rheumatic disease. Total cortical thickness and cortical surface area did not significantly differ between groups. We found no significant associations between glucocorticoid-treatment variables and volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Observed smaller total brain...

  2. Genetic Schizophrenia Risk Variants Jointly Modulate Total Brain and White Matter Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2013-01-01

    with total brain volume (R(2)=.048, p=1.6×10(-4)) and white matter volume (R(2)=.051, p=8.6×10(-5)) equally in patients and control subjects. The number of (independent) SNPs that substantially influenced both disease risk and white matter (n=2020) was much smaller than the entire set of SNPs that modulated...... modulating schizophrenia and brain volume. METHODS: Odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data were calculated in the sample collected by the Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium (8690 schizophrenia patients and 11,831 control subjects, excluding subjects from the present study). These were used...

  3. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  4. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  6. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  7. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  8. Structural imaging of the brain reveals decreased total brain and total gray matter volumes in obese but not in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to body mass index-matched counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen Saydam, Basak; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Bozdag, Gurkan; Oguz, Kader Karli; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2017-07-01

    To detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. Forty subjects participated in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed. Total brain volume and total gray matter volume (GMV) were decreased in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean PCOS and controls did not show a significant difference. Secondary analyses of regional brain volumes showed decreases in GMV of the caudate nucleus, ventral diencephalon and hippocampus in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean patients with PCOS had lower GMV in the amygdala than lean controls (p PCOS, suggests volumetric reductions in global brain areas in obese women with PCOS. Functional studies with larger sample size are needed to determine physiopathological roles of these changes and potential effects of long-term medical management on brain structure of PCOS.

  9. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  10. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  11. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  12. [Totally paralyzed or brain dead?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, G.W. van; Vos, P.E.; Eurelings, M.; Jansen, G.H.; Gijn, J. van

    2001-01-01

    In two patients, men aged 23 and 42 years, a condition that mimicked brain death was observed as a consequence of rapidly progressive complete peripheral paralyses, which included the intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscles. However, the EEG revealed a waking pattern. Maximal supportive therapy was

  13. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P.M.; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in

  14. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P M; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in BD-I patients are related to smaller brain volumes and to what extent smaller brain volumes can explain differences between premorbid IQ estimates and IQ after a diagnosis of BD-I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, IQ and premorbid IQ scores were obtained from 195 BDI patients and 160 controls. We studied the relationship of (global, cortical and subcortical) brain volumes with IQ and IQ change. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, lithium- and antipsychotic use and IQ. Total brain volume and IQ were positively correlated in the entire sample. This correlation did not differ between patients and controls. Although brain volumes mediated the relationship between BD-I and IQ in part, the direct relationship between the diagnosis and IQ remained significant. Childhood trauma and use of lithium and antipsychotic medication did not affect the relationship between brain volumes and IQ. However, current lithium use was related to lower IQ in patients. Our data suggest a similar relationship between brain volume and IQ in BD-I patients and controls. Smaller brain volumes only partially explain IQ deficits in patients. Therefore, our findings indicate that in addition to brain volumes and lithium use other disease factors play a role in IQ deficits in BD-I patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Bryan, R. Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.; Shumaker, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. Methods: A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Results: Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm3/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm3/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm3/y (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings. PMID:24384646

  16. A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Peper, J.S.; van den Berg, S.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler

  17. A Genetic Analysis of Brain Volumes and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Phenotypic…

  18. Volumetric quantification of brain volume in children using sequential CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, K.; Iwasaki, N.; Kawashima, K.; Takita, H.

    1990-01-01

    We devised a three dimensional method for the accurate measurement of brain volume and applied it to 32 neurologically normal children, 7 children with only mental retardation and 15 children with both mental retardation and motor disturbance. In the group of neurologically normal children, the total brain volume increased from 723 cm 3 to 1407 cm 3 in order of age. The correlation ratio between the total brain volume and age was significant (P 00600.0001). The values of the total brain volume and the developmental curve were similar to those of the total brain weight of normal children previously reported. The combined volume of the cerebellum, the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla also increased from 76 cm 3 to 200 cm 3 in a manner similar to that of the total brain. The correlation between total brain volume and head circumference was significant (P<0.0001). In the group of children with mental retardation, the total brain volume was relatively smaller than that of neurologically normal children. In the group of the children with mental retardation and motor disturbance, 10 out of 15 cases showed values below -2 SD of those of neurologically normal children. The values of the total brain volume were each less than -3 SD in 3 cases whose head circumferences were each more than -3 SD. Our method for the direct measurement of brain volume based on serial CT scans may be useful for the accurate examination of brain development. (orig.)

  19. Language and Brain Volumes in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the relationship of language skill with fronto-temporal volumes in 69 medically treated epilepsy subjects and 34 healthy children, aged 6.1-16.6 years. It also determined if the patients with linguistic deficits had abnormal volumes and atypical associations between volumes and language skills in these brain regions. The children underwent language testing and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 1.5 Tesla. Brain tissue was segmented and fronto-temporal volumes were computed. Higher mean language scores were significantly associated with larger inferior frontal gyrus, temporal lobe, and posterior superior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes in the epilepsy group and in the children with epilepsy with average language scores. Increased total brain and dorsolateral prefrontal gray and white matter volumes, however, were associated with higher language scores in the healthy controls. Within the epilepsy group, linguistic deficits were related to smaller anterior superior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes and a negative association between language scores and dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volumes. These findings demonstrate abnormal development of language related brain regions, and imply differential reorganization of brain regions subserving language in children with epilepsy with normal linguistic skills and in those with impaired language. PMID:20149755

  20. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gender dimorphism of brain reward system volumes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kayle S; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Barthelemy, Olivier J; Papadimitriou, George M; Harris, Gordon J; Makris, Nikos

    2017-05-30

    The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon (VDC). We examined the relationships of the volumetric findings to drinking history. Analyses revealed a significant gender interaction for the association between alcoholism and total reward network volumes, with ALC men having smaller reward volumes than NC men and ALC women having larger reward volumes than NC women. Analyses of a priori subregions revealed a similar pattern of reward volume differences with significant gender interactions for DLPFC and VDC. Overall, the volume of the cerebral ventricles in ALC participants was negatively associated with duration of abstinence, suggesting decline in atrophy with greater length of sobriety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  3. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  4. Higher Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Lower Plasma Glucose Are Associated with Larger Gray Matter Volume but Not with White Matter or Total Brain Volume in Dutch Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.; Veld, P.H. In 't; Feskens, E.J.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Rest, O. van de; Groot, L.C. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown beneficial associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and cognitive performance, but results are inconclusive. Studies on 25(OH)D status and brain volumetric measures may provide more insight in the potential role of vitamin D in cognitive

  5. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and lower plasma glucose are associated with larger gray matter volume but not with white matter or total brain volume in dutch community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.; in 't Veld, Paulette H.; Feskens, Edith J.; Smeets, Paul A.; Kessels, Roy P.; van de Rest, Ondine; de Groot, Lisette C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown beneficial associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and cognitive performance, but results are inconclusive. Studies on 25(OH)D status and brain volumetric measures may provide more insight in the potential role of vitamin D in cognitive

  6. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and lower plasma glucose are associated with larger gray matter volume but not with white matter or total brain volume in Dutch community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Veld, P.H. in 't; Feskens, E.J.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Rest, O. van de; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown beneficial associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and cognitive performance, but results are inconclusive. Studies on 25(OH)D status and brain volumetric measures may provide more insight in the potential role of vitamin D in cognitive

  7. Novel whole brain segmentation and volume estimation using quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J. [Linkoeping University, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Warntjes, J.B.M. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Clinical Physiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, P. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    Brain segmentation and volume estimation of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) are important for many neurological applications. Volumetric changes are observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and in normal aging. A novel method is presented to segment brain tissue based on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1}, the transverse relaxation rate R{sub 2} and the proton density, PD. Previously reported qMRI values for WM, GM and CSF were used to define tissues and a Bloch simulation performed to investigate R{sub 1}, R{sub 2} and PD for tissue mixtures in the presence of noise. Based on the simulations a lookup grid was constructed to relate tissue partial volume to the R{sub 1}-R{sub 2}-PD space. The method was validated in 10 healthy subjects. MRI data were acquired using six resolutions and three geometries. Repeatability for different resolutions was 3.2% for WM, 3.2% for GM, 1.0% for CSF and 2.2% for total brain volume. Repeatability for different geometries was 8.5% for WM, 9.4% for GM, 2.4% for CSF and 2.4% for total brain volume. We propose a new robust qMRI-based approach which we demonstrate in a patient with MS. (orig.)

  8. Novel whole brain segmentation and volume estimation using quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.; Warntjes, J.B.M.; Lundberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Brain segmentation and volume estimation of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) are important for many neurological applications. Volumetric changes are observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and in normal aging. A novel method is presented to segment brain tissue based on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R 1 , the transverse relaxation rate R 2 and the proton density, PD. Previously reported qMRI values for WM, GM and CSF were used to define tissues and a Bloch simulation performed to investigate R 1 , R 2 and PD for tissue mixtures in the presence of noise. Based on the simulations a lookup grid was constructed to relate tissue partial volume to the R 1 -R 2 -PD space. The method was validated in 10 healthy subjects. MRI data were acquired using six resolutions and three geometries. Repeatability for different resolutions was 3.2% for WM, 3.2% for GM, 1.0% for CSF and 2.2% for total brain volume. Repeatability for different geometries was 8.5% for WM, 9.4% for GM, 2.4% for CSF and 2.4% for total brain volume. We propose a new robust qMRI-based approach which we demonstrate in a patient with MS. (orig.)

  9. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Ackermann, Christelle; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark; Tomazos, Nicollette; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Mauff, Katya; Pettifor, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  10. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  11. Postmenopausal hormone therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Manson, JoAnn E; Yaffe, Kristine; Hugenschmidt, Christina; Vaughan, Leslie; Craft, Suzanne; Edwards, Beatrice J; Casanova, Ramon; Masaki, Kamal; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-09-29

    To examine whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on brain volumes in women aged 65-79 years differs depending on type 2 diabetes status during postintervention follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens with or without 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate) or placebo for an average of 5.6 years. A total of 1,402 trial participants underwent brain MRI 2.4 years after the trials; these were repeated in 699 women 4.7 years later. General linear models were used to assess the interaction between diabetes status and HT assignment on brain volumes. Women with diabetes at baseline or during follow-up who had been assigned to HT compared to placebo had mean decrement in total brain volume of -18.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] -29.6, -7.6). For women without diabetes, this mean decrement was -0.4 (95% CI -3.8, 3.0) (interaction p=0.002). This interaction was evident for total gray matter (pNeurology.

  12. Brain volume measurement using three-dimensional magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to validate accurate measurement method of human brain volume using three dimensional (3D) MRI data on a workstation, and to establish optimal correcting method of human brain volume on diagnosis of brain atrophy. 3D MRI data were acquired by fast SPGR sequence using 1.5 T MR imager. 3D MRI data were segmented by region growing method and 3D image was displayed by surface rendering method on the workstation. Brain volume was measured by the volume measurement function of the workstation. In order to validate the accurate measurement method, phantoms and a specimen of human brain were examined. Phantom volume was measured by changing the lower level of threshold value. At the appropriate threshold value, percentage of error of phantoms and the specimen were within 0.6% and 0.08%, respectively. To establish the optimal correcting method, 130 normal volunteers were examined. Brain volumes corrected with height weight, body surface area, and alternative skull volume were evaluated. Brain volume index, which is defined as dividing brain volume by alternative skull volume, had the best correlation with age (r=0.624, p<0.05). No gender differences was observed in brain volume index in contrast to in brain volume. The clinical usefulness of this correcting method for brain atrophy diagnosis was evaluated in 85 patients. Diagnosis by 2D spin echo MR images was compared with brain volume index. Diagnosis of brain atrophy by 2D MR image was concordant with the evaluation by brain volume index. These results indicated that this measurement method had high accuracy, and it was important to set the appropriate threshold value. Brain volume index was the appropriate indication for evaluation of human brain volume, and was considered to be useful for the diagnosis of brain atrophy. (author)

  13. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  14. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  15. A physical multifield model predicts the development of volume and structure in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooij, Rijk de; Kuhl, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    The prenatal development of the human brain is characterized by a rapid increase in brain volume and a development of a highly folded cortex. At the cellular level, these events are enabled by symmetric and asymmetric cell division in the ventricular regions of the brain followed by an outwards cell migration towards the peripheral regions. The role of mechanics during brain development has been suggested and acknowledged in past decades, but remains insufficiently understood. Here we propose a mechanistic model that couples cell division, cell migration, and brain volume growth to accurately model the developing brain between weeks 10 and 29 of gestation. Our model accurately predicts a 160-fold volume increase from 1.5 cm3 at week 10 to 235 cm3 at week 29 of gestation. In agreement with human brain development, the cortex begins to form around week 22 and accounts for about 30% of the total brain volume at week 29. Our results show that cell division and coupling between cell density and volume growth are essential to accurately model brain volume development, whereas cell migration and diffusion contribute mainly to the development of the cortex. We demonstrate that complex folding patterns, including sinusoidal folds and creases, emerge naturally as the cortex develops, even for low stiffness contrasts between the cortex and subcortex.

  16. Brain volume reduction after whole-brain radiotherapy: quantification and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Distel, Luitpold; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Schmidt, Manuel Alexander; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian

    2018-01-22

    Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT and were compared with their pretreatment volumes. The average daily relative change in brain volume of each patient, referred to as the "brain volume reduction rate," was calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic significance of the brain volume reduction rate, as well as of 3 treatment-related and 9 pretreatment factors. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the brain volume reduction rate across recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the brain volume reduction rate was a significant predictor of overall survival after WBRT (P < 0.001), as well as the number of brain metastases (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.008). Patients with a relatively favorable prognosis (RPA classes 1 and 2) experienced significantly less brain volume decrease after WBRT than patients with a poor prognosis (RPA class 3) (P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between delivered radiation dose and brain volume reduction rate (P = 0.147). In this retrospective study, a smaller decrease in brain volume after WBRT was an independent predictor of longer overall survival. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Subcortical Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia : Descriptive analysis based on MRI findings of subcortical brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gunleiksrud, Sindre

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance images (MR) from patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects for difference in brain morphology with focus on subcortical brain volumes. Method: The study compared fourteen subcortical brain structure volumes of 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=81) or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) with 106 healthy control subjects. Volume measures were obtained using voxel-based morphometry (FreeSurfer software suite) of ...

  18. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  19. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the VLBW children, and analysed for total and regional brain volumes. At 5 years of age, a psychologist assessed the neuropsychological performance with NEPSY II, and parents completed the Five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire on development and behaviour. The results of the control group were used to give the age-specific reference values. No significant associations were found between the brain volumes and the NEPSY II domains. As for the FTF, significant associations were found between a smaller total brain tissue volume and poorer executive functions, between a smaller cerebellar volume and both poorer executive functions and motor skills, and, surprisingly, between a larger volume of brainstem and poorer language functions. Even after adjustment for total brain tissue volume, the two associations between the cerebellar volume and the FTF domains remained borderline significant (P = 0.05). The NEPSY II domains Executive Functioning, Language and Motor Skills were significantly associated with the corresponding FTF domains. In conclusion, altered brain volumes at term equivalent age appear to affect development still at 5 years of age. The FTF seems to be a good instrument when used in combination with other neuropsychological assessment.

  20. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Brain size and brain/intracranial volume ratio in major mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teale Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper summarizes the findings of a long term study addressing the question of how several brain volume measure are related to three major mental illnesses in a Colorado subject group. It reports results obtained from a large N, collected and analyzed by the same laboratory over a multiyear period, with visually guided MRI segmentation being the primary initial analytic tool. Methods Intracerebral volume (ICV, total brain volume (TBV, ventricular volume (VV, ventricular/brain ratio (VBR, and TBV/ICV ratios were calculated from a total of 224 subject MRIs collected over a period of 13 years. Subject groups included controls (C, N = 89, and patients with schizophrenia (SZ, N = 58, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 51, and schizoaffective disorder (SAD, N = 26. Results ICV, TBV, and VV measures compared favorably with values obtained by other research groups, but in this study did not differ significantly between groups. TBV/ICV ratios were significantly decreased, and VBR increased, in the SZ and BD groups compared to the C group. The SAD group did not differ from C on any measure. Conclusions In this study TBV/ICV and VBR ratios separated SZ and BD patients from controls. Of interest however, SAD patients did not differ from controls on these measures. The findings suggest that the gross measure of TBV may not reliably differ in the major mental illnesses to a degree useful in diagnosis, likely due to the intrinsic variability of the measures in question; the differences in VBR appear more robust across studies. Differences in some of these findings compared to earlier reports from several laboratories finding significant differences between groups in VV and TBV may relate to phenomenological drift, differences in analytic techniques, and possibly the "file drawer problem".

  2. Volume of the crocodilian brain and endocast during ontogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jirak

    Full Text Available Understanding complex situations and planning difficult actions require a brain of appropriate size. Animal encephalisation provides an indirect information about these abilities. The brain is entirely composed of soft tissue and, as such, rarely fossilises. As a consequence, the brain proportions and morphology of some extinct vertebrates are usually only inferred from their neurocranial endocasts. However, because the morphological configuration of the brain is not fully reflected in the endocast, knowledge of the brain/endocast relationship is essential (especially the ratio of brain volume to endocast volume or the equivalent proportion of interstitial tissue for studying the endocasts of extinct animals. Here we assess the encephalic volume and structure of modern crocodilians. The results we obtained using ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging reveal how the endoneurocranial cavity and brain compartments of crocodilians change configuration during ontogeny. We conclude that the endocasts of adult crocodilians are elongated and expanded while their brains are more linearly organised. The highest proportion of brain tissue to endocast volume is in the prosencephalon at over 50% in all but the largest animals, whereas the proportion in other brain segments is under 50% in all but the smallest animals and embryos. Our results may enrich the field of palaeontological study by offering more precise phylogenetic interpretations of the neuroanatomic characteristics of extinct vertebrates at various ontogenetic stages.

  3. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinali R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/ abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. Methods: In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. Results: The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters. By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Conclusion: Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  4. Longitudinal genetic analysis of brain volumes in normal elderly male twins

    OpenAIRE

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hardin, Jill; DeCarli, Charles; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry; Wolf, Philip A.; Swan, Gary E.; Carmelli, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in brain volumes measured at two time points in normal elderly males from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. The MRI scans were conducted four years apart on 33 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic male twin pairs, aged 68 to 77 years when first scanned. Volumetric measures of total brain and total cerebrospinal fluid were significantly heritable at baseline (over 70%). For both v...

  5. Brain volumes predict neurodevelopment in adolescents after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Michael; Buchmann, Andreas; Hagmann, Cornelia; Huber, Reto; Klaver, Peter; Knirsch, Walter; Latal, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Patients with complex congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Evidence suggests that brain maturation can be delayed and pre- and postoperative brain injury may occur, and there is limited information on the long-term effect of congenital heart disease on brain development and function in adolescent patients. At a mean age of 13.8 years, 39 adolescent survivors of childhood cardiopulmonary bypass surgery with no structural brain lesions evident through conventional cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and 32 healthy control subjects underwent extensive neurodevelopmental assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral scans were analysed quantitatively using surface-based and voxel-based morphometry. Compared with control subjects, patients had lower total brain (P = 0.003), white matter (P = 0.004) and cortical grey matter (P = 0.005) volumes, whereas cerebrospinal fluid volumes were not different. Regional brain volume reduction ranged from 5.3% (cortical grey matter) to 11% (corpus callosum). Adolescents with cyanotic heart disease showed more brain volume loss than those with acyanotic heart disease, particularly in the white matter, thalami, hippocampi and corpus callosum (all P-values Brain volume reduction correlated significantly with cognitive, motor and executive functions (grey matter: P < 0.05, white matter: P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that there are long-lasting cerebral changes in adolescent survivors of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease and that these changes are associated with functional outcome.

  6. Brain tumor locating in 3D MR volume using symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Bartusek, Karel

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with the automatic determination of a brain tumor location in 3D magnetic resonance volumes. The aim of this work is not the precise segmentation of the tumor and its parts but only the detection of its location. This work is the first step in the tumor segmentation process, an important topic in neuro-image processing. The algorithm expects 3D magnetic resonance volumes of brain containing a tumor. The detection is based on locating the area that breaks the left-right symmetry of the brain. This is done by multi-resolution comparing of corresponding regions in left and right hemisphere. The output of the computation is the probabilistic map of the tumor location. The created algorithm was tested on 80 volumes from publicly available BRATS databases containing 3D brain volumes afflicted by a brain tumor. These pathological structures had various sizes and shapes and were located in various parts of the brain. The locating performance of the algorithm was 85% for T1-weighted volumes, 91% for T1-weighted contrast enhanced volumes, 96% for FLAIR and T2-wieghted volumes and 95% for their combinations.

  7. Developmentally Stable Whole-Brain Volume Reductions and Developmentally Sensitive Caudate and Putamen Volume Alterations in Those With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the

  8. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the

  9. Region-specific reduction in brain volume in young adults with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregant, Tina; Rados, Milan; Vasung, Lana; Derganc, Metka; Evans, Alan C; Neubauer, David; Kostovic, Ivica

    2013-11-01

    A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE. The control group consisted of healthy participants, matched with HIE group by age and gender. Volumetric analysis was done after the processing of MR images using a fully automated CIVET pipeline. We measured gyrification indexes, total brain volume, volume of grey and white matter, and of cerebrospinal fluid. We also measured volume, thickness and area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal, occipital, frontal, and temporal lobe, and of the isthmus cinguli, parahippocampal and cingulated gyrus, and insula. The HIE patient group showed smaller absolute volumetric data. Statistically significant (p right hemisphere, of cortical areas in the right temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus, of cortical volumes in the right temporal lobe and of cortical thickness in the right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were found. Comparison between the healthy group and the HIE group of the same gender showed statistically significant changes in the male HIE patients, where a significant reduction was found in whole brain volume; left parietal, bilateral temporal, and right parahippocampal gyrus cortical areas; and bilateral temporal lobe cortical volume. Our analysis of total brain volumes and region-specific corticometric parameters suggests that mild-moderate forms of perinatal HIE lead to reductions in whole brain volumes. In the study reductions were most pronounced in temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Stereological brain volume changes in post-weaned socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Steiniger-Brach, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Lister Hooded rats isolated from postnatal day 25 for 15 weeks. We observed the expected gender differences in total brain volume with males having larger brains than females. Further, we found that isolated males had significantly smaller brains than group-housed controls and larger lateral ventricles...... have evaluated the neuroanatomical changes in this animal model in comparison to changes seen in schizophrenia. In this study, we applied stereological volume estimates to evaluate the total brain, the ventricular system, and the pyramidal and granular cell layers of the hippocampus in male and female...... than controls. However, this was not seen in female rats. Isolated males had a significant smaller hippocampus, dentate gyrus and CA2/3 where isolated females had a significant smaller CA1 compared to controls. Thus, our results indicate that long-term isolation of male rats leads to neuroanatomical...

  11. Detection of EEG electrodes in brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Juan P; Gómez, M Eugenia; Bustos, José J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect 128 EEG electrodes in image study and to merge with the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance volume for better diagnosis. First we propose three hypotheses to define a specific acquisition protocol in order to recognize the electrodes and to avoid distortions in the image. In the second instance we describe a method for segmenting the electrodes. Finally, registration is performed between volume of the electrodes and NMR.

  12. Dose-volume considerations in stereotaxic brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdek, P.V.; Schwade, J.G.; Pisciotta, V.J.; Medina, A.J.; Lewin, A.A.; Abitbol, A.A.; Serago, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Although brain radiation therapy experience suggests that a gain in the therapeutic ratio may be achieved by optimizing the dose-volume relationship, no practical system for quantitative assessment of dose-volume data has been developed. This presentation describes the rationale for using the integral dose function for this purpose and demonstrates that with the use of a conventional treatment planning computer and a series of computed tomographic scans, first-order optimization of the dose-volume function can be accomplished in two steps: first, high-dose volume is minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment technique and tumor margin, and then dosage is maximized by calculating the brain tolerance dose as a function of the irradiated volume

  13. Patent ductus arteriosus and brain volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, Petra M A; Benders, Manon J N L; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Zethof, Jorine; Alderliesten, Thomas; Kersbergen, Karina J; Isgum, Ivana; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can compromise perfusion and oxygenation of the preterm brain. Reports suggest that PDA is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. We hypothesize that long-standing low cerebral oxygenation due to PDA

  14. Clinical associations of total kidney volume: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Chuang, Michael L; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Fox, Caroline S

    2017-08-01

    Total kidney volume (TKV) is an imaging biomarker that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility. The relationships between kidney volume, renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been characterized in a large community-dwelling population. This information is needed to advance the clinical application of TKV. We measured TKV in 1852 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 64.1 ± 9.2 years, 53% women) using magnetic resonance imaging. A healthy sample was used to define reference values. The associations between TKV, renal function and CVD risk factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, mean TKV was 278 ± 54 cm3 for women and 365 ± 66 cm3 for men. Risk factors for high TKV (>90% healthy referent size) were body surface area (BSA), diabetes, smoking and albuminuria, while age, female and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) kidney damage including albuminuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while high TKV is associated with diabetes and decreased odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies are needed to characterize the natural progression and clinical consequences of TKV. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Clinical Relevance of Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Stefano, Nicola; Airas, Laura; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with an inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. Axonal loss and neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course and may lead to irreversible neurological impairment. Changes in brain volume, observed from the earliest stage of MS...... therefore have important clinical implications affecting treatment decisions, with several clinical trials now demonstrating an effect of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) on reducing brain volume loss. In clinical practice, it may therefore be important to consider the potential impact of a therapy...

  16. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between...... genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk...

  17. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  18. Basic MR sequence parameters systematically bias automated brain volume estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, Sven; Falkovskiy, Pavel; Roche, Alexis; Marechal, Benedicte; Meuli, Reto; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Kober, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Automated brain MRI morphometry, including hippocampal volumetry for Alzheimer disease, is increasingly recognized as a biomarker. Consequently, a rapidly increasing number of software tools have become available. We tested whether modifications of simple MR protocol parameters typically used in clinical routine systematically bias automated brain MRI segmentation results. The study was approved by the local ethical committee and included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, mean age 75.8 ± 13.8 years) undergoing clinical brain MRI at 1.5 T for workup of cognitive decline. We compared three 3D T1 magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences with the following parameter settings: ADNI-2 1.2 mm iso-voxel, no image filtering, LOCAL- 1.0 mm iso-voxel no image filtering, LOCAL+ 1.0 mm iso-voxel with image edge enhancement. Brain segmentation was performed by two different and established analysis tools, FreeSurfer and MorphoBox, using standard parameters. Spatial resolution (1.0 versus 1.2 mm iso-voxel) and modification in contrast resulted in relative estimated volume difference of up to 4.28 % (p < 0.001) in cortical gray matter and 4.16 % (p < 0.01) in hippocampus. Image data filtering resulted in estimated volume difference of up to 5.48 % (p < 0.05) in cortical gray matter. A simple change of MR parameters, notably spatial resolution, contrast, and filtering, may systematically bias results of automated brain MRI morphometry of up to 4-5 %. This is in the same range as early disease-related brain volume alterations, for example, in Alzheimer disease. Automated brain segmentation software packages should therefore require strict MR parameter selection or include compensatory algorithms to avoid MR parameter-related bias of brain morphometry results. (orig.)

  19. Basic MR sequence parameters systematically bias automated brain volume estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven [University of Geneva, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Affidea Centre de Diagnostique Radiologique de Carouge CDRC, Geneva (Switzerland); Falkovskiy, Pavel; Roche, Alexis; Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare HC CEMEA SUI DI BM PI, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital (CHUV), Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University Hospital (CHUV), Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Krueger, Gunnar [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Lovblad, Karl-Olof [University of Geneva, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Kober, Tobias [Siemens Healthcare HC CEMEA SUI DI BM PI, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Automated brain MRI morphometry, including hippocampal volumetry for Alzheimer disease, is increasingly recognized as a biomarker. Consequently, a rapidly increasing number of software tools have become available. We tested whether modifications of simple MR protocol parameters typically used in clinical routine systematically bias automated brain MRI segmentation results. The study was approved by the local ethical committee and included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, mean age 75.8 ± 13.8 years) undergoing clinical brain MRI at 1.5 T for workup of cognitive decline. We compared three 3D T1 magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences with the following parameter settings: ADNI-2 1.2 mm iso-voxel, no image filtering, LOCAL- 1.0 mm iso-voxel no image filtering, LOCAL+ 1.0 mm iso-voxel with image edge enhancement. Brain segmentation was performed by two different and established analysis tools, FreeSurfer and MorphoBox, using standard parameters. Spatial resolution (1.0 versus 1.2 mm iso-voxel) and modification in contrast resulted in relative estimated volume difference of up to 4.28 % (p < 0.001) in cortical gray matter and 4.16 % (p < 0.01) in hippocampus. Image data filtering resulted in estimated volume difference of up to 5.48 % (p < 0.05) in cortical gray matter. A simple change of MR parameters, notably spatial resolution, contrast, and filtering, may systematically bias results of automated brain MRI morphometry of up to 4-5 %. This is in the same range as early disease-related brain volume alterations, for example, in Alzheimer disease. Automated brain segmentation software packages should therefore require strict MR parameter selection or include compensatory algorithms to avoid MR parameter-related bias of brain morphometry results. (orig.)

  20. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  1. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  2. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  3. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  4. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  5. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  6. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-04

    Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the follow

  7. Clinical evaluation of dose-volume-effect relationship in radiation injury of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mari

    1990-01-01

    Radiation brain injury, including functional disturbances or morphological changes (brain atrophy, periventricular lucencies or ventricular dilatation), were studied by CT in patients with primary intracranial neoplasms who were followed-up for at least 5 months after receiving radiotherapy. Each of 33 patients with medulloblastoma, pinealregion tumor or malignant lymphoma received a total dose of 40-61 Gy by conventional fractionation using a whole brain irradiation field boosted by a localized field. Of these patients, 19 (58%) developed radiation brain injury. It was concluded that the volume-dose was one of the most important factors influencing the development of radiation brain injury. Age at the time of radiotherapy and time of follow-up after the treatment were also considered to be important factors. (author)

  8. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions ( Panthera leo ), leopards ( Panthera pardus ), cougars ( Puma concolor ), and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls ( n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC

  9. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  10. Volume of Structures in the Fetal Brain Measured with a New Semiautomated Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, R; Hoffman, D; Hoffman, C; Polat, A; Derazne, E; Mayer, A; Katorza, E

    2017-11-01

    Measuring the volume of fetal brain structures is challenging due to fetal motion, low resolution, and artifacts caused by maternal tissue. Our aim was to introduce a new, simple, Matlab-based semiautomated method to measure the volume of structures in the fetal brain and present normal volumetric curves of the structures measured. The volume of the supratentorial brain, left and right hemispheres, cerebellum, and left and right eyeballs was measured retrospectively by the new semiautomated method in MR imaging examinations of 94 healthy fetuses. Four volume ratios were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, and a Bland-Altman plot was drawn for comparison of manual and semiautomated method measurements of the supratentorial brain. We present normal volumetric curves and normal percentile values of the structures measured according to gestational age and of the ratios between the cerebellum and the supratentorial brain volume and the total eyeball and the supratentorial brain volume. Interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all structures measured. The Bland-Altman plot between manual and semiautomated measurements showed a maximal relative difference of 7.84%. We present a technologically simple, reproducible method that can be applied prospectively and retrospectively on any MR imaging protocol, and we present normal volumetric curves measured. The method shows results like manual measurements while being less time-consuming and user-dependent. By applying this method on different cranial and extracranial structures, anatomic and pathologic, we believe that fetal volumetry can turn from a research tool into a practical clinical one. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Time series analysis of brain regional volume by MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mika; Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The present study proposed a methodology of time series analysis of volumes of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and cerebellum because such volumetric reports along the process of individual's aging have been scarcely presented. Subjects analyzed were brain images of 2 healthy males and 18 females of av. age of 69.0 y, of which T1-weighted 3D SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) acquisitions with a GE SIGNA EXCITE HD 1.5T machine were conducted for 4 times in the time series of 42-50 months. The image size was 256 x 256 x (86-124) voxels with digitization level 16 bits. As the template for the regions, the standard gray matter atlas (icbn452 a tlas p robability g ray) and its labeled one (icbn.Labels), provided by UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, were used for individual's standardization. Segmentation, normalization and coregistration were performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping 8). Volumes of regions were calculated as their voxel ratio to the whole brain voxel in percent. It was found that the regional volumes decreased with aging in all above lobes examined and cerebellum in average percent per year of -0.11, -0.07, -0.04, -0.02, and -0.03, respectively. The procedure for calculation of the regional volumes, which has been manually operated hitherto, can be automatically conducted for the individual brain using the standard atlases above. (T.T.)

  12. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  13. Volume of the crocodilian brain and endocast during ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirák, D.; Janáček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), č. článku e0178491. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/1207; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brain volume * endoneurocranium * crocodilians * magnetic resonance imaging Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Multicenter Study of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescent-Onset Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Santiago; Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Janssen, Joost; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Nuria; González-Pinto, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Ortuño, Felipe; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the extent of structural brain abnormalities in a multicenter sample of children and adolescents with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis (FEP), compared with a sample of healthy controls. Total brain and lobar volumes and those of gray matter (GM), white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 92 patients with a FEP and in 94 controls, matched for age, gender, and years of education. Male patients (n = 64) showed several significant differences when compared with controls (n = 61). GM volume in male patients was reduced in the whole brain and in frontal and parietal lobes compared with controls. Total CSF volume and frontal, temporal, and right parietal CSF volumes were also increased in male patients. Within patients, those with a further diagnosis of “schizophrenia” or “other psychosis” showed a pattern similar to the group of all patients relative to controls. However, bipolar patients showed fewer differences relative to controls. In female patients, only the schizophrenia group showed differences relative to controls, in frontal CSF. GM deficit in male patients with a first episode correlated with negative symptoms. Our study suggests that at least part of the GM deficit in children and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and in other psychosis occurs before onset of the first positive symptoms and that, contrary to what has been shown in children-onset schizophrenia, frontal GM deficits are probably present from the first appearance of positive symptoms in children and adolescents. PMID:20478821

  15. MRI volume measurement of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Yasuhiro; Abe, Tetsuo; Asai, Kunihiko; Okubo, Yoshirou; Toru, Michio.

    1996-01-01

    The T1-weighted images of whole-brain three-dimensional MRI (thickness, 3 mm; interval, 3 mm) were obtained from schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Detailed volumetric measurement of each part in the brain was carried out. As the result, the volume of both ventricles and third ventriculus cerebri in the schizophrenic group was significantly larger than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed in terms of the volume of the bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral body of caudate nucleus division and right temporal lobe. The volume of bilateral hippocampus and left temporal lobe of the schizophrenic group was significantly smaller than that of the control group. Negative correlation was observed between symptoms and the right temporal lobe volume (r=-0.41) in the schizophrenic group. In the schizophrenic group, morphological abnormality was admitted in the hippocampus, ventriculus cerebri and left temporal lobe. The morphological abnormality of the right temporal lobe seemed to involve the expression of negative symptoms. (S.Y.)

  16. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Hu Weixing; Zu Qingquan; Lu Shanshan; Xu Xiaoquan; Sun Lei; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm 3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm 3 , respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  17. Quantification of brain tissue through incorporation of partial volume effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Howard D.; Santago, Peter, II; Snyder, Wesley E.

    1992-06-01

    This research addresses the problem of automatically quantifying the various types of brain tissue, CSF, white matter, and gray matter, using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. The method employs a statistical model of the noise and partial volume effect and fits the derived probability density function to that of the data. Following this fit, the optimal decision points can be found for the materials and thus they can be quantified. Emphasis is placed on repeatable results for which a confidence in the solution might be measured. Results are presented assuming a single Gaussian noise source and a uniform distribution of partial volume pixels for both simulated and actual data. Thus far results have been mixed, with no clear advantage being shown in taking into account partial volume effects. Due to the fitting problem being ill-conditioned, it is not yet clear whether these results are due to problems with the model or the method of solution.

  18. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  19. Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; Dalvie, Shareefa; Cuzen, Natalie L; Cardenas, Valerie; Fein, George; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.

  20. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.

  1. Genomic regulation of natural variation in cortical and noncortical brain volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughlin Rick E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative growth of the neocortex parallels the emergence of complex cognitive functions across species. To determine the regions of the mammalian genome responsible for natural variations in cortical volume, we conducted a complex trait analysis using 34 strains of recombinant inbred (Rl strains of mice (BXD, as well as their two parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We measured both neocortical volume and total brain volume in 155 coronally sectioned mouse brains that were Nissl stained and embedded in celloidin. After correction for shrinkage, the measured cortical and noncortical brain volumes were entered into a multiple regression analysis, which removed the effects of body size and age from the measurements. Marker regression and interval mapping were computed using WebQTL. Results An ANOVA revealed that more than half of the variance of these regressed phenotypes is genetically determined. We then identified the regions of the genome regulating this heritability. We located genomic regions in which a linkage disequilibrium was present using WebQTL as both a mapping engine and genomic database. For neocortex, we found a genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 11 (marker D11Mit19, as well as a suggestive QTL on chromosome 16 (marker D16Mit100. In contrast, for noncortex the effect of chromosome 11 was markedly reduced, and a significant QTL appeared on chromosome 19 (D19Mit22. Conclusion This classic pattern of double dissociation argues strongly for different genetic factors regulating relative cortical size, as opposed to brain volume more generally. It is likely, however, that the effects of proximal chromosome 11 extend beyond the neocortex strictly defined. An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these regions indicated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf is quite possibly the gene underlying the noncortical QTL. Evidence for a candidate gene modulating neocortical

  2. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A. Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation appr...

  3. Familial and environmental influences on brain volumes in twins with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchioni, Marco M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Chaddock, Christopher; Cole, James H; Ettinger, Ulrich; Oses, Ana; Metcalfe, Hugo; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually. We conducted between-group testing and full genetic modelling. We included 168 twins in our study. Whole brain, grey matter, white matter and right hippocampal volumes were smaller in twins with schizophrenia. Twin correlations were larger for whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes in monozygotic than dizygotic twins and were significantly heritable, whereas hippocampal volume was the most environmentally sensitive. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between schizophrenia and reductions in all the brain volumes except for that of the left hippocampus. For whole brain, grey matter and the right hippocampus the etiological links with schizophrenia were principally associated with the shared familial environment. Lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia were both associated with lower whole brain volume and with lower white matter and grey matter volumes, respectively. Scan data were collected across 2 sites, and some groups were modest in size. Whole brain, grey matter and right hippocampal volume reductions are linked to schizophrenia through correlated familial risk (i.e., the shared familial environment). The degree of influence of etiological factors varies between brain structures, leading to the possibility of a neuroanatomically specific etiological imprint.

  4. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Li, X. Allen; El Naqa, Issam; Hahn, Carol A.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of 80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (≥2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of ≥18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

  5. Target volumes in radiation therapy of childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habrand, J.L.; Abdulkarim, B.; Beaudre, A.; El Khouri, M.; Kalifa, C.

    2001-01-01

    Pediatric tumors have enjoyed considerable improvements for the past 30 years. This is mainly due to the extensive use of combined therapeutical modalities in which chemotherapy plays a prominent role. In many children, local treatment including radiotherapy, can nowadays be adapted in terms of target volume and dose to the 'response' to an initial course of chemotherapy almost on a case by case basis. This makes precise recommendation on local therapy highly difficult in this age group. We will concentrate in this paper on brain tumors in which chemotherapy is of limited value and radiotherapy still plays a key-role. (authors)

  6. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  7. Assessing brain volume changes in older women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a brain magnetic resonance imaging pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihong T; Sethi, Sean K; Jin, Taihao; Patel, Sunita K; Ye, Ningrong; Sun, Can-Lan; Rockne, Russell C; Haacke, E Mark; Root, James C; Saykin, Andrew J; Ahles, Tim A; Holodny, Andrei I; Prakash, Neal; Mortimer, Joanne; Waisman, James; Yuan, Yuan; Somlo, George; Li, Daneng; Yang, Richard; Tan, Heidi; Katheria, Vani; Morrison, Rachel; Hurria, Arti

    2018-05-02

    Cognitive decline is among the most feared treatment-related outcomes of older adults with cancer. The majority of older patients with breast cancer self-report cognitive problems during and after chemotherapy. Prior neuroimaging research has been performed mostly in younger patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in brain volumes and cognition in older women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Women aged ≥ 60 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing with the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox for Cognition and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to chemotherapy, and again around one month after the last infusion of chemotherapy. Brain volumes were measured using Neuroreader™ software. Longitudinal changes in brain volumes and neuropsychological scores were analyzed utilizing linear mixed models. A total of 16 patients with breast cancer (mean age 67.0, SD 5.39 years) and 14 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age 67.8, SD 5.24 years) were included: 7 patients received docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) and 9 received chemotherapy regimens other than TC (non-TC). There were no significant differences in segmented brain volumes between the healthy control group and the chemotherapy group pre-chemotherapy (p > 0.05). Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses focusing on the effect of the chemotherapy regimen demonstrated that the TC group had greater volume reduction in the temporal lobe (change = - 0.26) compared to the non-TC group (change = 0.04, p for interaction = 0.02) and healthy controls (change = 0.08, p for interaction = 0.004). Similarly, the TC group had a decrease in oral reading recognition scores (change = - 6.94) compared to the non-TC group (change = - 1.21, p for

  8. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal brain volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: 3D ultrasound can be used to assess the fetal brain volume and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicates that the fetal brain vascularization and blood flow correlates significantly with the advancement of GA. This information may serve as a reference point for further studies of the fetal brain volume and blood flow in abnormal conditions.

  9. Stereological brain volume changes in post-weaned socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Steiniger-Brach, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Rearing rats in isolation after weaning is an environmental manipulation that leads to behavioural and neurochemical alterations that resemble what is seen in schizophrenia. The model is neurodevelopmental in origin and has been used as an animal model of schizophrenia. However, only a few studies...... Lister Hooded rats isolated from postnatal day 25 for 15 weeks. We observed the expected gender differences in total brain volume with males having larger brains than females. Further, we found that isolated males had significantly smaller brains than group-housed controls and larger lateral ventricles...... than controls. However, this was not seen in female rats. Isolated males had a significant smaller hippocampus, dentate gyrus and CA2/3 where isolated females had a significant smaller CA1 compared to controls. Thus, our results indicate that long-term isolation of male rats leads to neuroanatomical...

  10. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  11. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p cognition or brain volumes compared to normal. Incident glucose disorders, like diabetes, are

  12. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest ...

  13. Effects of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Brain Volumes in Healthy 9 Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; Peper, J.S.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; de Vries, L.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of gestational age and birth weight on brain volumes in a population-based sample of normal developing children at the age of 9 years. Study design: A total of 192 children from twin births were included in the analyses. Data on gestational age and birth weight were

  14. Partial volume correction and image segmentation for accurate measurement of standardized uptake value of grey matter in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  16. US evaluation of volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, R.V.; Chua, G.T.; Fry, F.J.; Franklin, T.D.; Wills, E.R.; Hastings, J.S.; Sanghui, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US in the right cerebral hemispheres of research canines were evaluated by diagnostic US from immediately after ablation up to 62 days later. Animals were killed and perfused for whole-brain recovery. US evaluation of whole-brain specimens was performed. Histologic analysis of brain sections verified lesion placement, size, and tissue response to US. These sections were compared with US studies for correlation data. Correlation data suggest that US visualization may aid in accurate placement of volume brain lesions and in evaluation of effects of high-intensity focuses US in normal brain

  17. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  18. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  19. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  20. Anatomically guided voxel-based partial volume effect correction in brain PET : Impact of MRI segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Assal, Frederic; Allaoua, Mohamed; Ratib, Osman; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Partial volume effect is still considered one of the main limitations in brain PET imaging given the limited spatial resolution of current generation PET scanners. The accuracy of anatomically guided partial volume effect correction (PVC) algorithms in brain PET is largely dependent on the

  1. Symptom dimensions are associated with progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, G.; Derks, E. M.; van Haren, N. E. M.; Schnack, H. G.; Hulshoff Pol, H. E.; Kahn, R. S.; Cahn, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable variation in progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia. Whether this is related to the clinical heterogeneity that characterizes the illness remains to be determined. This study examines the relationship between change in brain volume over time and

  2. Development and heritability of subcortical brain volumes at age 9 and 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; Brouwer, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical brain structures are involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional functions and follow different trajectories of increase and decrease in volume from childhood to adulthood. The heritability of development of subcortical brain volumes during adolescence has not been studied

  3. The relationship of hospital charges and volume to surgical site infection after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Rebecca; Ensor, Kelsey; Qian, Edward; Hutzler, Lorraine; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of hospital volume and charges on the rate of surgical site infections for total hip replacements (THRs) in New York State (NYS). In NYS, higher volume hospitals have higher charges after THR. The study team analyzed 93,620 hip replacements performed in NYS between 2008 and 2011. Hospital charges increased significantly from $43,713 in 2008 to $50,652 in 2011 (P<.01). Compared with lower volume hospitals, patients who underwent THR at the highest volume hospitals had significantly lower surgical site infection rates (P=.003) and higher total hospital charges (P<.0001). The study team found that in the highest volume hospitals, preventing one surgical site infection was associated with $1.6 million dollars in increased charges. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  4. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  5. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  6. Brain Volume Changes After Withdrawal of Atypical Antipsychotics in Patients With First-Episode Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Geartsje; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Burger, Huibert; Boersma, Maria; de Kroon, Bart; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    The influence of antipsychotic medication on brain morphology in schizophrenia may confound interpretation of brain changes over time. We aimed to assess the effect of discontinuation of atypical antipsychotic medication on change in brain volume in patients. Sixteen remitted, stable patients with

  7. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal model (activity-based anorexia, ABA). Female rats had 24 h/day running wheel access and received reduced food intake until a 25% weight reduction was reached and maintained for 2 weeks. In ABA rats, the volumes of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum were significantly reduced compared to controls by 6% and 9%, respectively. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in these regions decreased by 39% and 23%, total astrocyte-covered area by 83% and 63%. In neurons no changes were observed. The findings were complemented by a 60% and 49% reduction in astrocyte (GFAP) mRNA expression. Volumetric brain changes in ABA animals mirror those in human AN patients. These alterations are associated with a reduction of GFAP-positive astrocytes as well as GFAP expression. Reduced astrocyte functioning could help explain neuronal dysfunctions leading to symptoms of rigidity and impaired learning. Astrocyte loss could constitute a new research target for understanding and treating semi-starvation and AN.

  8. Forecasting on the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, W. L.; Yong, M. K. Au

    2017-04-01

    This study is to give an insight on the doubt of the important of macroeconomic variables that affecting the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The time frame for this study will be determined by using quarterly data of the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports covering the period between 2000-2015. The macroeconomic variables will be limited to eleven variables which are the exchange rate of US Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (USD-MYR), exchange rate of China Yuan with Malaysia Ringgit (RMB-MYR), exchange rate of European Euro with Malaysia Ringgit (EUR-MYR), exchange rate of Singapore Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (SGD-MYR), crude oil prices, gold prices, producer price index (PPI), interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), industrial production index (IPI) and gross domestic product (GDP). This study has applied the Johansen Co-integration test to investigate the relationship among the total volumes to Malaysia's imports and exports. The result shows that crude oil prices, RMB-MYR, EUR-MYR and IPI play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's imports. Meanwhile crude oil price, USD-MYR and GDP play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's exports.

  9. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  10. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  11. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  12. Differences in Brain Adaptive Functional Reorganization in Right and Left Total Brachial Plexus Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-Tao; Liu, Han-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations Between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lyden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant. The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  14. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  15. Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Kurpad, Shekar; Mueller, Wade

    2017-02-01

    Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7 +/- 17.7 years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( n = 5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( n = 23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( n = 76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( n = 6), and bilateral pathology ( n = 3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5 mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8 ± 5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2 ± 27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels

  16. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, Pierre M.; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  18. Extracellular space, blood volume, and the early dumping syndrome after total gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Reilmann, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Koerber, H.K.; Kotzerke, J.; Hecker, H. (Medzinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-10-01

    Extracellular space and blood volume were measured using 82Br dilution and 51Cr-tagged erythrocytes in 24 tumor-free patients after total gastrectomy. Eleven of the patients suffered from early dumping. Age, blood volume, and extracellular space were significantly smaller in dumpers (P less than 0.05). The dumping score could be predicted by a multiple regression model considering blood volume per lean body mass and extracellular space (r = 0.637; P = 0.0039). Rapid (t1/2 less than 360 seconds) emptying of the gastric substitute, assessed using a 99Tc-labeled solid test meal, was significantly associated with dumping in addition to extracellular space and blood volume (r = 0.876; P = 0.0018). Both rapid emptying and a narrow extracellular space seem to contribute to the early dumping syndrome.

  19. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  20. A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.

  1. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May... taxes and other charges which the enterprise must pay for such goods. Generally, all charges will be... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale...

  2. Acute Mountain Sickness: Relationship to Brain Volume and Effect of Oral Glycerol Prophylaxis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muza, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    ... development of cerebral edema. Furthermore, to assess whether AMS was associated with development of cerebral edema, we used MR imaging and post-processing to quantify changes in brain tissue volume, hypothesized to increase due to cerebral edema...

  3. Does early tetralogy of Fallot total correction give better final lung volumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hasan Allah; Miri, Seyed Reza; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Mirmesdagh, Yalda; Paziraee, Nazita

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary blood flow may affect lung development in adulthood. Early total correction of tetralogy of Fallot may affect development of final lung volumes. We evaluated the effect of age at total correction on lung volumes years after the operation. In a retrospective cohort study on patients with totally corrected tetralogy of Fallot (mean age, 13.40 years at the time of follow-up), forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and other parameters were measured 154.8 ± 46.25 months after the operation. Comparison were made of 3 groups: ≤2-, 2-8-, and >8-years old at the time of total correction surgery. Among 322 enrolled patients, the mean values of the follow-up spirometry results in ≤2-, 2-8-, >8-year-olds and the percentage of predicted values were respectively: vital capacity: 4.46 ± 0.57 L (107% ± 10.96%), 3.89 ± 0.58 L (91.10% ± 12.25%), 3.25 ± 0.48 L (82.35% ± 10.62%), p volume in 1 s: 4.22 ± 0.63 L (104.84% ± 13.64%), 3.66 ± 0.58 L (90.61% ± 12.59%), 3.02 ± 0.48 L (84.31% ± 12%), p volumes and capacities. It is better to consider total correction for all tetralogy of Fallot patients below 2-years old, or at least below 8-years old, if it is technically possible.

  4. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  5. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  6. Socialization of prosocial behavior: Gender differences in the mediating role of child brain volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kok (Renske); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); T.J.H. White (Tonya); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEvidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based

  7. Brain volume and cognitive function in patients with revascularized coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, Thomas H; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Biessels, Geert Jan; van Dijk, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with CAD remains unclear. CAD is associated with brain atrophy and specific lesions. Detailed knowledge about the association of brain volume measured with MRI, and cognitive function in patients with CAD is lacking. We therefore

  8. Dysglycemia, brain volume and vascular lesions on MRI in a memory clinic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, L.G.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Vrenken, H.; Biessels, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is unclear, if the association between abnormalities in glucose metabolism (dysglycemia) and impaired cognitive functioning is primarily driven by degenerative or vascular brain damage. We therefore examined the relation between dysglycemia and brain volume and vascular lesions on MRI

  9. Multiple determinants of whole and regional brain volume among terrestrial carnivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli M Swanson

    Full Text Available Mammalian brain volumes vary considerably, even after controlling for body size. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this variation, most research in mammals on the evolution of encephalization has focused on primates, leaving the generality of these explanations uncertain. Furthermore, much research still addresses only one hypothesis at a time, despite the demonstrated importance of considering multiple factors simultaneously. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate simultaneously the importance of several factors previously hypothesized to be important in neural evolution among mammalian carnivores, including social complexity, forelimb use, home range size, diet, life history, phylogeny, and recent evolutionary changes in body size. We also tested hypotheses suggesting roles for these variables in determining the relative volume of four brain regions measured using computed tomography. Our data suggest that, in contrast to brain size in primates, carnivoran brain size may lag behind body size over evolutionary time. Moreover, carnivore species that primarily consume vertebrates have the largest brains. Although we found no support for a role of social complexity in overall encephalization, relative cerebrum volume correlated positively with sociality. Finally, our results support negative relationships among different brain regions after accounting for overall endocranial volume, suggesting that increased size of one brain regions is often accompanied by reduced size in other regions rather than overall brain expansion.

  10. Sex Differences in Brain Volume Are Related to Specific Skills, Not to General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Head, Kevin; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Martinez, Kenia; Escorial, Sergio; Haier, Richard; Colom, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that males would show higher mean scores than females in general intelligence ("g") because (1) men have, on average, larger brains than women, and (2) brain volume correlates with "g." Here we report a failure to support the conclusion derived from these premises. High resolution MRIs were acquired in a sample of one hundred…

  11. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  12. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Allele DRB1*13:02 on Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017. Methods: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32–69 years old underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter. Participants were assigned to two groups, depending on whether they lacked the DRB1*13:02 allele (No DRB1*13:02 group, N = 60 or carried the DRB1*13:02 allele (N = 11. We assessed the change of brain gray matter volume with age in each group by performing a linear regression where the brain volume (adjusted for total intracranial volume was the dependent variable and age was the independent variable. Findings: In the No DRB1*13:02 group, the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter were reduced highly significantly. In contrast, none of these volumes showed a statistically significant reduction with age in the DRB1*13:02 group. Interpretation: These findings document the protective effect of DRB1*13:02 on age-dependent reduction of brain gray matter in healthy individuals. Since the role of this allele is to connect to matching epitopes of external antigens for the subsequent production of antibodies and elimination of the offending antigen, we hypothesize that its protective effect may be due to the successful elimination of such antigens to which we are exposed during the lifespan, antigens that otherwise would persist causing gradual brain atrophy. In addition, we consider a possible beneficial role of DRB1*13:02 attributed to its binding to cathepsin S, a known harmful substance in brain

  13. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  14. Total regional and global number of synapses in the human brain neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Groot, D.M.G. de; Jorgen, H.; Gundersen, G.

    2001-01-01

    An estimator of the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains based on unbiased stereological principles is described. Each randomly chosen cerebral hemisphere was stratified into the four major neocortical regions. Uniform sampling with a varying sampling fraction in each region

  15. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  17. Accelerated Brain DCE-MRI Using Iterative Reconstruction With Total Generalized Variation Penalty for Quantitative Pharmacokinetic Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John P; Chang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using undersampled k-space data and an iterative image reconstruction method with total generalized variation penalty in the quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis for clinical brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Eight brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans were retrospectively studied. Two k-space sparse sampling strategies were designed to achieve a simulated image acquisition acceleration factor of 4. They are (1) a golden ratio-optimized 32-ray radial sampling profile and (2) a Cartesian-based random sampling profile with spatiotemporal-regularized sampling density constraints. The undersampled data were reconstructed to yield images using the investigated reconstruction technique. In quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis, the rate constant K trans in the extended Tofts model and blood flow F B and blood volume V B from the 2-compartment exchange model were analyzed. Finally, the quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from the undersampled data were compared with the corresponding calculated values from the fully sampled data. To quantify each parameter's accuracy calculated using the undersampled data, error in volume mean, total relative error, and cross-correlation were calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameter maps generated from the undersampled data appeared comparable to the ones generated from the original full sampling data. Within the region of interest, most derived error in volume mean values in the region of interest was about 5% or lower, and the average error in volume mean of all parameter maps generated through either sampling strategy was about 3.54%. The average total relative error value of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.115, and the average cross-correlation of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.962. All investigated pharmacokinetic parameters had no significant differences between

  18. Specificity of abnormal brain volume in major depressive disorder: a comparison with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Thomann, Philipp A; Christian Wolf, R

    2015-03-15

    Abnormal brain volume has been frequently demonstrated in major depressive disorder (MDD). It is unclear if these findings are specific for MDD since aberrant brain structure is also present in disorders with depressive comorbidity and affective dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this transdiagnostic study, we aimed to investigate if regional brain volume loss differentiates between MDD and BPD. Further, we tested for associations between brain volume and clinical variables within and between diagnostic groups. 22 Females with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD, 17 females with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, and 22 age-matched female healthy controls (HC) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. High-resolution structural data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. A significant (pdisorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI estimation of total renal volume demonstrates significant association with healthy donor weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Emil I.; Kelly, Sarah A.; Edye, Michael; Mitty, Harold A.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate total renal volume (TRV) calculations, obtained through the voxel-count method and ellipsoid formula with various physical characteristics. Materials and methods: MRI reports and physical examination from 210 healthy kidney donors (420 kidneys), on whom renal volumes were obtained using the voxel-count method, were retrospectively reviewed. These values along with ones obtained through a more traditional method (ellipsoid formula) were correlated with subject height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and age. Results: TRV correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.7) and to a lesser degree with height, age, or BMI (r = 0.5, -0.2, 0.3, respectively). The left kidney volume was greater than the right, on average (p < 0.001). The ellipsoid formula method over-estimated renal volume by 17% on average which was significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Body weight was the physical characteristic which demonstrated the strongest correlation with renal volume in healthy subjects. Given this finding, a formula was derived for estimating the TRV for a given patient based on the his or her weight: TRV = 2.96 x weight (kg) + 113 ± 64.

  20. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  1. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  2. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  3. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Niemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n=28 with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n=29, who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  5. Optimal dose and volume for postoperative radiotherapy in brain oligometastases from lung cancer: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Yeun; Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Geol; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate intracranial control after surgical resection according to the adjuvant treatment received in order to assess the optimal radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume. Between 2003 and 2015, a total of 53 patients with brain oligometastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent metastasectomy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the adjuvant treatment received: whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± boost (WBRT ± boost group, n = 26), local RT/Gamma Knife surgery (local RT group, n = 14), and the observation group (n = 13). The most commonly used dose schedule was WBRT (25 Gy in 10 fractions, equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions [EQD2] 26.04 Gy) with tumor bed boost (15 Gy in 5 fractions, EQD2 16.25 Gy). The WBRT ± boost group showed the lowest 1-year intracranial recurrence rate of 30.4%, followed by the local RT and observation groups, at 66.7%, and 76.9%, respectively (p = 0.006). In the WBRT ± boost group, there was no significant increase in the 1-year new site recurrence rate of patients receiving a lower dose of WBRT (EQD2) <27 Gy compared to that in patients receiving a higher WBRT dose (p = 0.553). The 1-year initial tumor site recurrence rate was lower in patients receiving tumor bed dose (EQD2) of ≥42.3 Gy compared to those receiving <42.3 Gy, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.347). Adding WBRT after resection of brain oligometastases from NSCLC seems to enhance intracranial control. Furthermore, combining lower-dose WBRT with a tumor bed boost may be an attractive option.

  6. Automatically measuring brain ventricular volume within PACS using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Nelson, Marvin D; McComb, J Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is currently the standard platform to manage medical images but lacks analytical capabilities. Staying within PACS, the authors have developed an automatic method to retrieve the medical data and access it at a voxel level, decrypted and uncompressed that allows analytical capabilities while not perturbing the system's daily operation. Additionally, the strategy is secure and vendor independent. Cerebral ventricular volume is important for the diagnosis and treatment of many neurological disorders. A significant change in ventricular volume is readily recognized, but subtle changes, especially over longer periods of time, may be difficult to discern. Clinical imaging protocols and parameters are often varied making it difficult to use a general solution with standard segmentation techniques. Presented is a segmentation strategy based on an algorithm that uses four features extracted from the medical images to create a statistical estimator capable of determining ventricular volume. When compared with manual segmentations, the correlation was 94% and holds promise for even better accuracy by incorporating the unlimited data available. The volume of any segmentable structure can be accurately determined utilizing the machine learning strategy presented and runs fully automatically within the PACS.

  7. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume ({gamma}= 0.637 for total liver and {gamma}= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  8. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume (γ= 0.637 for total liver and γ= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  9. Brain tissues volume measurements from 2D MRI using parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, A. A.; Toropova, O. A.; Litovka, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose a fully automated method of volume assessment of structures within human brain. Our statistical approach uses maximum interdependency principle for decision making process of measurements consistency and unequal observations. Detecting outliers performed using maximum normalized residual test. We propose a statistical model which utilizes knowledge of tissues distribution in human brain and applies partial data restoration for precision improvement. The approach proposes completed computationally efficient and independent from segmentation algorithm used in the application.

  10. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was o...

  11. Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric [Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Stockholm (Sweden); Edholm, Kaijsa; Cavallin, Lena; Muller, Susanne; Axelsson, Rimma [Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Simmons, Andrew [King' s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health and Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia, London (United Kingdom); Skoog, Ingmar [Gothenburg University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Larsson, Elna-Marie [Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images. Thirty-six CT examinations from 18 patients were included. Ten patients were examined twice the same day and eight patients twice six months apart (these patients also underwent MRI). The algorithm combines morphological operations, intensity thresholding and mixture modelling. The method was validated against manual delineation and its robustness assessed from repeated imaging examinations. Using automated MRI software, the comparability with MRI was investigated. Volumes were compared based on average relative volume differences and their magnitudes; agreement was shown by a Bland-Altman analysis graph. We observed good agreement between our algorithm and manual delineation of a trained radiologist: the Pearson's correlation coefficient was r = 0.94, tICVml[manual] = 1.05 x tICVml[automated] - 33.78 (R{sup 2} = 0.88). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 31 mL and a standard deviation of 30 mL over a range of 1265 to 1526 mL. tICV measurements derived from CT using our proposed algorithm have shown to be reliable and consistent compared to manual delineation. However, it appears difficult to directly compare tICV measures between CT and MRI. (orig.)

  12. Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric; Edholm, Kaijsa; Cavallin, Lena; Muller, Susanne; Axelsson, Rimma; Simmons, Andrew; Skoog, Ingmar; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2015-01-01

    To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images. Thirty-six CT examinations from 18 patients were included. Ten patients were examined twice the same day and eight patients twice six months apart (these patients also underwent MRI). The algorithm combines morphological operations, intensity thresholding and mixture modelling. The method was validated against manual delineation and its robustness assessed from repeated imaging examinations. Using automated MRI software, the comparability with MRI was investigated. Volumes were compared based on average relative volume differences and their magnitudes; agreement was shown by a Bland-Altman analysis graph. We observed good agreement between our algorithm and manual delineation of a trained radiologist: the Pearson's correlation coefficient was r = 0.94, tICVml[manual] = 1.05 x tICVml[automated] - 33.78 (R 2 = 0.88). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 31 mL and a standard deviation of 30 mL over a range of 1265 to 1526 mL. tICV measurements derived from CT using our proposed algorithm have shown to be reliable and consistent compared to manual delineation. However, it appears difficult to directly compare tICV measures between CT and MRI. (orig.)

  13. The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Max L; Morandi, Alessandro; Krauskopf, Erin; Pandharipande, Pratik; Girard, Timothy D; Jackson, James C; Thompson, Jennifer; Shintani, Ayumi K; Geevarghese, Sunil; Miller, Russell R; Canonico, Angelo; Merkle, Kristen; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Rogers, Baxter P; Gatenby, J Chris; Heckers, Stephan; Gore, John C; Hopkins, Ramona O; Ely, E Wesley

    2012-07-01

    Delirium duration is predictive of long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors. Hypothesizing that a neuroanatomical basis may exist for the relationship between delirium and long-term cognitive impairment, we conducted this exploratory investigation of the associations between delirium duration, brain volumes, and long-term cognitive impairment. A prospective cohort of medical and surgical intensive care unit survivors with respiratory failure or shock. Quantitative high resolution 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate brain volumes at discharge and 3-month follow-up. Delirium was evaluated using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit; cognitive outcomes were tested at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Linear regression was used to examine associations between delirium duration and brain volumes, and between brain volumes and cognitive outcomes. A total of 47 patients completed the magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Patients with longer duration of delirium displayed greater brain atrophy as measured by a larger ventricle-to-brain ratio at hospital discharge (0.76, 95% confidence intervals [0.10, 1.41]; p = .03) and at 3-month follow-up (0.62 [0.02, 1.21], p = .05). Longer duration of delirium was associated with smaller superior frontal lobe (-2.11 cm(3) [-3.89, -0.32]; p = .03) and hippocampal volumes at discharge (-0.58 cm(3) [-0.85, -0.31], p Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status score -11.17 [-21.12, -1.22], p = .04). Smaller superior frontal lobes, thalamus, and cerebellar volumes at 3 months were associated with worse executive functioning and visual attention at 12 months. These preliminary data show that longer duration of delirium is associated with smaller brain volumes up to 3 months after discharge, and that smaller brain volumes are associated with long-term cognitive impairment up to 12 months. We cannot, however, rule out that smaller preexisting brain volumes explain

  14. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  15. Comparision between Brain Atrophy and Subdural Volume to Predict Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Volumetric CT Imaging Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Min-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Choi, Seung-Won; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Youm, Jin-Young; Song, Shi-Hun

    2015-10-01

    Brain atrophy and subdural hygroma were well known factors that enlarge the subdural space, which induced formation of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Thus, we identified the subdural volume that could be used to predict the rate of future CSDH after head trauma using a computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis. A single institution case-control study was conducted involving 1,186 patients who visited our hospital after head trauma from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Fifty-one patients with delayed CSDH were identified, and 50 patients with age and sex matched for control. Intracranial volume (ICV), the brain parenchyme, and the subdural space were segmented using CT image-based software. To adjust for variations in head size, volume ratios were assessed as a percentage of ICV [brain volume index (BVI), subdural volume index (SVI)]. The maximum depth of the subdural space on both sides was used to estimate the SVI. Before adjusting for cranium size, brain volume tended to be smaller, and subdural space volume was significantly larger in the CSDH group (p=0.138, p=0.021, respectively). The BVI and SVI were significantly different (p=0.003, p=0.001, respectively). SVI [area under the curve (AUC), 77.3%; p=0.008] was a more reliable technique for predicting CSDH than BVI (AUC, 68.1%; p=0.001). Bilateral subdural depth (sum of subdural depth on both sides) increased linearly with SVI (pSubdural space volume was significantly larger in CSDH groups. SVI was a more reliable technique for predicting CSDH. Bilateral subdural depth was useful to measure SVI.

  16. Safe total corporal contouring with large-volume liposuction for the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Lakshyajit D; Agarwal, Meenakshi

    2006-01-01

    The advent of the tumescent technique in 1987 allowed for safe total corporal contouring as an ambulatory, single-session megaliposuction with the patient under regional anesthesia supplemented by local anesthetic only in selected areas. Safety and aesthetic issues define large-volume liposuction as having a 5,000-ml aspirate, mega-volume liposuction as having an 8,000-ml aspirate, and giganto-volume liposuction as having an aspirate of 12,000 ml or more. Clinically, a total volume comprising 5,000 ml of fat and wetting solution aspirated during the procedure qualifies for megaliposuction/large-volume liposuction. Between September 2000 and August 2005, 470 cases of liposuction were managed. In 296 (63%) of the 470 cases, the total volume of aspirate exceeded 5 l (range, 5,000-22,000 ml). Concurrent limited or total-block lipectomy was performed in 70 of 296 cases (23.6%). Regional anesthesia with conscious sedation was preferred, except where liposuction targeted areas above the subcostal region (the upper trunk, lateral chest, gynecomastia, breast, arms, and face), or when the patient so desired. Tumescent infiltration was achieved with hypotonic lactated Ringer's solution, adrenalin, triamcinalone, and hyalase in all cases during the last one year of the series. This approach has clinically shown less tissue edema in the postoperative period than with conventional physiologic saline used in place of the Ringer's lactate solution. The amount injected varied from 1,000 to 8,000 ml depending on the size, site, and area. Local anesthetic was included only for the terminal portion of the tumescent mixture, wherever the subcostal regions were infiltrated. The aspirate was restricted to the unstained white/yellow fat, and the amount of fat aspirated did not have any bearing on the amount of solution infiltrated. There were no major complications, and no blood transfusions were administered. The hospital stay ranged from 8 to 24 h for both liposuction and liposuction

  17. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was PBDNF levels compared with HC. Reduced GM volumes in BD patients compared to HC were observed in several brain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of surgeon volume on patient outcome in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Rick L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of factors have been identified as influencing total knee arthroplasty outcomes, including patient factors such as gender and medical comorbidity, technical factors such as alignment of the prosthesis, and provider factors such as hospital and surgeon procedure volumes. Recently, strategies aimed at optimizing provider factors have been proposed, including regionalization of total joint arthroplasty to higher volume centers, and adoption of volume standards. To contribute to the discussions concerning the optimization of provider factors and proposals to regionalize total knee arthroplasty practices, we undertook a systematic review to investigate the association between surgeon volume and primary total knee arthroplasty outcomes. Methods We performed a systematic review examining the association between surgeon volume and primary knee arthroplasty outcomes. To be included in the review, the study population had to include patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. Studies had to report on the association between surgeon volume and primary total knee arthroplasty outcomes, including perioperative mortality and morbidity, patient-reported outcomes, or total knee arthroplasty implant survivorship. There were no restrictions placed on study design or language. Results Studies were variable in defining surgeon volume (‘low’: 5 to >70 total knee arthroplasty per year. Mortality rate, survivorship and thromboembolic events were not found to be associated with surgeon volume. We found a significant association between low surgeon volume and higher rate of infection (0.26% - 2.8% higher, procedure time (165 min versus 135 min, longer length of stay (0.4 - 2.13 days longer, transfusion rate (13% versus 4%, and worse patient reported outcomes. Conclusions Findings suggest a trend towards better outcomes for higher volume surgeons, but results must be interpreted with caution.

  19. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  20. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wiring economy and volume exclusion determine neuronal placement in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Vitaladevuni, Shiv N; Mishchenko, Yuriy; Mischenko, Yuriy; Lu, Zhiyuan; Takemura, Shin-Ya; Scheffer, Lou; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Chklovskii, Dmitri B; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2011-12-06

    Wiring economy has successfully explained the individual placement of neurons in simple nervous systems like that of Caenorhabditis elegans [1-3] and the locations of coarser structures like cortical areas in complex vertebrate brains [4]. However, it remains unclear whether wiring economy can explain the placement of individual neurons in brains larger than that of C. elegans. Indeed, given the greater number of neuronal interconnections in larger brains, simply minimizing the length of connections results in unrealistic configurations, with multiple neurons occupying the same position in space. Avoiding such configurations, or volume exclusion, repels neurons from each other, thus counteracting wiring economy. Here we test whether wiring economy together with volume exclusion can explain the placement of neurons in a module of the Drosophila melanogaster brain known as lamina cartridge [5-13]. We used newly developed techniques for semiautomated reconstruction from serial electron microscopy (EM) [14] to obtain the shapes of neurons, the location of synapses, and the resultant synaptic connectivity. We show that wiring length minimization and volume exclusion together can explain the structure of the lamina microcircuit. Therefore, even in brains larger than that of C. elegans, at least for some circuits, optimization can play an important role in individual neuron placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global and focal brain volume in long-term breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; van der Lijn, Fedde; Boogerd, Willem; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri; Niessen, Wiro J.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2012-01-01

    A limited number of studies have associated adjuvant chemotherapy with structural brain changes. These studies had small sample sizes and were conducted shortly after cessation of chemotherapy. Results of these studies indicate local gray matter volume decrease and an increase in white matter

  3. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN and default mode network (DMN. Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation.

  4. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ying; Wang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T 1 and T 2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P 2 =0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  5. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon [Dongguk University Medical Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p < 0.01). The CC area and brain volume in AD patients (498.7 +- 72 mm{sup 2}, 715.4 +- 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 +- 108, 844.1 +- 85) and the HCs (563.2 +- 75, 818.9 +- 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  6. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  7. Field in field technique in two-dimensional planning for whole brain irradiation; Tecnica field in field em planejamentos bidimensionais para irradiacao de cerebro total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-11-01

    Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)

  8. Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments are Associated with Brain Volume Abnormalities in Individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S.; Walker, Keenan A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Folkers, Anna M.; Pina, Mathew M.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV− associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  9. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Katrina; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  10. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices. 1985 supplement. Volume 2, part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.E.; Gauthier, M.K.; Coss, J.R.; Dantas, A.R.V.; Price, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data, are provided in graphic format for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. This volume provides data on integrated circuits. The data are presented in graphic, tabular, and/or narrative format, depending on the complexity of the integrated circuit. Most tests were done using the JPL or Boeing electron accelerator (Dynamitron) which provides a steady-state 2.5 MeV electron beam. However, some radiation exposures were made with a cobalt-60 gamma ray source, the results of which should be regarded as only an approximate measure of the radiation damage that would be incurred by an equivalent electron dose

  11. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  12. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  13. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  14. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  15. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Total numbers of neurons and glial cells in cortex and basal ganglia of aged brains with Down syndrome--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna Schou; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2011-11-01

    The total numbers of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex and basal ganglia in adults with Down syndrome (DS) were estimated with design-based stereological methods, providing quantitative data on brains affected by delayed development and accelerated aging. Cell numbers, volume of regions, and densities of neurons and glial cell subtypes were estimated in brains from 4 female DS subjects (mean age 66 years) and 6 female controls (mean age 70 years). The DS subjects were estimated to have about 40% fewer neocortical neurons in total (11.1 × 10(9) vs. 17.8 × 10(9), 2p ≤ 0.001) and almost 30% fewer neocortical glial cells with no overlap to controls (12.8 × 10(9) vs. 18.2 × 10(9), 2p = 0.004). In contrast, the total number of neurons in the basal ganglia was the same in the 2 groups, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia was reduced by almost 50% in DS (405 × 10(6) vs. 816 × 10(6), 2p = 0.01). We conclude that trisomy 21 affects cortical structures more than central gray matter emphasizing the differential impairment of brain development. Despite concomitant Alzheimer-like pathology, the neurodegenerative outcome in a DS brain deviates from common Alzheimer disease.

  17. Total reference air kerma can accurately predict isodose surface volumes in cervix cancer brachytherapy. A multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Andersen, Else; Champoudry, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate that V60 Gy, V75 Gy, and V85 Gy isodose surface volumes can be accurately estimated from total reference air kerma (TRAK) in cervix cancer MRI-guided brachytherapy (BT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: 60 Gy, 75 Gy, and 85 Gy isodose surface volumes levels were obtained from treatm...

  18. Automated delineation of brain structures in patients undergoing radiotherapy for primary brain tumors: From atlas to dose–volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conson, Manuel; Cella, Laura; Pacelli, Roberto; Comerci, Marco; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Salvatore, Marco; Quarantelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a magnetic resonance imaging atlas-based automated segmentation (MRI-ABAS) procedure for cortical and sub-cortical grey matter areas definition, suitable for dose-distribution analyses in brain tumor patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Patients and methods: 3T-MRI scans performed before RT in ten brain tumor patients were used. The MRI-ABAS procedure consists of grey matter classification and atlas-based regions of interest definition. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was applied to structures manually delineated by four experts to generate the standard reference. Performance was assessed comparing multiple geometrical metrics (including Dice Similarity Coefficient – DSC). Dosimetric parameters from dose–volume-histograms were also generated and compared. Results: Compared with manual delineation, MRI-ABAS showed excellent reproducibility [median DSC ABAS = 1 (95% CI, 0.97–1.0) vs. DSC MANUAL = 0.90 (0.73–0.98)], acceptable accuracy [DSC ABAS = 0.81 (0.68–0.94) vs. DSC MANUAL = 0.90 (0.76–0.98)], and an overall 90% reduction in delineation time. Dosimetric parameters obtained using MRI-ABAS were comparable with those obtained by manual contouring. Conclusions: The speed, reproducibility, and robustness of the process make MRI-ABAS a valuable tool for investigating radiation dose–volume effects in non-target brain structures providing additional standardized data without additional time-consuming procedures

  19. A comparative study of linear measurement of the brain and three-dimensional measurement of brain volume using CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, K.; Iwasaki, N.; Takeya, T.; Takita, H.

    1993-01-01

    Parameters of linear measurement were compared with actual brain volume to assess the significance of linear measurements as indices of atrophy in 31 neurologically normal children and 22 neurologically abnormal children. Brain volume was established by means of an image-analyzing system using contiguous CT scans. The parameters or indices estimated were: (1) the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, (2) the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, (3) the maximum frontal subarachnoid space, (4) the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure, (5) the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure, (6) Evans' ratio, (7) the maximum width of the third ventricle, (8) the cella media index, (9) the maximum width of the fourth ventricle. In neurologically normal children, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure and the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure correlated significantly with the combined volume (CV) of both hemipheres and basal ganglia. In particular, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres had a high correlation. In neurologically abnormal children the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure were significantly correlated with the CV of both hemispheres and basal ganglia. (orig.)

  20. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  1. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  2. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  3. Slice-to-Volume Nonrigid Registration of Histological Sections to MR Images of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    Registration of histological images to three-dimensional imaging modalities is an important step in quantitative analysis of brain structure, in architectonic mapping of the brain, and in investigation of the pathology of a brain disease. Reconstruction of histology volume from serial sections is a well-established procedure, but it does not address registration of individual slices from sparse sections, which is the aim of the slice-to-volume approach. This study presents a flexible framework for intensity-based slice-to-volume nonrigid registration algorithms with a geometric transformation deformation field parametrized by various classes of spline functions: thin-plate splines (TPS), Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS), or cubic B-splines. Algorithms are applied to cross-modality registration of histological and magnetic resonance images of the human brain. Registration performance is evaluated across a range of optimization algorithms and intensity-based cost functions. For a particular case of histological data, best results are obtained with a TPS three-dimensional (3D) warp, a new unconstrained optimization algorithm (NEWUOA), and a correlation-coefficient-based cost function. PMID:22567290

  4. Slice-to-Volume Nonrigid Registration of Histological Sections to MR Images of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Osechinskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Registration of histological images to three-dimensional imaging modalities is an important step in quantitative analysis of brain structure, in architectonic mapping of the brain, and in investigation of the pathology of a brain disease. Reconstruction of histology volume from serial sections is a well-established procedure, but it does not address registration of individual slices from sparse sections, which is the aim of the slice-to-volume approach. This study presents a flexible framework for intensity-based slice-to-volume nonrigid registration algorithms with a geometric transformation deformation field parametrized by various classes of spline functions: thin-plate splines (TPS, Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS, or cubic B-splines. Algorithms are applied to cross-modality registration of histological and magnetic resonance images of the human brain. Registration performance is evaluated across a range of optimization algorithms and intensity-based cost functions. For a particular case of histological data, best results are obtained with a TPS three-dimensional (3D warp, a new unconstrained optimization algorithm (NEWUOA, and a correlation-coefficient-based cost function.

  5. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  6. Global and regional annual brain volume loss rates in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippling, Sven; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Manogaran, Praveena; Gocke, Carola; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Opfer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated. A non-parametric technique was applied to fit the resulting age-volume data. For each age, the BVL/year was derived from the age-volume curves. The resulting BVL/year curves were compared between the two cohorts. For the MPCH cohort, the BVL/year curve of the BP was an increasing function starting from 0.20% at the age of 35 years increasing to 0.52% at 70 years (corresponding values for GM ranged from 0.32 to 0.55%, WM from 0.02 to 0.47%, CC from 0.07 to 0.48%, and thalamus from 0.25 to 0.54%). Mean absolute difference between BVL/year trajectories across the age range of 35-70 years was 0.02% for BP, 0.04% for GM, 0.04% for WM, 0.11% for CC, and 0.02% for the thalamus. Physiological BVL/year rates were remarkably consistent between the two cohorts and independent from the scanner applied. Average BVL/year was clearly age and compartment dependent. These results need to be taken into account when defining cut-off values for pathological annual brain volume loss in disease models, such as multiple sclerosis.

  7. Optimal repairable spare-parts procurement policy under total business volume discount environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Rodrigo; Santelices, Gabriel; Lüer-Villagra, Armin; Vera, Jorge; Cawley, Alejandro Mac

    2017-01-01

    In asset intensive fields, where components are expensive and high system availability is required, spare parts procurement is often a critical issue. To gain competitiveness and market share is common for vendors to offer Total Business Volume Discounts (TBVD). Accordingly, companies must define the procurement and stocking policy of their spare parts in order to reduce procurement costs and increase asset availability. In response to those needs, this work presents an optimization model that maximizes the availability of the equipment under a TBVD environment, subject to a budget constraint. The model uses a single-echelon structure where parts can be repaired. It determines the optimal number of repairable spare parts to be stocked, giving emphasis on asset availability, procurement costs and service levels as the main decision criteria. A heuristic procedure that achieves high quality solutions in a fast and time-consistent way was implemented to improve the time required to obtain the model solution. Results show that using an optimal procurement policy of spare parts and accounting for TBVD produces better overall results and yields a better availability performance. - Highlights: • We propose a model for procurement of repairable components in single-echelon and business volume discount environments. • We used a mathematical model to develop a competitive heuristic that provides high quality solutions in very short times. • Our model places emphasis on using system availability, procurement costs and service levels as leading decision criteria. • The model can be used as an engine for a multi-criteria Decision Support System.

  8. Is lactate a volume transmitter of metabolic states of the brain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda H; Gjedde, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that lactate is a volume transmitter of cellular signals in brain that acutely and chronically regulate the energy metabolism of large neuronal ensembles. From this perspective, we interpret recent evidence to mean that lactate transmission serves the maintenance...... of network metabolism by two different mechanisms, one by regulating the formation of cAMP via the lactate receptor GPR81, the other by adjusting the NADH/NAD(+) redox ratios, both linked to the maintenance of brain energy turnover and possibly cerebral blood flow. The role of lactate as mediator...

  9. Cortical thickness and subcortical brain volumes in professional rugby league players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wojtowicz

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in professional rugby players with an extensive history of concussions compared to control subjects. Method: Participants included 24 active and former professional rugby league players [Age M(SD = 33.3(6.3; Range = 21–44] with an extensive history of concussion and 18 age- and education-matched controls with no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. Participants underwent T1-weighted imaging and completed a neuropsychological battery, including two tests of memory. Whole brain cortical thickness analysis and structural volume analysis was performed using FreeSurfer version 6.0. Results: Professional rugby league players reported greater alcohol consumption (p < .001 and had significantly worse delayed recall of a visually complex design (p = .04. They did not differ from controls on other clinical outcome measures. There were no differences in cortical thickness between the groups. Professional players had smaller whole brain (p = .003, bilateral hippocampi (ps = .03, and left amygdala volumes (p = .01 compared to healthy controls. Within the players group, there were significant associations between greater alcohol use and smaller bilateral hippocampi and left amygdala volumes. There were no associations between structural volumes and history of concussions or memory performance. Conclusions: The literature examining cortical thickness in athletes with a history of multiple concussions is mixed. We did not observe differences in cortical thickness in professional rugby league players compared to controls. However, smaller subcortical volumes were found in players that were, in part, associated with greater alcohol consumption. Keywords: Volumetric MRI, Cortical thickness, Concussion, Brain morphometry, Athletes, Rugby

  10. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    , and metabolite changes in 19 patients receiving ECT for severe depression. Other regions of interest included the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex, and hypothalamus. Patients received a 3T MR scan before ECT (TP1), 1 week (TP2), and 4 weeks (TP3) after ECT. Results......: Hippocampal and amygdala volume increased significantly at TP2 and continued to be increased at TP3. DLPFC exhibited a transient volume reduction at TP2. DTI revealed a reduced anisotropy and diffusivity of the hippocampus at TP2. We found no significant post-ECT changes in brain metabolite concentrations...

  11. Quantitative analysis of CT brain images: a statistical model incorporating partial volume and beam hardening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)

  12. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  13. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila U. Szulc-Lerch

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation.We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs. The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline.Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline.Overall, our results

  14. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  15. A Computational Model for the Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Functional Brain Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs, using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images. Brain volumes measured from fMRI images were denoted as functional volumes, which quantified the volumes of brain regions that were actually functioning during fMRI imaging. We compared the predictive power of functional volumes with that of regional brain volumes measured from anatomical images, which were denoted as anatomical volumes. The former demonstrated higher discriminative power than the latter for the classification of ADHD patients vs. TDCs. Combined with our two-step feature selection approach which integrated prior knowledge with the recursive feature elimination (RFE algorithm, our SVM classification model combining functional volumes and demographic characteristics achieved a balanced accuracy of 67.7%, which was 16.1% higher than that of a relevant model published previously in the work of Sato et al. Furthermore, our classifier highlighted 10 brain regions that were most discriminative in distinguishing between ADHD patients and TDCs. These 10 regions were mainly located in occipital lobe, cerebellum posterior lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Our present study using functional images will likely provide new perspectives about the brain regions affected by ADHD.

  16. The use of phase sequence image sets to reconstruct the total volume occupied by a mobile lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Isabelle M.; Robinson, Don M.; Halperin, Ross; Roa, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The use of phase sequence image (PSI) sets to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target is presented. Isocontrast composite clinical target volumes (CCTVs) may be constructed from PSI sets in order to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target during the course of its travel. The ability of the CCTV technique to properly account for target motion is demonstrated by comparison to contours of the true total volume occupied (TVO) for a number of experimental phantom geometries. Finally, using real patient data, the clinical utility of the CCTV technique to properly account for internal tumor motion while minimizing the volume of healthy lung tissue irradiated is assessed by comparison to the standard approach of applying safety margins. Results of the phantom study reveal that CCTV cross sections constructed at the 20% isocontrast level yield good agreement with the total cross sections (TXO) of mobile targets. These CCTVs conform well to the TVOs of the moving targets examined whereby the addition of small uniform margins ensures complete circumscription of the TVO with the inclusion of minimal amounts of surrounding external volumes. The CCTV technique is seen to be clearly superior to the common practice of the addition of safety margins to individual CTV contours in order to account for internal target motion. Margins required with the CCTV technique are eight to ten times smaller than those required with individual CTVs

  17. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Volume-regulated anion channel--a frenemy within the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Alexander A

    2016-03-01

    The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) is a ubiquitously expressed yet highly enigmatic member of the superfamily of chloride/anion channels. It is activated by cellular swelling and mediates regulatory cell volume decrease in a majority of vertebrate cells, including those in the central nervous system (CNS). In the brain, besides its crucial role in cellular volume regulation, VRAC is thought to play a part in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and release of physiologically active molecules. Although these roles are not exclusive to the CNS, the relative significance of VRAC in the brain is amplified by several unique aspects of its physiology. One important example is the contribution of VRAC to the release of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. This latter process is thought to have impact on both normal brain functioning (such as astrocyte-neuron signaling) and neuropathology (via promoting the excitotoxic death of neuronal cells in stroke and traumatic brain injury). In spite of much work in the field, the molecular nature of VRAC remained unknown until less than 2 years ago. Two pioneer publications identified VRAC as the heterohexamer formed by the leucine-rich repeat-containing 8 (LRRC8) proteins. These findings galvanized the field and are likely to result in dramatic revisions to our understanding of the place and role of VRAC in the brain, as well as other organs and tissues. The present review briefly recapitulates critical findings in the CNS and focuses on anticipated impact on the LRRC8 discovery on further progress in neuroscience research.

  19. Fingolimod's Impact on MRI Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis: Results from MS-MRIUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Medin, Jennie; Khan, Nasreen; Korn, Jonathan R; Bergsland, Niels; Dwyer, Michael G; Chitnis, Tanuja; Naismith, Robert T; Alvarez, Enrique; Kinkel, Peter; Cohan, Stanley; Hunter, Samuel F; Silva, Diego; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2018-05-11

    Evidence is needed to understand the effect of fingolimod on slowing down brain atrophy progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in clinical practice. We investigated the effect of fingolimod on brain atrophy in MS patients with active disease (clinically and/or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) versus no evidence of active disease (NEAD). MS and clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS) is a multicenter, retrospective study that included 590 relapsing-remitting MS patients, who initiated fingolimod, and were followed for a median of 16 months. Patients with active disease at baseline (245, 41.5%) were defined as those who had one or more relapses in the year previous starting fingolimod, and/or displayed gadolinium enhancing lesions(s) at baseline MRI scan, whereas patients with NEAD at baseline (345, 58.5%) did not fulfill these criteria. Annualized percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and percentage lateral ventricle volume change (PLVVC) over the follow-up were analyzed in both groups. Over the follow-up, the rate of PBVC was -.38% in active disease and -.25% in NEAD patients (P = .076), whereas PLLVC was 1.76% in active disease and .28% in NEAD patients (P = .046). No changes in timed 25-foot walk (P = .619) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (P = .275) scores or MRI lesion accumulation (P > 0.08) were detected, although the active disease group had a higher proportion of relapses during the follow-up period (P = .02). The study provides real-world evidence that rate of brain atrophy in MS patients with underlying active disease and NEAD in fingolimod treated patients is below the established pathological cutoff for loss of whole brain volume (>-.4%) or expansion of lateral ventricles (> 3.5%). Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Role of cerebral blood volume changes in brain specific-gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozzi, P.; Todd, N.V.; Crockard, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was calculated in gerbils from specific-gravity (SG) changes between normal and saline-perfused brains. Furthermore, changes in CBV were investigated during ischemia using carbon-14-labeled dextran (MW 70,000) as an intravascular marker. Both data were used to evaluate the possible error due to a change in CBV on the measurement of ischemic brain edema by the SG method. The methodological error found was 0.0004 for a 100% CBV change. This error is insignificant, being less than the standard deviation in the SG measured for the gerbil cortex. Thus, CBV changes are not responsible for the SG variations observed during the first phase of ischemia. These variations are better explained as an increase of brain water content during ischemia

  1. Fetal growth, cognitive function, and brain volumes in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogne, Tormod; Engstrøm, Andreas Aass; Jacobsen, Geir Wenberg; Skranes, Jon; Østgård, Heidi Furre; Martinussen, Marit

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association between fetal growth pattern and cognitive function at 5 and 9 years and regional brain volumes at 15 years. Eighty-three term-born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates and 105 non-SGA neonates in a control group were available for follow-up. Based on serial fetal ultrasound measurements from gestational weeks 25-37, SGA neonates were classified with fetal growth restriction (n=13) or non-fetal growth restriction (n=36). Cognitive function was assessed at 5 and 9 years, and brain volumes were estimated with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging at 15 years. Small-for-gestational-age children had lower performance intelligence quotient at 5 years compared with those in a control group (107.3 compared with 112.5, Pgrowth restriction and control groups, the SGA fetal growth restriction group had significantly lower performance intelligence quotient at 5 years (103.5 compared with 112.5, Pgrowth restriction and control groups for thalamic (17.4 compared with 18.6 cm, Pintelligence quotient scores at 5 and 9 years and smaller brain volumes at 15 years compared with those in the control group, but these findings were only found in those with fetal growth restriction, indicating a possible relationship to decelerated fetal growth. II.

  2. Asymmetry in the brain influenced the neurological deficits and infarction volume following the middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Meizeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, which may result from dominant hemisphere of rat brain. However, given that lateralization is the uniqueness of the humans, many researchers neglect the differences between the left and right hemispheres when selecting the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ischemia in the dominant hemisphere on neurobehavioral function and on the cerebral infarction volume following MCAO in rats. Methods The right-handed male Sprague-Dawley rats asserted by the quadrupedal food-reaching test were subjected to 2 hours MCA occlusion and then reperfusion. Results The neurological scores were significantly worse in the left MCAO group than that in the right MCAO group at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (p 0.05 respectively. There was a trend toward better neurobehavioral function recovery in the right MCAO group than in the left MCAO group. The total infarct volume in left MCAO was significantly larger than that in the right (p Conclusion The neurobehavioral function result and the pathological result were consistent with the hypothesis that paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, and suggested that ischemia in dominant hemisphere caused more significant neurobehavioral consequence than in another hemisphere following MCAO in adult rats. Asymmetry in rat brain should be considered other than being neglected in choice of rat MCAO model.

  3. Use of ( sup 11 C)aminocyclohexanecarboxylate for the measurement of amino acid uptake and distribution volume in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppe, R.A.; Mangner, T.; Betz, A.L.; Shulkin, B.L.; Allen, R.; Kollros, P.; Kuhl, D.E.; Agranoff, B.W. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) method to measure amino acid blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport rate and tissue distribution volume (DV) has been developed using {sup 11}C-labeled aminocyclohexanecarboxylate (ACHC), a nonmetabolized amino acid analogue. Dynamic PET data were acquired as a series of 15 scans covering a total of 60 min and analyzed by means of a two-compartment, two-parameter model. Functional images were calculated for the amino acid transport rate constants across the BBB and the amino acid DV in the brain. Results show ({sup 11}C)ACHC to have an influx rate constant in gray matter of approximately 0.03-0.04 ml g-1 min-1, indicating a single-pass extraction fraction of approximately 5-7%. The intersubject coefficient of variation was approximately 15% while intrasubject variability of repeat scans was only slightly greater than 5%. Studies were performed in 15 young normal volunteer control subjects, 5 elderly controls, 7 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, and one patient with phenylketonuria. Results indicate that ({sup 11}C)-ACHC will serve as the basis of a method for measuring amino acid transport rate and DV in the normal and pathological human brain.

  4. Use of [11C]aminocyclohexanecarboxylate for the measurement of amino acid uptake and distribution volume in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.; Mangner, T.; Betz, A.L.; Shulkin, B.L.; Allen, R.; Kollros, P.; Kuhl, D.E.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) method to measure amino acid blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport rate and tissue distribution volume (DV) has been developed using 11 C-labeled aminocyclohexanecarboxylate (ACHC), a nonmetabolized amino acid analogue. Dynamic PET data were acquired as a series of 15 scans covering a total of 60 min and analyzed by means of a two-compartment, two-parameter model. Functional images were calculated for the amino acid transport rate constants across the BBB and the amino acid DV in the brain. Results show [ 11 C]ACHC to have an influx rate constant in gray matter of approximately 0.03-0.04 ml g-1 min-1, indicating a single-pass extraction fraction of approximately 5-7%. The intersubject coefficient of variation was approximately 15% while intrasubject variability of repeat scans was only slightly greater than 5%. Studies were performed in 15 young normal volunteer control subjects, 5 elderly controls, 7 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, and one patient with phenylketonuria. Results indicate that [ 11 C]-ACHC will serve as the basis of a method for measuring amino acid transport rate and DV in the normal and pathological human brain

  5. TOTAL WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES BY IMAGES OF LANDSAT SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fernando Berra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987566Models relating spectral answers with biophysical parameters aim estimate variables, like wood volume, without the necessity of frequent field measurements. The objective was to develop models to estimate wood volume by Landsat 5 TM images, supported by regional forest inventory data. The image was geo-referenced and converted to spectral reflectance. After, the images-index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SR (Simple Ratio was generated. The reflectance values of the bands (TM1, TM2, TM3 e TM4 and of the indices (NDVI and SR was related with the wood volume. The biggest correlation with volume was with the NDVI and SR indices. The variables selection was made by Stepwise method, which returned three regression models as significant to explain the variation in volume. Finally, the best fitted model was selected (volume = -830,95 + 46,05 (SR + 107,47 (TM2, which was applied on the Landsat image where the pixels had started to represent the estimated volume in m³/ha on the Eucalyptus sp. production units. This model, significant at 95% confidence level, explains 68% of the wood volume variation.

  6. Effect of total cementitious content on shear strength of high-volume fly ash concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezoumandi, Mahdi; Volz, Jeffery S.; Ortega, Carlos A.; Myers, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing design standards conservatively predicted the capacity of the HVFAC beams. ► In general, the HVFAC beams exceeded the code predicted shear strengths. ► The cementitious content did not have effect on the shear behavior of the HVFAC beams. - Abstract: The production of portland cement – the key ingredient in concrete – generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. However, due to its incredible versatility, availability, and relatively low cost, concrete is the most consumed manmade material on the planet. One method of reducing concrete’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is the use of fly ash to replace a significant amount of the cement. This paper compares two experimental studies that were conducted to investigate the shear strength of full-scale beams constructed with high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) – concrete with at least 50% of the cement replaced with fly ash. The primary difference between the two studies involved the amount of cementitious material, with one mix having a relatively high total cementitious content (502 kg/m 3 ) and the other mix having a relatively low total cementitious content (337 kg/m 3 ). Both mixes utilized a 70% replacement of portland cement with a Class C fly ash. Each of these experimental programs consisted of eight beams (six without shear reinforcing and two with shear reinforcing in the form of stirrups) with three different longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The beams were tested under a simply supported four-point loading condition. The experimental shear strengths of the beams were compared with both the shear provisions of selected standards (US, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan) and a shear database of conventional concrete (CC) specimens. Furthermore, statistical data analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) were performed to evaluate whether or not there is any statistically significant difference between the shear strength of both mixes. Results of these

  7. Effects of tidal volume and methacholine on low-frequency total respiratory impedance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchen, K R; Jackson, A C

    1990-05-01

    The frequency dependence of respiratory impedance (Zrs) from 0.125 to 4 Hz (Hantos et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 123-132, 1986) may reflect inhomogeneous parallel time constants or the inherent viscoelastic properties of the respiratory tissues. However, studies on the lung alone or chest wall alone indicate that their impedance features are also dependent on the tidal volumes (VT) of the forced oscillations. The goals of this study were 1) to identify how total Zrs at lower frequencies measured with random noise (RN) compared with that measure with larger VT, 2) to identify how Zrs measured with RN is affected by bronchoconstriction, and 3) to identify the impact of using linear models for analyzing such data. We measured Zrs in six healthy dogs by use of a RN technique from 0.125 to 4 Hz or with a ventilator from 0.125 to 0.75 Hz with VT from 50 to 250 ml. Then methacholine was administered and the RN was repeated. Two linear models were fit to each separate set of data. Both models assume uniform airways leading to viscoelastic tissues. For healthy dogs, the respiratory resistance (Rrs) decreased with frequency, with most of the decrease occurring from 0.125 to 0.375 Hz. Significant VT dependence of Rrs was seen only at these lower frequencies, with Rrs higher as VT decreased. The respiratory compliance (Crs) was dependent on VT in a similar fashion at all frequencies, with Crs decreasing as VT decreased. Both linear models fit the data well at all VT, but the viscoelastic parameters of each model were very sensitive to VT. After methacholine, the minimum Rrs increased as did the total drop with frequency. Nevertheless the same models fit the data well, and both the airways and tissue parameters were altered after methacholine. We conclude that inferences based only on low-frequency Zrs data are problematic because of the effects of VT on such data (and subsequent linear modeling of it) and the apparent inability of such data to differentiate parallel

  8. Equal Pay for Equal Work: Medicare Procedure Volume and Reimbursement for Male and Female Surgeons Performing Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Brady, Christina; Pipkin, William C; Somerson, Jeremy S

    2018-02-21

    The observed sex gap in physician salary has been the topic of much recent debate in the United States, but it has not been well-described among orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in Medicare claim volume and reimbursement among orthopaedic surgeons. The Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Public Use File was used to compare claim volume and reimbursement between female and male orthopaedic surgeons in 2013. Data were extracted for each billing code per orthopaedic surgeon in the year 2013 for total claims, surgical claims, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) claims, and total hip arthroplasty (THA) claims. A total of 20,546 orthopaedic surgeons who treated traditional Medicare patients were included in the initial analysis. Claim volume and reimbursement received were approximately twofold higher for all claims and more than threefold higher for surgical claims for male surgeons when compared with female surgeons (p 10 TKAs and THAs, respectively, in 2013 for Medicare patients and were included in the subset analyses. Although male surgeons performed a higher mean number of TKAs than female surgeons (mean and standard deviation, 37 ± 33 compared with 26 ± 17, respectively, p men and women for TKA or THA ($1,135 ± $228 compared with $1,137 ± $184 for TKA, respectively, p = 0.380; $1,049 ± $226 compared with $1,043 ± $266 for THA, respectively, p = 0.310). Female surgeons had a lower number of total claims and reimbursements compared with male surgeons. However, among surgeons who performed >10 THAs and TKAs, there were no sex differences in the mean reimbursement payment per surgeon. The number of women in orthopaedics is rising, and there is much interest in how their productivity and compensation compare with their male counterparts.

  9. The assessment of changes in brain volume using combined linear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Steiner, I.; Melamed, E.; Cooper, G.

    1984-01-01

    All linear measurements employed for evaluation of brain atrophy, were performed on 148 computed tomograms of patients aged 28 to 84 without evidence of any nervous system disorder. These included size of lateral, third and fourth ventricles, width of the Sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and cortical sulci and size of the pre-pontine cistern. Various parameters indicated decrease in brain mass with age. Since the atrophic process is a diffuse phenomenon, integration of several measurements evaluating separate brain regions was made. The bicaudate ratio and the Sylvian fissure ratio (representing both central and cortical atrophy) were combined arithmetically, resulting in a correlation of 0.6390 with age (p<0.0005). With a computed canonical correlation analysis: a formula was obtained which combined measurements of the lateral and third ventricles, the Sylvian fissure and the pre-pontine cistern. This formula yealded a correlation of 0.67795 (p<0.0005). These linear measurements will enable simple and reliable assessment of reduction in brain volume during the normal aging process and in disorders accompanied by brain atrophy. (orig.)

  10. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc-Lerch, Kamila U; Timmons, Brian W; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; de Medeiros, Cynthia B; Skocic, Jovanka; Lerch, Jason P; Mabbott, Donald J

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation. We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training) in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs). The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline. Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS) revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline. Overall, our results indicate that

  11. Association of translocator protein total distribution volume with duration of untreated major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Attwells, Sophia; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Rusjan, Pablo M; Miler, Laura; Xu, Cynthia; Sharma, Sarita; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (V T ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited participants aged 18-75 years from the Toronto area and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, ON, Canada). Participants either had major depressive episodes secondary to major depressive disorder or were healthy, as confirmed with a structured clinical interview and consultation with a study psychiatrist. To be enrolled, participants with major depressive episodes had to score a minimum of 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and had to be medication free or taking a stable dose of medication for at least 4 weeks before PET scanning. Eligible participants were non-smokers; had no history of or concurrent alcohol or substance dependence, neurological illness, autoimmune disorder, or severe medical problems; and were free from acute medical illnesses for the previous 2 weeks before PET scanning. Participants were excluded if they had used brain stimulation treatments within the 6 months before scanning, had used anti-inflammatory drugs lasting at least 1 week within the past month, were taking hormone replacement therapy, had psychotic symptoms, had bipolar disorder (type I or II) or borderline antisocial personality disorder, or were pregnant or breastfeeding. We scanned three primary grey-matter regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula) and 12 additional regions and subregions using 18

  12. Know your tools - concordance of different methods for measuring brain volume change after ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid [The University of Melbourne, The Florey Institute of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)

  13. Know your tools - concordance of different methods for measuring brain volume change after ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew; Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M.; Churilov, Leonid; Parsons, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic performance of whole brain volume perfusion CT in intra-axial brain tumors: Preoperative classification accuracy and histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xyda, Argyro; Haberland, Ulrike; Klotz, Ernst; Jung, Klaus; Bock, Hans Christoph; Schramm, Ramona; Knauth, Michael; Schramm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the preoperative diagnostic power and classification accuracy of perfusion parameters derived from whole brain volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in patients with cerebral tumors. Methods: Sixty-three patients (31 male, 32 female; mean age 55.6 ± 13.9 years), with MRI findings suspected of cerebral lesions, underwent VPCT. Two readers independently evaluated VPCT data. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were marked circumscript around the tumor according to maximum intensity projection volumes, and then mapped automatically onto the cerebral blood volume (CBV), flow (CBF) and permeability Ktrans perfusion datasets. A second VOI was placed in the contra lateral cortex, as control. Correlations among perfusion values, tumor grade, cerebral hemisphere and VOIs were evaluated. Moreover, the diagnostic power of VPCT parameters, by means of positive and negative predictive value, was analyzed. Results: Our cohort included 32 high-grade gliomas WHO III/IV, 18 low-grade I/II, 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, 4 metastases and 3 tumor-like lesions. Ktrans demonstrated the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, with a cut-off point of 2.21 mL/100 mL/min, for both the comparisons between high-grade versus low-grade and low-grade versus primary cerebral lymphomas. However, for the differentiation between high-grade and primary cerebral lymphomas, CBF and CBV proved to have 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value, identifying preoperatively all the histopathologically proven high-grade gliomas. Conclusion: Volumetric perfusion data enable the hemodynamic assessment of the entire tumor extent and provide a method of preoperative differentiation among intra-axial cerebral tumors with promising diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katrina, E-mail: Trinabena23@gmail.com; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  16. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katrina; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient׳s neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient׳s data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional brain imaging of a complex navigation task following one night of total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Gary; Thompson, John H.; Strauss, Monica M.; Marshburn, Thomas H.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the cerebral effects associated with sleep deprivation in a simulation of a complex, real-world, high-risk task. Design and Interventions: A two-week, repeated measures, cross-over experimental protocol, with counterbalanced orders of normal sleep (NS) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). Setting: Each subject underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a dual-joystick, 3D sensorimotor navigation task (simulated orbital docking). Scanning was performed twice per subject, once following a night of normal sleep (NS), and once following a single night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Five runs (eight 24s docking trials each) were performed during each scanning session. Participants: Six healthy, young, right-handed volunteers (2 women; mean age 20) participated. Measurements and Results: Behavioral performance on multiple measures was comparable in the two sleep conditions. Neuroimaging results within sleep conditions revealed similar locations of peak activity for NS and TSD, including left sensorimotor cortex, left precuneus (BA 7), and right visual areas (BA 18/19). However, cerebral activation following TSD was substantially larger and exhibited higher amplitude modulations from baseline. When directly comparing NS and TSD, most regions exhibited TSD>NS activity, including multiple prefrontal cortical areas (BA 8/9,44/45,47), lateral parieto-occipital areas (BA 19/39, 40), superior temporal cortex (BA 22), and bilateral thalamus and amygdala. Only left parietal cortex (BA 7) demonstrated NS>TSD activity. Conclusions: The large network of cerebral differences between the two conditions, even with comparable behavioral performance, suggests the possibility of detecting TSD-induced stress via functional brain imaging techniques on complex tasks before stress-induced failures.

  18. Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C.; Haney-Caron, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies of brain structure abnormalities in conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples have been limited owing to cross-comorbidity, preventing clear understanding of which structural brain abnormalities might be specific to or shared by each disorder. To our knowledge, this study was the first direct comparison of grey and white matter volumes in diagnostically “pure” (i.e., no comorbidities) conduct disorder and ADHD samples. Methods Groups of adolescents with noncormobid conduct disorder and with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD were compared with age- and sex-matched controls using DARTEL voxel-based analysis of T1-weighted brain structure images. Analysis of variance with post hoc analyses compared whole brain grey and white matter volumes among the groups. Results We included 24 adolescents in each study group. There was an overall 13% reduction in grey matter volume in adolescents with conduct disorder, reflecting numerous frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical deficits. The same grey matter regions typically were not abnormal in those with ADHD. Deficits in frontal lobe regions previously identified in studies of patients with ADHD either were not detected, or group differences from controls were not as strong as those between the conduct disorder and control groups. White matter volume measurements did not differentiate conduct disorder and ADHD. Limitations Our modest sample sizes prevented meaningful examination of individual features of ADHD or conduct disorder, such as aggression, callousness, or hyperactive versus inattentive symptom subtypes. Conclusion The evidence supports theories of frontotemporal abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder, but raises questions about the prominence of frontal lobe and striatal structural abnormalities in those with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD. The latter point is clinically important, given the widely held belief that ADHD is

  19. MRI-based brain structure volumes in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and their unaffected siblings: a preliminary study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scanlon, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the heritability of brain structure may be useful in simplifying complicated genetic studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A preliminary study is presented to determine if volume deficits of candidate brain structures present at a higher rate in unaffected siblings than controls subjects.

  20. An improved approach to reduce partial volume errors in brain SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Hatton, B.F.; Michael, G.; Barnden, L.; QUT, Brisbane, QLD; The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, SA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Limitations in SPET resolution give rise to significant partial volume error (PVE) in small brain structures We have investigated a previously published method (Muller-Gartner et al., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;16: 650-658) to correct PVE in grey matter using MRI. An MRI is registered and segmented to obtain a grey matter tissue volume which is then smoothed to obtain resolution matched to the corresponding SPET. By dividing the original SPET with this correction map, structures can be corrected for PVE on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Since this approach is limited by space-invariant filtering, modification was made by estimating projections for the segmented MRI and reconstructing these using identical parameters to SPET. The methods were tested on simulated brain scans, reconstructed with the ordered subsets EM algorithm (8,16, 32, 64 equivalent EM iterations) The new method provided better recovery visually. For 32 EM iterations, recovery coefficients were calculated for grey matter regions. The effects of potential errors in the method were examined. Mean recovery was unchanged with one pixel registration error, the maximum error found in most registration programs. Errors in segmentation > 2 pixels results in loss of accuracy for small structures. The method promises to be useful for reducing PVE in brain SPET

  1. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  2. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  3. Gd-DTPA and volume acquisitions in brain and spine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Clampitt, M.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen cases referred for evaluation of suspected neoplasms were studied with anisotropic three-dimensional fast low-angle shot imaging (30-60/9-14/50) with partitions of 1.5-3 mm before and after 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA (Berlex Laboratories). Multiplanar reconstructions were performed on a Kontron work station. Sagittal and axial T1-weighted two-dimensional spin-echo (SE) sequences were acquired for comparison. Diagnoses included normal (N = 3), brain neoplasms (N = 7), spine neoplasms (N = 6), and brain inflammation (N = 1). Volume studies were of sufficient quality to allow reconstructions in 12 cases and were comparable diagnostically with two-dimensional SE images. Advantages of the three-dimensional technique were capacity to reconstruct any plane, decreased partial volume averaging, and a shorter examination time. Tissue contrast appeared equivalent. In five patients the examinations were inferior to SE studies because of motion and lack of contrast between vessels and enhancing regions. Paramagnetic contrast increases the sensitivity of volume studies in the detection of disease

  4. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume. Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  5. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...... on a pixel-by-pixel basis of cerebral perfusion, cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability.......Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...... imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g...

  6. Dynamic illumination of spatially restricted or large brain volumes via a single tapered optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; Mandelbaum, Gil; Pisanello, Marco; Oldenburg, Ian A; Sileo, Leonardo; Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Peterson, Ralph E; Della Patria, Andrea; Haynes, Trevor M; Emara, Mohamed S; Spagnolo, Barbara; Datta, Sandeep Robert; De Vittorio, Massimo; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2017-08-01

    Optogenetics promises precise spatiotemporal control of neural processes using light. However, the spatial extent of illumination within the brain is difficult to control and cannot be adjusted using standard fiber optics. We demonstrate that optical fibers with tapered tips can be used to illuminate either spatially restricted or large brain volumes. Remotely adjusting the light input angle to the fiber varies the light-emitting portion of the taper over several millimeters without movement of the implant. We use this mode to activate dorsal versus ventral striatum of individual mice and reveal different effects of each manipulation on motor behavior. Conversely, injecting light over the full numerical aperture of the fiber results in light emission from the entire taper surface, achieving broader and more efficient optogenetic activation of neurons, compared to standard flat-faced fiber stimulation. Thus, tapered fibers permit focal or broad illumination that can be precisely and dynamically matched to experimental needs.

  7. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  8. Brain volumes in healthy adults aged 40 years and over: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Beltramello, Alberto; Bonetti, Matteo; Bono, Giorgio; Falini, Andrea; Magnani, Giuseppe; Minonzio, Giorgio; Piovan, Enrico; Alaimo, Giuseppina; Ettori, Monica; Galluzzi, Samantha; Locatelli, Enrico; Noiszewska, Malgorzata; Testa, Cristina; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2005-08-01

    Gender and age effect on brain morphology have been extensively investigated. However, the great variety in methods applied to morphology partly explain the conflicting results of linear patterns of tissue changes and lateral asymmetry in men and women. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of age, gender and laterality on the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in a large group of healthy adults by means of voxel-based morphometry. This technique, based on observer-independent algorithms, automatically segments the 3 types of tissue and computes the amount of tissue in each single voxel. Subjects were 229 healthy subjects of 40 years of age or older, who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) for reasons other than cognitive impairment. MR images were reoriented following the AC-PC line and, after removing the voxels below the cerebellum, were processed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99). GM and WM volumes were normalized for intracranial volume. Women had more fractional GM and WM volumes than men. Age was negatively correlated with both fractional GM and WM, and a gender x age interaction effect was found for WM, men having greater WM loss with advancing age. Pairwise differences between left and right GM were negative (greater GM in right hemisphere) in men, and positive (greater GM in left hemisphere) in women (-0.56+/-4.2 vs 0.99+/-4.8; p=0.019). These results support side-specific accelerated WM loss in men, and may help our better understanding of changes in regional brain structures associated with pathological aging.

  9. A voxel-based morphometry study of brain volume changes in patients with neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Huang Jing; Ren Zhuoqiong; Ye Jing; Dong Huiqing; Chen Hai; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect changes of regional grey matter and white matter volume in patients of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigate its relationship with clinical variables. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 20 NMO and 20 sex-and age-matched healthy volunteers. The comparison of grey matter and white matter volume between the two groups was analyzed by VBM tools of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess correlations between regional volume decrease and disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores in NMO patients. Results: Compared with normal controls, NMO patients had grey matter atrophy in several cortical regions, such as right inferior frontal gyrus (cluster size 514), left superior temporal gyrus (282), right middle temporal gyrus (229) and right insula (211) (t=3.58-5.11, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). White matter atrophy was found in several subcortical regions in NMO patients, such as right precentral and postcentral gyrus (cluster size 457, 110), left middle frontal gyrus (285), and right inferior parietal lobule (231) (t=2.90-4.25, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). Grey matter and white matter volume loss were not significantly correlated with clinical duration or EDSS score in NMO. Conclusion: By means of VBM, regional atrophy of grey matter and white matter is found in NMO patients, which may provide evidence for brain structural abnormality in NMO. (authors)

  10. The Effect of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive on Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2005-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  11. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  12. Sex differences in the clinical characteristics and brain gray matter volume alterations in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Peng, Zugui; Ma, Xiaojuan; Meng, Yajing; Li, Mingli; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiuliu; Liu, Ye; Fan, Huanhuan; Zhao, Liansheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2017-05-30

    This study was to explore the sex differences in clinical characteristics and brain gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in 29 male patients with major depressive disorder (MDDm), 53 female patients with MDD (MDDf), and in 29 male and 53 female matched healthy controls. Maps of GMV were constructed using magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We evaluated clinical symptoms using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and obtained a total score and five syndrome scores. A two-factor ANCOVA model was specified using SPM8, with sex and diagnosis as the between-subject factors. We found that: (1) significant GMV increase in the left cerebellum and GMV reduction in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left ventral medial prefrontal gyrus occurred selectively in male patients, while the GMV reduction in the left lingual gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus occurred selectively in female patients; (2) MDDf may have experienced more severe sleep disturbance than MDDm; and (3) the severity of sleep symptom could be predicted by the sex specific brain structural alterations in depressions. These findings suggest that sex specific anatomical alterations existed in MDD, and these alterations were associated with the clinical symptoms.

  13. Automatic, accurate, and reproducible segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid in T1-weighted volume MRI scans and its application to serial cerebral and intracranial volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Louis

    2001-07-01

    A new fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from T1-weighted volume MRI scans of the head was specifically developed in the context of serial intra-cranial volumetry. The method is an extension of a previously published brain extraction algorithm. The brain mask is used as a basis for CSF segmentation based on morphological operations, automatic histogram analysis and thresholding. Brain segmentation is then obtained by iterative tracking of the brain-CSF interface. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF volumes are calculated based on a model of intensity probability distribution that includes partial volume effects. Accuracy was assessed using a digital phantom scan. Reproducibility was assessed by segmenting pairs of scans from 20 normal subjects scanned 8 months apart and 11 patients with epilepsy scanned 3.5 years apart. Segmentation accuracy as measured by overlap was 98% for the brain and 96% for the intra-cranial tissues. The volume errors were: total brain (TBV): -1.0%, intra-cranial (ICV):0.1%, CSF: +4.8%. For repeated scans, matching resulted in improved reproducibility. In the controls, the coefficient of reliability (CR) was 1.5% for the TVB and 1.0% for the ICV. In the patients, the Cr for the ICV was 1.2%.

  14. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  15. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV and grey matter volumes (GMV and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  16. Associations between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms in theater and regional brain volume in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Reeb, Rosemary; Esparza, Iva L; Abadjian, Linda R

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported evidence of reduced cortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to low-levels of nerve agent according to the 2000 Khamisiyah plume model analysis. Because there is suggestive evidence that other nerve agent exposures may have occurred during the Gulf War, we examined the association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound during deployment in the Gulf War and regional brain volume in GW veterans. Ninety consecutive GW veterans (15 female, mean age: 52±8years) participating in a VA-funded study underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T scanner. Freesurfer (version 5.1) was used to obtain regional measures of cortical GM, WM, hippocampal, and insula volume. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during the Gulf War and regional brain volume. There was an inverse association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound and total cortical GM (adjusted p=0.007), even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables, the veterans' current health status, and other concurrent deployment-related exposures that were correlated with hearing chemical alarms. Post-hoc analyses extended the inverse relationship between the frequency of hearing chemical alarms to GM volume in the frontal (adjusted p=0.02), parietal (adjusted p=0.01), and occipital (adjusted p=0.001) lobes. In contrast, regional brain volumes were not significantly associated with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume or with Gulf War Illness status defined by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Many veterans reported hearing chemical alarms sound during the Gulf War. The current findings suggest that exposure to substances that triggered those chemical alarms during the Gulf War likely

  17. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  18. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  19. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  20. Duration of untreated psychosis/illness and brain volume changes in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Charlotte; Canela, Carlos; Studerus, Erich; Walter, Anna; Aston, Jacqueline; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2017-09-01

    The time period during which patients manifest psychotic or unspecific symptoms prior to treatment (duration of untreated psychosis, DUP, and the duration of untreated illness, DUI) has been found to be moderately associated with poor clinical and social outcome. Equivocal evidence exists of an association between DUP/DUI and structural brain abnormalities, such as reduced hippocampus volume (HV), pituitary volume (PV) and grey matter volume (GMV). Thus, the goal of the present work was to examine if DUP and DUI are associated with abnormalities in HV, PV and GMV. Using a region of interest (ROI) based approach, we present data of 39 patients from the Basel FePsy (Früherkennung von Psychosen, early detection of psychosis) study for which information about DUP, DUI and HV, PV and GMV data could be obtained. Twenty-three of them were first episode psychosis (FEP) and 16 at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients who later made the transition to frank psychosis. In unadjusted analyses, we found a significant positive correlation between DUP and PV in FEP patients. However, when adjusted for covariates, we found no significant correlation between DUP or DUI and HV, PV or GMV anymore. There only was a trend for decreasing GMV with increasing DUI in FEP. Our results do not comprehensively support the hypothesis of a "toxic" effect of the pathogenic mechanism underlying untreated psychosis on brain structure. If there is any effect, it might rather occur very early in the disease process, during which patients experience only unspecific symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUI R.F. FERREIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  2. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  3. The role of testosterone and estradiol in brain volume changes across adolescence: a longitudinal structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Kan, Eric; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-11-01

    It has been postulated that pubertal hormones may drive some neuroanatomical changes during adolescence, and may do so differently in girls and boys. Here, we use growth curve modeling to directly assess how sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E₂)] relate to changes in subcortical brain volumes utilizing a longitudinal design. 126 adolescents (63 girls), ages 10 to 14, were imaged and restudied ∼2 years later. We show, for the first time, that best-fit growth models are distinctly different when using hormones as compared to a physical proxy of pubertal maturation (Tanner Stage) or age, to predict brain development. Like Tanner Stage, T and E₂ predicted white matter and right amygdala growth across adolescence in both sexes, independent of age. Tanner Stage also explained decreases in both gray matter and caudate volumes, whereas E₂ explained only gray matter decreases and T explained only caudate volume decreases. No pubertal measures were related to hippocampus development. Although specificity was seen, sex hormones had strikingly similar relationships with white matter, gray matter, right amygdala, and bilateral caudate volumes, with larger changes in brain volume seen at early pubertal maturation (as indexed by lower hormone levels), followed by less robust, or even reversals in growth, by late puberty. These novel longitudinal findings on the relationship between hormones and brain volume change represent crucial first steps toward understanding which aspects of puberty influence neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2014-01-01

    An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56-63 degrees N). The mean total age was 40 +/- 13 (range 17-91) years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob) was 15 +/- 4 (range 5-27) cm and the mean density was 1621 +/- 902 (range 100-7600) stems ha(-1). The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchan...

  5. Increased epicardial fat volume quantified by 64-multidetector computed tomography is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and totally occlusive lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji; Anzai, Toshihisa; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the epicardial fat volume measured by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the extension and severity of coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. Both MDCT and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in 71 consecutive patients who presented with effort angina. The volume of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was measured by MDCT. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by evaluating the extension of coronary plaques in 790 segments using MDCT data, and the percentage diameter stenosis in 995 segments using CAG data. The estimated volume of EAT indexed by body surface area was defined as VEAT. Increased VEAT was associated with advanced age, male sex, degree of metabolic alterations, a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the presence of total occlusions, and showed positive correlation with the stenosis score r=0.28, P=0.02) and the atheromatosis score (r=0.67, P 3 /m 2 ) to be the strongest independent determinant of the presence of total occlusions odds ratio 4.64. P=0.02). VEAT correlates with the degree of metabolic alterations and coronary atheromatosis. Excessive accumulation of EAT might contribute to the development of ACS and coronary total occlusions. (author)

  6. Herpes zoster chronification to postherpetic neuralgia induces brain activity and grey matter volume change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Song; Qin, Bangyong; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Jie; Fu, Bao; Xie, Peng; Song, Ganjun; Li, Ying; Yu, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients. Methods: To minimize individual differences induced error, we enrolled 12 patients with a transition from HZ to PHN. The functional and structural changes of their brains between the two states were identified with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) technique (i.e., the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional aptitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method) and the voxel based morphometry (VBM) technology respectively. The correlations between MRI parameters (i.e., ΔReHo, ΔfALFF and ΔVBM) and Δpain duration were analyzed too. Results: Compared with HZ brains, PHN brains exhibited abnormal ReHo, fALFF and VBM values in pain matrix (the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus, limbic lobe and cerebellum) as well as the occipital lobe and temporal lobe. Nevertheless, the activity of vast area of cerebellum and frontal lobe significantly increased while that of occipital lobe and limbic lobe showed apparent decrease when HZ developed to PHN. In addition, PHN brain showed decreased GMV in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe but increased in the cerebellum and the temporal lobe. Correlation analyses showed that some of the ReHo, fALFF and VBM differential areas (such as the cerebellum posterior lobe, the thalamus extra-nuclear and the middle temporal gyrus) correlated well with Δpain duration. Conclusions: HZ chronification induced functional and structural change in cerebellum, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and limbic lobe

  7. Prospective longitudinal MRI study of brain volumes and diffusion changes during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brezova

    2014-01-01

    Higher ADC values were detected in the cortex in individuals with severe TBI, DAI and PTA > 2 weeks, from 3 months. There were no associations between ADC values and brain volumes, and ADC values did not predict outcome.

  8. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2004-01-01

    .... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The overarching objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  9. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillin, J

    2003-01-01

    ..... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  10. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D 2/3 receptors (D 2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D 2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the VS. With [ 11 C]-raclopride, BP ND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BP ND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D 2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association of Automatically Quantified Total Blood Volume after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, I. A.; Gathier, C. S.; Boers, A. M.; Marquering, H. A.; Slooter, A. J.; Velthuis, B. K.; Coert, B. A.; Verbaan, D.; van den Berg, R.; Rinkel, G. J.; Majoie, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of extravasated blood after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, assessed with semiquantitative methods such as the modified Fisher and Hijdra scales, is known to be a predictor of delayed cerebral ischemia. However, prediction rates of delayed cerebral ischemia are moderate, which

  12. Paid to Perform: Aligning Total Military Compensation With Talent Management. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    study upon which a wider compensation model can be built, we propose a system that thoughtfully integrates rede - signed basic pays and pensions...Taken together, these basic pay and pension rede - sign components will create a far more cost-effective total compensation system than the one

  13. Volume versus wiring transmission in the brain: a new theoretical frame for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, L F; Bjelke, B; Fuxe, K

    1995-01-01

    A volume transmission mode of communication in brain was implicit already in the early work of Golgi, who postulated the existence of electrical signals in the extracellular fluid (ECF) based on Volta's "wet conductor" made by solutions. The term volume transmission is taken from the term volume conduction describing the flow of ionic currents in the ECF as a basis for the electrocorticogram. The slow VT mode includes also chemical signals and is opposed to the fast synaptic (wiring) transmission. Every neuron may function in a dual mode, the synaptic and the volume transmission mode, when considering the autocrine and synaptic classes of communication. The paracrine- and neuroendocrine-like classes only involve the VT mode in the latter case including the CSF as a route. The chemical signals for VT are the neuropeptides, but also the classical transmitters, the monoamines, acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate can participate, when they operate via slow, high affinity G protein coupled receptors. Ions such as K+, Ca++, and H+ also function as VT signals. The hypothesis is also introduced that CO2 can act as a multifacit long-distance VT and WT regulator besides being part of the CO2/HCO3 buffer. CO2 via regulating NMDA receptor sensitivity can also regulate NO formation, which represents a paracrine and fast VT signal. The therapy of CNS disorders is also discussed in the frame of the wiring and VT concept. Two therapeutical approaches can therefore be developed, one based on increasing WT and one based on increasing VT. In contrast to the WT therapy, which must preserve the electrotemporal code, the VT therapy can operate also with postsynaptic agonists. Therefore, a therapeutic effect with such a drug indicates that the deficiency in the communication process operates via VT. In view of the lack of very effective negative feedbacks in VT vs. WT, VT therapy may produce less tolerance and drug dependency.

  14. A longitudinal analysis of regional brain volumes in macaques exposed to X-irradiation in early gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Aldridge

    Full Text Available Early gestation represents a period of vulnerability to environmental insult that has been associated with adult psychiatric disease. However, little is known about how prenatal perturbation translates into adult brain dysfunction. Here, we use a longitudinal study design to examine the effects of disruption of early gestational neurogenesis on brain volume in the non-human primate.Five Rhesus macaques were exposed to x-irradiation in early gestation (E30-E41, and four control monkeys were sham-irradiated at comparable ages. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 6 months, 12 months, and 3 and 5 years of age. Volumes of whole cerebrum, cortical gray matter, caudate, putamen, and thalamus were estimated using semi-automated segmentation methods and high dimensional brain mapping. Volume reductions spanning all ages were observed in irradiated monkeys in the putamen (15-24%, p = 0.01 and in cortical gray matter (6-15%, p = 0.01. Upon covarying for whole cerebral volume, group differences were reduced to trend levels (putamen: p = 0.07; cortical gray matter: p = 0.08. No group-by-age effects were significant.Due to the small number of observations, the conclusions drawn from this study must be viewed as tentative. Early gestational irradiation may result in non-uniform reduction of gray matter, mainly affecting the putamen and cerebral cortex. This may be relevant to understanding how early prenatal environmental insult could lead to brain morphological differences in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  15. Quantified measurement of brain blood volume: comparative evaluations between the single photon emission computer tomography and the positron computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvard, G.; Fernandez, Y.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Derlon, J.M.; Travere, J.M.; Le Poec, C.

    1991-01-01

    The quantified measurement of cerebral blood volume is interesting for the brain blood circulation studies. This measurement is often used in positron computed tomography. It's more difficult in single photon emission computed tomography: there are physical problems with the limited resolution of the detector, the Compton effect and the photon attenuation. The objectif of this study is to compare the results between these two techniques. The quantified measurement of brain blood volume is possible with the single photon emission computer tomogragry. However, there is a loss of contrast [fr

  16. Electrical stunning and exsanguination decrease the extracellular volume in the broiler brain as studied with brain impedance recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Pieterse, C; Korf, J

    Electrical stunning in the process of slaughtering poultry is used to induce unconsciousness and immobilize the animal for easier processing. Unconsciousness is a function of brain damage. Brain damage has been studied with brain impedance recordings under ischemic conditions. This experiment

  17. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  18. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  19. Brain-volume changes in young and middle-aged smokers: a DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Jiang, Tao; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Shuangkun; Xiao, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have reported brain volume changes in smokers. However, the volume differences of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in young and middle-aged male smokers with different lifetime tobacco consumption (pack-years) remain uncertain. To examine the brain volume change, especially whether more pack-years smoking would be associated with smaller gray matter and white matter volume in young and middle-aged male smokers. We used a 3T MR scanner and performed Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL)-based voxel-based morphometry on 53 long-term male smokers (30.72 ± 4.19 years) and 53 male healthy non-smokers (30.83 ± 5.18 years). We separated smokers to light and heavy smokers by pack-years and compared brain volume between different smoker groups and non-smokers. And then we did analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) between smokers and non-smokers by setting pack-years as covariates. Light and heavy smokers all displayed smaller GM and WM volume than non-smokers and more obviously in heavy smokers. The main smaller areas in light and heavy smokers were superior temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus in GM and posterior cingulate, thalamus and midbrain in WM, in addition, we also observed more pack-years smoking was associated with some certain smaller GM and WM volumes by ANCOVA. Young and middle-aged male smokers had many smaller brain areas than non-smokers. Some of these areas' volume had negative correlation with pack-years, while some had not. These may due to different pathophysiological role of smokings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  1. An image-based model of brain volume biomarker changes in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Peter A; Young, Alexandra L; Oxtoby, Neil P; Marinescu, Razvan V; Firth, Nicholas C; Johnson, Eileanoir B; Mohan, Amrita; Sampaio, Cristina; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Alexander, Daniel C

    2018-05-01

    Determining the sequence in which Huntington's disease biomarkers become abnormal can provide important insights into the disease progression and a quantitative tool for patient stratification. Here, we construct and present a uniquely fine-grained model of temporal progression of Huntington's disease from premanifest through to manifest stages. We employ a probabilistic event-based model to determine the sequence of appearance of atrophy in brain volumes, learned from structural MRI in the Track-HD study, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in the ordering. We use longitudinal and phenotypic data to demonstrate the utility of the patient staging system that the resulting model provides. The model recovers the following order of detectable changes in brain region volumes: putamen, caudate, pallidum, insula white matter, nonventricular cerebrospinal fluid, amygdala, optic chiasm, third ventricle, posterior insula, and basal forebrain. This ordering is mostly preserved even under cross-validation of the uncertainty in the event sequence. Longitudinal analysis performed using 6 years of follow-up data from baseline confirms efficacy of the model, as subjects consistently move to later stages with time, and significant correlations are observed between the estimated stages and nonimaging phenotypic markers. We used a data-driven method to provide new insight into Huntington's disease progression as well as new power to stage and predict conversion. Our results highlight the potential of disease progression models, such as the event-based model, to provide new insight into Huntington's disease progression and to support fine-grained patient stratification for future precision medicine in Huntington's disease.

  2. Hippocampal dose volume histogram predicts Hopkins Verbal Learning Test scores after brain irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Okoukoni, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive decline is relatively common after treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, identifying dosimetric parameters that are predictive of radiation-induced cognitive decline is difficult due to the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. The memory function is especially susceptible to radiation effects after treatment. The objective of this study is to correlate volumetric radiation doses received by critical neuroanatomic structures to post–radiation therapy (RT memory impairment. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2011, 53 patients with primary brain malignancies were treated with conventionally fractionated RT in prospectively accrued clinical trials performed at our institution. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the hippocampus, parahippocampus, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores were obtained at least 6 months after RT. Impairment was defined as an immediate recall score ≤15. For each anatomic region, serial regression was performed to correlate volume receiving a given dose (VD(Gy with memory impairment. Results: Hippocampal V53.4Gy to V60.9Gy significantly predicted post-RT memory impairment (P < .05. Within this range, the hippocampal V55Gy was the most significant predictor (P = .004. Hippocampal V55Gy of 0%, 25%, and 50% was associated with tumor-induced impairment rates of 14.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-28.7%, 45.9% (95% CI, 24.7%-68.6%, and 80.6% (95% CI, 39.2%-96.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The hippocampal V55Gy is a significant predictor for impairment, and a limiting dose below 55 Gy may minimize radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  3. MR-based automatic delineation of volumes of interest in human brain PET images using probability maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karina; Hasselbalch, Steen G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observer-independent approach for automatic generation of volume-of-interest (VOI) brain templates to be used in emission tomography studies of the brain. The method utilizes a VOI probability map created on the basis of a database of several...... delineation of the VOI set. The approach was also shown to work equally well in individuals with pronounced cerebral atrophy. Probability-map-based automatic delineation of VOIs is a fast, objective, reproducible, and safe way to assess regional brain values from PET or SPECT scans. In addition, the method...

  4. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  5. Chronic multisite brain recordings from a totally implantable bidirectional neural interface: experience in 5 patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Nicole C; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Qasim, Salman; Ostrem, Jill L; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; Luciano, Marta San; Wang, Sarah S; Ziman, Nathan; Taylor, Robin; Starr, Philip A

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction of distributed neural networks underlies many brain disorders. The development of neuromodulation therapies depends on a better understanding of these networks. Invasive human brain recordings have a favorable temporal and spatial resolution for the analysis of network phenomena but have generally been limited to acute intraoperative recording or short-term recording through temporarily externalized leads. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with an investigational, first-generation, totally implantable, bidirectional neural interface that allows both continuous therapeutic stimulation and recording of field potentials at multiple sites in a neural network. METHODS Under a physician-sponsored US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption, 5 patients with Parkinson's disease were implanted with the Activa PC+S system (Medtronic Inc.). The device was attached to a quadripolar lead placed in the subdural space over motor cortex, for electrocorticography potential recordings, and to a quadripolar lead in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), for both therapeutic stimulation and recording of local field potentials. Recordings from the brain of each patient were performed at multiple time points over a 1-year period. RESULTS There were no serious surgical complications or interruptions in deep brain stimulation therapy. Signals in both the cortex and the STN were relatively stable over time, despite a gradual increase in electrode impedance. Canonical movement-related changes in specific frequency bands in the motor cortex were identified in most but not all recordings. CONCLUSIONS The acquisition of chronic multisite field potentials in humans is feasible. The device performance characteristics described here may inform the design of the next generation of totally implantable neural interfaces. This research tool provides a platform for translating discoveries in brain network dynamics to improved neurostimulation

  6. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  7. MRI assessment of cerebral blood volume in patients with brain infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.H.; Bruening, R.; Berchtenbreiter, C.; Weber, J.; Peller, M.; Penzkofer, H.; Reiser, M.; Steiger, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    MRI perfusion studies have focussed mainly on acute ischaemia and characterisation in ischaemia. Our purpose was to analyse regional brain haemodynamic information in acute, subacute, and chronic ischaemia. We performed 16 examinations of 11 patients on a 1.5 T MR images. Conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were employed in all examinations. For the dynamic susceptibility sequences, a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg) of gadopentetate dimeglumine was injected. Reconstructed regional relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps, bolus maps, and conventional images were analysed by consensus reading. In all examinations decreases in rCBV were observed in the lesions. The distribution of regional rCBV in lesions was heterogeneous. The rCBV of the periphery of the lesions was higher than that at their center. There was a correlation between the time since onset and abnormalities on the rCBV map and T2-weighted images (T2WI). In the early stage of acute stroke, the abnormalities tended to be larger on the rCBV than on T2WI. Many patterns of bolus passage were observed in ischaemic regions. rCBV maps provide additional haemodynamic information in patients with brain infarcts. (orig.)

  8. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  9. Aberrant paramagnetic signals outside the tumor volume on routine surveillance MRI of brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Inbar, Edna; Michaeli, Natalia; Limon, Dror; Siegal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    Late complications of cerebral radiation therapy (RT) involve vascular injury with acquired cavernous malformation, telangiectasias and damage to vascular walls which are well recognized in children. Its incidence in adults is unknown. Blood products and iron deposition that accompany vascular injury create paramagnetic effects on MRI. This study retrospectively investigated the frequency of paramagnetic lesions on routine surveillance MRI of adult brain tumor patients. MRI studies of 115 brain tumor patients were reviewed. Only studies containing sequences of either susceptibility weighted images or gradient echo or blood oxygenation level dependent imaging were included. Lesions inside the tumor volume were not considered. 68 studies fulfilled the above criteria and included 48 patients with previous RT (35 followed for >2 years and 13 for 1 year) and 20 patients who were not treated with RT. The median age at time of irradiation was 47 years. Aberrant paramagnetic lesions were found in 23/35 (65%) patients followed for >2 years after RT and in only 1/13 (8%) patients followed for 1-year after radiation (p = 0.03). The 1-year follow-up group did not differ from the control group [2/20 (9%)]. Most lesions were within the radiation field and none of the patients had related symptomatology. The number and incidence of these lesions increased with time and amounted to 75% over 3 years post RT. MRI paramagnetic signal aberrations are common findings in adult brain tumor patients that evolve over time after RT. The clinical significance of these lesions needs further investigation.

  10. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  11. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56–63° N. The mean total age was 40 ± 13 (range 17–91 years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 15 ± 4 (range 5–27 cm and the mean density was 1621 ± 902 (range 100–7600 stems ha−1. The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchantable volume equations for the estimation of commercial volume for any top diameter and bole length were developed. Soil types in the stands were sediments (coarse sand, fine sand and silt and heavy, medium and light clay, tills (sandy, fine sandy and silty and peat. The standing volume was calculated; the mean was 253 ± 103 (range 26–507 m3 ha−1 with a MAI (mean annual increment of 6.9±3.5 (range 1.3–16.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. There were statistically significant differences between MAI and coarse sand, sand and silt, light clay, peat and silty till soils. Spruce stands growing on silty tills had the lowest MAI (4.94 ± 2.27 m3 ha−1 year−1 and light clay, fine sand and silt and peat the highest (7.62 ± 4.24, 7.46 ± 3.33 and 8.67 ± 2.83 m3 ha−1 year−1.

  12. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  13. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  14. Relationships between sleep quality and brain volume, metabolism, and amyloid deposition in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, Pierre; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Tomadesso, Clémence; Mézenge, Florence; André, Claire; de Flores, Robin; Mutlu, Justine; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël; Rauchs, Géraldine

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in humans suggest that sleep disruption and amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation are interrelated, and may, thus, exacerbate each other. We investigated the association between self-reported sleep variables and neuroimaging data in 51 healthy older adults. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sleep quality and quantity and underwent positron emission tomography scans using [18F]florbetapir and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and an magnetic resonance imaging scan to measure Aβ burden, hypometabolism, and atrophy, respectively. Longer sleep latency was associated with greater Aβ burden in prefrontal areas. Moreover, the number of nocturnal awakenings was negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the insular region. In asymptomatic middle-aged and older adults, lower self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater Aβ burden and lower volume in brain areas relevant in aging and AD, but not with glucose metabolism. These results highlight the potential relevance of preserving sleep quality in older adults and suggest that sleep may be a factor to screen for in individuals at risk for AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  16. A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitating total and unbound ceritinib in patient plasma and brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Bao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive, and robust reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of total and unbound ceritinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, in patient plasma and brain tumor tissue samples. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column using a 4-min gradient elution consisting of mobile phase A (0.1% formic acid in water and mobile phase B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Ceritinib and the internal standard ([13C6]ceritinib were monitored using multiple reaction monitoring mode under positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ was 1 nM of ceritinib in plasma. The calibration curve was linear over ceritinib concentration range of 1–2000 nM in plasma. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (<15%. The method was successfully applied to assess ceritinib brain tumor penetration, as assessed by the unbound drug brain concentration to unbound drug plasma concentration ratio, in patients with brain tumors.

  17. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  18. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baaré, Wim F C; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C

    2003-04-01

    We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed) are also related to gray and white matter volume, and whether any of the dimensions are related to cerebellar volume. Two overlapping samples provided 135 subjects from 60 extended twin families for whom both MRI scans and WAIS III data were available. All three brain volumes are related to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related to cerebellar volume. Verbal Comprehension was not related to any of the three brain volumes. It is concluded that brain volumes are genetically related to intelligence which suggests that genes that influence brain volume may also be important for intelligence. It is also noted however, that the direction of causation (i.e., do genes influence brain volume which in turn influences intelligence, or alternatively, do genes influence intelligence which in turn influences brain volume), or the presence or absence of pleiotropy has not been resolved yet.

  19. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain Volumes at Term-Equivalent Age in Preterm Infants : Imaging Biomarkers for Neurodevelopmental Outcome through Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin; Išgum, Ivana; van Kooij, Britt J M; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; van Stam, Petronella C; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between brain volumes at term and neurodevelopmental outcome through early school age in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred twelve preterm infants (born mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.7 weeks) were studied prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging

  1. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  2. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O

    1991-01-01

    The use of morphometry and modern stereology in malignancy grading of brain tumors is only poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to present these quantitative methods. A retrospective feasibility study of 46 patients with supratentorial brain tumors was carried out to demonstrate...... the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...... nuclear profile area, than those of anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 13) (2p = 3.1.10(-3) and 2p = 4.8.10(-3), respectively). No differences were seen between the latter type of tumor and glioblastomas (n = 19). The nuclear index was of the same magnitude in all three tumor types, whereas the mitotic index...

  4. Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jun; Chen, Wei-jian; Wang, Mei-hao; Li, Jian-ce; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Neng-zhi; Yang, Yun-jun; Wu, Gui-yun; Cheng, Jing-liang; Zhang, Yong; Zhuge, Qichuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). We investigated 62 of 156 patients with unilateral supratentorial SICH using 320-detector row CT scanning. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time to peak (rTTP) levels were measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually outlined on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for the cerebrum, including normal-appearing brain tissue that surrounded the perilesional low-density area (NA) and the perihematomal low-density area (PA) in all patients and the cerebellum (ipsilateral and contralateral) in CCD-positive patients. Of 62 cases, a total of 14 met the criteria for CCD due to cerebellar perfusion asymmetry on CTP maps. In the quantitative analysis, significant differences were found in the perfusion parameters between the contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum in CCD-positive cases. No significant differences were found between the CCD-positive group and the CCD-negative group according to the hematoma volume, NIHSS scores, and cerebral perfusion abnormality (each P > 0.05). The correlation analysis of the degree of NA, PA perfusion abnormality, and the degree of CCD severity showed negative and significant linear correlations (R, -0.66∝-0.56; P < 0.05). 320-detector row CT is a robust and practicable method for the comprehensive primary imaging work-up of CCD in unilateral supratentorial SICH patients. (orig.)

  5. Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jun; Chen, Wei-jian; Wang, Mei-hao; Li, Jian-ce; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Neng-zhi; Yang, Yun-jun [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China); Wu, Gui-yun [Cleveland Clinics Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cheng, Jing-liang; Zhang, Yong [Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhuge, Qichuan [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). We investigated 62 of 156 patients with unilateral supratentorial SICH using 320-detector row CT scanning. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time to peak (rTTP) levels were measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually outlined on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for the cerebrum, including normal-appearing brain tissue that surrounded the perilesional low-density area (NA) and the perihematomal low-density area (PA) in all patients and the cerebellum (ipsilateral and contralateral) in CCD-positive patients. Of 62 cases, a total of 14 met the criteria for CCD due to cerebellar perfusion asymmetry on CTP maps. In the quantitative analysis, significant differences were found in the perfusion parameters between the contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum in CCD-positive cases. No significant differences were found between the CCD-positive group and the CCD-negative group according to the hematoma volume, NIHSS scores, and cerebral perfusion abnormality (each P > 0.05). The correlation analysis of the degree of NA, PA perfusion abnormality, and the degree of CCD severity showed negative and significant linear correlations (R, -0.66∝-0.56; P < 0.05). 320-detector row CT is a robust and practicable method for the comprehensive primary imaging work-up of CCD in unilateral supratentorial SICH patients. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI for combined imaging of blood-brain barrier break down and increased blood volume in brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Chan, Kannie W Y; Knutsson, Linda; Artemov, Dmitri; Xu, Jiadi; Liu, Guanshu; Kato, Yoshinori; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2015-12-01

    Recently, natural d-glucose was suggested as a potential biodegradable contrast agent. The feasibility of using d-glucose for dynamic perfusion imaging was explored to detect malignant brain tumors based on blood brain barrier breakdown. Mice were inoculated orthotopically with human U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells. Time-resolved glucose signal changes were detected using chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) MRI. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI was used to measure tissue response to an intravenous bolus of d-glucose. DGE images of mouse brains bearing human glioma showed two times higher and persistent changes in tumor compared with contralateral brain. Area-under-curve (AUC) analysis of DGE delineated blood vessels and tumor and had contrast comparable to the AUC determined using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI with GdDTPA, both showing a significantly higher AUC in tumor than in brain (P blood volume and permeability with respect to normal brain. We expect DGE will provide a low-risk and less expensive alternative to DCE MRI for imaging cancer in vulnerable populations, such as children and patients with renal impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dynamic Glucose Enhanced (DGE) MRI for Combined Imaging of Blood Brain Barrier Break Down and Increased Blood Volume in Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Chan, Kannie WY; Knutsson, Linda; Artemov, Dmitri; Xu, Jiadi; Liu, Guanshu; Kato, Yoshinori; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently, natural d-glucose was suggested as a potential biodegradable contrast agent. The feasibility of using d-glucose for dynamic perfusion imaging was explored to detect malignant brain tumors based on blood brain barrier breakdown. Methods Mice were inoculated orthotopically with human U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells. Time-resolved glucose signal changes were detected using chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) MRI. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI was used to measure tissue response to an intravenous bolus of d-glucose. Results DGE images of mouse brains bearing human glioma showed two times higher and persistent changes in tumor compared to contralateral brain. Area-under-curve (AUC) analysis of DGE delineated blood vessels and tumor and had contrast comparable to the AUC determined using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI with GdDTPA, both showing a significantly higher AUC in tumor than in brain (pblood volume and permeability with respect to normal brain. We expect DGE will provide a low-risk and less expensive alternative to DCE MRI for imaging cancer in vulnerable populations, such as children and patients with renal impairment. PMID:26404120

  8. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  9. Assessment of in vivo MR imaging compared to physical sections in vitro-A quantitative study of brain volumes using stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Rostrup, Egill; Markenroth, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to compare stereological estimates of brain volumes obtained in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to corresponding volumes from physical sections in vitro. Brains of ten domestic pigs were imaged using a 3-T scanner. The volumes of different brain....... However, although intraobserver difference of MRI estimates was acceptable, the interobserver difference was not. A statistical highly significant difference of 11-41% was observed between observers for volume estimates of all compartments considered. The study demonstrates that quantitative MRI...

  10. Increased total-Tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric hydrocephalus and brain tumor patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Judith M.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Reddingius, Roel E.; Pieters, Rob; van Gool, Stefdan W.

    Total Tau (t-Tau), hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau((181P))) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have shown to be markers of neuronal and axonal degeneration in various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the presence of

  11. Visual-motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolk, Jenny; Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-02-17

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Out of 107 children born at gestational age skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=-0.38, P=0.04). Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Visual–motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual–motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Setting Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. Participants All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004–2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Main outcome measures Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration—sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Results Out of 107 children born at gestational age motor skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=−0.38, P=0.04). Conclusions Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. PMID:29455171

  13. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-08-18

    Reference tissue-based quantification of brain PET data does not typically include correction for signal originating from blood vessels, which is known to result in biased outcome measures. The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs) that are corrected for the signal originating from the vasculature. New expressions for the Logan plot based on arterial input function and reference tissue were derived, which included explicit terms for whole blood radioactivity. The new methods were evaluated using PET data acquired using [ 11 C]raclopride and [ 18 F]MNI-659. The two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), with which signal originating from blood can be explicitly modeled, was used as a gold standard. DVR values obtained for [ 11 C]raclopride using the either blood-based or reference tissue-based Logan plot were systematically underestimated compared to 2TCM, and for [ 18 F]MNI-659, a proportionality bias was observed, i.e., the bias varied across regions. The biases disappeared when optimal blood-signal correction was used for respective tracer, although for the case of [ 18 F]MNI-659 a small but systematic overestimation of DVR was still observed. The new method appears to remove the bias introduced due to absence of correction for blood volume in regular graphical analysis and can be considered in clinical studies. Further studies are however required to derive a generic mapping between plasma and whole-blood radioactivity levels.

  14. Elemental concentration analysis in the brain of young and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Carmo, Maria G.T. do; Rocha, Monica S.; Moreira, Silvana; Martinez, Ana M.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that aging is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The aging process of human brain is characterized by progressive neuronal loss. Furthermore, certain brain areas are more vulnerable to neuronal degeneration than others, reflecting an altered resistance to stress of the tissue itself and/or the lack of adequate immunological defense mechanisms in these regions. About the elemental levels in the brain, it is known that the excess ou deficiency of some elements are toxic for human healthy, being also related to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this way, the main goal of this work was to determine the elemental concentration in the hippocampus of young and old male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). These measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. About the results, we could observe that Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old female rats than the young ones. On the other hand, only Cu levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old male rats than the young ones. Therefore, the aging of the hippocampus of the female rats can be characterized by an accumulate for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br. The excess in these elements levels are also associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer' disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. (author)

  15. Volume changes of whole brain gray matter in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yue; Peng Yun; Gao Peiyi; Nie Binbin; Lu Chuankai; Zhang Liping; Ji Zhiying; Yin Guangheng; Yu Tong; Shan Baoci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the related abnormalities of gray matter in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) by using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Three dimensional T 1 WI was acquired in 31 TS children (28 boys, 3 girts, mean age 8 years, range 4-15 years) and 50 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla Philips scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using a version of VBM 2 in SPM 2. The whole brain gray matter volume was compared between the study and control group by using t-test. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used for analyzing the correlation between the change of grey matter volume within each brain region (mm 3 ) and YGTSS score and course of disease of TS patients. Statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 13.0. Results: Using VBM, significant increases in gray matter volumes in left superior parietal lobule, right cerebellar hemisphere and left parahippocampal gyrus were detected in TS patients, and the volume changes were 4059, 2126 and 84 mm 3 (t=3.93, 3.71, 3.58, P<0.05) respectively. Compared to the control group, decreased grey matter volumes were found in medulla and left pons, and the volume changes were 213 and 117 mm 3 (t=3.53, 3.48, P<0.05)respectively. Tic severity was not correlated with any volume changes of gray matter in brain (P>0.05, a small volume correction, KE ≥ 10 voxel). Tic course was negatively correlated with the gray matter volume of left parahippocampal gyrus (Beta =-0.391, P=0.039). Conclusions: Using VBM technique, the gray matter abnormalities can be revealed in TS patients without obvious lesions on conventional MR imaging. The increasing volume of temporal and parietal lobes and cerebellar may be an adaptive anatomical change in response to experiential demand. The gray matter volume of the parahippocampal gyrus may be used as one potential objective index for evaluating the prognosis of TS. (authors)

  16. Early Expansion of the Intracranial CSF Volume After Palliative Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: Results of a Longitudinal CT Segmentation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, Paul; Gardner, Sandra L.; Scora, Daryl; Davey, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess cerebral atrophy after radiotherapy, we measured intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume (ICSFV) over time after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and compared it with published normal-population data. Methods and Materials: We identified 9 patients receiving a single course of WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) for ipsilateral brain metastases with at least 3 years of computed tomography follow-up. Segmentation analysis was confined to the tumor-free hemi-cranium. The technique was semiautomated by use of thresholds based on scanned image intensity. The ICSFV percentage (ratio of ICSFV to brain volume) was used for modeling purposes. Published normal-population ICSFV percentages as a function of age were used as a control. A repeated-measures model with cross-sectional (between individuals) and longitudinal (within individuals) quadratic components was fitted to the collected data. The influence of clinical factors including the use of subependymal plate shielding was studied. Results: The median imaging follow-up was 6.25 years. There was an immediate increase (p < 0.0001) in ICSFV percentage, which decelerated over time. The clinical factors studied had no significant effect on the model. Conclusions: WBRT immediately accelerates the rate of brain atrophy. This longitudinal study in patients with brain metastases provides a baseline against which the potential benefits of more localized radiotherapeutic techniques such as radiosurgery may be compared.

  17. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  18. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin Increase Grey Matter Volume in Older Adults: A Brain Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Weilin; Huang, Jia; Xue, Xiehua; Chen, Xiangli; Wu, Jinsong; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Bai; Li, Ming; Sun, Sharon; Jorgenson, Kristen; Lang, Courtney; Hu, Kun; Chen, Shanjia; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare how 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise can modulate brain structure and memory function in older adults. Magnetic resonance imaging and memory function measurements (Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese revised, WMS-CR) were applied at both the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin could significantly increase grey matter volume (GMV) in the insula, medial temporal lobe, and putamen after 12-weeks of exercise. No significant differences were observed in GMV between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups. We also found that compared to healthy controls, Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin significantly improved visual reproduction subscores on the WMS-CR. Baduanjin also improved mental control, recognition, touch, and comprehension memory subscores of the WMS-CR compared to the control group. Memory quotient and visual reproduction subscores were both associated with GMV increases in the putamen and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise for the prevention of memory deficits in older adults.

  19. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  20. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  2. Optimization of stereotactically-guided conformal treatment planning of sellar and parasellar tumors, based on normal brain dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Julian R.; Jalali, Rakesh; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Shepherd, Stephen F.; Warrington, Alan P.; Brada, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal treatment plan for stereo tactically-guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) of sellar and parasellar lesions, with respect to sparing normal brain tissue, in the context of routine treatment delivery, based on dose volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT) data sets for 8 patients with sellar- and parasellar-based tumors (6 pituitary adenomas and 2 meningiomas) have been used in this study. Treatment plans were prepared for 3-coplanar and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 30-noncoplanar-field arrangements to obtain 95% isodose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) for each plan. Conformal shaping was achieved by customized blocks generated with the beams eye view (BEV) facility. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the normal brain (excluding the PTV), and comparisons made for normal tissue sparing for all treatment plans at ≥80%, ≥60%, and ≥40% of the prescribed dose. Results: The mean volume of normal brain receiving ≥80% and ≥60% of the prescribed dose decreased by 22.3% (range 14.8-35.1%, standard deviation σ = 7.5%) and 47.6% (range 25.8-69.1%, σ 13.2%), respectively, with a 4-field noncoplanar technique when compared with a conventional 3-field coplanar technique. Adding 2 further fields, from 4-noncoplanar to 6-noncoplanar fields reduced the mean normal brain volume receiving ≥80% of the prescribed dose by a further 4.1% (range -6.5-11.8%, σ = 6.4%), and the volume receiving ≥60% by 3.3% (range -5.5-12.2%, σ = 5.4%), neither of which were statistically significant. Each case must be considered individually however, as a wide range is seen in the volume spared when increasing the number of fields from 4 to 6. Comparing the 4- and 6-field noncoplanar techniques to a 30-field conformal field approach (simulating a dynamic arc plan) revealed near-equivalent normal tissue sparing. Conclusion: Four to six widely spaced, fixed-conformal fields provide the optimum class solution

  3. Stereotactic ultrasound for target volume definition in a patient with prostate cancer and bilateral total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Haneder, Stefan; Ehmann, Michael; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wertz, Hansjörg; Mai, Sabine; Kegel, Stefan; Heitmann, Sigrun; von Swietochowski, Sandra; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Target-volume definition for prostate cancer in patients with bilateral metal total hip replacements (THRs) is a challenge because of metal artifacts in the planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for matching and prostate delineation; however, at a spatial and temporal distance from the planning CT, identical rectal and vesical filling is difficult to achieve. In addition, MRI may also be impaired by metal artifacts, even resulting in spatial image distortion. Here, we present a method to define prostate target volumes based on ultrasound images acquired during CT simulation and online-matched to the CT data set directly at the planning CT. A 78-year-old patient with cT2cNxM0 prostate cancer with bilateral metal THRs was referred to external beam radiation therapy. T2-weighted MRI was performed on the day of the planning CT with preparation according to a protocol for reproducible bladder and rectal filling. The planning CT was obtained with the immediate acquisition of a 3-dimensional ultrasound data set with a dedicated stereotactic ultrasound system for online intermodality image matching referenced to the isocenter by ceiling-mounted infrared cameras. MRI (offline) and ultrasound images (online) were thus both matched to the CT images for planning. Daily image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was performed with transabdominal ultrasound and compared with cone beam CT. Because of variations in bladder and rectal filling and metal-induced image distortion in MRI, soft-tissue-based matching of the MRI to CT was not sufficient for unequivocal prostate target definition. Ultrasound-based images could be matched, and prostate, seminal vesicles, and target volumes were reliably defined. Daily IGRT could be successfully completed with transabdominal ultrasound with good accordance between cone beam CT and ultrasound. For prostate cancer patients with bilateral THRs causing artifacts in planning CTs, ultrasound referenced to

  4. Brain volume in male patients with recent onset schizophrenia with and without cannabis use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, L.; Machielsen, M.W.; van der Meer, F.J.; van Gasselt, A.C.; Meijer, C.J.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.W.; Caan, M.W.; Cousijn, J.; den Braber, A.; van 't Ent, D.; Rive, M.M.; Schene, A.H.; van de Giessen, E.; Huyser, C.; de Kwaasteniet, B.P.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), and this comorbidity is associated with an unfavourable course. Early onset or frequent cannabis use may influence brain structure. A key question is whether comorbid CUDs modulate brain morphology alterations

  5. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  6. Correspondence Between Aberrant Intrinsic Network Connectivity and Gray-Matter Volume in the Ventral Brain of Preterm Born Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Josef G; Daamen, Marcel; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Scheef, Lukas; Jaekel, Julia; Busch, Barbara; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Boecker, Henning; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Widespread brain changes are present in preterm born infants, adolescents, and even adults. While neurobiological models of prematurity facilitate powerful explanations for the adverse effects of preterm birth on the developing brain at microscale, convincing linking principles at large-scale level to explain the widespread nature of brain changes are still missing. We investigated effects of preterm birth on the brain's large-scale intrinsic networks and their relation to brain structure in preterm born adults. In 95 preterm and 83 full-term born adults, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging at-rest was used to analyze both voxel-based morphometry and spatial patterns of functional connectivity in ongoing blood oxygenation level-dependent activity. Differences in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) were found in cortical and subcortical networks. Structural differences were located in subcortical, temporal, and cingulate areas. Critically, for preterm born adults, iFC-network differences were overlapping and correlating with aberrant regional gray-matter (GM) volume specifically in subcortical and temporal areas. Overlapping changes were predicted by prematurity and in particular by neonatal medical complications. These results provide evidence that preterm birth has long-lasting effects on functional connectivity of intrinsic networks, and these changes are specifically related to structural alterations in ventral brain GM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Volume transmission and receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes: understanding the role of new concepts for brain communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Fuxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the central monoamine neurons not only demonstrated novel types of brain stem neurons forming global terminal networks all over the brain and the spinal cord, but also to a novel type of communication called volume transmission. It is a major mode of communication in the central nervous system that takes places in the extracellular fluid and the cerebral spinal fluid through diffusion and flow of molecules, like neurotransmitters and extracellular vesicles. The integration of synaptic and volume transmission takes place through allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes. These heterocomplexes represent major integrator centres in the plasma membrane and their protomers act as moonlighting proteins undergoing dynamic changes and their structure and function. In fact, we propose that the molecular bases of learning and memory can be based on the reorganization of multiples homo and heteroreceptor complexes into novel assembles in the post-junctional membranes of synapses.

  8. Time-delayed contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of brain metastases and apparent treatment volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnirsky, Marina; Nguyen, Vinh; Katz, Joel S; Steinklein, Jared; Rosen, Lisa; Warshall, Craig; Schulder, Michael; Knisely, Jonathan P S

    2016-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is the preeminent diagnostic test for brain metastasis (BM). Detection of BMs for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning may improve with a time delay following administration of a high-relaxivity agent for 1.5-T and 3-T imaging systems. Metastasis detection with time-delayed MRI was evaluated in this study. Fifty-three volumetric MRI studies from 38 patients undergoing SRS for BMs were evaluated. All studies used 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics) immediately after injection, followed by 2 more axial T1-weighted sequences after 5-minute intervals (final image acquisition commenced 15 minutes after contrast injection). Two studies were motion limited and excluded. Two hundred eighty-seven BMs were identified. The studies were randomized and examined separately by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the temporal sequence. Each radiologist recorded the number of BMs detected per scan. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared BM numbers between scans. One radiologist determined the scan on which BMs were best defined. All confirmed, visible tumors were contoured using iPlan RT treatment planning software on each of the 3 MRI data sets. A linear mixed model was used to analyze volume changes. The interclass correlations for Scans 1, 2, and 3 were 0.7392, 0.7951, and 0.7290, respectively, demonstrating excellent interrater reliability. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the second scan as compared with the first in 35.3% of subjects (95% CI 22.4%-49.9%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 1 and 2 ranged from 1 to 10. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the third scan as compared with the second in 21.6% of subjects (95% CI 11.3%-35.3%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 2 and 3 ranged from 1 to 9. Between Scans 1 and 3, additional tumors were seen on 43.1% of scans (increase ranged from 1 to 14). The median increase in tumor number for all comparisons was 1. There was a significant increase in number

  9. Whole-brain perfusion CT using a toggling table technique to predict final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, I; Wilk, D; Jansen, O; Riedel, C

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate how accurately final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke can be predicted with perfusion CT (PCT) using a 64-MDCT unit and the toggling table technique. Retrospective analysis of 89 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent CCT, CT angiography (CTA) and PCT using the "toggling table" technique within the first three hours after symptom onset. In patients with successful thrombolytic therapy (n = 48) and in those without effective thrombolytic therapy (n = 41), the infarct volume and the volume of the penumbra on PCT were compared to the infarct size on follow-up images (CT or MRI) performed within 8 days. The feasibility of complete infarct volume prediction by 8 cm cranio-caudal coverage was evaluated. The correlation between the volume of hypoperfusion on PCT defined by cerebral blood volume reduction and final infarct volume was strongest in patients with successful thrombolytic therapy with underestimation of the definite infarct volume by 8.5 ml on average. The CBV map had the greatest prognostic value. In patients without successful thrombolytic therapy, the final infarct volume was overestimated by 12.1 ml compared to the MTT map on PCT. All infarcts were detected completely. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. Using PCT and the "toggling table" technique in acute stroke patients is helpful for the rapid and accurate quantification of the minimal final infarct and is therefore a prognostic parameter which has to be evaluated in further studies to assess its impact on therapeutic decision. ▶ Using PCT and the “toggling table technique” allows accurate quantification of the infarct core and penumbra. ▶ It is possible to record dynamic perfusion parameters quickly and easily of almost the entire supratentorial brain volume on a 64-slice MDCT unit. ▶ The technique allows identification of those patients who could profit from thrombolytic therapy outside the established time intervals. © Georg Thieme Verlag

  10. Single-slice epicardial fat area measurement. Do we need to measure the total epicardial fat volume?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Noriko; Goto, Daisuke; Ito, Yoichi M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a method for measuring epicardial fat volume (EFV) by means of a single-slice area measurement. We investigated the relation between a single-slice fat area measurement and total EFV. A series of 72 consecutive patients (ages 65±11 years; 36 men) who had undergone cardiac computed tomography (CT) on a 64-slice multidetector scanner with prospective electrocardiographic triggering were retrospectively reviewed. Pixels in the pericardium with a density range from -230 to -30 Hounsfield units were considered fat, giving the per-slice epicardial fat area (EFA). The EFV was estimated by the summation of EFAs multiplied by the slice thickness. We investigated the relation between total EFV and each EFA. EFAs measured at several anatomical landmarks - right pulmonary artery, origins of the left main coronary artery, right coronary artery, coronary sinus - all correlated with the EFV (r=0.77-0.92). The EFA at the LMCA level was highly reproducible and showed an excellent correlation with the EFV (r=0.92). The EFA is significantly correlated with the EFV. The EFA is a simple, quick method for representing the time-consuming EFV, which has been used as a predictive indicator of cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the reconstruction method and effect of partial volume in brain scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Monica Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, on which occurs a progressive and irreversible destruction of neurons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 35.6 million people are living with dementia, being recommended that governments prioritize early diagnosis techniques. Laboratory and psychological tests for cognitive assessment are conducted and further complemented by neurological imaging from nuclear medicine exams in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. The image quality evaluation and reconstruction process effects are important tools in clinical routine. In the present work, these quality parameters were studied, and the effects of partial volume (PVE) for lesions of different sizes and geometries that are attributed to the limited resolution of the equipment. In dementia diagnosis, this effect can be confused with intake losses due to cerebral cortex atrophy. The evaluation was conducted by two phantoms of different shapes as suggested by (a) American College of Radiology (ACR) and (b) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for Contrast, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) and Recovery Coefficient (RC) calculation versus lesions shape and size. Technetium-99m radionuclide was used in a local brain scintigraphy protocol, for proportions lesion to background of 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1 and 10:1. Fourteen reconstruction methods were used for each concentration applying different filters and algorithms. Before the analysis of all image properties, the conclusion is that the predominant effect is the partial volume, leading to errors of measurement of more than 80%. Furthermore, it was demonstrate that the most effective method of reconstruction is FBP with Metz filter, providing better contrast and contrast to noise ratio results. In addition, this method shows the best Recovery Coefficients correction for each lesion. The ACR phantom showed the best results assigned to a more precise reconstruction of a cylinder, which does not

  12. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lauxen Peruzzolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder. We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.

  13. Optimism and the brain: trait optimism mediates the protective role of the orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume against anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; Hu, Yifan; Iordan, Alexandru D; Moore, Matthew; Dolcos, Florin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence identifies trait optimism and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as personality and brain factors influencing anxiety, but the nature of their relationships remains unclear. Here, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of trait optimism and of increased OFC volume against symptoms of anxiety were investigated in 61 healthy subjects, who completed measures of trait optimism and anxiety, and underwent structural scanning using magnetic resonance imaging. First, the OFC gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with increased optimism, which in turn was associated with reduced anxiety. Second, trait optimism mediated the relation between the left OFC volume and anxiety, thus demonstrating that increased GMV in this brain region protects against symptoms of anxiety through increased optimism. These results provide novel evidence about the brain-personality mechanisms protecting against anxiety symptoms in healthy functioning, and identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing susceptibility and increasing resilience against emotional disturbances. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Age and total and free prostate-specific antigen levels for predicting prostate volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Soner; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Keles, Ibrahim; Demirci, Hakan; Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Karalar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the predictive values of free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), total PSA (tPSA) and age on the prostate volume. The data of 2148 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had transrectal ultrasonography guided 10 core biopsies owing to the findings obtained on digital rectal examination and presence of high PSA levels (PSA = 2.5-10 ng/dl), and proven to have BPH histopathologically were included in the study. Age, tPSA, fPSA and the prostate volumes (PV) of the patients were noted. One thousand patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The PV of the patients were significantly correlated with age, tPSA and fPSA (p < 0.001 and r = 0.307, p < 0.001 and r = 0.382, p < 0.001 and r = 0.296, respectively). On linear regression model, fPSA was found as a stronger predictive for PV (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.001) when compared to age (AUC = 0.64, p < 0.001), and tPSA (AUC = 0.69, p = 0.013). Although tPSA is an important prognostic factor for predicting PV, the predictive value of fPSA is higher. PV can easily be predicted by using age, and serum tPSA and fPSA levels.

  15. Association Between Provider Volume and Comorbidity on Hospital Utilization and Outcomes of Total Hip Arthroplasty Among National Health Insurance Enrollees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shih Huang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that the volume of THAs performed by individual surgeons was a more important determinant of hospital utilization than hospital volume. Perioperative adverse events were associated with patients' age and comorbidity.

  16. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cerebral volumes, neuronal integrity and brain inflammation measured by MRI in patients receiving PI monotherapy or triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Ignacio Pérez; Baeza, Alicia Gonzalez; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Monge, Susana; Arnalich, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Penetration of protease inhibitors (PI) in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited. Therefore, there are concerns about the capacity of PI monotherapy (MT) to control HIV in CNS and preserve brain integrity. Exploratory case-control study designed to compare neuronal integrity and brain inflammation in HIV-suppressed patients (>2 years) with and without neurocognitive impairment (NI), treated with MT or triple therapy (TT), 3-Tesla cerebral magnetic resonance image (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate neuronal integrity (volume of cerebral structures and MRS levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)) and brain inflammation (MRS levels of myo-inositol (MI) and choline (CHO)). MRS biomarkers were measured in 4 voxels located in basal ganglia, frontal (2) and parietal lobes. A comprehensive battery of tests (14 tests - 7 domains) was used to diagnose neurocognitive impairment (1). We included 18 neurocognitively impaired patients (MT: 10, TT: 8) and 21 without NI (MT: 9; TT: 12, Table 1). Subset of patients with NI: cerebral volumes and MRS biomarkers were mostly similar between MT and TT with exception of the right cingulate nucleolus volume (MT: 8854±1851 vs TT: 10482±1107 mm(3); p<0.04), CHO levels in basal ganglia (MT: 0.44±0.05 vs TT: 0.37±0.03 MMOL/L; p<0.01) and the NAA levels in parietal lobe (MT: 1.49±0.12 vs 1.70±0.13 MMOL/L; p<0.01). Subset of patients without NI: cerebral volumes and MRS biomarkers were mostly similar between MT and TT with exception of MI levels in frontal lobe (MT: 1.20±0.36 vs 0.81±0.25 MMOL/L; p=0.01). We did not find significant differences in cerebral volumes or MRS biomarkers in most areas of the brain. However, we found higher levels of inflammation and neuronal damage in some brain areas of patients who received MT. This observation has to be taken into caution while we could not adjust our results by potential confounders. Further investigation is needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  18. Hippocampal volume and auditory attention on a verbal memory task with adult survivors of pediatric brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Reema; King, Tricia Z; Morris, Robin; Na, Sabrina

    2015-03-01

    We examined the nature of verbal memory deficits and the possible hippocampal underpinnings in long-term adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. 35 survivors (M = 24.10 ± 4.93 years at testing; 54% female), on average 15 years post-diagnosis, and 59 typically developing adults (M = 22.40 ± 4.35 years, 54% female) participated. Automated FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools were used to measure hippocampal, putamen, and whole brain volumes. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was used to assess verbal memory. Hippocampal, F(1, 91) = 4.06, ηp² = .04; putamen, F(1, 91) = 11.18, ηp² = .11; and whole brain, F(1, 92) = 18.51, ηp² = .17, volumes were significantly lower for survivors than controls (p memory indices of auditory attention list span (Trial 1: F(1, 92) = 12.70, η² = .12) and final list learning (Trial 5: F(1, 92) = 6.01, η² = .06) were significantly lower for survivors (p attention, but none of the other CVLT-II indices. Secondary analyses for the effect of treatment factors are presented. Volumetric differences between survivors and controls exist for the whole brain and for subcortical structures on average 15 years post-diagnosis. Treatment factors seem to have a unique effect on subcortical structures. Memory differences between survivors and controls are largely contingent upon auditory attention list span. Only hippocampal volume is associated with the auditory attention list span component of verbal memory. These findings are particularly robust for survivors treated with radiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  20. Brain extraction in partial volumes T2*@7T by using a quasi-anatomic segmentation with bias field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, João; Vieira, Pedro M; Couto, Carlos; Lima, Carlos S

    2018-02-01

    Poor brain extraction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has negative consequences in several types of brain post-extraction such as tissue segmentation and related statistical measures or pattern recognition algorithms. Current state of the art algorithms for brain extraction work on weighted T1 and T2, being not adequate for non-whole brain images such as the case of T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. This paper proposes two new methods that work directly in T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. The first is an improvement of the semi-automatic threshold-with-morphology approach adapted to incomplete volumes. The second method uses an improved version of a current implementation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm with bias correction for brain segmentation. Under high inhomogeneity conditions the performance of the first method degrades, requiring user intervention which is unacceptable. The second method performed well for all volumes, being entirely automatic. State of the art algorithms for brain extraction are mainly semi-automatic, requiring a correct initialization by the user and knowledge of the software. These methods can't deal with partial volumes and/or need information from atlas which is not available in T2*FLASH@7T. Also, combined volumes suffer from manipulations such as re-sampling which deteriorates significantly voxel intensity structures making segmentation tasks difficult. The proposed method can overcome all these difficulties, reaching good results for brain extraction using only T2*FLASH@7T volumes. The development of this work will lead to an improvement of automatic brain lesions segmentation in T2*FLASH@7T volumes, becoming more important when lesions such as cortical Multiple-Sclerosis need to be detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Strain and sex differences in puberty onset and the effects of THC administration on weight gain and brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; McDonald, R J

    2015-10-01

    The use of recreational marijuana is widespread and frequently begins and persists through adolescence. Some research has shown negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use, but this is not seen across studies, and certain factors, like genetic background and sex, may influence the results. It is critical to identify which characteristics predispose an individual to be susceptible to the negative consequences of chronic exposure to marijuana in adolescence on brain health and behavior. To this end, using males and females of two strains of rats, Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats, we explored whether these anatomically and behaviorally dimorphic strains demonstrated differences in puberty onset and strain-specific effects of adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. Daily 5 mg/kg treatment began on the day of puberty onset and continued for 14 days. Of particular interest were metrics of growth and volumetric estimates of brain areas involved in cognition that contain high densities of cannabinoid receptors, including the hippocampus and its subregions, the amygdala, and the frontal cortex. Brain volumetrics were analyzed immediately following the treatment period. LER and WR females started puberty at different ages, but no strain differences were observed in brain volumes. THC decreased weight gain throughout the treatment period for all groups. Only the hippocampus and some of its subregions were affected by THC, and increased volumes with THC administration was observed exclusively in females, regardless of strain. Long-term treatment of THC did not affect all individuals equally, and females displayed evidence of increased sensitivity to the effects of THC, and by extension, marijuana. Identifying differences in adolescent physiology of WR and LER rats could help determine the cause for strain and sex differences in brain and behavior of adults and help to refine the use of animal models

  2. Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, E.; Schagen, S.E.E.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Bakkera, J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  4. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, J.

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  5. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Wen Chai

    Full Text Available A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising

  6. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences : How strong are they and what do they mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietschnig, J.; Penke, L.; Wicherts, J.M.; Zeiler, M.; Voracek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of

  7. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes : Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not

  8. Mapping of brain activity by automated volume analysis of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L.; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E.; Kadiri, Lolahon; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not to date been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to Haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Lastly, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  9. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  12. Application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence method to the elemental analysis of brain tumors of different types and grades of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankosz, M.W.; Grzelak, M.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wandzilak, A.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wrobel, P.; Radwanska, E.; Adamek, D.

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis may influence normal biochemical reactions leading to alterations in the elemental composition of the tissue. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied to the elemental analysis of different brain tumors. The following elements were present in all the neoplastic tissues analyzed: K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The results of the analysis showed that the elemental composition of a relatively small fragment of tissue represents satisfactorily the biochemical “signature” of a cancer. On the basis of the element concentrations determined, it was possible to differentiate between some types of brain tumors. - Highlights: • Elemental composition represents the biochemical signature of brain cancer. • The element levels differentiate some types of brain tumors. • TXRF spectrometry is a useful tool for elemental trace analysis of brain cancer

  13. Usefulness of PC based 3D volume rendering technique in the evaluation of suspected aneurysm on brain MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Il; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Bang, Sun Woo; Ryu, Seok Jong; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To evaluated usefulness of volume rending technique using 3D visualization software on PC in patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm on brain MRA. We analyzed prospectively 21 patients with suspected aneurysms on the routine MIP images which were obtained 15 .deg. C increment along axial and sagittal plane, among 135 patients in whom brain MRA was done due to stroke symptoms for recent 5 months. The locations were the anterior communicating artery (A-com) in 8 patients, the posterior communicating artery (P-com) in 3, the ICA bifurcation in 5, the MCA bifurcation in 4, and the basilar tip in one. Male to female ratio was 14:7 and mean age was 62 years. MRA source images were sent to PC through LAN, and the existence of aneurysm was evaluated with volume rendering technique using 3D visualization software on PC. The presence or absence of aneurysm on MIP and volume rendering images was decided by the consensus of two radiologists. We found the aneurysms with volume rendering technique, from 1 patient among 8 patients with suspected aneurysm at A-com and also 1 patient among 3 patients with suspected aneurysm at P=com on routine MIP images. Confirmative angiography and interventional procedures were done in these 2 patients. The causes for mimicking the aneurysm on MIP were flow displacement artifact in 9, normal P-com infundibulum in 2, and overlapped or narrowed vessels in 8 patients, and among them confirmative angiography was done in 2 patient. Volume rendering technique using visualization software on PC is useful to scrutinize the suspected aneurysm on routine MIP images and to avoid further invasive angiography

  14. A prospective study of corpus callosum regional volumes and neurocognitive outcomes following cranial radiation for pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arif; Ram, Ashwin N; Kates, Wendy R; Redmond, Kristin J; Wharam, Moody; Mark Mahone, E; Horska, Alena; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) may disrupt the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in basic motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess changes in CC mid-sagittal areas, CC volumes, and performance on neuropsychological (NP) tests related to the CC in children following CRT. Twelve pediatric patients were treated with CRT for primary brain malignancies. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Brain MRIs and NP assessment emphasizing motor dexterity, processing speed, visuomotor integration, and working memory (visual and verbal) were performed at baseline and at 6, 15, and 27 months following completion of CRT. Linear mixed effects (LME) analyses were used to evaluate patient NP performance and changes in regional CC volumes (genu, anterior body, mid-body, posterior body, and splenium) and mid-sagittal areas over time and with radiation doses, correcting for age at CRT start. The mean age at CRT was 9.41 (range 1.2-15.7) years. The median prescription dose was 54 (range 18-59.4) Gy. LME analysis revealed a significant decrease in overall CC volumes over time (p memory (both p memory. Further prospective study of larger cohorts of patients is needed to establish the relationship between CRT dose, neuroanatomical, and functional changes in the CC.

  15. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  16. 11C-CHO PET in optimization of target volume delineation and treatment regimens in postoperative radiotherapy for brain gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangming; Nie Qing; Wang Ruimin; Chang, Susan M.; Zhao Wenrui; Zhu Qi; Liang Yingkui; Yang Ping; Zhang Jun; Jia Haiwei; Fang Henghu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We explored the clinical values of 11 C-choline ( 11 C-CHO) PET in optimization of target volume delineation and treatment regimens in postoperative radiotherapy for brain gliomas. Methods: Sixteen patients with the pathological confirmation of the diagnosis of gliomas prior to receiving radiotherapy (postoperative) were included, and on whom both MRI and CHO PET scans were performed at the same position for comparison of residual tumors with the two techniques. 11 C-CHO was used as the tracer in the PET scan. A plain T1-weighted, T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging scans were performed in the MRI scan sequence. The gliomas' residual tumor volume was defined as the area with CHO-PET high-affinity uptake and metabolism (V CHO ) and one with MRI T1-weighted imaging high signal intensity (V Gd ), and was determined by a group of experienced professionals and clinicians. Results: (1) In CHO-PET images, the tumor target volume, i.e., the highly metabolic area with a high concentration of isotopes (SUV 1.016–4.21) and the corresponding contralateral normal brain tissues (SUV0.1–0.62), was well contrasted, and the boundary between lesions and surrounding normal brain tissues was better defined compared with MRI and 18 F-FDG PET images. (2) For patients with brain gliomas of WHO Grade II, the SUV was 1.016–2.5; for those with WHO Grades III and IV, SUVs were >26–4.2. (3) Both CHO PET and MRI were positive for 10 patients and negative for 2 patients. The residual tumor consistency between these two studies was 75%. Four of the 10 CHO-PET-positive patients were negative on MRI scans. The maximum distance between V Gd and V CHO margins was 1.8 cm. (4) The gross tumor volumes (GTVs) and the ensuing treatment regimens were changed for 31.3% (5/16) of patients based on the CHO-PET high-affinity uptake and metabolism, in which the change rate was 80% (4/5), 14.3 % (1/7) and 0% (0/4) for patients with WHO Grade II III, and IV gliomas

  17. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  18. The broad-spectrum cation channel blocker pinokalant (LOE 908 MS) reduces brain infarct volume in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Wienrich, Marion; Ensinger, Helmut A

    2005-01-01

    this period and the spontaneous temperature after course in control rats established in other experiments was imitated. Seven days later histological brain sections were prepared and the infarct volumes measured. Body temperature did not differ between the groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was slightly...... higher in the pinokalant group. Pinokalant treatment significantly reduced cortical infarct volume from 33.8+/-15.8 mm3 to 24.5+/-13.1 mm3 (control group versus pinokalant group, P=0.017, t-test). Taking the effective drug plasma concentration established in other experiments into account revealed...... and electrophysiologic status of the ischemic penumbra and to reduce lesion size on magnetic resonance images in the acute phase following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether these beneficial effects of pinokalant are translated into permanent...

  19. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericksen Mielle Borba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]. Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results: MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion: The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  20. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  1. High "normal" blood glucose is associated with decreased brain volume and cognitive performance in the 60s: the PATH through life study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E Mortby

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with cerebral atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. We recently showed higher glucose levels in the normal range not to be free of adverse effects and to be associated with greater hippocampal and amygdalar atrophy in older community-dwelling individuals free of diabetes.This study aimed to determine whether blood glucose levels in the normal range (<6.1 mmol/L were associated with cerebral volumes in structures other than the hippocampus and amygdale, and whether these glucose-related regional volumes were associated with cognitive performance.210 cognitively healthy individuals (68-73 years without diabetes, glucose intolerance or metabolic syndrome were assessed in the large, community-based Personality and Total Health Through Life (PATH study.Baseline blood glucose levels in the normal range (3.2-6.1 mmol/l were used to determine regional brain volumes and associated cognitive function at wave 3.Higher blood glucose levels in the normal range were associated with lower grey/white matter regional volumes in the frontal cortices (middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus precentral gyrus. Moreover, identified cerebral regions were associated with poorer cognitive performance and the structure-function associations were gender specific to men.These findings stress the need to re-evaluate what is considered as healthy blood glucose levels, and consider the role of higher normal blood glucose as a risk factor for cerebral health, cognitive function and dementia. A better lifetime management of blood glucose levels may contribute to improved cerebral and cognitive health in later life and possibly protect against dementia.

  2. Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders : preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehling, T.; Nijenhuis, E. R. S.; Krikke, A. P.; DeKloet, ER; Vermetten, E

    2007-01-01

    Based on findings in traumatized animals and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and on traumatogenic models of complex dissociative disorders, it was hypothesized that (1) patients with complex dissociative disorders have smaller volumes of hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala

  3. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  4. On the Relationships of Postcanine Tooth Size with Dietary Quality and Brain Volume in Primates: Implications for Hominin Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain volume and cheek-tooth size have traditionally been considered as two traits that show opposite evolutionary trends during the evolution of Homo. As a result, differences in encephalization and molarization among hominins tend to be interpreted in paleobiological grounds, because both traits were presumably linked to the dietary quality of extinct species. Here we show that there is an essential difference between the genus Homo and the living primate species, because postcanine tooth size and brain volume are related to negative allometry in primates and show an inverse relationship in Homo. However, when size effects are removed, the negative relationship between encephalization and molarization holds only for platyrrhines and the genus Homo. In addition, there is no general trend for the relationship between postcanine tooth size and dietary quality among the living primates. If size and phylogeny effects are both removed, this relationship vanishes in many taxonomic groups. As a result, the suggestion that the presence of well-developed postcanine teeth in extinct hominins should be indicative of a poor-quality diet cannot be generalized to all extant and extinct primates.

  5. Brain and ventricular volume in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Jong (Tim); B.F.M. Rijken (Bianca); M. Leguin (Maarten); M.L.C. van Veelen-Vincent (Marie-Lise); I.M.J. Mathijssen (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Brain abnormalities in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis can either be a direct result of the genetic defect or develop secondary to compression due to craniosynostosis, raised ICP or hydrocephalus. Today it is unknown whether children with syndromic craniosynostosis have

  6. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, M.; Guadalupe, T.M.; Franke, B.; Hibar, D.P.; Renteria, M.E.; Stein, J.L.; Thompson, P.M.; Francks, C.; Vernes, S.C; Fisher, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype

  7. Simultaneous estimations of blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood volume (CBV) in human brain tumors with positron tomography and Ga-68 EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.A.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Wapenski, J.A.; Grimm, P.D.; Greenberg, P.; Parker, R.G.; Juillard, G.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Using Ga-68 EDTA and a two compartment model for diffusion across the BBB that includes a weighted subtraction term for determination of the relative CBV (compared to a normal region of brain with an intact BBB) or the absolute value of CBV (using measurements of Ga-68 concentrations in the blood: the input function), the authors determined values for the forward and reverse rate constants (k1 and k2) for diffusion across the BBB as well as values of CBV in 12 subjects with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Patients were studied on a NeuroECAT tomograph; imaging times were 1 to 10 minutes per scan for a total of about 2 hours. Measurements of Ga-68 concentrations were made on plasma arterial samples. Four direct measurements (in 3 subjects) of CBV using C(15-0) were also obtained. Values of k1 (the transfer constant which numerically approximates the capillary permeability surface area (PS) product) averaged 0.0030 (+- 0.0017) ml/min/gm while k2 averaged 0.0308 (+- 0.0157)/min. Linear regression analysis of the relative CBV in 7 tumor deposits in 4 paired Ga-68 EDTA/C(15-0) studies compared to normal brain tissues resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for the two methods. The estimates of k1 and k2 were insensitive to changes in the location of the control regions (although CBV estimates changed appropriately) as well as to substituting the input function for a normal brain region when determining the absolute CBV of the lesions

  8. Determination of the total blood volume of the rat using chromium 51 (1962); Determination du volume sanguin total chez le rat a l'aide du chrome 51 (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y; Rinaldi, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    In various experiments it is important that the rat's blood volume should be known and it is essential that it could be worked out by simply weighing the animal. Therefore authors decided to work out systematically with chromium 51 blood volume for rats with different weights. Results have shown that blood volume for 100 g is 5.55 ml and that it does not seen to vary with the weight of animals. (authors) [French] La connaissance de la masse sanguine chez le rat est indispensable dans de nombreuses experiences et il est essentiel de pouvoir l'evaluer apres une simple pesee de l'animal. C'est dans ce but que les auteurs ont entrepris la determination systematique de la masse sanguine a l'aide du chrome 51 chez des rats de poids differents. Les resultats obtenus ont montre que la masse sanguine rapportee a 100 grammes d'animal est de 5,53 millilitres, et qu'elle ne parait pas varier avec le poids de l'animal. (auteurs)

  9. High-volume infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...

  10. PR01 - The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  11. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana [IRCCS Neuromed, Neurogenetics Unit and Centre for Rare Disease, Pozzilli (Italy); Romanelli, Pantaleo [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Neurosurgery, Pozzilli (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, La Spezia (Italy); Frati, Luigi [University ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Second University of Naples, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  12. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Frati, Luigi; Mansi, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  13. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination cycles: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Elvan Koyun; Doğan, Omer Erbil; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gülekli, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. The retrospective study included a total of 156 cycles (141 couples) and was performed in our center over a 24-month period. The semen parameters were recorded for each man and each insemination. The semen samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. Post-wash TPMSC values were divided into four groups; Group 1: 10×10(6). Post-wash inseminated semen volume was divided into three groups; Group 1: 0.3 mL; Group 2: 0.4 mL; Group 3: 0.5 mL. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes was evaluated. The pregnancy rates per cycle and per couple were 27.56% and 30.49%, respectively. There was not a significant relationship between the inseminated semen volume and pregnancy rate (p>0.05). However, a significant linear-by-linear association was documented between the TPMSC and pregnancy rate (p=0.042). Our findings suggest that the post-wash inseminated semen volume should be between 0.3-0.5 mL. An average post-wash total motile sperm count of 10×10(6) may be a useful threshold value for IUI success, but more studies are needed to determine a cut-off value for TPMSC.

  14. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...

  15. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Kulesz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM. Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus.

  16. Volume transmission in health and disease: communication via the brain extracellular space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2003), s. 2 ISSN 0022-3042. [Meeting of the European Society for Neurochemistry /14./. Varšava, 01.06.2003-04.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : volume transmission * extracellular space Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  17. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality.Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7% survived and 42 (22.3% died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023, in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005 and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049. The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (5 kU/L (p=0.04. After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078.Lowered ChE activity measured on admission appears to be associated with disease severity and outcome for TBI patients.

  18. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An algorithm based on OmniView technology to reconstruct sagittal and coronal planes of the fetal brain from volume datasets acquired by three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Pietrolucci, M E; Capece, A; Aiello, E; Mammarella, S; Arduini, D

    2011-08-01

    To describe a novel algorithm, based on the new display technology 'OmniView', developed to visualize diagnostic sagittal and coronal planes of the fetal brain from volumes obtained by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. We developed an algorithm to image standard neurosonographic planes by drawing dissecting lines through the axial transventricular view of 3D volume datasets acquired transabdominally. The algorithm was tested on 106 normal fetuses at 18-24 weeks of gestation and the visualization rates of brain diagnostic planes were evaluated by two independent reviewers. The algorithm was also applied to nine cases with proven brain defects. The two reviewers, using the algorithm on normal fetuses, found satisfactory images with visualization rates ranging between 71.7% and 96.2% for sagittal planes and between 76.4% and 90.6% for coronal planes. The agreement rate between the two reviewers, as expressed by Cohen's kappa coefficient, was > 0.93 for sagittal planes and > 0.89 for coronal planes. All nine abnormal volumes were identified by a single observer from among a series including normal brains, and eight of these nine cases were diagnosed correctly. This novel algorithm can be used to visualize standard sagittal and coronal planes in the fetal brain. This approach may simplify the examination of the fetal brain and reduce dependency of success on operator skill. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Total Intravenous Anesthesia Including Ketamine versus Volatile Gas Anesthesia for Combat-related Operative Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Pediatric Critical Care, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut. § Assistant Chief, Anesthesiology, Elmendorf Air Force Base...increases in cerebral blood volume.20 Regional oxygen extraction fraction decreases with ketamine alone.20 Furthermore, ketamine possesses anticonvulsant

  1. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... in cerebral hemodynamics than noncontrast-enhanced imaging. The results of the deconvolution analysis suggested that perfusion calculation by conventional tracer kinetic methods may be impracticable because of nonlinear effects in contrast-enhanced MR imaging....

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Both [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBR{sub max}) and BV (rBV{sub max}), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBR{sub max} were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOL{sub BV} and rBV{sub max} were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBR{sub max} and rBV{sub max} were positively correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined

  3. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0...

  4. IMMUNOMETABOLIC RESPONSES AFTER SHORT AND MODERATE REST INTERVALS TO STRENGTH EXERCISE WITH AND WITHOUT SIMILAR TOTAL VOLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Agostinete

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of short and moderate intervals of recovery with and without equated volume during an acute bout exhaustive strength exercise on metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses in healthy adults. Eight physically active men (23.5 ±3.1 performed three randomized sequences: Short (70% of 1RM with 30 seconds of rest; Moderate (70% of 1RM with 90 seconds of rest; and Volume-Equated Short (70% of 1 RM with 30 seconds of rest between sets with a repetition volume equal to that performed in Moderate. All sequences of exercises were performed until movement failure in the squat, bench press and T-bar row exercises, respectively. Glucose, lactate, testosterone, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and MCP-1 levels were assessed at rest, immediate post-exercise, and 1 hour post. There was a main effect of time for testosterone (p<0.001. The post hoc indicated differences between post-exercise and rest and post-1 hour and post-exercise (p<0.001. Lactate increased post-exercise when compared to pre and post-1 hour (p<0.001 and maintained higher post-1 hour in relation to rest. IL-6 was greater post-exercise than rest (p= 0.045 and post-1 hour and rest (p= 0.020. IL-10 was greater post-exercise (p= 0.007 and post-1 hour (p=0.002 than rest. IL-1ra increased post-exercise in relation to rest (p=0.003 and MCP-1 was greater post-exercise than rest (p<0.001 and post-1 hour (p=0.043. There were no significant differences between conditions or interaction. Thus, both short and moderate intervals of recovery induced greater metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses after acute bout of exhaustive strength exercise in healthy adult.

  5. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: an application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occur in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-Sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of acute and chronic traumatic brain injury using semi-automatic multimodal segmentation of MR volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C; Alger, Jeffry R; Filippou, Maria; Prastawa, Marcel W; Wang, Bo; Hovda, David A; Gerig, Guido; Toga, Arthur W; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M; Van Horn, John D

    2011-11-01

    Although neuroimaging is essential for prompt and proper management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is a regrettable and acute lack of robust methods for the visualization and assessment of TBI pathophysiology, especially for of the purpose of improving clinical outcome metrics. Until now, the application of automatic segmentation algorithms to TBI in a clinical setting has remained an elusive goal because existing methods have, for the most part, been insufficiently robust to faithfully capture TBI-related changes in brain anatomy. This article introduces and illustrates the combined use of multimodal TBI segmentation and time point comparison using 3D Slicer, a widely-used software environment whose TBI data processing solutions are openly available. For three representative TBI cases, semi-automatic tissue classification and 3D model generation are performed to perform intra-patient time point comparison of TBI using multimodal volumetrics and clinical atrophy measures. Identification and quantitative assessment of extra- and intra-cortical bleeding, lesions, edema, and diffuse axonal injury are demonstrated. The proposed tools allow cross-correlation of multimodal metrics from structural imaging (e.g., structural volume, atrophy measurements) with clinical outcome variables and other potential factors predictive of recovery. In addition, the workflows described are suitable for TBI clinical practice and patient monitoring, particularly for assessing damage extent and for the measurement of neuroanatomical change over time. With knowledge of general location, extent, and degree of change, such metrics can be associated with clinical measures and subsequently used to suggest viable treatment options.

  7. Comparing Two Processing Pipelines to Measure Subcortical and Cortical Volumes in Patients with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Hannemann, Nathan P; York, Gerald E; Ritter, John L; Kini, Jonathan A; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Sherman, Paul M; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Tate, David F

    2017-07-01

    To compare volumetric results from NeuroQuant® and FreeSurfer in a service member setting. Since the advent of medical imaging, quantification of brain anatomy has been a major research and clinical effort. Rapid advancement of methods to automate quantification and to deploy this information into clinical practice has surfaced in recent years. NeuroQuant® is one such tool that has recently been used in clinical settings. Accurate volumetric data are useful in many clinical indications; therefore, it is important to assess the intermethod reliability and concurrent validity of similar volume quantifying tools. Volumetric data from 148 U.S. service members across three different experimental groups participating in a study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were examined. Groups included mTBI (n = 71), posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 22), or a noncranial orthopedic injury (n = 55). Correlation coefficients and nonparametric group mean comparisons were used to assess reliability and concurrent validity, respectively. Comparison of these methods across our entire sample demonstrates generally fair to excellent reliability as evidenced by large intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = .4 to .99), but little concurrent validity as evidenced by significantly different Mann-Whitney U comparisons for 26 of 30 brain structures measured. While reliability between the two segmenting tools is fair to excellent, volumetric outcomes are statistically different between the two methods. As suggested by both developers, structure segmentation should be visually verified prior to clinical use and rigor should be used when interpreting results generated by either method. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... to be in accordance with results obtained by other methods. Noncontrast functional MR (fMR) imaging showed signal increases in gray matter, but also inconsistent changes in some white matter regions. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, contrast-enhanced imaging seemed to show a somewhat higher sensitivity towards changes...

  9. Whole-Volume Clustering of Time Series Data from Zebrafish Brain Calcium Images via Mixture Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien D; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; McLachlan, Geoffrey J; Voleti, Venkatakaushik; Li, Wenze; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Reutens, David C; Janke, Andrew L

    2018-02-01

    Calcium is a ubiquitous messenger in neural signaling events. An increasing number of techniques are enabling visualization of neurological activity in animal models via luminescent proteins that bind to calcium ions. These techniques generate large volumes of spatially correlated time series. A model-based functional data analysis methodology via Gaussian mixtures is suggested for the clustering of data from such visualizations is proposed. The methodology is theoretically justified and a computationally efficient approach to estimation is suggested. An example analysis of a zebrafish imaging experiment is presented.

  10. The procyonid social club: comparison of brain volumes in the coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether increased relative brain size, including regional brain volumes, is related to differing behavioral specializations exhibited by three member species of the family Procyonidae. Procyonid species exhibit continuums of behaviors related to social and physical environmental complexities: the mostly solitary, semiarboreal and highly dexterous raccoons (Procyon lotor); the exclusively arboreal kinkajous (Potos flavus), which live either alone or in small polyandrous family groups, and the social, terrestrial coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 adult skulls including 17 coatimundis (9 male, 8 female), 14 raccoons (7 male, 7 female), and 14 kinkajous (7 male, 7 female) were used to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts. Endocranial volume was positively correlated with two separate measures of body size: skull basal length (r = 0.78, p Comparisons of relative regional brain volumes revealed that the anterior cerebrum volume consisting mainly of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly larger in the social coatimundi compared to kinkajous and raccoons. The dexterous raccoon had the largest relative posterior cerebrum volume, which includes the somatosensory cortex, in comparison to the other procyonid species studied. The exclusively arboreal kinkajou had the largest relative cerebellum and brain stem volume in comparison to the semi arboreal raccoon and the terrestrial coatimundi. Finally, intraspecific comparisons failed to reveal any sex differences, except in the social coatimundi. Female coatimundis possessed a larger relative frontal cortical volume than males. Social life histories differ in male and female coatimundis but not in either kinkajous or raccoons. This difference may reflect the differing social life histories experienced by females who reside in their natal bands, and forage and engage in antipredator behavior as a group, while males disperse upon reaching

  11. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  12. ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PLASTICITY IN THE HONEY BEE BRAIN USING THE CAVALIERI ESTIMATOR OF VOLUME AND THE DISECTOR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena M Brown

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The antennal lobe of the worker honey bee has been used as a model system to address the origins of structural plasticity in the central nervous system. A combination of light and electron microscopy was used to determine total synapse number within an easily identifiable sub-unit of the antennal lobe neuropil, the T4-2(1 glomerulus. The Cavalieri method was applied at the light microscope level to determine a reference volume (Vref of this glomerulus. Using transmission electron microscopy, the physical disector was used to determine synaptic density (Nv within the T4-2(1 glomerulus. An estimate of the total synapse number N(syn was determined by; N(syn = V(ref Nv. Newly emerged, 4-day old,10-day old and forager-aged bees were analysed. Results showed that despite a significant increase in T4-2(1 volume with age, the total number of synapses in this glomerulus did not show a corresponding increase. Disturbingly, it is possible that huge variances within age groups, due to one or two outlying data points, could be masking the true trend of synapse number. This variance, the heterogeneous distribution of synapses within this glomerulus and the problems associated with reproducibility of synapse counts are discussed.

  13. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Yoon

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA. Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all p<0.01. Overall, 20 and 15 indicated a higher and a lower practical consequence than the average, respectively, which was assessed by the matched Constant scores. The deltoid muscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009, absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040, and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013 were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011. In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA.

  14. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Seo, Anna; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Chang-Hwa; Baek, Seung-Hun; Kim, Shin Yoon; Jeong, Eun Taek; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Chung, Seok Won

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA). Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI) were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all pmuscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009), absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040), and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013) were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011). In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA.

  15. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. PR01 - The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    and van der Molen , M. W. Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention. Psychol. Sci., 2003, 14: 473–479. Kelly...and psychiatric disor- ders participated in this study after providing written informed consent. All subjects reported habitually obtaining 7–9 h of...characterizing brain areas using fMRI activation during parametric variations of attentional load.Neuron, 2001, 32: 737–745. Doran, S. M., Van Dongen

  17. Evaluation of the reconstruction method and effect of partial volume in brain scintiscanning; Avaliacao do metodo de reconstrucao e efeito do volume parcial em cintilografia cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Monica Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, on which occurs a progressive and irreversible destruction of neurons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 35.6 million people are living with dementia, being recommended that governments prioritize early diagnosis techniques. Laboratory and psychological tests for cognitive assessment are conducted and further complemented by neurological imaging from nuclear medicine exams in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. The image quality evaluation and reconstruction process effects are important tools in clinical routine. In the present work, these quality parameters were studied, and the effects of partial volume (PVE) for lesions of different sizes and geometries that are attributed to the limited resolution of the equipment. In dementia diagnosis, this effect can be confused with intake losses due to cerebral cortex atrophy. The evaluation was conducted by two phantoms of different shapes as suggested by (a) American College of Radiology (ACR) and (b) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for Contrast, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) and Recovery Coefficient (RC) calculation versus lesions shape and size. Technetium-99m radionuclide was used in a local brain scintigraphy protocol, for proportions lesion to background of 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1 and 10:1. Fourteen reconstruction methods were used for each concentration applying different filters and algorithms. Before the analysis of all image properties, the conclusion is that the predominant effect is the partial volume, leading to errors of measurement of more than 80%. Furthermore, it was demonstrate that the most effective method of reconstruction is FBP with Metz filter, providing better contrast and contrast to noise ratio results. In addition, this method shows the best Recovery Coefficients correction for each lesion. The ACR phantom showed the best results assigned to a more precise reconstruction of a cylinder, which does not

  18. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-valuesdisorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity.

  19. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2003-01-01

    We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization......, Processing Speed) are also related to gray and white matter volume, and whether any of the dimensions are related to cerebellar volume. Two overlapping samples provided 135 subjects from 60 extended twin families for whom both MRI scans and WAIS III data were available. All three brain volumes are related...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  20. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  1. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  2. Surface and volume three-dimensional displays of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT images in stroke patients with three-head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Slevin, J.T.; Schleenbaker, R.E.; Mills, B.J.; Magoun, S.L.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates volume and surface 3D displays in Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT imaging in stroke patients. Using a triple-head gamma camera interfaced with a 64-bit supercomputer, 20 patients with stroke were studied. Each patient was imaged 30-60 minutes after an intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO. SPECT images as well as planar images were routinely obtained; volume and surface 3D display then proceeded, with the process requiring 5-10 minutes. Volume and surface 3D displays show the brain from all angles; thus the location and extension of lesion(s) in the brain are much easier to appreciate. While a cerebral lesion(s) was more clearly delineated by surface 3D imaging, crossed cerebellar diaschisis in seven patients was clearly exhibited with volume 3D but not with surface 3D imaging. Volume and surface 3D displays enhance continuity of structures and understanding of spatial relationships

  3. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  4. Accuracy and reproducibility of simple cross-sectional linear and area measurements of brain structures and their comparison with volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, H.C.; Wardlaw, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of brain structure on brain images is regarded as a gold standard, yet is very time consuming. We wondered whether simple linear and area measurements might be as accurate and reproducible. Two observers independently measured the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, amygdalas, hippocampi, lateral and third ventricles, and the width of the sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and brain stem on brain MRI of 55 patients using a program written in-house; one observer also measured the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and ventricular system using Analyze, and performed qualitative assessment of four regions (lateral and third ventricles, cortex, and medial temporal lobe) using the Lieberman score. All measures were performed blinded to all other information. Test objects of known size were also imaged with MRI and measured by the two observers using the in-house program. The true sizes of the test objects were measured using engineering calipers by two observers blind to the MRI results. Differences between the two observers using the same measurement method, and one observer using different methods, were calculated. The simple linear and cross-sectional area measurements were rapid (20 min versus 5 h for volumetric); were highly accurate for test-object measurement versus true size; had excellent intraobserver reliability; and, for most brain structures, the simple measures correlated highly significantly with volumetric measures. The simple measures were in general highly reproducible, the difference (as a percentage of the area or width of a region) between the two raters being around 10 %, range 0.1 %- 14.1 %, (similar to inter-rater variability in previous studies of volume measurements). The simple linear and area measures are reproducible and correlate well with the measured volumes, and there is a considerable time saving with the former. In circumstances

  5. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  6. Prospective comparative study of brain protection in total aortic arch replacement: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion or selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Y; Minatoya, K; Tagusari, O; Ando, M; Nagatsuka, K; Kitamura, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of total aortic arch replacement using two different methods of brain protection, particularly with respect to neurologic outcome. From June 1997, 60 consecutive patients who underwent total arch replacement through a midsternotomy were alternately allocated to one of two methods of brain protection: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP: 30 patients) or with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP: 30 patients). Preoperative and postoperative (3 weeks) brain CT scan, neurological examination, and cognitive function tests were performed. Serum 100b protein was assayed before and after the cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Hospital mortality occurred in 2 patients in the RCP group (6.6%) and 2 in the SCP group (6.6%). New strokes occurred in 1 (3.3%) of the RCP group and in 2 (6.6%) of the SCP group (p = 0.6). The incidence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in the RCP group than in the SCP group (10, 33.3% vs 4, 13.3%, p = 0.05). Except in patients with strokes, S-100b values showed no significant differences in the two groups (RCP: SCP, prebypass 0.01+/-0.04: 0.05+/-0.16, postbypass 2.17+/-0.94: 1.97+/-1.00, 24 hours 0.61+/-0.36: 0.60+/-0.37, 48 hours 0.36+/-0.45: 0.46+/-0.40 microg/L, p = 0.7). There were no intergroup differences in the scores of memory decline (RCP 0.74+/-0.99; SCP 0.55+/-1.19, p = 0.6), orientation (RCP 1.11+/-1.29; SCP 0.50+/-0.76, p = 0.08), or intellectual function (RCP 1.21+/-1.27; SCP 1.05+/-1.15, p = 0.7). Both methods of brain protection for patients undergoing total arch replacement resulted in acceptable levels of mortality and morbidity. However, the prevalence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with the RCP.

  7. Effect of Risk Acceptance for Bundled Care Payments on Clinical Outcomes in a High-Volume Total Joint Arthroplasty Practice After Implementation of a Standardized Clinical Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, James R; Edwards, Paul K; Barnes, Charles L

    2017-08-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative and the Arkansas Payment Improvement (API) initiative seek to incentivize reduced costs and improved outcomes compared with the previous fee-for-service model. Before participation, our practice initiated a standardized clinical pathway (CP) to reduce length of stay (LOS), readmissions, and discharge to postacute care facilities. This practice implemented a standardized CP focused on patient education, managing patient expectations, and maximizing cost outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all primary total joint arthroplasty patients during the initial 2-year "at risk" period for both BPCI and API and determined discharge disposition, LOS, and readmission rate. During the "at risk" period, the average LOS decreased in our total joint arthroplasty patients and our patients discharged home >94%. Patients within the BPCI group had a decreased discharge to home and decreased readmission rates after total hip arthroplasty, but also tended to be older than both API and nonbundled payment patients. While participating in the BPCI and API, continued use of a standardized CP in a high-performing, high-volume total joint practice resulted in maintenance of a low-average LOS. In addition, BPCI patients had similar outcomes after total knee arthroplasty, but had decreased rates of discharge to home and readmission after total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of partial volume correction on discrimination between very early Alzheimer's dementia and controls using brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tanaka, Fumiko; Asada, Takashi; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakano, Seigo; Takasaki, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in discriminating between patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the very early stage and age-matched controls before and after partial volume correction (PVC). Three-dimensional MRI was used for PVC. We randomly divided the subjects into two groups. The first group, comprising 30 patients and 30 healthy volunteers, was used to identify the brain area with the most significant decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients compared with normal controls based on the voxel-based analysis of a group comparison. The second group, comprising 31 patients and 31 healthy volunteers, was used to study the improvement in diagnostic accuracy provided by PVC. A Z score map for a SPECT image of a subject was obtained by comparison with mean and standard deviation SPECT images of the healthy volunteers for each voxel after anatomical standardization and voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values using the following equation: Z score = ([control mean]-[individual value])/(control SD). Analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves for a Z score discriminating AD and controls in the posterior cingulate gyrus, where a significant decrease in rCBF was identified in the first group, showed that the PVC significantly enhanced the accuracy of the SPECT diagnosis of very early AD from 73.9% to 83.7% with global mean normalization. The PVC mildly enhanced the accuracy from 73.1% to 76.3% with cerebellar normalization. This result suggests that early diagnosis of AD requires PVC in a SPECT study. (orig.)

  9. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  10. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and...... ventilation. In total, 80 L/s of clean air supplied at 20°C was distributed between the ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room. Regardless of the airflow interaction, the inhaled air...

  11. Age-related differences in regional brain volumes: A comparison of optimized voxel-based morphometry to manual volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Voss, Michelle W.; Colcombe, Stan J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Acker, James D.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Regional manual volumetry is the gold standard of in vivo neuroanatomy, but is labor-intensive, can be imperfectly reliable, and allows for measuring limited number of regions. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has perfect repeatability and assesses local structure across the whole brain. However, its anatomic validity is unclear, and with its increasing popularity, a systematic comparison of VBM to manual volumetry is necessary. The few existing comparison studies are limited by small samples, qualitative comparisons, and limited selection and modest reliability of manual measures. Our goal was to overcome those limitations by quantitatively comparing optimized VBM findings with highly reliable multiple regional measures in a large sample (N = 200) across a wide agespan (18–81). We report a complex pattern of similarities and differences. Peak values of VBM volume estimates (modulated density) produced stronger age differences and a different spatial distribution from manual measures. However, when we aggregated VBM-derived information across voxels contained in specific anatomically defined regions (masks), the patterns of age differences became more similar, although important discrepancies emerged. Notably, VBM revealed stronger age differences in the regions bordering CSF and white matter areas prone to leukoaraiosis, and VBM was more likely to report nonlinearities in age-volume relationships. In the white matter regions, manual measures showed stronger negative associations with age than the corresponding VBM-based masks. We conclude that VBM provides realistic estimates of age differences in the regional gray matter only when applied to anatomically defined regions, but overestimates effects when individual peaks are interpreted. It may be beneficial to use VBM as a first-pass strategy, followed by manual measurement of anatomically-defined regions. PMID:18276037

  12. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Mendes, Monique; Rossignol, Candace; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Faraji, Ariana; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Doré, Sylvain; Weiss, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A) or carbon monoxide (HI+CO). An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes. Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury), the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury) had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10) compared the HI+A group ( p carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  13. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Erik; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Göran; Wysocka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31–65) treated for head and neck cancer 4–10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 – 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients’ lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume

  14. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  15. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  16. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  17. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  18. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  19. Concurrent Alzheimer's pathology in patients with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus: correlation of high-volume lumbar puncture results, cortical brain biopsies, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Bond, Aaron E; Lopes, M Beatriz; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) remains most often a clinical diagnosis and has been widely considered responsive to the placement of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt. The high incidence of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with NPH symptoms leads to poorer outcomes than would be expected in patients with NPH alone. This article reviews a series of patients operated on for presumed NPH in whom preoperative high-volume lumbar puncture (HVLP) and intraoperative cortical brain biopsies were performed. The data derived from these procedures were then used to understand the incidence of AD in patients presenting with NPH symptoms and to analyze the efficacy of HVLP in patients with NPH and patients with concurrent AD (NPH+AD). A review of the outcomes of shunt surgery is provided. The cases of all patients who underwent placement of a CSF shunt for NPH from 1998 to 2013 at the University of Virginia by the senior author were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent HVLP and patients who underwent cortical brain biopsies were stratified based on the biopsy results into an NPH-only group and an NPH+AD group. The HVLP results and outcomes were then compared in these 2 groups. From 1998 to 2013, 142 patients underwent shunt operations because of a preoperative clinical diagnosis of NPH. Of the patients with a shunt who had a diagnosis of NPH, 105 (74%) received HVLPs. Of 142 shunt-treated patients with NPH, 27 (19%) were determined to have concomitant Alzheimer's pathology based on histopathological findings at the time of shunting. Patients who underwent repeat biopsies had an initial positive outcome. After they clinically deteriorated, they underwent repeat biopsies during shunt interrogation, and 13% of the repeat biopsies demonstrated Alzheimer's pathology. Improvements in gait and cognition did not reach significance between the NPH and NPH+AD groups. In total, 105 patients underwent HVLP before shunt placement. In the NPH cohort, 44.6% of patients

  20. Enhanced adsorption of benzene vapor on granular activated carbon under humid conditions due to shifts in hydrophobicity and total micropore volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Bing; Yang, Bing; Xue, Nan-Dong

    2016-11-15

    A series of hydrophobic-modified (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating) activated carbons (ACs) were developed to answer a fundamental question: what are the determinants that dominate the adsorption on ACs under humid conditions? Using column experiments, an inter-comparison among bare-AC and PDMS-coated ACs was conducted regarding the association of surface characteristics and adsorption capacity. Primary outcomes occurred in two dominating markers, hydrophobicity and total micropore volume, which played a key role in water adsorption on ACs. However, their contributions to water adsorption on ACs substantially differed under different Pwater/Pair conditions. Hydrophobicity was the only contributor in Pwater/Pair=0.1-0.6, while the two markers contributed equally in Pwater/Pair=0.7-1.0. Furthermore, PDMS-coated AC had a significant increase in benzene adsorption capacities compared to bare-AC at 0-90% relative humidity, while these differences were not significant among PDMS-coated ACs. It is thus presumed that the balance between the two markers can be shifted to favor almost unchanged benzene adsorption capacities among PDMS-coated ACs over a large range of relative humidity. These findings suggest potential benefits of PDMS coating onto ACs in enhancing selective adsorption of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds under high humid conditions. To develop new porous materials with both high total micropore volume and hydrophobicity should thus be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  2. Assessment of treatment response by total tumor volume and global apparent diffusion coefficient using diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with metastatic bone disease: a feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Blackledge

    Full Text Available We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI using a Markov random field (MRF model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC; and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change = +0.18, range = -0.07 to +0.78 × 10(-3 mm2/s after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change = -0.02, range = -0.10 to +0.05 × 10(-3 mm2/s, p = 0.05, Mann-Whitney test, whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change = +26%, range = +3 to +284% compared to responding patients (median change = -50%, range = -85 to +27%, p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney test. Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment.

  3. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. METHODS: A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens m......MR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial...

  4. Impedance recordings to determine change in extracellular volume in the brain following cardiac arrest in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis-Heutinck, LFM; Savenije, B; Postema, F; Van Voorst, A; Lambooij, E; Korf, J

    The present study describes a method to determine the onset and development of brain damage in broiler chickens. Exsanguination disrupts the brain metabolism and causes the brain to become ischemic. Energy-requiring systems in the cell membrane fail, which results in an ionic shift over the

  5. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  6. Comparison of standardized uptake values with volume of distribution for quantitation of [11C]PBR28 brain uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Karmen K.; Territo, Paul R.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Hannestad, Jonas; Morris, Evan D.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Normandin, Marc D.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: [ 11 C]PBR28 is a high-affinity ligand for the Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO), which is considered to be a marker for microglial activation. Volume of distribution (V T ) estimated with an arterial plasma input function is the gold standard for quantitation of [ 11 C]PBR28 binding. However, arterial sampling is impractical at many PET sites for multiple reasons. Reference region modeling approaches are not ideal for TSPO tracers, as the existence of a true reference region cannot be assumed. Given that it would be desirable to have a non-invasive index of [ 11 C]PBR28 binding, we elected to study the utility of the semi-quantitative metric, standardized uptake value (SUV) for use in brain [ 11 C]PBR PET studies. The primary goal of this study was to determine the relationship between SUV and V T . Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from sixteen [ 11 C]PBR28 PET scans acquired in baboons at baseline and at multiple time points after IV injection of lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin that transiently induces neuroinflammation. For each scan, data from 14 brain regions of interest were studied. V T was estimated with the Logan plot, using metabolite-corrected input functions. SUV was calculated with data from 30 to 60 minutes after [ 11 C]PBR28 injection. Results: Within individual PET studies, SUV tended to correlate well with V T . Across studies, the relationship between SUV and V T was variable. Conclusions: From study to study, there was variability in the degree of correlation between [ 11 C]PBR28 V T and SUV. There are multiple physiological factors that may contribute to this variance. Advances in Knowledge: As currently applied, the non-invasive measurement of SUV does not appear to be a reliable outcome variable for [ 11 C]PBR28. Additional work is needed to discover the source of the discrepancy in SUV between [ 11 C]PBR28 scans. Implications for Patient Care: There is a need to develop alternatives to arterial plasma

  7. Effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanegan, Gholam Reza; Derakhshan, Nima; Khalili, Hosseinali; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Paydar, Shahram

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study was conducted as a randomized clinical trial during a 16-month period from May 2015 and August 2016 in a level I trauma center in Shiraz, Southern Iran. We included 65 patients with moderate (GCS: 9-13) to severe (GCS: 5-8) TBI who had brain contusions of less than 30cc volume. We excluded those who required surgical intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 20mg atorvastatin for 10days (n=21) or placebo in the same dosage (n=23). The brain contusion volumetry was performed on days 0, 3 and 7 utilizing spiral thin-cut brain CT-Scan (1-mm thickness). The outcome measured included modified Rankin scale (MRS), Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Disability rating Scale (DRS) which were all evaluated 3months post-injury. There was no significant difference between two study group regarding the baseline, 3rd day and 7th day of the contusion volume and the rate of contusion expansion. However, functional outcome scales of GOS, MRS and DRS at 3-months post-injury were significantly better in atorvastatin arm of the study compared to placebo (p values of 0.043, 0.039 and 0.030 respectively). Even though atorvastatin was not found to be more effective than placebo in reducing contusion expansion rate, it was associated with improved functional outcomes at 3-months following moderate to severe TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Douglas-Escobar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates.Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A or carbon monoxide (HI+CO. An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes.Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury, the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10 compared the HI+A group (p < 0.05.Conclusion: CO exposure of 250 ppm did not reach carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  10. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 1, The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 dollars) over the entire life of the system...or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  11. Structural MRI markers of brain aging early after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Emilio; Cumming, Toby; Li, Qi; Bird, Laura; Veldsman, Michele; Pardoe, Heath R; Jackson, Graeme; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-07-11

    To examine associations between ischemic stroke, vascular risk factors, and MRI markers of brain aging. Eighty-one patients (mean age 67.5 ± 13.1 years, 31 left-sided, 61 men) with confirmed first-ever (n = 66) or recurrent (n = 15) ischemic stroke underwent 3T MRI scanning within 6 weeks of symptom onset (mean 26 ± 9 days). Age-matched controls (n = 40) completed identical testing. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between group membership and MRI markers of brain aging (cortical thickness, total brain volume, white matter hyperintensity [WMH] volume, hippocampal volume), normalized against intracranial volume, and the effects of vascular risk factors on these relationships. First-ever stroke was associated with smaller hippocampal volume ( p = 0.025) and greater WMH volume ( p = 0.004) relative to controls. Recurrent stroke was in turn associated with smaller hippocampal volume relative to both first-ever stroke ( p = 0.017) and controls ( p = 0.001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, and, in stroke patients, infarct volume. Total brain volume was not significantly smaller in first-ever stroke patients than in controls ( p = 0.056), but the association became significant after further adjustment for atrial fibrillation ( p = 0.036). Cortical thickness and brain volumes did not differ as a function of stroke type, infarct volume, or etiology. Brain structure is likely to be compromised before ischemic stroke by vascular risk factors. Smaller hippocampal and total brain volumes and increased WMH load represent proxies for underlying vascular brain injury. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Re-irradiation after gross total resection of recurrent glioblastoma. Spatial pattern of recurrence and a review of the literature as a basis for target volume definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, Christoph; Elpula, Greeshma [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Schmidt-Graf, Friederike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed. The spatial pattern of recurrences was analyzed according to the RANO-HGG criteria (''response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria for high-grade gliomas''). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, a systematic review was performed in PubMed. All but 4 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after GTR. Progression was diagnosed in 20 of 26 patients and 70% of recurrent tumors occurred adjacent to the resection cavity. The median extension beyond the edge of the resection cavity was 20 mm. Median PFS was 6 months; OS was 12.8 months. We propose a target volume containing the resection cavity and every contrast enhancing lesion as the gross tumor volume (GTV), a spherical margin of 5-10 mm to generate the clinical target volume (CTV), and a margin of 1-3 mm to generate the planning target volume (PTV). Re-irradiation of this volume is deemed to be safe and likely to prolong PFS. Re-irradiation is worth considering also after GTR, as the volumes that need to be treated are limited and re-irradiation has already proven to be a safe treatment option in general. The strategy of early re-irradiation is currently being tested within the GlioCave/NOA 17/Aro 2016/03 trial. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem rezidivierten Glioblastom (rGBM) werden, wenn eine komplette Resektion (GTR) des makroskopischen Rezidivs durchgefuehrt wurde, aktuell meist systemisch adjuvant behandelt oder einer engmaschigen Nachsorge

  13. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  14. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  15. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance ( n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability ( n = 70), Walk ( n = 54), and Walk Plus ( n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased ( p = 0.003), while stress ( p loneliness ( p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0.02). Further, individuals with larger baseline PFC volumes experienced greater reductions in stress due

  16. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  17. Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora T.

    2012-01-01

    In a memory-guided drawing task under blindfolded conditions, we have recently used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that the primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as the visuo-spatial buffer, or “sketchpad,” for working memory. The results implied, however, a modality-independent or amodal form of its operation. In the present study, to validate the role of V1 in non-visual memory, we eliminated not only the visual input but all levels of visual processing by replicating the paradigm in a congenitally blind individual. Our novel Cognitive-Kinesthetic method was used to train this totally blind subject to draw complex images guided solely by tactile memory. Control tasks of tactile exploration and memorization of the image to be drawn, and memory-free scribbling were also included. FMRI was run before training and after training. Remarkably, V1 of this congenitally blind individual, which before training exhibited noisy, immature, and non-specific responses, after training produced full-fledged response time-courses specific to the tactile-memory drawing task. The results reveal the operation of a rapid training-based plasticity mechanism that recruits the resources of V1 in the process of learning to draw. The learning paradigm allowed us to investigate for the first time the evolution of plastic re-assignment in V1 in a congenitally blind subject. These findings are consistent with a non-visual memory involvement of V1, and specifically imply that the observed cortical reorganization can be empowered by the process of learning to draw. PMID:22593738

  18. Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora T

    2012-01-01

    In a memory-guided drawing task under blindfolded conditions, we have recently used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that the primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as the visuo-spatial buffer, or "sketchpad," for working memory. The results implied, however, a modality-independent or amodal form of its operation. In the present study, to validate the role of V1 in non-visual memory, we eliminated not only the visual input but all levels of visual processing by replicating the paradigm in a congenitally blind individual. Our novel Cognitive-Kinesthetic method was used to train this totally blind subject to draw complex images guided solely by tactile memory. Control tasks of tactile exploration and memorization of the image to be drawn, and memory-free scribbling were also included. FMRI was run before training and after training. Remarkably, V1 of this congenitally blind individual, which before training exhibited noisy, immature, and non-specific responses, after training produced full-fledged response time-courses specific to the tactile-memory drawing task. The results reveal the operation of a rapid training-based plasticity mechanism that recruits the resources of V1 in the process of learning to draw. The learning paradigm allowed us to investigate for the first time the evolution of plastic re-assignment in V1 in a congenitally blind subject. These findings are consistent with a non-visual memory involvement of V1, and specifically imply that the observed cortical reorganization can be empowered by the process of learning to draw.

  19. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erukainure, O.L.; Ajiboye, J.A.; Davis, F.F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E.E.; Adenekan, S.O.; Adegbola, M.V.; Awogbemi, B.J.; Odjobo, B.O.; Zaruwa, M.Z.

    2016-07-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the TP of the mouse chow group. The TP was highest (p < 0.05) in those fed the soy and orange peel oil blend as compared to those fed these oils separately. Feeding soy oil led to decreased MDA in brain tissues and influenced the TP content. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH and SOD activities were observed in the groups fed soy oil+orange peel oil, and soy oil diets respectively. Higher significant (p < 0.05) activities were observed in the orange oil fed group. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) catalase activity was observed in the lipid free diet fed group, which was followed by orange peel oil, and soy oil+orange peel oil diets, respectively. A combination of both oils may be useful in the management of certain neurological diseases or illnesses and protect against other oxidative stress complications. (Author)

  20. Dynamic changes in water ADC, energy metabolism, extracellular space volume and tortuosity in neonatal rat brain during irreversible ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Syková, E.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; Voríšek, I.; Vargová, L.; Skobisová, E.; Lookeren Campagne, van M.; Reese, T.; Nicolaij, K.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying early changes in the brain water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) observed in cerebral ischemia, dynamic changes in the ADC of water and in the energy status were measured at postnatal day 8 or 9 in neonatal rat brains after cardiac

  1. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  2. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stomby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12 with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12 for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group was included as a reference (n = 6. The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced a significant weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and increased peak oxygen uptake without any significant group differences. Furthermore, both interventions were associated with increased functional brain responses within the right anterior hippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus and increased volume of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing disorders await further studies. Clinical trials registration number: Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01513798.

  3. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T 1 -weighted images (3D-T 1 WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  5. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  6. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherall, Joseph; Brigati, David P; Faour, Mhamad; Messner, William; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Standardized care pathways are evidence-based algorithms for optimizing an episode of care. Despite the theoretical promise of care pathways, there is an inconsistent literature demonstrating improvements in patient care. The authors hypothesized that implementing a care pathway, across 11 hospitals, would decrease hospital length of stay (LOS), decrease postoperative complications at 90 days, and increase discharges to home. A multidisciplinary team developed an evidence-based care pathway for total hip arthroplasty (THA) perioperative care. All patients receiving THA in 2013 (pre-protocol, historical control), 2014 (transition), and 2015 (full protocol implementation) were included in the analysis. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship of the care pathway to 90-day postoperative complications, LOS, and discharge disposition. Cost savings were estimated using previously published postarthroplasty episode and per diem hospital costs. A total of 6090 primary THAs were conducted during the study period. After adjusting for the covariates, the full protocol implementation was associated with a decrease in LOS (mean ratio, 0.747; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.727, 0.767]) and an increase in discharges to home (odds ratio, 2.079; 95% CI [1.762, 2.456]). The full protocol implementation was not associated with a change in 90-day complications (odds ratio, 1.023; 95% CI [0.841, 1.245]). Payer-perspective-calculated theoretical cost savings, including both index admission and postdischarge costs, were $2533 per patient. The THA care pathway implementation was successful in reducing LOS and increasing discharges to home. The care pathway was not associated with a change in 90-day complications; further targeted interventions in this area are needed. Despite care standardization efforts, high-volume hospitals and surgeons had higher performance. Extrapolation of theoretical cost savings indicates that widespread THA care pathway adoption could lead to national

  8. Multivariate imaging-genetics study of MRI gray matter volume and SNPs reveals biological pathways correlated with brain structural differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Khadka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children, adolescents, and adults. Its etiology is not well-understood, but it is increasingly believed to result from diverse pathophysiologies that affect the structure and function of specific brain circuits. Although one of the best-studied neurobiological abnormalities in ADHD is reduced fronto-striatal-cerebellar gray matter volume, its specific genetic correlates are largely unknown. Methods: In this study, T1-weighted MR images of brain structure were collected from 198 adolescents (63 ADHD-diagnosed. A multivariate parallel independent component analysis technique (Para-ICA identified imaging-genetic relationships between regional gray matter volume and single nucleotide polymorphism data. Results: Para-ICA analyses extracted 14 components from genetic data and 9 from MR data. An iterative cross-validation using randomly-chosen sub-samples indicated acceptable stability of these ICA solutions. A series of partial correlation analyses controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity revealed two genotype-phenotype component pairs significantly differed between ADHD and non-ADHD groups, after a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The brain phenotype component not only included structures frequently found to have abnormally low volume in previous ADHD studies, but was also significantly associated with ADHD differences in symptom severity and performance on cognitive tests frequently found to be impaired in patients diagnosed with the disorder. Pathway analysis of the genotype component identified several different biological pathways linked to these structural abnormalities in ADHD. Conclusions: Some of these pathways implicate well-known dopaminergic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment hypothesized to be abnormal in ADHD. Other more recently implicated pathways included glutamatergic and GABA-eric physiological systems

  9. Modelo de predição para o volume total de Quaruba (Vochysia inundata ducke via análise de fatores e regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Diego Rocha Valente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propôs-se um método para a construção de um modelo de regressão para determinar o Volume de Madeira Total da espécie florestal (Vochysia inundata ducke Quaruba, em função de suas características (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP, Idade e Altura. O modelo foi determinado utilizando-se a técnica estatística multivariada de Análise de Fatores com do Método das Componentes Principais via Rotação Ortogonal do Tipo Varimax para Extração dos Fatores, procurando contornar o problema da Multicolinearidade. Por fim desenvolveu-se um modelo de Regressão Linear Simples com base nos Escores Fatoriais. O modelo determinado apresentou-se de fácil interpretação e utilização, usando-se um fator e proporcionando um bom ajuste (R² = 96 % aos dados e uma boa capacidade preditiva. Ele atendeu a todas as suposições teóricas para sua existência e utilização.

  10. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  11. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  12. Chromatographic study of nucleosides and nucleotides of central nervous system. Identification and first results on changes after total gamma irradiation of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Marquer, C.; Pasquier, C.

    Changes of brain energetic state and of different levels after irradiation are studied. The results will be compared with the variations of brain electric activity due to irradiation. Using an ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and quantitative analysis of nucleotides, evaluation of adenylic nucleotides in brain rat have been chosen [fr

  13. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images...

  14. A comparison of perfusion computed tomography and contrast enhanced computed tomography on radiation target volume delineation using rabbit VX2 brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Luo Yunxiu; Yu Jinming; Lu Haibo; Li Chao; Zhang Dekang; Huang Jianming; Wang Jie; Lang Jinyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of blood volume perfusion imaging (perfusion CT)with contrast enhanced 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CECT) in the evaluation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) using rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. Methods: Perfusion CT and CECT were performed in 20 rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. The GTV and CTV calculated with the maximal and minimal diameter of each tumor in the blood volume (BV) maps and CECT were measured and compared to those in pathological specimens. Results: The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of GTV was (8.19 ± 2.29) mm and (4.83 ± 1.31) mm in pathological specimens, (11.98 ±3.29) mm and (7.03±1.82) mm in BV maps, while (6.36±3.85) mm and (3.17±1.93) mm in CECT images, which were significantly different (pathological specimen vs. BV map, t = 7.17, P =0.000;pathological specimen vs. CECT, t = 8.37, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of CTV in pathologic specimens was (12.87 ± 3.74) mm and (7.71 ± 2.15) mm, which was significantly different from that of GTV and CTV in CECT (t = - 3. 18, P = 0. 005 and t = - 4.24, P =0.000; t= -11.59,P=0.000 and t= -9.39, P=0.000), while similar with that of GTV in BV maps (t = - 1.95,P = 0. 067; t = - 2. 06, P = 0. 054). For CECT, the margin from GTV to CTV was 81.83% ±40.33% for the maximal diameter and 276.73% ± 131.46% for the minimal. While for BV maps, the margin was 7.93% ± 17. 84% and 12.52% ± 27. 83%, which was significant different from that for CECT images (t=7.36, P=0. 000 and t= -8.78, P=0.000). Conclusions: Compared with CECT, the BV map from 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging might have higher accuracy in target volume delineation for brain tumor. (authors)

  15. Feasibility and safety of cavity-directed stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases at a high-volume medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rava, MD PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Excellent local control is achievable with cavity-directed SRS in well-selected patients, particularly for lesions with diameter <3 cm and resection cavity volumes <14 mL. Long-term survival is possible for select patients.